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  • 1.
    Adlemo, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Tarasov, Vladimir
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Fuzzy logic based decision-support for reshoring decisions2018In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Operations and Supply Chain Management, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Adlemo, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. Jönköping University / School of Engineering.
    Tan, He
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Tarasov, Vladimir
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Test case quality as perceived in Sweden2018In: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering / [ed] Michael Unterkalmsteiner, ACM Digital Library, 2018, p. 9-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reach an acceptable level of confidence in the quality of a software product, testing of the software is paramount. To obtain "good" quality software it is essential to rely on "good" test cases. To define the criteria for what make up for a "good" test case is not a trivial task. Over the past 15 years, a short list of publications have presented criteria for "good" test cases but without ranking them based on their importance. This paper presents a non-exhaustive and non-authoritative tentative list of 15 criteria and a ranking of their relative importance. A number of the criteria come from previous publications but also from discussions with our industrial partners. The ranking is based on results collected via a questionnaire that was sent out to a limited number of randomly chosen respondents in the Swedish software industry. This means that the results are more indicative than conclusive.

  • 3.
    Adlemo, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Tarasov, Vladimir
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Eriksson, David
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Knowledge intensive decision support for reshoring decisions2018In: Proceedings of the 30th Annual NOFOMA Conference: Relevant Logistics and Supply Chain Management Research, Kolding, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Adlemo, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Tarasov, Vladimir
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Eriksson, David
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Reshoring decision support in a Swedish context2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a decision-support system for reshoring decision-making based on fuzzy logic. The construction and functionality of the decision-support system are described, and the functionality is evaluated in a high cost environment exemplified through a Swedish context. Ten different reshoring scenarios, provided by Swedish reshoring experts, are entered into the decision-support system and the decision recommendations provided by the system are presented. The confidence that can be put on the recommendations is demonstrated by comparing them with those of the reshoring experts. The positive results obtained indicate that fuzzy logic is both feasible and that the quality of the results are sufficiently good for reshoring decision-making.

  • 5.
    Ahlberg, Ernst
    et al.
    Predictive Compound ADME & Safety, Drug Safety & Metabolism, AstraZeneca IMED Biotech Unit, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Winiwarter, Susanne
    Predictive Compound ADME & Safety, Drug Safety & Metabolism, AstraZeneca IMED Biotech Unit, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Boström, Henrik
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Linusson, Henrik
    Department of Information Technology, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Löfström, Tuve
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. Department of Information Technology, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Norinder, Ulf
    Swetox, Karolinska Institutet, Unit of Toxicology Sciences, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. Department of Information Technology, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Engkvist, Ola
    External Sciences, Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca IMED Biotech Unit, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Hammar, Oscar
    Quantitative Biology, Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca IMED Biotech Unit, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bendtsen, Claus
    Quantitative Biology, Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca IMED Biotech Unit, Cambridge, UK.
    Carlsson, Lars
    Quantitative Biology, Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca IMED Biotech Unit, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Using conformal prediction to prioritize compound synthesis in drug discovery2017In: Proceedings of Machine Learning Research: Volume 60: Conformal and Probabilistic Prediction and Applications, 13-16 June 2017, Stockholm, Sweden / [ed] Alex Gammerman, Vladimir Vovk, Zhiyuan Luo, and Harris Papadopoulos, Machine Learning Research , 2017, p. 174-184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of how much money and resources to spend to understand certain problems is of high interest in many areas. This work illustrates how computational models can be more tightly coupled with experiments to generate decision data at lower cost without reducing the quality of the decision. Several different strategies are explored to illustrate the trade off between lowering costs and quality in decisions.

    AUC is used as a performance metric and the number of objects that can be learnt from is constrained. Some of the strategies described reach AUC values over 0.9 and outperforms strategies that are more random. The strategies that use conformal predictor p-values show varying results, although some are top performing.

    The application studied is taken from the drug discovery process. In the early stages of this process compounds, that potentially could become marketed drugs, are being routinely tested in experimental assays to understand the distribution and interactions in humans.

  • 6.
    Al-Ghareeb, Meelad
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Vibration exposure model for human operators working with chainsaw equipment.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Al-Ghareeb, Meelad
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Antranik, Sevag
    Riktlinjer för grafiska användargränssnitt för lagersystem2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att undersöka och sammanställa riktlinjer för att utveckla ett grafiskt användargränssnitt för ett lagersystem. För att uppnå syftet med rapporten litteraturstudier, intervjuer, observationer och en prototyputveckling utfördes. Utifrån litteraturstudier visade det sig att det inte fanns specifika designriktlinjer för utveckling av lagersystem fast det fanns allmänna riktlinjer som kan användas för design av olika system. Intervjuer med utvecklare och en utvecklingschef på företaget Qsys hjälpte till att hitta befintliga riktlinjer som företaget använder. Det visade sig att de använder allmänna riktlinjer som inte är specifika för lagersystem. För att hitta mer specifika riktlinjer observerade vi några lagerarbetare för att bättre förstå hur de integrerar med det befintliga systemet som de använder. Utifrån analysen av observationerna, upptäcktes det nya riktlinjer. Med hjälp av de allmänna riktlinjer som hittades i litteraturen och riktlinjer som upptäckes efter analysen av observationer, utvecklade vi en prototyp som sedan testades. Resultatet vi fick utifrån analysen av intervjuerna med lagerarbetarna efter prototyptestning, hjälpte med att hitta ytterligare specifika riktlinjer.För att utveckla ett användarvänligt lagersystem, behöver man ett användarvänligt gränssnitt. I denna rapport presenterar vi några riktlinjer som man kan använda sig av för att utveckla ett användarvänligt gränssnitt för lagersystem.

  • 8.
    Alirezaie, Marjan
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Hammar, Karl
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    SICS - East Swedish ICT.
    SmartEnv as a Network of Ontology Patterns2018In: Semantic Web, ISSN 1570-0844, E-ISSN 2210-4968, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 903-918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we outline the details of an ontology, called SmartEnv, proposed as a representational model to assist the development process of smart (i.e., sensorized) environments. The SmartEnv ontology is described in terms of its modules representing different aspects including physical and conceptual aspects of a smart environment. We propose the use of the Ontology Design Pattern (ODP) paradigm in order to modularize our proposed solution, while at the same time avoiding strong dependencies between the modules in order to manage the representational complexity of the ontology. The ODP paradigm and related methodologies enable incremental construction of ontologies by first creating and then linking small modules. Most modules (patterns) of the SmartEnv ontology are inspired by, and aligned with, the Semantic Sensor Network (SSN) ontology, however with extra interlinks to provide further precision and cover more representational aspects. The result is a network of 8 ontology patterns together forming a generic representation for a smart environment. The patterns have been submitted to the ODP portal and are available on-line at stable URIs.

  • 9.
    Alirezaie, Marjan
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Hammar, Karl
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Computer Science and Informatics. RISE SICS East AB, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Ivanova, Valentina
    Linköpings Universitet.
    SmartEnv Ontology in E-care@home2018In: SSN 2018 - Semantic Sensor Networks Workshop: Proceedings of the 9th International Semantic Sensor Networks Workshopco-located with 17th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2018) / [ed] Maxime Lefrançois, Raúl Garcia Castro, Amélie Gyrard, Kerry Taylor, CEUR-WS , 2018, Vol. 2213, p. 72-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this position paper we briefly introduce SmartEnv ontology which relies on SEmantic Sensor Network (SSN) ontology and is used to represent different aspects of smart and sensorized environments. We will also talk about E-carehome project aiming at providing an IoT-based health-care system for elderly people at their homes. Furthermore, we refer to the role of SmartEnv in Ecarehome and how it needs to be further extended to achieve semantic interoperability as one of the challenges in development of autonomous health care systems at home.

