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  • 1.
    Aarts, Mariëlle P. J.
    et al.
    Building Physics and Services, Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    Aries, Myriam
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Built Environment. Building Physics and Services, Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    Diakoumis, Adonia
    Building Physics and Services, Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    van Hoof, Joost
    Fontys EGT—Centre for Healthcare and Technology, Fontys University of Applied Sciences, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    Shedding a light on phototherapy studies with people having dementia: A critical review of the methodology from a light perspective2016In: American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementia, ISSN 1533-3175, E-ISSN 1938-2731, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 551-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light therapy is applied to older people with dementia as a treatment to reset the biological clock, to improve the cognitive functioning, and to reduce behavioral symptoms. Although the methodological quality of light therapy studies is essential, many aspects concerning the description of the lighting applied are missing. This study reviewed light therapy studies concerning the effects on people with dementia as a way to check the methodological quality of the description of light from a light engineering perspective. Twelve studies meeting the inclusion criteria were chosen for further analysis. Each study was scored on a list of aspects relevant to a proper description of lighting aspects. The overview demonstrates that the overall quality of the methodologies is poor. The studies describe the lighting insufficiently and not in the correct metrics. The robustness of light therapy studies can be improved by involving a light engineer or specialist.

  • 2.
    Aarts, Mariëlle P. J.
    et al.
    Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Aries, Myriam
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Straathof, Jochem
    Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    van Hoof, Joost
    Centre for Healthcare and Technology, Fontys University of Applied Sciences, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Dynamic lighting systems in psychogeriatric care facilities in the Netherlands: A quantitative and qualitative analysis of stakeholders’ responses and applied technology2015In: Indoor + Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326X, E-ISSN 1423-0070, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 617-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term care facilities are currently installing dynamic lighting systems with the aim to improve the well-being and behaviour of residents with dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the implementation of dynamic lighting systems from the perspective of stakeholders and the performance of the technology. Therefore, a questionnaire survey was conducted with the management and care professionals of six care facilities. Moreover, light measurements were conducted in order to describe the exposure of residents to lighting. The results showed that the main reason for purchasing dynamic lighting systems lied in the assumption that the well-being and day/night rhythmicity of residents could be improved. The majority of care professionals were not aware of the reasons why dynamic lighting systems were installed. Despite positive subjective ratings of the dynamic lighting systems, no data were collected by the organizations to evaluate the effectiveness of the lighting. Although the care professionals stated that they did not see any large positive effects of the dynamic lighting systems on the residents and their own work situation, the majority appreciated the dynamic lighting systems more than the old situation. The light values measured in the care facilities did not exceed the minimum threshold values reported in the literature. Therefore, it seems illogical that the dynamic lighting systems installed in the researched care facilities will have any positive health effects.

  • 3.
    Aarts, Mariëlle P.J.
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    van Duijnhoven, Juliëtte
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Aries, Myriam B. C.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Rosemann, Alexander L.P.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Performance of personally worn dosimeters to study non-image forming effects of light: Assessment methods2017In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 117, p. 60-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When determining the effects of light on human beings, it is essential to correctly measure the effects, and to correctly measure the adequate properties of light. Therefore, it is important to know what is being measured and know the quality of the measurement devices. This paper describes simple methods for identifying three quality indices; the directional response index, the linearity index and the temperature index. These indices are also checked for several commonly used portable light measurement devices. The results stresses what was already assumed, the quality and the outcome of these devices under different circumstances were very different. Also, the location were these devices are normally worn has an impact on the results. The deviation range between worn vertically at eye level and the wrist is between 11% (outdoor) to 27% (indoor). The smallest deviation, both in indoor and outdoor, was found when the device was placed on the sides of the eye (7%). 

  • 4.
    Adamsson, Mathias
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Laike, Thorbjörn
    Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Morita, Takeshi
    Department of Environmental Science, Fukuoka Women’s University, Higashi-Ku, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Comparison of Static and Ambulatory Measurements of Illuminance and Spectral Composition That Can Be Used for Assessing Light Exposure in Real Working Environments2018In: LEUKOS The Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, ISSN 1550-2724, E-ISSN 1550-2716, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable measurements are of utmost importance when investigating the relationship between light and human reactions. The aim of the present study was to compare two methods for measuring light exposure in real working environments. Ambulatory recordings of illuminance and irradiance were compared with static field measurements of horizontal illuminance at the normal working position, average horizontal illuminance in the room, vertical illuminance at the position of the eye in the normal angle of gaze, and spectral composition of the light radiation at the normal working position and at the position of the eye in the normal angle of gaze. The ambulatory measurements were carried out during a 3-day experimental period and were repeated monthly throughout the year. The static field measurements in the subjects’ offices were conducted five times during the year, in the morning and afternoon during one day. The relationship between the illuminances and irradiances measured with the portable instruments and the static measurements was statistically analyzed. Results from the analyses revealed that more than one third of the static measurements of vertical illuminances recorded were below 200 lx, and only 7% of the measurements exceeded 1000 lx. Measurements of the spectral composition of the light radiation in the rooms suggested that the light, although at a fairly low intensity, included relatively much radiation that can have a non-image forming effect. Furthermore, only a small number of significant correlations between the ambulatory and static measurements were found. Results from the t-tests showed that there were no differences between ambulatory measurements, and static measurements of horizontal illuminance at the normal position, average illuminance in the room and vertical illuminance at the position of the eye during three, five, and seven of the 10 measurements, respectively. There is a need to define appropriate parameters in order to describe the quality of a lit environment with respect to the non-image-forming effects of light radiation.

  • 5.
    Adamsson, Mathias
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Laike, Thorbjörn
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Morita, Takeshi
    Fukuoka Women's University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Seasonal variation in bright daylight exposure, mood and behavior among a group of office workers in Sweden2018In: Journal of Circadian Rhythms, ISSN 1740-3391, E-ISSN 1740-3391, Vol. 16, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate seasonal variation in mood and behavior among a group of office workers in Sweden (56°N). Thirty subjects participated in this longitudinal study. The subjects kept a weekly log that included questionnaires for ratings of psychological wellbeing and daily sleep-activity diaries where they also noted time spent outdoors. The lighting conditions in the offices were subjectively evaluated during one day, five times over the year. There was a seasonal variation in positive affect and in sleep-activity behavior. Across the year, there was a large variation in the total time spent outdoors in daylight. The subjects reported seasonal variation concerning the pleasantness, variation and strength of the light in the offices and regarding the visibility in the rooms. Finally, the subjects spent most of their time indoors, relying on artificial lighting, which demonstrates the importance of the lighting quality in indoor environments. 

  • 6.
    Ahlander, Alfred
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Ekroth, Pontus
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Kommunikationsmodell för APD-plan vid användning av materialrutor och gångstråk2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: On-site construction is a complicated process. A temporary factory, with new zones for materials and workplace area must be established for each new project, which complicates the process further. Material management stands for a big saving opportunity in building projects and 40 % of the time lost on a construction site can be attributed to material management.  To overcome this waste connected to material management a well-processed logistics planning, god communication as well as experience feedback from previous projects is required. The aim for this thesis is therefore to identify improvement measure regarding the use of material-dedicated buffer zones and walking paths, and as well as create a model of communication that supports experience feedback.

    Method The thesis is a case study on two projects within the organization of NCC.  A qualitative data collection with literature review, interviews, document analysis and observation has been conducted. Semi-structured interviews have been conducted and includes seven respondents with different position within the construction industry.

    Findings: The thesis has produced factors that should be taken into consideration when material zones and walking paths are planned. The result shows that resources and structured processes are required if experience feedback should work during the construction project. To succeed with the use of material-dedicated buffer zones and walking paths, good communication of the construction site plan is needed. Furthermore, the thesis has resulted in a model of communication that supports experience feedback.  

    Implications: It’s during the purchase and delivery planning that the conditions for the material-dedicated buffer zones and walking paths are set, therefore the construction site planning should be involved more in this phase. A prerequisite for using dedicated material zones and walking paths are resources which supports the construction management with planning and performance. By using logistic resources within the organization facilitates planning and management of material at the construction site, enables that collected experience can be conveyed between projects. In the production there should be a responsible receiver of material deliveries, who is extra briefed in the constructions site plan and the material-dedicated buffer zones through continuous communication with the construction management and logistic resource.

    Limitations: Since the thesis only includes two building projects, there is a limitation of the factors and arguments that are treated. Although the result is based on two building projects the fundamental processes and course of events are similar and can therefore be applied on other building projects. 

