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Exploring mechanisms of peer effects in education: Frame factor analyses of classroom instruction
Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Practice Based Educational Research.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3516-9346
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Sustainable development
00. Sustainable Development, 4. Quality education
Abstract [en]

Despite a vast international literature, previous research into compositional effects and peer effects in education has remarked on the lack of consensus within the field. To date, peer effects in education and students’ different opportunities to learn in school have been studied separately. In this thesis, it is argued that these perspectives need to be synthesized.

In the thesis, Frame Factor Theory is employed as a theory of peer effects in classroom instruction. According to the theory, one mechanism generating peer effects is the steering and limiting effect that class composition has on teachers’ instruction. It is argued that this perspective also needs to be synthesized with the Opportunity to Learn-perspective, to widen our understanding of why different students meet different instruction and thus are given different opportunities to learn. The theoretical perspectives and empirical models are evolved through three empirical studies included in the thesis. The theoretical development and the empirical results from each study is discussed in an integrative essay in the thesis.

The results indicate that class composition affects the presence of limitations on instruction and content coverage in instruction, both of which is related to students’ opportunities to learn and individual students’ achievement. Implications for future research and educational policy is discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication , 2024. , p. 89
Series
Doktorsavhandlingar från Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, ISSN 1652-7933 ; 044
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-63411ISBN: 978-91-88339-71-3 (print)ISBN: 978-91-88339-72-0 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-63411DiVA, id: diva2:1831266
Public defence
2024-03-08, Hc218, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Jönköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2024-01-25 Created: 2024-01-25 Last updated: 2024-01-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. School Composition, Disruptive Classroom Behaviour and Student Results: A Study of Mechanisms of Peer Effects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>School Composition, Disruptive Classroom Behaviour and Student Results: A Study of Mechanisms of Peer Effects
2021 (English)In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 167-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study analyses whether disruptive classroom behaviour affects students’ results in Swedish lower secondary schools (N = 1704), measured by the schools’ grade point averages (GPA). The data, collected from the Swedish school authorities, comprises variables on schools’ pupil composition, classroom environment and student mean grades. Previous research has shown that disruptive classroom behaviour has a negative impact on students’ results. This study finds such effects. The effect size reported is equal to the reported GPA differences between boys and girls. Results show that some of the original effects of school compositional variables are mediated through disruptive behaviour.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cappelen Damm Akademisk, 2021
Keywords
peer effects, compositional effects, school environment, disruptive classroom behaviour, frame factor theory
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-52415 (URN)10.23865/nse.v41.2965 (DOI)2-s2.0-85106717389 (Scopus ID)POA;;52415 (Local ID)POA;;52415 (Archive number)POA;;52415 (OAI)
Available from: 2021-05-07 Created: 2021-05-07 Last updated: 2024-01-25Bibliographically approved
2. Exploring mechanisms of peer-effects in education: a frame-factor analysis of instruction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring mechanisms of peer-effects in education: a frame-factor analysis of instruction
2023 (English)In: Educational review (Birmingham), ISSN 0013-1911, E-ISSN 1465-3397, Vol. 7, no 75, p. 1387-1405Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the educational literature on peer effects, attention has been brought to the fact that the mechanisms creating peer effects are still to a large extent hidden in obscurity. The hypothesis in the study reported in this article was that the Frame Factor Theory (FFT) can be used to reveal such mechanisms. Using data from the Swedish TIMSS 2015 (N = 3761 students in 179 classes), a multilevel structural equation model (M-SEM) was specified in accordance with the FFT. As predicted, the SEM-model verified a strong relationship between class composition and a latent variable of limitations on instruction, a variable which in turn had a great impact on individual students? results in TIMSS 2015. The study hereby seems to reveal a fundamental mechanism of peer effects and provides evidence for the FFT.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
Pedagogy; frame factor theory; compositional effects; contextual effects; structural effects; peer effects
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-55901 (URN)10.1080/00131911.2021.2023100 (DOI)000755445000001 ()2-s2.0-85125219319 (Scopus ID)HOA;;796363 (Local ID)HOA;;796363 (Archive number)HOA;;796363 (OAI)
Available from: 2022-02-15 Created: 2022-02-15 Last updated: 2024-01-25Bibliographically approved
3. Peer effects in education: Theoretical synthesis of frame factor theory and opportunity to learn using TIMSS 2011
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peer effects in education: Theoretical synthesis of frame factor theory and opportunity to learn using TIMSS 2011
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0883-0355, E-ISSN 1873-538X, Vol. 121, article id 102229Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite a vast literature, previous research into compositional effects and peer effects in education has remarked on the lack of consensus within the field. To date, peer effects in education and students’ different opportunities to learn in school has been studied separately. In this study, it is argued that these perspectives need to be synthesized. A multilevel structural equation model (M-SEM) is derived from such a synthesis of the Frame Factor Theory (FFT) and Opportunity to Learn (OTL) and tested on Swedish TIMSS 2011-data (n=3928). The results indicate that class composition affects the presence of limitations on instruction and advanced content coverage, both of which is related to opportunities to learn and individual students’ achievement in mathematics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
compositional effects, frame factor theory, opportunity to learn, peer effects
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-62190 (URN)10.1016/j.ijer.2023.102229 (DOI)001049645800001 ()2-s2.0-85166215562 (Scopus ID)HOA;;897405 (Local ID)HOA;;897405 (Archive number)HOA;;897405 (OAI)
Available from: 2023-08-17 Created: 2023-08-17 Last updated: 2024-01-25Bibliographically approved

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Bäckström, Pontus

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