  • 10.
    Amin, Skorupan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Eyetracking som interaktions-hjälpmedel i fordon: Utveckling och utvärdering av ett ögonstyrt infotainmentsystem2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a new eye-controlled infotainmentsystem that worked differently compared to similar systems. What differs this new system is that personal calibration is not necessary to be performed before each time the system is to be used.

    The method Design Science Research (DSR) has been used where an artifact has been developed and then investigated. Experiments have been conducted to find out how well the infotainment system works when it uses a relative gaze towards an absolute, but also to find out how users should confirm their gaze in the best way. For confirmation of gaze, three different methods have been used; button press, blink, and gazing. The collected data from the experiments have been matched to evaluate how well they stand against each other.

    The result of the study shows that when the infotainment system used relative gaze, it worked in as many attempts as it did using absolute. The result times were very similar to each other which shows that the both methods works well even when face calibration is not used, but the collected data was uneven which made it difficult to draw conclusions about which one was faster. The study also shows that keystroke was the best-suited method to use to confirm gaze.This method was much faster than other methods.

    A limitation of the study has been that data collection was only done on two occasions. On more occasions more data could have been generated, which would have made it easier to draw more conclusions about the response times.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Ottehall, Henrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Rekommendationssystem för riktad annonsering: En studie av innehållsbaserad rekommendation i system med användare, element och annonser kopplade till en gemensam uppsättning diskreta metadata2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Advertising in mobile apps are increasing and so is the need to show the right ad to the right user. This study was conducted in cooperation with Seekly AB, a company whose app displays a feed with upcoming events in a users immediate area. In this app, every event is associated with an interest and users can choose interests to follow in a list. Seekly wanted to use so called behavioral targeting to show ads in their feed. The solution that was developed is useful for all Seekly-like systems and consists of a content based recommender system that chooses ads based on the interests a user has selected and events and ads that the user has shown an interest in. Apps that in some way or another resembles the Seekly app are not uncommon and recommender systems for behavioral targeting suited for this kind of system are to the best of our knowledge not described in the literature. The resulting recommender system has been implemented and shown to be able to recommend ads that has been associated with interests that match the interests selected by the user and/or amplified by his or her behavior. There are also indications that the system would be able to increase the number of ad clicks compared to randomly selected ads, but no statistically significant proof was found.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Julius
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Hultin Karlsson, Annika
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Förhållandet mellan feedback och pålitlighet i en mobilapplikation: En kvalitativ studie om visuell feedback, tonalitet och pålitlighet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following thesis is written by students at the School of Engineering at Jönköping University, informatics, New Media Design. The background of this report is based on a project collaboration with Toxic Interactive solutions AB, who wanted help with creating an application for registering sick leave from work. Since these registrations for sick leave affects the income and work relations, the aspect trust within an application was chosen as a subject for the report. Furthermore we connected this to the feedback element to see how trust was affected by this factor. Also the design and tonality of the feedback was chosen as a subject for the study. Visual feedback connects to the user with information about their actions and a confirmation.

    Based on this, two questions were formed:

    [1] How does visual feedback affect trust in a mobile application? [2] Does the the tonality in the feedback affect trust for a mobile application?

    To answer these questions, user tests and interviews was performed with the users. Three prototypes were created with different levels of feedback: no feedback, feedback with formal tonality and feedback with informal tonality. These were tested on nine users for each prototype (27 users in total). Parallelly two interviews with experts of the area were performed for a deeper knowledge and comparability. Other than this relevant studies and theories have been studied.

    The results of this study show that feedback contributes to increased trustworthiness amongst users. Although there are many other reasons that will have an affect. A formal tonality in the feedback is perceived as slightly more trustworthy according to the user tests and user interviews conducted. An insight about the connection between the tonality and target groups and subjective preferences was revealed from the expert interviews. Also, theories studied about the formality of the language mentions that it should be adapted to the specific target group.

    The conclusions that can be made from the study shows that trust, feedback and tonality are all connected. all the results show that feedback in a system has a positive effect on the user experience. Feedback also means more trust from a user than when its absent.

  • 13.
    Anton, Holmberg
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Designprinciper vid utveckling av mobila applikationer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the essay is to investigate which aspects are important to consider

    when an interface is developed for a mobile application. It will be investigated how

    the information should be structured to be as easy to understand as possible, when

    and why some color should be used and what types of fonts to be used and the ones

    that should be avoided.

    By examining these aspects, scientific guidelines will be developed which can then be

    applied when a mobile application is to be developed.

    Initially, a comprehensive literature study will be conducted in the areas of web

    design, graphic design, interface design and information architecture. This is done to

    gain a strong scientific foundation that can reinforce the statements and theories that

    will be put forward in the paper. In addition, interviews will be held with an intended

    audience for applications. The informants is represented by men and women from

    different countries in Europe, different ages and they will use different mobile

    platforms.

    The results obtained from the study provide a scientific basis for developing a mobile

    application. It gives an explanation of what should be taken into consideration for

    current user friendliness and rules when designing an interface and also what is

    important during the design process. Furthermore, the result gives an insight into

    the fonts to be used and when and where a certain color selection should be made.

    During the course of the report, implications have arisen which led to the selection of

    certain choices and the purpose and issues.

    Keyword:

    Application Design, Interface Design, Web Design.

  • 14.
    Aronsson, Linda
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Vad som engagerar användare på Facebook: Vad gillar du och varför? En undersökning om användarnas krav på innehåll samt vad företag kan förvänta sig av sin marknadsföring i sociala medier.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to give companies and organization's knowledge on how to create relevant content that interests their customers and how they can work with their marketing on Facebook. 

    Method – Methods used in this study are a qualitative study including interviews with experts in the field of marketing in social media. Furthermore, a quantitative study was made through measuring the interaction on three business sites on Facebook.

    Findings – Findings show that it is important to focus on the purpose and goal for the marketing, and what it will result in. Furthermore, it is not a goal itself to have high engagement. Today, the Facebook users are more anonymous online than earlier, and it has become unusual for them to follow a business site. Creating content that invites the users to co-create and to meet outside social media results in high interaction among the followers in the quantitative study. Lastly, continuous presence is required along with a genuine interest towards the costumers, and that the company gives their customer's attention.

    Implications – The implication is therefore that users have become more used to that content is directed directly towards them with a high quality and relevance. The content is designed for a specific target group that reaches them at the right time to give them as relevant content as possible.

    Limitations – The study is limited to the social media Facebook and its users. Furthermore, the study is focused towards marketing on Facebook for business sites.

  • 15.
    Assgård, Christoffer
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Effektivisering av informationsflödet inom en offentlig organisation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate what kind of problems a public organization has with their information flow and suggest a solution to the identified problems.To achieve the purpose, will the report answer the following questions:

    1. What problems do a public organization have with the information flow?
    2. How can a specification contribute to efficiency the flow of information within a public organization?

    Method – In order to achieve the objectives of the study and answer the research questions, a qualitative study is conducted in a public organization. First, semi-structured interviews have been conducted, and then a literature search is performed to provide a knowledge base in this field. From this emerges a specification that forms the basis for a more efficient flow of information within a public organization. The empirical data, which is collected in the manner described, is then analysed and compared with the collected theory. This is to compare the real working life with the theory. Even literature studies have been carried out because it is important to have a stable background current methods, theories and tools. With its basis in the specification, the proposed solutions was developed after an election has made the kind of solution that is fit for purpose. This was done in consultation with the organization concerned. The requirement specification has been analysed by the empirical data and theories, and occurred in consulting with the organization concerned. A demonstration of the final solution and follow-up interviews were also conducted, to get feedback about the solution improvement of the information flow within the public organization.