  • 7.
    Ahlgren, Ahlgren
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Ekblad, Alexander
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Förvaltande byggherrars inställning till BIM2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 8.
    Ahmad, Rojin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Selmani, Antigona
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Arbetsmotivationens påverkan på kvaliteten på flerbostadshus2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Several studies show that work motivation in a workplace affects the individual's ability to perform and this may result in construction errors such as unnecessary economical costs and additional work hours. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between construction errors and work motivation as well as its impact on the quality of an apartment building. Method: To complete the objective of this study literature studies, questionnaires and interviews were conducted. The literature study includes scientific articles, doctoral dissertations and encyclopedias. These are taken from, among other things, the university library databases. The surveys consist of 21 questions based on Herzberg's two-factor theory. The interviews are semi-structured and the questions are based on the results of the survey. Findings: The results show that the link between work motivation and construction errors depends on knowledge, experience, commitment, stress and time shortage, communication, chord, salary, benefits and lack of leadership. In the construction companies that were included in this study, there is a lack of motivation among professionals, and the reasons for this are mainly due to benefits from the company and chord wages. The building-related consequences that result from motivation decline prove to be economical and time-consuming. The economic consequences show huge error costs. The time suggests that errors and shortcomings in homes lead to additional working hours in order to correct the errors that occurred during the production period. Restrictions: The study includes ongoing housing projects in Jönköping where supervisors and occupational workers are current. Question one is generally answered when it is not considered corporate, as is the last question. Issue two, on the other hand, only applies to these investigated projects.

  • 9.
    Ali, Rebaz
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Alshami, Ahmed
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Sättningar i torvmaterialet: En fallstudie om användning av förstärkningsmetoden "förbelastning i form av överlast" på jordmaterial av torv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this degree project is to control the set-up for a longer period by means of the workplace at the use of the total station for then comparing calculated outcomes with real outcomes.

    Method: A combination of both quantitative and qualitative studies have been used in this degree project, consisting of literature studies and a case study including interviews, document analyzes, site visits and measurements. The case study is based on an ongoing project in the municipality of Nassjo, where a skate park is constructed and whose soil consists of peat. Preload in the form of overload has been applied.

    Findings: The result indicates the occurrence of a difference between calculated outcome and actual outcome regarding set rate and time course when using preload in the form of overload. The deviation is about 20 cm. Preload in the form of overload is a good method for peat land, but it is unlikely to be remarkably improved by vertical drainage.

    Implications: In view of the measurements produced by the authors, this shows that the method of loading in the form of overload on peat field works, however, gives the calculation model which has been used to be uncertain. The result described in more detail regarding vertical drainage on peat fields will not accelerate the process because the peat is already well drained. This means that it will cost extra without benefiting from the method.

    Limitations: The work has limited to two reinforcement methods on peat fields. A case study has been limited to only one area. There was preload in the form of overload, whose soil material consists of peat.

    Keywords: Peat, Permeability, Preloading in the form of overload, settlements, total station, vertical drainage, water quota.

  • 10.
    Alizadehsalehi, Sepehr
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Civil Engineering Department, Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkey.
    Yitmen, Ibrahim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Civil Engineering Department, Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkey.
    Celik, Tolga
    Civil Engineering Department, Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkey.
    Arditi, David A.
    Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, United States.
    The effectiveness of an integrated BIM/UAV model in managing safety on construction sites2018In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. A variety of approaches exist to achieve better construction safety performance, but only a few consider a combination of building information modeling (BIM) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

    Method. This article presents a four-dimensional (4D) BIM/UAV-enabled safety management model based on IDEF0 language. In the first step, potential hazards are identified with the help of safety specialists’ experiences and BIM software used in the design of the structure. Then, a UAV monitors the location of the potential hazards. The third step involves the integration of the 4D BIM-based model and the information obtained from the UAV. Finally, the combined data are analyzed and interpreted, and site safety staff are notified about measures to be put in place to prevent accidents.

    Results. This model shows a strong relationship between the design and construction phases by using BIM in the design phase and UAVs in the construction phase. The proposed safety model was evaluated by construction safety specialists in a two-pronged approach.

    Conclusion. The number of fatal, non-fatal and property damage-causing accidents may be significantly lower when the proposed system was used.

    Practical application. This model allows safety specialists to identify hazards and develop suitable mitigation strategies. 

  • 11.
    Amaya Segura, Sebastian
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Snarberg, Kristofer
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    En utredning angående ett snabbt cykelstråk längs Vätterns södra strand2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In order to make it more attractive to use the bike as a means of transport, several cities have upgraded their bicycle tracks to bicycle highways. A bicycle highway allows cyclists to travel fast due to the qualities of the design. Several studies shows the impact of the bicycle highway considering a higher rate of bicycle usage. The aim of the thesis is to investigate a bicycle highway along the south beach of Vättern and its impact according to the objectives set by the municipality of Jönköping. A design proposal is thereafter being made, according to cyclists´ preferences and the objectives and conditions of the municipality of Jönköping, broken down into three issues: 

    • How can a bicycle highway contribute to Jönköping municipality’s objective of increasing bicycle traffic to and from the city centre? 

    • What do cyclists demand for the design of a bicycle highway? 

    • How can a favourable design of a bicycle highway look according to cyclists’ preferences in consideration of the conditions of Jönköping municipality? 

    Method: In order to answer the aim of the thesis, a case study is being conducted in Jönköping municipality through interview and document analysis. In order to locate cyclists’ preferences, a survey is conducted using a poll. Throughout the process, literature studies are being made in order to formulate a design proposal of a bicycle highway along the south beach of Vättern. 

    Findings: The result of question 1 shows that Jönköping municipality’s goal of increased bicycle traffic already has been achieved. The interview shows the complexity of the bicycle issue and the importance of connecting districts in order to increase the bicycle traffic.  

    Question 2 shows that cyclists prefer a cohesive road network, while pedestrians prioritize the safety against road crossing traffic in terms of the design of a cycle path. The qualities that are prioritized by the users contribute to an increased amount of the bicycle traffic. 

    Question 3 presents design proposals at critical places along the south beach of Vättern, where improvements should be made regarding the required standard for the bicycle highway. The improvements are results of analysis of collected empirical and theoretical framework.  

    Implications: The conclusion of the investigation shows that a bicycle highway contributes to more cyclists in a concentrated location, but the total amount of cyclists is unlikely to increase significantly. The route Jönköping – Huskvarna is considered to have the biggest potential. In order to get a more detailed view of the impact of the bicycle highway, the economic aspects are recommended as a main area for future studies. 

    Limitations: The location of the bicycle highway investigated in this report is set to the south beach of Vättern, between Bankeryd and Huskvarna. The economic factors and technical details are not included in the investigation. 

  • 12.
    Andersson, Felix
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Partnering bland små och medelstora entreprenader2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13.
    Andreasson, Elin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Sparring, Martin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    MILJÖCERTIFIERINGENS PÅVERKAN PÅ ARBETSGÅNG I STOMBYGGNAD OCH STOMKOMPLETTERING2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Environmental certifications strengthens a contractors environmental profileand means sustainability in regards to the environment. It is of interest to establishwhich obstacles and differences in workflow that environmental certifications cancause and thereby imply challenges in construction. The purpose with this paper is toexamine what impact the environmental certification Miljöbyggnad Silver has on acontractors work in the construction stage with focus on structure and frameworksupplement.

    Method: To reach the purpose of this paper empirical data have been collected throughinterviews, private documents, and observations of building construction. This researchemploys a qualitative method to get a comprehensive understanding of Miljöbyggnadin construction, where respondents with different occupations and extents of experiencewith Miljöbyggnad have been chosen for interviews.

    Findings: This research shows that the indicators in Miljöbyggnad that mainly have animpact on construction is Moisture safety, Documentation of building material andPhasing-out of harmful substances. The research shows that the biggest differencebetween conventional construction and construction with Miljöbyggnad is the amountof documentation that is needed. Construction with Miljöbyggnad also differsdepending on what occupation one has.

    Implications: The conclusion of this research is that there are no great obstacles withMiljöbyggnad Silver in construction. Indicators from Miljöbyggnad impactsconstruction with additional obligations for site management and does not implicate adifference in already established ones. Recommendations following this research is toinvolve and encourage Miljöbyggnad for everyone involved in construction.