    Findings – The study results are based on the collected empirical data and the conducted literature review. The result shows that development of an artefact in the form of guidelines for a set of requirements that form the basis, for further development solution improvement of the information flow has resulted in an improvement of the information flow within a public organization. The requirements that have been identified; with semi-structured interview have been used to create the specification demands. This is done to get a good result that solves the organizations requirements and needs, in terms of information flow in a public organization.

    Implications – Blomkvist and Hallin (2015) argues that some thesis provides a methodological contribution to research this, a new way to solve an organization's practical problems. This is this study knowledge contribution. Knowledge contribution in terms of research in informatics, it contributes to an improvement in the distribution of information. This is through the development and use guidelines for a set of requirements that underpin it. The study provides support by producing a guidance on a specification in the form of an artefact that is the basis for development. Further studies may be seen as desirable as this study has only focused on the organization and for research to be optimal and needs further studies in the field carried out.

    Limitations – The study was conducted in a public organization and therefore the results of the study are specifically relevant for this kind of organizations.

  • 16.
    Axelsson, Emil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Hansson, Hanna
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Internet of Things: Kommunikationsstandarder för smarta hem, i teorioch praktik2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Ay, Konstantin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    George, Joshua
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Decentraliserad datalagring baserad på blockkedjan: En studie som jämför Storj.io och Microsoft Azure Blob Storage2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of cloud storage platforms rely on a centralized structure, with the most popular being Microsoft Azure. Centralization causes consumers to rely on the provider to maintain accessibility and security of data. However, platforms such as Storj.io are based on a decentralized structure. To become decentralized, Storj.io uses blockchain technology in a means to create an automated consensus mechanism between the entities storing the data. There is however little research regarding performance and security issues on a decentralized platform based on blockchain technology.

    The purpose of this study is to identify the beneficial and non-beneficial aspects of using blockchain-based decentralized cloud storage as a substitute for centralized ones. The study focuses on performance and security.

    A comparative case study has been executed, consisting of an experiment and literature study. Quantitative data from an experiment was used in a hypothesis test to determine whether there were any performance differences between Microsoft Azure Blob Storage and Storj.io. A literature study generating qualitative data was then made to identify differences in security measures and from that also discuss potential security risks on a service like Storj.io.

    This study found that the performance of Storj.io was lower than Microsoft Azure’s Blob Storage. Causes of these results were identified to be due to the many more steps during resource allocation in Storj.io, compared to Blob Storage. Security risks identified in Storj.io through the literature study were generally connected to the consensus mechanism. However, research shows that it is very unlikely for the consensus mechanism to be compromised. Because Microsoft Azure’s service does not use a blockchain, these risks do not exist. For secure data transfer to Azure’s service, consumers have to implement encryption manually client-side. Therefore, this study could not conclude whether Storj.io is a safe alternative because a consumer using the Microsoft Azure service is responsible for implementing security measures.

    Conclusions drawn from this study are intended to act as new knowledge in the field of blockchain-based decentralized cloud storage. It is an outset to decide whether to use centralized cloud storage or blockchain-based decentralized cloud storage from a performance and security perspective.

  • 18.
    Benkenstein, Martin
    et al.
    Institute for Business Administration, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.
    Fellmann, Michael
    Institute of Computer Science, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.
    Leyer, Michael
    Institute for Business Administration, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.
    Sandkuhl, Kurt
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Computer Science and Informatics.
    The value of enterprise modelling: Towards a service-centric perspective2016In: The practice of enterprise modeling: 9th IFIP WG 8.1. Working Conference, PoEM 2016, Skövde, Sweden, November 8-10, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Jennifer Horkoff, Manfred A. Jeusfeld & Anne Persson, Springer, 2016, p. 299-306Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise modeling is an important and widespread activity in managing enterprises. A well-founded conceptualization of its value is however missing so far which can be traced back to different understandings of constituents of enterprise modelling. Addressing these different understandings, we propose to take a service-centric perspective to determine the value of enterprise modelling. We describe the benefits of this perspective and justify our positioning regarding a service-centric perspective.

  • 19.
    Berggren, Emil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Gustafson, Tobias
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Jämförelse av GPGPU-ramverk och AES-metoder: Jämförelse av GPGPU-ramverk och AES-metoder för att besvara vilka GPGPU-ramverk och vilken AES-metod som bör rekommenderas för AES-kryptering med GPGPU2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Background - Processors today are approaching the limit for how high clockfrequences they can run. This has led to that instead of trying to make them run faster they are instead made with multiple cores so they can utilize parallelization by running several threads in parallel. However aside from the CPU there is still the graphics card which has a large amount of unused computing power for long durations of time while the computer is active. While a GPU might not have as quick processors it instead has several thousands of them at the same time than a CPU which have led to the development of GPGPU-frameworks to use that potential parallelization. The profit in this lies in using algorithms and code functions that got high potential parallelization, one of which is the AES encryption algorithm. AES is one of the most widely used encryption algorithms today and also considered to be one of the most secure.

    Purpose – By using GPGPU-acceleration the encryption speed of AES is higher than by using a traditional CPU approach. To make the GPU-acceleration as effective as possible this study looks into which AES-method and which GPGPU-framework that should be chosen during development.

    Method – This study makes two literature studies to determine which AES-methods and which GPGPU-frameworks that are viable for GPU-acceleration of AES. Afterwards this study conducts experiments to determine which of these GPGPU-frameworks are the most effective.

    Findings – The conclusion drawn from the literature study is that the CTR-method among the AES-methods is preferable due to its parallelization potential and high security measures. Among the current GPGPU-frameworks only two frameworks satisfies the criteria determined from the literature study and those are CUDA and OpenCL. From the experiment the conclusion is thereafter drawn that of the two GPGPU-frameworks CUDA is more effective due to the bandwidth limits that OpenCL have compared to CUDA. This conclusion is valid on at least the tested graphics card, GTX 560.

    Implications – CUDA is faster at larger file sizes than OpenCL due to limited data transfer speed in OpenCL on a GTX 560.

    Limitations – The experiments were only conducted on one graphics card from Nvidia due to hardware constraints in that CUDA can only be run on Nvidia hardware. Due to this hardware constraint and Nvidia’s lack of support in their tools for debugging and profiling of OpenCL the results from the testing of OpenCL couldn’t be verified using external tools.

    Keywords – Processor, GPGPU, AES, CTR, OpenCL, CUDA, GPGPU-framework

  • 20.
    Bergman, Mikael
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Hertzberg, Tim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    User Experience för mobila applikationer på iPhones med stora skärmar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Smartphone screens have in recent years increased greatly in size. This has created problems for the user experience. Thus, the purpose of the study is:

    How mobile applications for smartphones with larger screens should be developed in the future to provide as good UX as possible.

    In order to answer the purpose it has been broken down into three research questions:

    Which parameters (type of objects) are most affected by different screen sizes?

    Depending on the screen size, are different layouts preferred?

    How much of the screen can be reached by one handed use?

    Method

    A study of literature is made to answer the first research question. It became the basis of a questionnaire in the form of an application, which answered the study's second and third research questions. The test subjects ranked different layouts depending on their perceived user experience. The tests were conducted on an iPhone 4S and an iPhone 6S Plus to evaluate the differences between different screen sizes.

    Findings

    The study concluded that it is important to place essential items within the user’s reach when one hand is used. Items placed at the edges or corners of the screen are often difficult to reach on a larger screen, which means that avoiding such placement is preferred.

    Implications

    The study can both be of service in future research on user experience and reach, but also give recommendations on what is important to take into consideration when developing mobile applications for smartphones with larger screens.

    Limitations

    Since the study was conducted over a limited period of time there was no opportunity for more tests.

  • 21.
    Bernhard, J.
    et al.
    ITN, Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Carstensen, Anna-Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    "Real" experiments or computers in labs - Opposites or synergies?: Experiences from a course in electric circuit theory2017In: Proceedings of the 45th SEFI Annual Conference 2017 - Education Excellence for Sustainability, SEFI 2017 / [ed] J. Bernardino, J. Rocha,J. C. Quadrado, European Society for Engineering Education (SEFI) , 2017, p. 1300-1307Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we report from our experiences designing and re-designing a lab where engineering students studied transient response in electric circuits. In the first version of the lab students had difficulties doing the mathematical modeling of the experimentally measured graphs as it required students' to link the time- and frequency domains as well as the object/event and theory/model worlds simultaneously. In the re-designed lab some computer simulations were included together with the original experiments on real circuits. The simulations opened up for learning and enabled students to establish links that are hard access directly with real experiments. Still doing real experiments is important to secure students ability to make links between models and theories and the physical reality. This study demonstrates that synergetic learning effects can be achieved by a careful design using an insightful combination of real experiments and computer simulations. Hence, we propose that the question of "real" experiments or "virtual" labs using computer simulations are best for students' learning is not an either or question. Rather, it is a question of finding the right blend to achieve synergetic effects.

  • 22.
    Bernhard, Jonte
    et al.
    ITN, Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Carstensen, Anna-Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Computer Science and Informatics.
    Karlsson, Kjell
    ITN, Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden .
    Alternating currents first: Experiences from designing a novel approach to teaching electric circuit theory2016In: 44th Annual Conference of the European Society for Engineering Education - Engineering Education on Top of the World: Industry-University Cooperation, SEFI 2016, European Society for Engineering Education (SEFI) , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Commonly in electric circuit theory courses, circuit laws are first introduced in the context of direct current (DC) electricity and first thereafter are alternating currents (AC) introduced. The extension of DC-theory to AC is quite easily done mathematically but is conceptually difficult for students. Engineering students have difficulties in understanding phase relationships and phasor representations in AC-electricity. Indeed, it has been suggested that phase should be seen as a threshold concept.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate if a re-designed introductory electric circuit course could improve students’ understanding of important concepts in AC-electricity.

    METHOD and COURSE DESIGN: The course was re-designed introducing AC and DC electricity simultaneously. DC was introduced as a special case of AC with requency equals zero. The re-designed course was taught for the first time during the spring semester 2014 and a new textbook was written. A conceptual test was developed and first administered in 2013 to serve as a baseline and in subsequent years to evaluate the revised course. In 2014 the students’ courses of action in selected lab-groups were video-recorded.

    RESULTS: In the first revision cycle many students had difficulties to complete the labs in time. Students revealed a mixed response towards the revised course and the results on the conceptual test showed neglible improvement. In the second cycle revisions the number tasks were reduced and focus was laid on tasks that were identified as most important for contributing to the development of student understanding. As a result the learning gain improved with an effect size (Cohen’s delta) of 0.56. Also the course and the textbook were very well appreciated. In the third cycle only small revisions are made.

    CONCLUSION: The results show that that AC-electricity can be taught concurrently with DC. However, two revisions cycles was needed which demonstrates that curriculum development needs a sustained effort over a considerable period of time with continuous revisions in light of gained experiences. In further revision we will continue to refine the labs and to develop appropriate interactive lecture demonstrations for the lectures and to develop the problems.

  • 23.
    Bijedic, Jasmina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Forsberg, Angelica
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Push the button: En studie om färgens påverkan på CTA-knappar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 24.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hammar, Karl
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Computer Science and Informatics.
    Presutti, Valentina
    ISTC-CNR, Rome, Italy.
    Engineering Ontologies with Patterns - The eXtreme Design Methodology2016In: Ontology Engineering with Ontology Design Patterns / [ed] Pascal Hitzler, Aldo Gangemi, Krzysztof Janowicz, Adila Krisnadhi, Valentina Presutti, IOS Press, 2016, p. 23-50Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When using Ontology Design Patterns (ODPs) for modelling new parts of an ontology, i.e., new ontology modules, or even an entire ontology from scratch, ODPs can be used both as inspiration for different modelling solutions, as well as concrete templates or even “building blocks” reused directly in the new solution. This chapter discusses how ODPs, and in particular Content ODPs, can be used in ontology engineering. In particular, a specific ontology engineering methodology is presented, which was originally developed for supporting ODP use. However, this methodology, the eXtreme Design (XD), also has some characteristics that set it apart from most other ontology engineering methodologies, and which may be interesting to consider regardless of how much emphasis is put on the ODP usage. Towards the end of the chapter some XD use cases are also reported and discussed, as well as lessons learned from applying XD. The chapter is concluded through a summary and discussion about future work.

  • 25.
    Boström, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Linusson, Henrik
    Department of Information Technology, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Löfström, Tuve
    Department of Information Technology, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Accelerating difficulty estimation for conformal regression forests2017In: Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 1012-2443, E-ISSN 1573-7470, Vol. 81, no 1-2, p. 125-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conformal prediction framework allows for specifying the probability of making incorrect predictions by a user-provided confidence level. In addition to a learning algorithm, the framework requires a real-valued function, called nonconformity measure, to be specified. The nonconformity measure does not affect the error rate, but the resulting efficiency, i.e., the size of output prediction regions, may vary substantially. A recent large-scale empirical evaluation of conformal regression approaches showed that using random forests as the learning algorithm together with a nonconformity measure based on out-of-bag errors normalized using a nearest-neighbor-based difficulty estimate, resulted in state-of-the-art performance with respect to efficiency. However, the nearest-neighbor procedure incurs a significant computational cost. In this study, a more straightforward nonconformity measure is investigated, where the difficulty estimate employed for normalization is based on the variance of the predictions made by the trees in a forest. A large-scale empirical evaluation is presented, showing that both the nearest-neighbor-based and the variance-based measures significantly outperform a standard (non-normalized) nonconformity measure, while no significant difference in efficiency between the two normalized approaches is observed. The evaluation moreover shows that the computational cost of the variance-based measure is several orders of magnitude lower than when employing the nearest-neighbor-based nonconformity measure. The use of out-of-bag instances for calibration does, however, result in nonconformity scores that are distributed differently from those obtained from test instances, questioning the validity of the approach. An adjustment of the variance-based measure is presented, which is shown to be valid and also to have a significant positive effect on the efficiency. For conformal regression forests, the variance-based nonconformity measure is hence a computationally efficient and theoretically well-founded alternative to the nearest-neighbor procedure. 

  • 26.
    Boström, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden.
    Linusson, Henrik
    Department of Information Technology, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Löfström, Tuve
    Department of Information Technology, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Computer Science and Informatics.
    Evaluation of a variance-based nonconformity measure for regression forests2016In: Conformal and Probabilistic Prediction with Applications, Springer, 2016, p. 75-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous large-scale empirical evaluation of conformal regression approaches, random forests using out-of-bag instances for calibration together with a k-nearest neighbor-based nonconformity measure, was shown to obtain state-of-the-art performance with respect to efficiency, i.e., average size of prediction regions. However, the use of the nearest-neighbor procedure not only requires that all training data have to be retained in conjunction with the underlying model, but also that a significant computational overhead is incurred, during both training and testing. In this study, a more straightforward nonconformity measure is investigated, where the difficulty estimate employed for normalization is based on the variance of the predictions made by the trees in a forest. A large-scale empirical evaluation is presented, showing that both the nearest-neighbor-based and the variance-based measures significantly outperform a standard (non-normalized) nonconformity measure, while no significant difference in efficiency between the two normalized approaches is observed. Moreover, the evaluation shows that state-of-theart performance is achieved by the variance-based measure at a computational cost that is several orders of magnitude lower than when employing the nearest-neighbor-based nonconformity measure. 