    Limitations: This research is limited to big contractors and the environmentalcertification Miljöbyggnad Silver where focus have been structure and frameworksupplement. Through analyses of indicators and interviews the authors have concludedthat it is structure and framework supplement where impact following Miljöbyggnadexists. The result of this research and its conclusions are considered to apply with othercontractors with similar routines and work flow.

  • 14.
    Berg Nilsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Landin, Isabelle
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Development of Ecolodge treehouses: - A field study in Colombia2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to gather, compile and increase of knowledgeabout development of Ecolodge treehouses in tropical climates. It maps how to developa treehouse lodging sustainably in the areas of building technology, installations anddesign.

    Method: This study's methodology consists of planned observations and literaturestudies. The planned observations were performed on two treehouse lodges in thetropical climates of Colombia. The literature studies contain the areas: Ecolodge,Building technology, Installations and Design. The literature is primary collected fromscientific databases, such as Science Direct. When the desired literature was not found,other literature has been used.

    Findings: The standard on the observed treehouse lodges were low, yet fulfilledseveral aspects of the International Ecolodge Guidelines. The guidelines are outdatedand not profound enough to distinguish sustainable lodging. The literature studyindicates that there are sustainable options for the development of treehouse lodgingavailable. However, the natural conditions of the specific case need to be examined toensure that the right choices were made. A summary of the results are found inchapter 5.2 and 5.3.

    Implications: The concept of Ecolodge and its International Guidelines are notsufficiently enough and can easily mislead various stakeholders. It should be up to dateand structured more thoroughly to avoid greenwashing. Highlighting flaws is importantto make sure that the development is lead in the right direction and the study also showsthat there are sustainable options available. The range of scientific studies within thearea is currently very small. Further studies can be done in several directions which inturn can contribute to increased knowledge in the field.

    Limitations: The case study is performed on two cases and unfortunately, they did notgive answers to all the studied aspects. Therefore, comparisons with the literature studywere not possible in a desirable way in these fields. It is difficult to determine how thegeographical location of the cases affects the results, and it is not possible to know ifthe results would have been the same with cases from other parts of the world.

    Keywords: treehouse, building in trees, Ecotourism, Ecolodge, sustainable lodging,Ecolodge guidelines, rainforest, sustainable installations, photovoltaic solar system,wastewater treatment.

  • 15.
    Björklöf, Angelica
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Davidsson, Ida
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Vägledande belysning på stationsområden: Särskilt utformed för personer med synnedsättning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a field study of how the platforms are seen during the dark hours by people with and without visual impairment cataract. The field study was carried out with both qualitative and quantitative data as a basis.

    The qualitative data was collected through a visual assessment of the platforms in four out of five station classes that Swedish Transport Administration has. The observations were made with and without simulated visual impairment to provide a comprehensive picture about the orientation and visual comfort for all travelers. Photometric data were collected with an illuminance meter to see how the platform met the requirements for its associated lighting class and whether there was any connection between the illuminance on the surface, and the experience of the environment visually.

     

    The questions answered in this report, if five lighting classes are necessary and how the platforms are experienced by travelers with and without visual impairment. Earlier research on the guidance route and contrasts confirmed the results of the study in which observations of platforms shows that orientation in environments without contrasts between surface colors will be difficult to get around in for people with visual impairment. There is little difference in visual comfort and orientation of the various station classes. The results show that the most important thing for a person with cataract is a uniform illumination and clear guidance route. Without loss of vision it seems that the quality of light and how well maintained the facility is perceived to be affecting the sense of security more than surface colors and light contrasts.

  • 16.
    Blom, Martina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Landstedt, Sara
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Granskning av 3D-printingens möjligheter vid utformning av byggnader2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There is today limitations of what is possible to design and in fact produce.

    In industrial construction the focus is on standardization which impedes an individual

    design form, which can be considered an architectural quality. The potential of 3Dprinting

    is growing, which is benefitting design freedom.

    The goal was to evaluate how 3D-printing in Sweden today could increase architects

    possibilities at the design process and be production adapted.

    Method: In a case study at Tengbom in Jönköping, interviews were included with three

    architects. In addition, a literature review, a telephone interview and a focus group

    interview formed the basis of the collected material. As an initial phase, a focus group

    interview was conducted, which resulted in the actors’ opinions about 3D-printing. The

    architect interviews contributed with high credibility regarding architectural qualities,

    which together with the other collection methods gave answers to the studies questions.

    Findings: The study shows that it is possible to print building components in Sweden.

    However it is not possible, with 3D-printing, to produce entire buildings. It can be

    shown that there are obstacles for the introduction of the technology, such as economy,

    Swedish laws and lack of knowledge. These should be reviewed to allow 3D-printing

    as a manufacturing method. With Rapid Ornament Production larger architectural

    qualities will conduce to, where 3D-printing allows unique solutions. Solutions no other

    technology can achieve.

    Implications: Customized and varied buildings can be achieved thanks to 3D-printing.

    Building components such as light weight walls, ornaments and details can be produced

    in Sweden today. One advantage of 3D-printing as a technology, is that it provides

    greater freedom between design and production. For further development of 3Dprinting

    a greater knowledge is recommended for industry stakeholders, regarding the

    drawing tools as well as the 3D-printing technology.

    Limitations: The result is applicable to architects, working at architectural offices

    similar to Tengbom in Jönköping. There have not been deeper studies regarding of

    printing technologies, finances, materials, time or law. A case study as research strategy

    entails an interpretation of the opinions, which limits the generalization of the results.

    Keywords: 3D-printing, design, production, architectural qualities, possibilities,

    limitations, industrial construction.

  • 17.
    Boo, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Magnusson, Nils
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Hållbar dagvattenhantering i brant terräng: En fallstudie av ett planerat bostadsområde i Gränna2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The continuous densification of urban environments with an increased amount of hard surfaces as a result, along with future climate change, involves a number of challenges that must be taken into account when applying a sustainable stormwater management. In addition to this, there are several other challenges that needs to be considered when planning for a sustainable stormwater management in residential areas located in steep terrain where an increased water volume and water velocity increases the risk of floods and contributes to an increased level of contamination in the runoff.

    This study aims at identifying suitable stormwater solutions for residential areas located in steep terrain.

    Method: The methods used to achieve the objective of the thesis have been literature review, document analysis, qualitative interviews and calculations. A case study of a planned residential area in Gränna, Jönköpings municipality, has been conducted and resulted in the gathering of empirical data.

    Findings: Geophysical, social, economic and legal factors must be taken into account when implementing sustainable stormwater management and in order to best prevent damage caused by floods of buildings and facilities.

    The application of sustainable stormwater solutions to delay and purify water is important where steep terrain leads to large stormwater flows, in order to reduce the risk of floods and the pollution levels in recipients caused by erosion. No single measure is sufficient to fully address the present risks, but by using a combination of open stormwater facilities and infiltration technologies, pollution levels in the drainage and flooding problems can be drastically reduced.

    Implications: The knowledge, and in some extent the will, among Swedish municipalities to implement sustainable stormwater management needs to be strengthened. In the case of construction of new residential areas in steep terrain, enclosed areas should not be exploited but instead be used as a designated area for excess of stormwater. Infiltration methods should be used in combination with open stormwater facilities to better handle the rain with varying recurrence and to reduce erosion damage.

    Limitations: The case study has served as a practical example and the calculations are not generally valid, although with some adjustments they can be applied in similar areas. The results of the literature review and interviews can be applied to residential areas in other Swedish municipalities where the terrains results in an increased water velocity.

    Keywords: Best management practice, erosion, infiltration, low impact development, steep terrain, stormwater pond, stormwater swale, sustainable stormwater management.

  • 18.
    Bosch, Petra
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Linderoth, Henrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Hinder och drivkrafter för BIM i medelstora entreprenadföretag. SBUF-rapport 130692016Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Bosch-Sijtsema, Petra
    et al.
    Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, division Construction Management, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Department of Technology Management and Economics, division of Innovation and R&D Management, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Linderoth, Henrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Barriers and facilitators for BIM use among Swedish medium-sized contractors: We wait until someone tells us to use it2017In: Visualization in Engineering, ISSN 2213-7459, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The pace of diffusion of BIM (Building Information Modelling) use is considered to increase with governmentalinitiatives in which public clients in countries like Finland, Singapore, United Kingdom, and Sweden begin requiring BIM as apart of the project delivery. Currently, larger contractor firms use BIM to a certain extent. However, BIM use by mid-sizedcontractor firms (that is, firms with 50–500 employees that can successfully compete with larger contractors on projects costinga maximum of 50 million Euros) is relatively unknown. Hence, the aim of the paper is to explore current use and perceivedconstraints and driving forces of BIM-implementation with respect to mid-sized contractors.