  • 27.
    Brorsson, Martin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Lindhom, Hampus
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    The best place to hide a dead body is page 2 on Google search results2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This examination paper examines what affects which link students at Jönköping University choose to click on the Google search results when they do a product search. For some e-commerce companies, it may be crucial that users click on their link in the search results. But which link do students choose to click on? Are they choosing to click on a link in the organic search results or are they choosing to click on an ad? This examination has been carried out with the aim to help e-commerce companies that sells products that target students. During this paper has following question has been answered:

    • What affects the link Jönköping University students choose to click on the Google search results?

    Method - To answer the question three different methods has been implemented to collect data. The methods conducted three interviews with experts in the SEO industry, 114 observations with students and in connection with the observations did the students answer a digital survey. These three methods gave a good and comparable results that ultimately strengthen each other.

    Results - Based on data collected from interviews, observations, digital surveys and secondary data have a result been developed shrill guessed what affects students' choice of the links on the search engine Google. The result shows that search engine optimization is important for an e- commerce business that must appear on Google, if you are not on the front page you are not existing. Although the recognition factor plays the most important role in the choice of which link students click. Where it appears two different kinds of behaviour both with the recognition factor of ulterior motive. Either the students click on the first link they recognize or choose them consciously remove the ads and click on the first common link them recognize.

    Implications - This work is only carried out on students from Jönköping University. A representative selection was made from the theoretical population of a generalizable results. But to generalize the results of the students to a greater extent it is required that the same survey conducted at various colleges / universities in Sweden.

    Limitations - Focus and most time was spent on implementing the observations which gave less time to conduct more than three interviews. This is a crucial factor that affected the study's scope and results. If there were more time had an investigation on other search engines would have been feasible. All searches were made on Google, which is the largest and the leading search engine in the world. If they are doing any big changes or updates our results may be unusable. 

  • 28.
    Bär, Florian
    et al.
    University of Rostock, Munich University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Sandkuhl, Kurt
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Computer Science and Informatics. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. University of Rostock, Germany.
    Schmidt, Rainer
    Munich University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    On the Maturity of Service Process Modeling and Analysis Approaches2016In: 19th International Conference, BIS 2016, Proceedings, Leipzig, July 6-8, 2016. / [ed] Witold Abramowicz, Rainer Alt, Bogdan Franczyk, Springer, 2016, Vol. 255, p. 356-367Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research has provided a number of approaches for the specification and analysis of service processes. However, little is known about their level of maturity regarding considered dimensions and characteristics. The present study represents a first step towards filling this gap. Drawing upon recent formalizations and delineations of service, a model for assessing the maturity of service modeling and analysis tools is derived. As part of a systematic literature review, it is applied to a set of 47 service blueprinting techniques to determine their maturity. The study’s findings indicate a high level of maturity regarding control flow and resource integration for most of the identified approaches. However, there are several shortcomings with respect to the input and output dimensions of the service process. The study proposes a set of research questions to stimulate future research and address the identified shortcomings.

  • 29.
    Carlsson, Emil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Andersson Waara, Daniela
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Varför är det en hamburgare i det högra hörnet?: En analys av CSS ramverk2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this report is to find out which frameworks and methods are most popular and most widely used, as well as web developers' views on the hamburgermenu.

    Method – In order to answer the questions in our report we used the methods quantitative statistical processing, quantitative analysis of data collected via survey and qualitative interviews with web developers. The study was conducted to find out which frameworks and methods are most popular and used most, as well as how web developers look at the hamburgermenu. This was done by analyzing the popularity and usage of different frameworks as well as interviewing web developers who work with it daily.

    Findings – The results of the report are based on the data collected through the processing of the statistics, the analysis of the survey, and the interviews performed. The result shows which frameworks are most popular and those that are most used. The following list shows the ranking:

    Most popular:

    1. Bootstrap
    2. Semantic UI
    3. Materialize
    4. Material Design Lite
    5. Foundation

    Most used:

    1. Bootstrap
    2. Foundation
    3. Materialize
    4. Material Design Lite
    5. Semantic UI

    The results of the interviews showed that most of the web developers interviewed used a framework when they created a website, either an existing or one of their own. It was also a practice to use the same framework in the company, although the way it was used was different from developer to developer. All developers had a mobile-first thought in mind, although it was not always a priority.

    It was also found in the study that everyone had a basic idea behind the choice of framework, but only one who had performed a study on which one would suit them best.

    All web developers interviewed thought that the hamburger menu was boring and bad from a user experience perspective. But everyone also agreed that because it is so widely used and has been for a couple of years, users have learned what it means and therefore fulfills its purpose.

    Implications – The use of the results is primarily linked to individuals or companies that work with web development, but can also be used by private individuals. For the report's primary target group, the results will give an increased understanding of the most used framework and an increased understanding of why these are used. Private individuals can use the result in the same way.

    Limitations – The limitations we receive in this study are that we cannot make any conclusions about companies and web developers in other parts of the country using the same framework or methods as the local ones we interviewed. Nor can we make any conclusions about why Bootstrap is the most popular and most widely used framework. We can only speculate why with the empirical we gathered through the interviews.

    A major limitation is also the lack of interviews when we only got answers from 6 of the 10 companies we contacted, of whom 4 would like to participate in the interview. More general conclusions could have been drawn if more companies had been interviewed.

    Keywords – Framework, Web Development, Responsive Web Design, Interaction Design, User Experience, Bootstrap, Foundation, Materialize, Material Design Lite, Semantic UI

  • 30.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Eriksson, Klas-Göran
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Comparison of security level and current consumption of security implementations for MQTT2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IoT is a rapidly growing area with products in the consumer, commercial and industrial market. Collecting data with multiple small and often battery-powered devices sets new challenges for both security and communication. There has been a distinct lack of a IoT specific communication protocols. The industry has had to use bulky interfaces not suitable for resource-constrained devices. MQTT is a standardised communication protocol made for the IoT industry. MQTT does however not have built-in security and it is up to the developers to implement a suitable security countermeasure. To evaluate how different security countermeasures impact MQTT in complexity, current consumption and security the following research questions are answered.

    How do you derive a measurement from the SEF that can be compared with a current consumption measurement?

    Which level of security, according to the SEF, will RSA, AES and TLS provide to MQTT when publishing a message to a broker?

    What level of complexity is added to MQTT when using chosen security countermeasure?

    Which of the analysed security countermeasure upholds an adequate security level while also having a low current consumption?

    To answer the above research questions an experiment approach has been used. Implementations of TLS, RSA and AES have been evaluated to measure how they affect the security level and current consumption of an MQTT publication, compared to no security countermeasures at all.Both RSA and AES had the same security level, but the current consumption for RSA was four times higher. The experiment showed that the security level is significantly higher for TLS, while it also has the highest current consumption. The security countermeasure evaluated differs greatly. TLS provides complete protections, while RSA and AES lacks authentication and does not ensure integrity and non-repudiation.Even if the current consumption for TLS is higher, the security it provides make it unreasonable to recommend any of the other security countermeasure implementations.

  • 31.
    Carstensen, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Bernhard, Jonte
    Department of Science and Technology (ITN), Engineering Education Research Group, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Design science research – a powerful tool for improving methods in engineering education research2018In: European Journal of Engineering Education, ISSN 0304-3797, E-ISSN 1469-5898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling is a central activity in practical engineering and something that is also useful in engineering education research (EER). Additionally, qualitative research methods have found important applications in engineering research, although their use in EER has not always been widely accepted. Design science research is a qualitative research approach in which the object of study is the design process, i.e. it simultaneously generates knowledge about the method used to design an artefact and the design or the artefact itself. This paper uses techniques from design science research to analyse the method used when deriving the ‘learning of a complex concept’ (LCC) model, which we developed while designing teaching sequences for a course on electrical engineering. Our results demonstrate the value of design science research in EER and suggest that the LCC model is generally applicable in this field.