    Methods: A mixed method approach was applied, and data was collected through an interview study and a survey involvingchief executive officers or their closest sub-ordinates in mid-sized contractor firms in Sweden. The survey was based on atechnology-, organization-, and environment framework that is used in information systems research to study the use of inter-organizational information systems. The total population of firms in the survey corresponded to 104. The study presented thepreliminary results based on 32 answers (with a 31% response rate).

    Results: Fifty-eight percent of the surveyed respondents stated that they had been involved in a project in which BIM wasused in some manner. The most commonly used application included visualization, which also facilitates coordination andcommunication. The biggest perceived constraints involved partners that did not use BIM, lack of demand from clients, andthe absence of internal demand in the company. With respect tothe two last obstacles, significant differences existedbetween users and non-users. The most common perceived driving forces included the fact that BIM is perceived as ameans to follow technical development and that BIMprovides competitive advantages to the company.

    Conclusions: It is concluded that the main driver responsible for BIM-implementation is mainly determined by anindividual’s subjective positive or negative evaluation of BIM, instead of external pressure from clients and partners or by theinternal capacity and knowledge to use BIM.

  • 20.
    Bremner, Craig
    et al.
    Charles Sturt Univ, Design, Bathurst, NSW, Australia.
    Bernadet, Laura
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    The Museum of the Future: a sedimentary cloud2017In: Design journal, ISSN 1460-6925, E-ISSN 1756-3062, Vol. 20, no Suppl. 1, p. S3560-S3568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking our cue from the impact of Joseph Kosuth’s 1965 conceptual artwork One and Three Chairs, there has always been one and three museums-the cosmos is the museum of light, the city is the museum of space and given the job of the museum is to indefinitely accumulate time the museum today is the museum of time. In this paper we present a fourth-the museum of the future. The museum and the department store were concurrent designs of industrialization; one-the store-collected the here-and-now and sold it as what-might-become while the other-the museum-collected what-was and projected it as what-we-have-become. However, the manifest crises of the planet illustrate the limits of our capacity to persuade ourselves we can imagine a future in which we want to live, and cast urgency on the long-term design project of being together. And the project of being together in the urban age is driving us to change the entire terrain of thought and action. Where once ideas drove change, change now appears to be split between two projects whose temporal dimensions govern the notion of ‘future’. One is the busy sharing of digital records of the as-found, and counter to this digital archive is the revival of designs of what-might-become illustrated in the boom in digital imagery of fantasy futures. In order to now imagine a future it has become necessary to navigate the competing time frames of the digital archiving of the past and the digital reproduction of the future. But for Jacques Derrida the question of the archive is not a question of the past but a question of the future, the very question of the future, of a response, of a promise and of a responsibility for tomorrow. According to him “the archive-if we want to know what this will have meant we will only know tomorrow.” And Hal Foster disconnects the archive from the museum when he questions “Might visual culture rely on techniques of information to transform a wide range of mediums into a system of image-text-a database of digital terms-an archive without museums?” In this paper we propose this temporal disjuncture-archive and future-can be bridged by the design of what we call the Museum of the Future whose windows open onto the permanent present. The Museum of the Future is not a location for the sentimental accumulation of time in the form of tasteful objects. According to Cedric Price “neither knowledge nor value can be stored and contained in a particular place” therefore “the museum of the future initiates a process of constant revision that assures the contingency and non-solidity of a building”. Following from Price we propose the Museum of the Future is a continuous interior whose form, stretched to compass the cumulous cloud of digital sentimentality and reproduction, functions as a sedimentary layer for our imaginings of increasingly populous and proximate future relations.

  • 21.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Customizations vs. Platforms: A Conceptual Approach to COSI2018In: Advances in Production Management Systems. Production Management for Data-Driven, Intelligent, Collaborative, and Sustainable Manufacturing. APMS 2018. / [ed] Moon I., Lee G., Park J., Kiritsis D., von Cieminski G., Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 116-123Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, many manufacturers have experienced an increased demand for customized products and services, which requires the manufacturer to simultaneously offer both standardized and customized products. Consequently, several manufacturing strategies must be efficiently employed. These companies do not express the same prerequisites as ‘pure’ ETO companies since they need to be able to differentiate customized orders from standard orders, but also be able to differentiate between the manufacturing dimension and the engineering dimension of customization. Whereas standard orders can be processed with a platform approach, the customized orders contain specific requirements and information represented by ‘customer-order specific information’ (COSI). This paper defines and presents competitive scenarios where platform constraints are combined with COSI for efficient customizations. Implications for the approach and a path forward is discussed.

  • 22.
    Bönke, Michaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Gustafsson, Daniel
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Ljus, ett samspel mellan visuell perception & rörelse2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Light comprises our visual perception that lets us experience and understand our surroundings. By studying how light affects us, our physical and emotional experience, the knowledge can be used as a tool within performing arts. The interaction between physical elements, the director, choreographer, and the performer on stage encompasses the final result. As a part, more consideration should be given to how us humans integrate, navigate and get affected by light. Regardless of the environment or conditions, light always has a natural position as an influential factor. The fact that light with its qualities could work aesthetically and functionally as a guiding feature is something that could be considered to work interdisciplinary. I.e. used in the composition of the stage narrative, or in the design of urban environments. In this study, thirteen professional dancers are seen in a lighting laboratory in three different lighting scenes. The experiment aims to see how different light scenes affect movement, as well as create an understanding of what establishes the ruling behaviour. To examine these factors, a positioning system is used, as well as half structured interviews. The results show that light and the shifting of light affects the performer on stage in a way that influences the movements and inspires the exploration of given space. The overall results show that a pattern can be found to present how the participants move in the room and the differences between how the room is utilised depending on the particular lighting scenes. The positioning system discovered that the light leads the improvised dance to a great degree and these findings were later confirmed by the interviews. What the dancers visually perceive influences how they interpret the given space which, furthermore, influences their movement.

  • 23.
    Chraibi, S.
    et al.
    Philips Lighting B.V., Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    Creemers, P.
    Department of the Built Environment, Building Lighting Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    Rosenkötter, C.
    Department of the Built Environment, Building Lighting Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    van Loenen, E. J.
    Department of the Built Environment, Building Lighting Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    Aries, Myriam
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Rosemann, A. L. P.
    Department of the Built Environment, Building Lighting Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    Dimming strategies for open office lighting: User experience and acceptance2018In: Lighting Research and Technology, ISSN 1477-1535, E-ISSN 1477-0938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensor-triggered control strategies can limit the energy consumption of lighting by considering the presence of users in the office and dimming lighting down when it is not needed. In multi-user offices, the application of occupancy-based dimming at room level limits the energy saving potential. However, zone- or desk-based dimming may affect the comfort of co-workers due to its dynamics. This paper reports the assessment by 17 participants (30–50 years of age) of occupancy-based dimming in a mock-up office, using different dimming speeds. Participants consisted of co-workers experiencing changes triggered by others, and actors triggering these light changes. While the participants performed an office-based task, the luminaire above the actors’ desk was dimmed from approximately 550 lx to 350 lx (average horizontal illuminance), and vice versa. The participants evaluated the dimming conditions regarding their noticeability and acceptability. The study showed that the noticeability of light changes due to dimming, increases when fading times become shorter. Dimming with a fading time of at least two seconds was experienced as acceptable by more than 70% of the participants. The results of this experiment provide insights to system behaviour that does not compromise user experience while addressing energy efficient use of electric lighting.

  • 24.
    Chraibi, Sanae
    et al.
    Philips Group Innovation, Research, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Lashina, Tatiana
    Philips Group Innovation, Research, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Shrubsole, Paul
    Philips Group Innovation, Research, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Aries, Myriam
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    van Loenen, Evert
    Philips Group Innovation, Research, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Rosemann, Alexander
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Satisfying light conditions: a field study on perception of consensus light in Dutch open office environments2016In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 105, p. 116-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workplace innovation has been changing the European office landscape into mostly open spaces, where enhanced interaction between people is combined by efficient use of space. However, challenges are found in offering individual preferred conditions in these multi-user spaces, especially when dealing with shared systems.

    Previous studies clearly show the benefits of personal control as a means to achieve individual preferred lighting. Most of these benefits were demonstrated in private offices or situations where users have a “personal” light source.

    Lighting systems in open offices are often designed as a regular grid of luminaires to deliver uniform lighting. This often results in a luminaire grid that does not match the desk arrangement, making it challenging to offer personal lighting controls. By grouping luminaires, users could be offered consensus control. The question is whether consensus control brings advantages rather than disadvantages.

    This paper presents the results of a field study evaluating consensus light control in an open office 14 users experienced a reference no-control condition and a condition with control over a zone of luminaires. Data was collected by objective measurements as well as subjective surveys and interviews.

    This study shows that consensus control in an open office improves satisfaction of individual users with the light quantity and quality. Even though the controllable light is shared, consensus among users results in an improved lighting environment for the majority of users. Selected illuminances in the condition with controls were on average lower than in the reference condition, resulting in lower energy usage by lighting.

  • 25.
    Clemén, Robin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Lundgren, Marcus
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Bostadens förändringar: De boendes egna idéer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 26.
    Davoodi, Anahita
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University.
    Lighting simulation for a more value-driven building design process2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns about global warming are increasing, hence, the urgency to cut carbon emissions. Reducing energy consumption, including lighting energy, is seen as the primary solution. Yet, solving the environmental factor should not come at the cost of other pillars of sustainable development. Rather, maximizing the total value of the building should be the focus. Maximizing value in the context of lighting entails improving the quality of the lighting. This study has investigated how lighting simulation could help in achieving better lighting quality. The aim of the thesis was defined as to understand the underlying architecture of lighting simulation and obtain an overview of its characteristics and applications as well as to study the use of current simulation tools.

    The theoretical background of lighting simulation (in the domain of Systems Engineering) was reviewed from the literature. This revealed the missing and imperfect links in the solution-to-value chain. The thesis suggests the use of a new base metric, Retinal Illuminance Map, as a solution, which in combination with black box simulation of a visual system can help repair this incomplete chain.

    The study of the current lighting simulation tools (Paper 1) revealed that illuminance-based metrics, luminance-based metrics, daylight availability metrics, and glare indexes are the most available performance metrics in existing lighting simulation tools. Based on usability, acceptability, availability, and previous references in the literature six software programs (Radiance, DAYSIM, Evalglare, DIALux, VELUX, and VISSLA) were selected and compared. It was found that no single tool could meet all the needs of a designer, hence, simulation tool(s) should be selected (or combined) according to the requirements of project goals and the stage of design.

    Building on these studies, applications of lighting simulation were identified and compiled in relation to different aspects, including performance metrics, stages of design, optimization, model integration, BIM, and parametric modeling.

    To obtain first-hand information about lighting designers’ experience, an online survey was conducted in Sweden (Paper 2). The results showed that lighting simulation programs were widely (90%) used in Sweden for analysis and/or rendering purposes. The majority of lighting designers considered both daylight and artificial light in their design. Factors such as ease-of use, simulation time and training had more weight than accuracy and the diversity of metrics in practitioner’s eyes. Surrogate modeling was identified as a solution for speeding up simulation time, which would also enable exploration of design solution space especially in the early design stage.

  • 27.
    Davoodi, Anahita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Built Environment.
    Johansson, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Built Environment.
    Enger, Johanna
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Comparison of lighting simulation tools with focus on lighting quality2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By the rise of concerns for global warming, reducing emissions via lowering energy consumption has become a necessity in every sector and the lighting sector is no exception. However, it should not come at the cost of lighting quality and user comfort which is a common practice in today’s lighting design and energy reduction initiatives. The “energy reduction” view should change toward “value driven optimization” in which energy reduction is balanced against lighting quality and user comfort for optimization of the total value of the building. As the use of IT technology grows in lighting design, constant reviews of the software tools are necessary in order to evaluate their performance and ability to design value driven lighting.The main objective of this paper is to compare different lighting simulation tools with respect to their ability to simulate lighting quality both artificial and daylight. The indicators for the comparison are defined based upon findings from another project “criteria for good lighting quality” that is currently being conducted at the same university. First, current numerical metrics for lighting quality are summarized. Then, different simulation tools are evaluated based on a literature study. The outcome of this research summarizes the strength and shortcomings of a number of simulation tools.

  • 28.
    Davoodi, Anahita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Johansson, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Henricson, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Aries, Myriam
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    A Conceptual Framework for Integration of Evidence-Based Design with Lighting Simulation Tools2017In: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 7, no 4, article id 82Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of lighting simulation tools has been growing over the past years which has improved lighting analysis. While computer simulations have proven to be a viable tool for analyzing lighting in physical environments, they have difficulty in assessing the effects of light on occupant’s perception. Evidence-based design (EBD) is a design method that is gaining traction in building design due to its strength in providing means to assess the effects of built environments on humans. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual framework for integrating EBD with lighting simulation tools. Based on a literature review, it was investigated how EBD and lighting simulation can be combined to provide a holistic lighting performance evaluation method. The results show that they can mutually benefit from each other. EBD makes it possible to evaluate and/or improve performance metrics by utilizing user feedback. On the other hand, performance metrics can be used for a better description of evidence, and to analyze the effects of lighting with more details. The results also show that EBD can be used to evaluate light simulations to better understand when and how they should be performed. A framework is presented for integration of lighting simulation and EBD

  • 29.
    de Bakker, Christel
    et al.
    Eindhoven Univeristy of Technology.
    Aries, Myriam
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Kort, Helianthe
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Rosemann, Alexander
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Occupancy-based lighting control in open-plan office spaces: A state-of-the-art review2017In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 112, p. 308-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lighting accounts for a significant amount of electrical energy consumption in office buildings, up to 45% of the total consumed. This energy consumption can be reduced by as much as 60% through an occupant-dependent lighting control strategy. With particular focus on open-plan offices, where the application of this strategy is more challenging to apply due to differences in individual occupancy patterns, this paper covers (1) to which extent individual occupancy-based lighting control has been tested, (2) developed, and (3) evaluated. Search terms were defined with use of three categories, namely ‘occupancy patterns’, ‘lighting control strategy’, and ‘office’. Relevant articles were selected by a structured search through key online scientific databases and journals. The 24 studies identified as eligible were evaluated on six criteria: (1) study characteristics, (2) office characteristics, (3) lighting system characteristics, (4) lighting control design, (5) post-occupancy evaluation, and (6) conclusions, and this was used to answer the research questions. It was concluded that the strategy has not been tested yet with field studies in open-plan offices, but that it needs further development before it can be applied in these type of offices. Although lighting currently tends to be controlled at workspace level, many aspects of the strategy can be further developed; there is potential to further increase energy savings on lighting within open-plan office spaces. Individual occupancy-based lighting control requires further validation, focussing on the factors influencing its energy savings, on its cost effectiveness, and on its acceptability for users.

  • 30.
    Eivindson, Espen
    et al.
    Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    Innvær, Berner E.
    Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    Kolberg, Elisabeth
    Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    Merschbrock, Christoph
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    Rolfsen, Christian Nordahl
    Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    Inefficiencies in Norwegian small-scale construction, or the problem of too long trucks?2017In: Procedia Engineering, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 196, p. 543-549Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “When the truck arrived at the construction site it could not unload the material because it [the truck] was too long, we had to send it away […], this happens all the time in Oslo where we have to build on very small plots.” (Carpenter, Oslo). As the quote illustrates, inefficiencies and resulting low productivity remain a challenge for today’s small construction businesses. While the reasons for inefficiencies are not completely understood, various techniques for project planning and control have proven their practical value in mitigating them. Lean construction has been articulated as one of the concepts that can solve inefficiency problems. The national initiative “Lean construction Norway” initiated by government, academia, and industry, seeks to diffuse lean production principles in the construction industry. However, small to medium sized contractors remain largely excluded from the innovative practices. This article sets out to study what a small Norwegian contractor enforcing lean concepts in addressing construction inefficienciesmay gain. Ingrained in the concept of muda we exemplify waste related to waiting, overproduction, defects, inventory, motion, over processing, and transporting. We ran a case study in a small industry standard type of residential project executed by a small contractor. Data were collected based on a series of qualitative interviews conducted with the on-site personnel. The findings illustrate a variety of inefficiencies resulting in low productivity. We expect that management inspired by lean principles in conjunction with modern planning methods such as building information modelling may improve project delivery in Norwegian small-scale construction.