  • 32.
    Carstensen, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Computer Science and Informatics. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Bernhard, Jonte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Norrköping.
    Make Links: Overcoming the Threshold and Entering the Portal of Understanding2016In: Threshold Concepts in Practice / [ed] Ray Land, Jan H. F. Meyer, & Michael T. Flanagan, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2016, p. 211-222Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In engineering the student is often ‘faced with contrasting representations or models’ (Entwistle et al., 2005, p. 9), which Entwistle explores as ‘ways of thinking and practising’ (ibid). These contrasting representations are in electric circuits for example: graphs, mathematical models, drawings of circuits and the real circuits. In our research we have found that exploring the relationships - links - between these different representations, as well in the theory/model domain as in the object/event domain (Tiberghien, Vince, & Gaidioz, 2009) is of uttermost importance. We have developed a tool for investigation of ‘the learning of a complex concept’ (Carstensen & Bernhard, 2008a) which we have used in order to find critical aspects, which we call “key concepts” (Carstensen & Bernhard, 2008b), which open up the portal of understanding threshold concepts.

    In this paper we will explore these links further. As we have continued our work on how students make links between the different islands of single concepts, in order to make a whole of the complex concept, we have noted that the links between these islands are of different kinds. We will here discuss what kinds of relationships these links consist of, and how they differ in ways of coping with them for students, and how the teachers may notice and highlight these relationships in their instructions.

    We have video recorded students interactions during lab-work and analysed these tapes according to the Theory of Variation (Marton & Tsui, 2004). Now we are taking this further, and make a more detailed analysis of what the links are, and by that we contribute to the understanding of the nature of a threshold concept.

  • 33.
    Crona, Andreas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Gustafsson, Benjamin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    En jämförande studie av crossplattform- och hybridutveckling2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte – Syftet med studien var att jämföra och utvärdera två utvecklingsmetoder för hybrid- och crossplattformutveckling. Detta syfte bröts ner till två frågeställningar:

    • Hur väl kan de båda utvecklingsmetoderna återskapa animationer för att förbättra användarupplevelsen i en applikation?- Vilka av de 3 utvalda animationerna som visas i meaningful transitions och point of origin går att återskapa i de båda utvecklingssätten?
    • Hur påverkas prestandan vid användandet av de utvalda hårdvarufunktioner som implementerats med de båda utvecklingsmetoderna? – Kameran och minnet.

    Metod – Denna rapport är en fallstudie då den är gjord i samarbete med Knowit Jönköping AB efter deras önskemål. Utvecklingsmetoderna som valdes var PhoneGap och Appcelerator Studio, alltså en för hybridutveckling och en för cross-plattform. En applikation för varje utvecklingsmetod byggdes med identiska funktioner som skulle kunna testas för att besvara frågeställningarna. Två kvantitativa insamlingar gjordes i form av enkätundersökning av testpersoners uppfattning av animationerna och en insamling av prestandamätningar vid hårdvaruanvändning.

    Resultat – Resultatet från studien visar att minnesåtgången vid hårdvaruanvändning är både låg och nästan identisk för de båda utvecklingsmetoderna. Empirin visar även att animationerna på båda metoderna kan leva upp till Googles riktlinjer enligt testpersonerna och upplevs som positiva. En notering är dock att Appcelerator tycks ha en liten fördel vad det gäller animationerna. Denna fördel är relativt liten och gör egentligen ingen större skillnad för vilken metod som kan anses som den bästa.

    Implikationer – Studien bidrar till att underlätta valet för mjukvaruutvecklare och företag som funderar på att använda sig utav någon av utvecklingsmetoderna. Detta genom att visa att prestandan vid hårdvaruanvändning inte är något att lägga stor vikt på. För användargränssnitt och användarupplevelse finns en mindre skillnad då Appcelerator använder sig utav native SDK och får en liten fördel när det kommer till användarupplevelsen. Detta kan dock justeras för PhoneGap då det med lite extra jobb går att styla applikationen till att se mer native ut. Utvecklare kan därför tänka på vilka kunskaper de har sedan innan vad gäller XML/HTML och styling då de ska välja utvecklingsmetod.

    Begränsningar – Utvecklingen är gjord av förstagångsanvändare av PhoneGap och Appcelerator Studio vilket kan ha påverkat kvalitén på animationerna och användargränssnittet. En tredjepartsapplikation användes vid mätning av prestandan då PhoneGap saknade plugin för det. Detta kan ha haft en påverkan på resultatet.

  • 34.
    Dahlquist, Victoria
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    En jämförelse mellan native-, hybrid- och webbapplikationer: En undersökning om applikationernas prestandaskillnader i användargränssnittet.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose – The purpose of this thesis is to examine which parameters may affect application rendering of the user interface and how it differs in web application, hybrid application and native application. This thesis intends to answer the following research questions:

    1. Which parameters can affect the rendering of the user interface on a mobile application?

     

    1.  How does the rendering of the user interface differ from web application, hybrid application and native application?

    Method – The study uses a literature study to answer the first research question and uses an experimental study in which a hypothesis and prediction are formulated and tested to answer the second research question.

     

    Results – The result of the study shows that the performance of the native application’s user interface does not always perform better when performing the same task as the corresponding web and hybrid application. The web application in general had the best performance in the user interface, while hybrid application often performed inferior to the corresponding application types.

     

    Implications – The study contributes to extend the knowledge of native application’s, hybrid application’s and web application’s performance in the user interface, and can give companies and developers reference data to base their decision on the choice of application type. The study shows that all application types are worth considering, but the web and native application performed slightly better.

     

    Limitations – No long-term tests could be compared because ADB does not read graphical data for web applications and Chrome DevTools cannot perform long running tests.

  • 35.
    Ek, Hampus
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Johnsson, Elias
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Progressive Web applications för journalföring inom hälso- och socialvård: Mjukvaruarkitekturer för Progressive Web Applications2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine and compare a small set of software stacks which can be used for a progressive web application to see if one stack is more suitable to build a journaling system with strict requirements on accessibility and traceability.

    The study is a comparative case study where the development of a system with different software stacks were compared. First a literature study was conducted to find potential technologies to use. Then interviews were conducted with persons who have used journaling systems within their work to get a clear picture of the essential functionality of a journaling system. The purpose of this was to create a specification of a simple journaling system. This specification was used during the development of two software stacks.

    The literature study showed that two databases and two javascript-framework of the researched potential technologies were more suitable than the other technologies. These technologies were then used in the two software stacks where code size and development time was measured.

    In the end there was not a big difference between the two software stacks in terms of code size and development time. Though one of the stacks had a small advantage of having a marginally faster development time and smaller code size. The conclusion was that a more comprehensive study should be done to get a more conclusive answer but that the results of this study can be used together with other data as a decision guide when a software stack is chosen for a project for a progressive web application with strict requirements on accessibility and traceability.

    A limitation had been set at only choosing two software stacks to compare because the lack of time. Also, the number of features in the finished systems has been limited, because of the lack of time only the essential parts of a journaling system will be included. The study also doesn’t present or take into account all the laws and requirements that affects a journaling system

  • 36.
    Eriksson, Klas-Göran
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Peterson, Andreas
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Solbil: Designundersökning av övervakningssystem och automatisk energiförbrukningsprognos för en solbil2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Jönköping University Solar Team participated in the 2015 edition of World Solar Challenge, which is held every other year in Australia. Teams from all around the world participates in the competition in which they construct a solar car and competes in a 3000 km long race from Darwin to Adelaide. A solar car is an electric car equipped with solar panels to give it a theoretical infinite mileage as long as the car have access to solar energy. Jönköping University came in 15th place in this race and would like to improve their competitiveness in the next race. Because it is a competition and the goal for every team is to use their car as efficiently as possible a system to log and monitor the battery and present the information to the team was needed. It would also be good to have some kind of energy consumption forecast that would be used to decide the speed the solar car should keep. A system that collect, stores and transmits the information from the solar car to an escort vehicle was developed and evaluated.