  • 31.
    Elgh, Fredrik
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Product Development. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Product Development - Computer supported engineering design.
    Johansson, Joel
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Product Development - Computer supported engineering design. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Product Development.
    Stolt, Roland
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Product Development - Computer supported engineering design. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Product Development.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Heikkinen, Tim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Product Development - Computer supported engineering design. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Product Development.
    Raudberget, Dag
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Product Development - Computer supported engineering design. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Product Development.
    Platform Models for Agile Customization – What's Beyond Modularization?2018In: Transdisciplinary Engineering Methods for Social Innovation of Industry 4.0: Proceedings of the 25th ISPE Inc. International Conference on Transdisciplinary Engineering / [ed] Margherita Peruzzini, Marcello Pellicciari, Cees Bil, Josip Stjepandić, Nel Wognum, IOS Press, 2018, p. 371-380Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many manufacturing companies are suppliers that deliver unique solutions to different business customers. Intense quotation work, with a high demand on accuracy and quick response, and development projects executed in close collaboration with customers and other actors characterize these companies. The projects can run for years or a few weeks depending on the business. Changes of requirements are frequent and technology development required for improved functionality, sustainability and competitiveness. The use of a product platform has been acknowledged as a strategic enabler for product family development and mass customization. However, companies struggle with adopting the common platform approach building upon pre-defined modules and components as it constraints the fulfilment of unique customer requirements and the introduction of new technology at high pace. This work reports the results from case studies conducted in collaboration with four companies. They are in many ways different but face the same challenges when it comes to customization, fluctuating requirements and need of high pace in technology advancement. The focus of this paper is on their initial states; including how they work with their product concept before the customer entry point, the work that is initiated when an order is accepted, the character of requirements and the adoption of product platforms. Criteria on, and identification of, new platforms models, termed Design Assets, are presented followed by a mapping to the Design Platform concept pointing out areas upcoming work, both scientifically and at the companies.

  • 32.
    Eminovic Helmersson, Emma
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Hansen, Helena
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Dagsljusförhållanden vid förtätning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: I människans natur har det sedan tusentals år tillbaka varit kroppens egna dag-och nattklockor som styrt dygnsrytmen. Elektricitet och dagens moderna levnadssätt har betytt en förändrad dygnsrytm som människan inte hunnit anpassa sig till. Förtätning är en senare trend som tillkommit i sättet att bygga städer på. Effektivisering av markytan innebär dock en konflikt med faktorer som exempelvis ljus. Genom studiens analysobjekthar hantering av dagsljusfråganstuderats, i hopp om att se vart i processen det brister. Studiens mål är att se vilka dagsljuskrav man kan ställa på ett samhälle där förtätning sker.

    Metod: Huvudsaklig metod för insamling av empiri är intervjuer. Dessa kompletteras med en dokumentanalys. En fallstudiegenomförs på ett analysobjekt innehållande de två metoderna. Studien tillämpar ett kvalitativt angreppssätt.

    Resultat: Omkringliggande byggnader är den mest avgörande faktorn för dagsljuset. Det måste hanteras i planeringsskedet. Kommuner måste arbeta med dagsljuset vid framtagning av detaljplaner för att sedan kunna ställa krav i bygglovsprocessen. Vertical Sky Component är ett digitalt verktyg som kan användas för att förebygga att projekt med bristfälliga dagsljusförhållanden förekommer. Som resultatfrån studienvar för täta byggrätter i detaljplanen den avgörandefaktorntill att analysobjektetinteklarade dagsljuskravet iMiljöbyggnad Silver. Miljöbyggnadhar nyligen tillåtit en sänkning av dagsljusfaktorn med belägg i senare forskning. Dehar inga planer på att sänka dagsljuskraven ytterligare.

    Konsekvenser:Ju tidigare man arbetar med dagsljusfrågan desto större påverkan har det på slutresultatet. Dagsljussimuleringar i planeringsskedet ger bättre förutsättningar för att kunna klara dagsljuskrav. Aktörer i branschen bör anpassa sig till gällande dagsljuskrav och inte tvärtom. Riktlinjer vid stadsplanering så som vrida byggnadsvolymer, avfasning av hörn, tillräcklig gatubredd och inte för djupa byggnadsplaner bör tillämpas för att tillåta att ljus träffar fasader. Det geografiska läget reglerar ett projekts förutsättningar och måste beaktas vidfysisk planering. Ambitionen att tillgodose bostäder med goda dagsljusförhållande är något som bör genomsyra alla parter iblandade i projektet.

    Begränsningar: Den största begränsningen för studien var tid. Vid mer tid till förfogande skulle fler intervjuerkunna genomförasoch fler projekt skulle kunna studeras för att få en mer verklighetsbaserad bildav dagsläget. Fler orsaker till ouppfyllda dagsljuskrav hade också då kunnat identifieras. Ursprungligbyggherreför analysobjektethade kunnat gjort uttalande angående projektet och dess hantering av dagsljus. Endast ett certifieringssystem har studerats.

    Nyckelord:Nyckelord under studiens gång är dagsljus, avskärmningsvinkel,förtätning, hälsa, samhällsplanering,bygglovavdelningenoch planavdelningen

  • 33.
    Erdestål, Marcus
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Olsson, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    VA-organisationers beslutsprocess om förnyelse av dagens VA-nät2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Rejuvenating the water and sewer system is called a renewal step, which is a planned replacement of ground wiring in the field, which restores the operation of the wiring or improves its capacity. Most of Sweden's VA pipelines are built in the 19th century. They are now in need to be renewed. The county's in Sweden finance and manage the VA networks using a VA-tax which is paid by all users. Sweden has had a low VA-tax for many years. A low VA tax can lead that county's are not afford to replace the existing pipeline network. The purpose is to provide the reader with the knowledge that Sweden's municipalities have at the renewal stage of the VA network, and the approach to the choice of prioritization measures.

    Method: The work has focused on qualitative and quantitative processing in form of literature studies, document analysis and interviews. The work contains seven qualitative semi-structured and five structured interviews. The document analysis shows a clear picture of the renewal and renewal needs in VA organizations.

    Findings: All requested VA managers use some type of GIS system, in the category of database-based decision support systems specified by Power (2002), as a way to handle and analyse large amounts of structured data. The municipalities that are most worried about not being able to finance the renewal act are the municipalities that are small and have less resources to work with, for example, fees, work teams and civil servants. In the question of what measures must be taken to increase focus on the existing VA network and a stepping stone to the renewal act. The VA tax should be designed more according to the actual cost, despite politicians consider. This in order to avoid shock increases in the farm fee that goes against a long-term planning.

    Implications: The report has focused on gaining insight into why the renewal rate is too low. This may have several reasons, however VA-organizations describe that they are not used to work in decision support systems and the importance of making decisions in combination with other methods.

    Limitations: This thesis shows only county's decision-making process and what kind of decision support system they have in use in their operations. The thesis focuses on why the renewal pact is not prioritized higher but does not go into detail why another priority is costlier or timelier to implement.

    Keywords: Decision-making process, Decision Support System, Lead network, Revenue, Renewable needs, Self-sufficiency, Sewer planning, Sewage System Taxes, Water Services Act.

  • 34.
    Eriksson, Kalle
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Öster, Frida
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    En belysningsplans uppbyggnad: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 35.
    Gaim, Medhanie
    et al.
    Department of Business Administration, Umeå School of Business, Economics and Statistics, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Wåhlin, Nils
    Department of Business Administration, Umeå School of Business, Economics and Statistics, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Mattias
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Department of Business Administration, Umeå School of Business, Economics and Statistics, Umeå University, Sweden.
    The role of space for a paradoxical way of thinking and doing: A study of idea work in architectural firms2018In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that engaging paradoxes and the role of space are important aspects of idea work. Although the significance has been recognized, studies that focus on the intersection between space and paradox are scarce. Accordingly, this article explores the intersection and focuses on the role of space in idea work characterized by paradoxes. More specifically, the aim of this article is twofold. First, the article aims at identifying the spatial conditions that enable organization members to think and act paradoxically. Second, the article aims at exploring how spatial conditions evoke a paradoxical way of thinking and doing. Based on three Scandinavian architectural firms, and through abductive inference, four spatial conditions are identified and outlined. The conditions are conceptualized as organized chaos, boundary(less)ness, premeditated spontaneity, and (re)framing. From the results, and through the discussion, the notion of "generative space" is introduced to explain the overall importance of spatiality, as well as how the interrelatedness of the conditions facilitates a paradoxical way of thinking and doing in idea work.

  • 36.
    Garneij, Cecilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Johansson, Patricia
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    En kartläggning av ekosystemtjänster kring Södra Munksjön och appliceringen av grönytefaktor i Jönköping2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Cities need greenery, ecosystems and ecosystem services. Green area ratio (GAR) is a tool that ensures greenery in urban environments. As a part of its urban development of the new city area Södra Munksjön the municipality of Jönköping will include GAR in the local plan for green structure. In order to design a GAR model, one must know the conditions of the site and vision of the city. This study aims to map the ecosystem services located in the area today as well as the ecosystem services that can be created, protected, strengthened or skipped in the new city area. Furthermore, it is also investigated how the local GAR model can be used in other areas in Jönköping municipality.

    Method: A qualitative study has been conducted with the help of literature studies, document analysis, observation and interviews. With starting point in the model of guidance on ecosystem services in city planning from ℅ city ecosystem services has been identified. Interviews have been conducted with landscape architects with experience from working with GAR in a context similar to the one in Jönköping.

    Findings: The mapping of ecosystem services in the area of Södra Munksjön shows that most services from ℅ city can be identified and that the cultural ecosystem services should be premiered in the GAR model designed for the city area. In order for the local GAR model to be applied in other areas, it's easier if the formulations in the model are general and supplemented with separate site-specific information. However, in order for GAR to produce good results the most important factor is to have stated and well formulated goals to aim for.

    Implications: Through good planning, one solution can benefit several ecosystem services at the same time, which is recommended in urban environments. Thus the conclusion is that focus should lay on cultural ecosystem services and multi-functionality that result with all services benefiting. Since GAR is a new tool for Jönköping, it is of great importance to include stakeholders and building contractors at an early stage.

    Limitations: The mapping of ecosystem services made in Södra Munksjön has been based on a geographical location and documents linked to this place, which means that the results are limited to Södra Munksjön. However, the analysis and discussion of how a GAR model can be taken from a current area to be applied elsewhere could be taken on by cities that are planning to use GAR or want to develop an existing GAR model.

  • 37.
    Gustafsson, Anton
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Servin, My
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Rumslighet och Atmosfär Exteriört2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a bachelor thesis that has been carried out as a part of the course in Product Development with focus Lighting Design at Jönköping University, School of Engineering spring term 2018. Every outdoor environment is unique as the seasons and the developing day which in turn makes it complex. The public urban space is frequently used by its inhabitants and visitors throughout the day. The function of lighting is therefore essential for the individual's role of wanting and daring to reside in the urban spaces also during the evening. By emphasizing the spaciousness and atmosphere of different environments along the room and the individual, more comfortable and safe places can be created for both meeting and staying on. The purpose of this study has been to get a profound understanding of how different individuals experience of spatiality and atmosphere with varied light distribution in a public exterior urbanspace. By conducting an experimental full-scale situation on a walkway/avenue in the central parts of Jönköping, four different light scenes could be studied in the same exterior room. This enabled credible and comparable data to be retrieved and then analyzed. The study results show that the human experience is individual and that its movement patterns in a room vary, depending on how the light is set. Further factors as gender, past experiences and site design contributes to how a room is experienced between individuals. It has emerged from the study that whether or not a room is viewed from within or from without perspective, the experience among the participants is perceived equally. Depending on how an environmental dimension is accentuated in terms of its height, width and depth, the perception of the actual creation of the room can be influenced. An even contrast between light and dark creates a more inviting impression, which can contribute to an increased sense of security and facilitate orientation.

  • 38.
    Gustavsson, Simon
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Gustafsson, Petter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Erfarenhetsåterföring inom markanvisningsprocessen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Haglund, Petter
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Kallin, Rickard
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Informationsbehov ur en BIM-modell för användning i fastighetsförvaltning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: As buildings become more complex, property management becomes increasingly complex. New demands are made on buildings environmental performance, risk management and new technology is introduced, which changes the property management industry. Problems with current property management methods are that the information for an efficient maintenance is difficult for the trustee, and the lack of interoperability between architects, constructor, client and trustee. The digital divide between trustees and other actors helps the trustee to reject the idea that BIM can be used in management. The aim for this rapport is to determine what information is to be required from a BIM-model to be to any use in the management process. Method: This work has been done through interviews and document analyses to answer the goal. Findings: There is a drive from trustees to switch to BIM, but the main obstacles are the lack of knowledge and influence at the start of construction projects, which means that the right requirements regarding the development and detailing of a BIM model can’t be set properly. Trustees know what information they need, but not how to set the right requirements without a specific standard. Implications: A lack of competence and knowledge about BIM at the trustees implies the need for a standard on the BIM-models level of detail and development for at all stages in the project, and all actors and researchers involved in the work. However, the trustees is aware of the information they need in their management system, which should be taken into account when a standard is being made. Limitations: The interview respondents came from different types of management companies, such as profit-making and non-profit-making, smaller and larger management companies, as well as trustees of residential, office, hall buildings and campus properties. Interviews with clients had helped make the work more relevant as it appeared from interviews conducted that the client plays a major role when demanding a BIM-model in a construction project. 

  • 40.
    Hassan, Said
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Kvinnor i Byggbranschen: Att vara arbetsledare bland män2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    The purpose of this thesis is to identify and describe the specific working conditions that female supervisors face in male dominated construction sites, as well as propose changes. The problem is that women are heavily underrepresented in the construction industry in general and in particular as supervisors. Female construction engineers are a resource that is not fully utilized. All working life research suggest that a more gender balance is beneficial to social interaction. A gender-balanced workforce works better than a single gender, therefore one of the goals was to identify the obstacles that make women refrain from seeking for the construction industry and the role of supervisor

    Method:

    Literature studies have been used to review women's situation in the construction industry and other similarly male-dominated professions. In addition, seven women were interviewed at some of Sweden's largest construction companies in the municipality of Jönköping to find out what it's like to be women and supervisors.

    Findings:

    All interviewees reported that male jargon occurs at construction sites and that women are often ignored and that they are expected to know everything. Additionally, one should be quite robust and be able to cope with depressing jokes about women. Playful sexual invitations can also occur. Women consider themselves prepared and many claim that it is no worse than life in society where they are already accustomed to sexist behaviour. Interviewed women seem to be satisfied with the construction companies' actions as a whole. However, it is difficult to combine the role of being parent and the role of supervisor due to the long working hours. Women perceive men have it easier for career advancements compared to women, partly for structural reasons that favour men and that men have greater self-confidence and seek career advancements.

    Implications:

    The gender structure that has long existed in Swedish construction sites seem to exist. The women seem to be grateful for working in this male-dominated industry, but they describe working conditions that are not favourable if you want to recruit more women. Women reported that the university had informed them very badly about the opportunities that the construction industry can offer. The construction industry need to change its macho culture that discourages women, both those who work and those who study. Construction companies should act against clear male jargons through courses and development talks and to show zero tolerances against sexism. In order to increase the diversity of construction sites, construction companies should recruit women at craft level, partly to overcome segregation and partly to later promote these women as supervisors as practical experience is important, something that women at college lack when starting work as supervisors.

     

    Limitations:

    The empirical study consists of 7 interviews conducted within the municipality of Jönköping in a few construction companies. My informants, of course, can only represent themselves. However, the homogeneity of the response pattern shown by the interviews with other researchers' similar results indicates that my results can be generalized beyond my own investigated population. However, in order to ensure the generalization of the results, more studies have to be conducted where the survey population consists of an unbound random selection from the group of female supervisors throughout Sweden with several years of experience from the profession. This group should consist of 20-25 individuals in order to achieve good representativeness. 

  • 41.
    Hedblom Olsson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Koutcho, Dolvina Dalia
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Fastighetsförvaltande företags syn på BIM-användning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: New working methods are demanded as there is an increasing digitalization needed amongst the facility management industry. The information needs to be searchable and accessible for the user. To get the result wanted a reciprocally approach, that describe where and how the information should be managed, is required. In this case, the tool needed to get the desirable result is considered to be BIM. There are difficulties to understand the true opportunities and effects of using BIM, within the facility management industry, as well as where it can be used. The aim of this study is to examine how facility management corporations have chosen to invest in the implementation of BIM, as well how they contemplate on the use of BIM in the aspect of management.