    Thus, the pursues of this studies were: Improve Jönköping University Solar Teams competitiveness by provide a decision support which in real time monitor and log the solar car battery level and energy consumption.

    Design Science Research was used as a method to realize this purpose, which gave the opportunity to develop the system as an artifact and use this to present the result. Three different experiments were constructed to determine the functionality of the wireless communication, how accurate the system was and how well the energy consumption could be predicted. In the results the artifact is described as a whole and together with the experiments it is found that the system will give Jönköping University Solar Team a higher competitiveness in the next race.

  • 37.
    Fastnacht, Claas
    et al.
    University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.
    Koç, Hasan
    University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.
    Nesterenko, Dimitrijs
    University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.
    Sandkuhl, Kurt
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Computer Science and Informatics.
    Comparison of tool support for goal modelling in capability management2016In: Advanced information systems engineering workshops / [ed] John Krogstie, Haralambos Mouratidis, Jianwen Su, Springer, 2016, p. 29-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capability management is attracting more and more attention in different research and industry areas. A starting point for implementing capability management in an organization often is to identify desired and existing capabilities in relation to the organization’s goals and to specify the capability. Due to the close relationship to organizational goals, tool support for capability modelling should also include capturing goal or even complete enterprise models. The aim of the paper is to contribute to an understanding what kind of tool support is suitable for capability management to capture enterprise goals. The focus in this paper is on goal modelling as part of capability modelling tools and aims at comparing modelling without computer support, modelling with tools enforcing a meta-model and modeling with support of a drawing tool. The comparison is based on experiments.

  • 38.
    Ferwerda, Bruce
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Graus, Mark
    Maastricht University.
    Predicting Musical Sophistication from Music Listening Behaviors: A Preliminary Study2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological models are increasingly being used to explain online behavioral traces. Aside from the commonly used personality traits as a general user model, more domain dependent models are gaining attention. The use of domain dependent psychological models allows for more fine-grained identification of behaviors and provide a deeper understanding behind the occurrence of those behaviors. Understanding behaviors based on psychological models can provide an advantage over data-driven approaches. For example, relying on psychological models allow for ways to personalize when data is scarce. In this preliminary work we look at the relation between users' musical sophistication and their online music listening behaviors and to what extent we can successfully predict musical sophistication. An analysis of data from a study with 61 participants shows that listening behaviors can successfully be used to infer users' musical sophistication.

  • 39.
    Ferwerda, Bruce
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Tkalcic, Marko
    Free University of Bozen-Bolzano.
    Predicting Users' Personality from Instagram Pictures: Using Visual and/or Content Features?2018In: UMAP ’18- Proceedings of the 26th Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, p. 157-161Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Instagram is a popular social networking application that allows users to express themselves through the uploaded content and the different filters they can apply. In this study we look at personality prediction from Instagram picture features. We explore two different features that can be extracted from pictures: 1) visual features (e.g., hue, valence, saturation), and 2) content features (i.e., the content of the pictures). To collect data, we conducted an online survey where we asked participants to fill in a personality questionnaire and grant us access to their Instagram account through the Instagram API. We gathered 54,962 pictures of 193 Instagram users. With our results we show that visual and content features can be used to predict personality from and perform in general equally well. Combining the two however does not result in an increased predictive power. Seemingly, they are not adding more value than they already consist of independently.

  • 40.
    Ferwerda, Bruce
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Tkalcic, Marko
    Free University of Bozen-Bolzano.
    You Are What You Post: What the Content of Instagram Pictures Tells About Users’ Personality2018In: 2nd Workshop on Theory-Informed User Modeling for Tailoring and Personalizing Interfaces (HUMANIZE), 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Instagram is a popular social networking application that allowsusers to express themselves through the uploaded contentand the different filters they can apply. In this study we look atthe relationship between the content of the uploaded Instagrampictures and the personality traits of users. To collect data, weconducted an online survey where we asked participants tofill in a personality questionnaire, and grant us access to theirInstagram account through the Instagram API. We gathered54,962 pictures of 193 Instagram users. Through the GoogleVision API, we analyzed the pictures on their content and clusteredthe returned labels with the k-means clustering approach.With a total of 17 clusters, we analyzed the relationship withusers’ personality traits. Our findings suggest a relationshipbetween personality traits and picture content. This allow fornew ways to extract personality traits from social media trails,and new ways to facilitate personalized systems.

  • 41.
    Ferwerda, Bruce
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Tkalcic, Marko
    Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy.
    Schedl, Markus
    Johannes Kepler University, Austria.
    Personality Traits and Music Genre Preferences: How Music Taste Varies Over Age Groups2017In: Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Temporal Reasoning in Recommender Systems (RecTemp) at the 11th ACM Conference on Recommender Systems / [ed] Maria Bielikova, Veronika Bogina, Tsvi Kuflik, Roy Sasson, CEUR-WS , 2017, Vol. 1922, p. 16-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personality traits are increasingly being incorporated in systems to provide a personalized experience to the user. Current work focusing on identifying the relationship between personality and behavior, preferences, and needs often do not take into account differences between age groups. With music playing an important role in our lives, differences between age groups may be especially prevalent. In this work we investigate whether differences exist in music listening behavior between age groups. We analyzed a dataset with the music listening histories and personality information of 1415 users. Our results show agreements with prior work that identi€ed personality-based music listening preferences. However, our results show that the agreements we found are in some cases divided over different age groups, whereas in other cases additional correlations were found within age groups. With our results personality-based systems can provide better music recommendations that is in line with the user’s age.

  • 42.
    Fransson, Albin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Larsson, Philip
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Avdriften hos robotgräsklippare: en experimentell studie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to reduce the drift of a robot lawnmower using a simple GPS. A drift occurs when the robot lawnmower falls off the direction that should be followed. This happens due to external forces. In this report the definition of drift is the deviation from a straight line between the robot lawnmower’s start and stop position.

    The thesis answers the following research questions:

    • What different measurements are available to measure drift and what or which of these are preferred in the experiment done in this study?
    • How can the drift from the robot lawnmower be reduced by software that uses data from only a simple GPS?

    The development of software has been done iteratively where each iteration results in a configuration that reduces drift. To answer the second research question, experiments have been performed on each configuration. The result of the experiment could then be analyzed with the measurements that emerged from the first research question.

    The study's results show that it is possible to reduce the drift of a robotic lawnmower with a simple GPS.

  • 43.
    Gaeta, Matteo
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, Ingegneria Elettrica e Matematica Applicata, Italy.
    Marzano, Antonio
    Dipartimento di Scienze Umane, Filosofiche e della Formazione, University of Salerno, Italy.
    Miranda, Sergio
    Dipartimento di Scienze Umane, Filosofiche e della Formazione, University of Salerno, Italy.
    Sandkuhl, Kurt
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. Institute of Computer Science, Chair Business Information Systems, University of Rostock, Germany.
    The competence management to improve the learning engagement2017In: Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, ISSN 1868-5137, E-ISSN 1868-5145, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 405-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organizational structures of public and local administration depend on many bureaucratic aspects. Emergencies and political factors instead of rational motivations related to knowledge, competences and profiles often influence the allocation of people in offices. In most cases, such situations generate dissatisfactions, low productivity and become gangrenous. The objective of this work is applying competence management, skill gap analysis and a study of the existing organizational structures to point out the functional unit with the most critical situation in terms of allocated employees in order to suggest the people to involve in learning programmes according to the complex laws, internal regulation for the staff management and trade-union influences. In fact, the proposed approach identifies the real gaps that create inefficiencies and suggests the employees to engage in learning activities by focusing exactly on what the organizations need with respect to what the employees have. It happens by elaborating a priority scale on the base of existing hierarchies, relationships, logistic constraints and other aspects with the aim, above all, of enhancing the identified unit and the local administration itself.

  • 44.
    Grabis, Janis
    et al.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Sandkuhl, Kurt
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Computer Science and Informatics. University of Rostock, Germany.
    Selection and Evolutionary Development of Software-Service Bundles: A Capability Based Method2016In: CAiSE 2016 International Workshops, Proceedings, Ljubljana, June 13-17, 2016. / [ed] John Krogstie, Haralambos Mouratidis, Jianwen Su, Springer, 2016, Vol. 249, p. 3-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software-service bundles are combinations of software products and services offered by their vendors to clients. The clients select a combination of software product and associated service best suited to their specific circumstances. The paper proposes an information sharing based method helping clients to select the most appropriate combination or configuration and also supporting the continuous improvement of the solution in response to changing circumstances. The method utilizes principles of the Capability Driven Development to characterize performance objectives and contextual factors affecting delivery of a software-service bundle. Application of the method is demonstrated using an illustrative example of data processing

  • 45.
    Grabis, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Information Technology, Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Sandkuhl, Kurt
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Information Engineering. Institute of Computer Science, University of Rostock, Germany.
    Stamer, Dirk
    Institute of Computer Science, University of Rostock, Germany.
    International ERP teaching case: Design and experiences2015In: Enterprise information systems: 17th International Conference, ICEIS 2015, Barcelona, Spain, April 27-30, 2015, revised selected papers, 2015, p. 131-150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are among the most widely used large-scale information systems. Industry and students in IT-related subjects expect that ERP training is part of the studies during university education. However, traditional teaching materials use somewhat simplified multi-role and cross-organizational processes which do not fully reflect reality in enterprises, for example with respect to role-based permissions or coordination challenges in international organizations. This paper reports on an attempt to extend the SAP ERP GBI case study towards an international dimension. For this purpose an international ERP case study was developed which is presented in the paper with its didactical approach, the technical way how to implement the case study in SAP, and the teaching environment. The work is a joint effort by University of Rostock and Riga Technical University which has a focus on enhancing introductory ERP training for study programs in information technology and business informatics. One of the key features of the international ERP case study is that students of both universities work collaboratively on running business processes in the SAP ERP system. Evaluations suggest that the students appreciate the case study as suitable means to get an insight in real-life challenges connected to ERP use in an international context.

  • 46.
    Grabis, Janis
    et al.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Sandkuhl, Kurt
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Computer Science and Informatics. University of Rostock, Germany.
    Stamer, Dirk
    University of Rostock, Germany.
    International ERP Teaching Case: Design and Experiences2015In: 17th International Conference, ICEIS 2015, Barcelona, April 27-30, 2015., Springer, 2015, Vol. 241, p. 131-150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are among the most widely used large-scale information systems. Industry and students in IT-related subjects expect that ERP training is part of the studies during university education. However, traditional teaching materials use somewhat simplified multi-role and cross-organizational processes which do not fully reflect reality in enterprises, for example with respect to role-based permissions or coordination challenges in international organizations. This paper reports on an attempt to extend the SAP ERP GBI case study towards an international dimension. For this purpose an international ERP case study was developed which is presented in the paper with its didactical approach, the technical way how to implement the case study in SAP, and the teaching environment. The work is a joint effort by University of Rostock and Riga Technical University which has a focus on enhancing introductory ERP training for study programs in information technology and business informatics. One of the key features of the international ERP case study is that students of both universities work collaboratively on running business processes in the SAP ERP system. Evaluations suggest that the students appreciate the case study as suitable means to get an insight in real-life challenges connected to ERP use in an international context.

  • 47.
    Grabis, Jānis
    et al.
    Institute of Information Technology, Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia.
    Sandkuhl, Kurt
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. Faculty of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, Business Information Systems, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.
    Value-based and context-aware selection of software-service bundles: A capability based method2017In: Complex Systems Informatics and Modeling Quarterly, ISSN 2255-9922, no 10, p. 21-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many application areas, vendors offer to their clients combinations of software products and services, which can be considered as software-service bundles. The clients select a combination of software product and associated service best suited to their individual requirements and circumstances. The bundle usually has to be configured by the vendor to fit the specific situation of the client. When circumstances change, the software-service bundle or its configuration need adaptation. The article proposes a method helping clients to select the most appropriate combination or configuration. The method is based on information sharing between the vendor and client and also supports the continuous improvement of the solution in response to changing circumstances. The method applies principles and techniques of the Capability Driven Development to specify performance objectives and contextual factors affecting delivery of a software-service bundle. Application of the method is shown using an illustrative case of a data processing service from utility industries.

  • 48.
    Grafkin, Pavel
    et al.
    ITMO University, Russia.
    Mironov, Mikhail
    ITMO University, Russia.
    Fellmann, Michael
    University of Rostock, Germany.
    Lantow, Birger
    University of Rostock, Germany.
    Sandkuhl, Kurt
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Computer Science and Informatics. University of Rostock, Germany.
    Smirnov, Alexander V.
    SPARQL Query Builders: Overview and Comparison2016In: Joint Proceedings of the BIR 2016 Workshops and Doctoral Consortium co-located with 15th International Conference on Perspectives in Business Informatics Research (BIR 2016), Prague, September 14 - 16, 2016. / [ed] Björn Johansson, Filip Vencovský, CEUR-WS , 2016, Vol. 1684Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SPARQL query language has been proposed as a simple language for querying graph-structured data on the Semantic Web. However, users have to write queries that must conform to the SPARQL syntax. This requirement might be alleviated using a SPARQL query builder that suggests relevant parts of the query. But, up to now, only a few basic comparisons of such tools exist. The goal of this paper is to develop such a comparison as the result of a structured literature analysis.

  • 49.
    Graus, Mark
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Ferwerda, BruceJönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.Tkalcic, MarkoFree University of Bozen-Bolzano.Germanakos, PanagiotisSAP.
    Second Workshop on Theory-Informed User Modeling for Tailoring and Personalizing Interfaces (HUMANIZE)2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The second workshop on Theory-Informed User Modeling for Tailoring and Personalizing Interfaces (HUMANIZE) took place in conjunction with the 23rd annual meeting of the intelligent user interfaces (IUI) community in Tokyo, Japan on March 11, 2018. The goal of the workshop was to attract researchers from different fields by accepting contributions on the intersection of practical data mining methods and theoretical knowledge for personalization. A total of eight papers were accepted for this edition of the workshop.

  • 50.
    Gutschmidt, Anne
    et al.
    University of Rostock, Germany.
    Sandkuhl, Kurt
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Computer Science and Informatics. University of RostockRostock, Germany, ITMO University, Russia.
    Borchardt, Ulrike
    University of Rostock, Germany.
    Multi-touch Table or Plastic Wall?: Design of a Study for the Comparison of Media in Modeling2016In: BIS 2016 International Workshops, Leipzig, July 6-8, 2016. / [ed] Witold Abramowicz, Rainer Alt, Bogdan Franczyk, Springer, 2016, Vol. 263, p. 123-135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important aspect of participatory enterprise modeling is the work in a group. However, does the collaboration of the group members change depending on which medium is used to generate the models? Are there for example differences in the group’s behavior when working with a plastic wall, similar to a whiteboard, or with a multi-touch table? Based on the state of research and theoretical foundations of group work as well as previous research, relevant research issues are raised and an experimental design will be described in order to examine possible differences in the group work depending on the medium. Relevant aspects will be forms of cooperation, i.e. verbal and nonverbal contributions of the participants, but also territorial behavior and group performance.

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