    Method: Three methods were used to complete this study. In order to complete the theoretical framework a literature study was used. Furthermore an observation study was performed to get a wider perspective in how BIM is used in the management stage. Finally semi structured interviews were performed to obtain an ingoing perspective in how BIM contributes to the property management business.

    Findings: The outcome of the study indicates that the facility management business interpreters BIM differently. As a result the outlook of how BIM should be implemented, used and performed differs. The functions mentioned in the survey were; operation and maintenance, streamlining of work methods, optimizing premises, reducing environmental impact, increased security as well as the opportunity to visualize and analyze the buildings. All the respondents had a positive attitude towards using BIM and saw a value in implementing BIM in the companies.

    Implications: The study indicates that there are difficulties with the implication of BIM as the idea of BIM does not have a distinct definition, this may cause communication difficulties within the companies, as well as externally between the operators and their work stages. A distinctive definition of what BIM means, together with the strategies and ambitions within the companies could contribute to a simpler implementation of BIM at management stage.

    Limitations: The survey has been delimited to only interviewing facility management business, which have been consciously chosen to invest in implementing BIM. The survey does not take into account the dilemma of transferring information between BIM and the databases of the facility managements

  • 42.
    Henriksson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Henriksson, Marcus
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Ökat värdeskapande arbete: Implementering av 5S på en byggarbetsplats2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Studies shows that the construction industry doesn’t develop in the pace that it should regarding productivity. To increase the value creating work companies tries to implement methods as 5S to minimize waste. Small and medium size enterprises (SME) lack the competence and resources that larger companies have and thereby the efficiency of the production process is more difficult. Change management of human’s habits and business culture is a complicated process which is based on deeply rooted roles and structures.

    The purpose of this report is to introduce Lean by implementing 5S at a construction site. The goal is then to design a recommendations manual for how implementation of the Lean-tool 5S can be done in the construction phase.  

    Method: The chosen methods for collecting data is literature study, focus group interviews and participatory observations. With help from the literature study knowledge has been gathered. The focus group interviews have contributed with performing zero-state analysis and evaluating the implementation of 5S on the working site. Participatory observations have been used to study the development on the working site. These methods contributed to answering and fulfilling the purpose, goal and the issues of this report. 

    Results: Results from the study has ended up with the development of a recommendations manual for how 5S can be implemented in the construction phase. Thereby critical factors have been identified and suggestions for how companies can proceed implementation of 5S. 

    Consequences: Conclusions that have been made from the study is that processes of change are hard to do. The responsibility to increase the productivity and minimize waste should not solely lie with the larger entrepreneurs. Every actor within the construction business must work toward a common goal to improve the construction process and reduce costs.  Lean and 5S can be the solution to these problems. Due to lack of resources and knowledge companies may need external help when it comes to the implementation. Already in the design of a construction project it’s important to think about the planning to prevent waste. Before a company makes a change of the organization it’s important that the management is committed and understands Lean to be able to motivate the staff. Further it’s necessary that continuous improvements and problem-solving is done to engage the staff.

    Limitations: The study was limited to focusing on the implementation of 5S and thereby introduce Lean and its concept with improvement work and problem-solving. The result of the implementation was a success in this case, but the result can vary from every case since they all are unique.

  • 43.
    Hofling, Gustaf
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Uggla, Alexander
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    IOT-SENSORERS PÅVERKAN INOM BYGGSTYRNING OCH BESLUTSFATTANDET UNDER GJUTNINGSPROCESSEN2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose: Today, the majority of decisions in construction production are made on

    undefined data, which leads to large unnecessary resource consumption, mainly

    during the casting process. It also leads to unpredictability in decision making in

    production, which affects production control and thus costs, schedules and quality. A

    major uncertainty characterizes the casting process today, reflecting the development

    needs faced by the construction industry, which are cost-effective and time-efficient.

    Nevertheless, the investment in digital data collection tools is low. Therefore, in this

    work, opportunities are investigated for automatic data collection with one of the

    latest digital trends, Internet of Things, to promote decision making during the casting

    process.

     

    Method: This work is carried out as a qualitative study. The data collection methods

    consist of semi structured interviews together with production engineers, IoT

    consultants and developers in the concrete industry. A literature study is also

    conducted to build up the interview questions as well as the analysis of the results.

     

    Findings: The analysis of the case study indicates that the company today lacks

    structure in its work on data collection in construction production. Through the

    interviews in production, it was found that, according to respondents, IoT is believed

    to enable more quality-assured data collection and enable decisions to be made on

    time. To achieve this, it requires the company to establish structures on how data

    collection should be stored. Which previous studies show that IoT can be a good tool

    for. The case study also shows that the need and interest for IoT systems at the

    company is high. By collecting data using IoT sensors, knowledge transfer is believed

    to contribute to decision making on data as a complement to experience.

    Implications: It is necessary to create a culture within business so that more decisions

    can be made on data instead of experience. Before implementation, a good level of

    knowledge for ADC tools should be increased because interest in the area increases as

    knowledge grows. When there is interest and need, a test project should be conducted

    where decisions are made on real-time data.

    Limitations: The work does not take into account cost aspects when implementing

    ADC tools in the casting process. The report is based on a construction technology

    perspective and thus does not describe the construction of digital tools in detail.

    Keywords: ADC, construction industry, construction management, casting process,

    Internet of things, attitude and knowledge.

  • 44.
    Huynh, Mai
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Bengtsson, Linnea
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    VERTIKAL BOSTADSUTFORMNING I FRAMTIDENS FÖRTÄTNING AV STÄDER2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The Swedish population is urbanizing, residents move from the countryside to densely populated areas. Housing design becomes an important part of being surface efficient without impairing living standards for residents. The governing rules limit how to build. As they are constantly evolving to meet the development of society and technology, more reliefs of housing design requirements have been made. This thesis aims to investigate how increased height in a smaller apartment can affect habitat quality. The governing questions are: (1) what factors affect residential quality in terms of smaller housing? (2) How does the room change if one strives for the minimum floor space in favor of vertical room design? (3) To what extent can you satisfy the requirements / regulations of BBR and SIS in relation to vertical room design? 

    Method: In order to gain knowledge of the subject, literature search was used in densification, habitat quality, the physically influencing factors and housing preferences. Document analysis was made on a reference apartment plan solution and the governing rules. An observation of the reference apartment was performed as well as experiments in which different parameters such as room height, floor imprint, storage and fixed furnishing were changed.

    Findings: The crucial parameters that affect habitat quality when it comes to housing are; opportunity for work, dining space, storage, openness and airiness, transparency and axiality, the possibility to furnish, originality, comfort, functionality and generality. A limited floor space can be compensated by another parameter from the list of habitat quality parameters. If the measurable and functional values are reduced, it is possible to compensate with the immeasurable and aesthetic values. Accessibility requirements aggravate the convergence of housing functions and generally require a larger floor area. All SIS requirements can be met, even when combining housing functions.

    Implications: By designing apartments with increased height and reduced floor space but at the same time maintaining the habitant quality, it is possible to concentrate housing in the future densification of cities. By allowing the integration of residential functions at the height, it is possible to build apartments with less floor space containing all basic functions for a home.

    Limitations: This work aims to investigate smaller apartments up to 35m2 for one person. When mentioning the term “residential quality” it refers to the spatial perception of the apartment, which is mainly the geometry of the room and the permanent furnishing. The regulations considered are BBR and SIS. Construction and cost are not considered.

  • 45.
    Hällvall, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Gill, Sebastian
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Redovisning av CRI hos Tunable White-armaturer: En undersökning av armaturtillverkares specifikation av Tunable white-armaturer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tunable white luminaires today form a large part of the market and are expected to increase further in the upcoming years. As many manufacturers today produce and market their own solutions to create a dynamic light, it can be hard to know what quality these solutions have and how well the technical specification is. The purpose of this study were to investigate whether the information to the user is sufficient and whether the presented data of tunable white luminaires is correct. This study is based on two parts. An experimental study where five tunable white luminaires CRI (color rendering) were measured between different CCT levels (color temperature) and then compared these to what providers have specified on their websites. The second part was a survey was conducted to 144 lighting designers based in Sweden, 52 of whom chose to answer the questionnaire. The questions concerned the presented information of tunable white luminaires as well as the importance of a good light quality focusing on CRI. The results from the authors experimental survey showed that all tunable white luminaires that where tested are changing in CRI under different color temperature intervals. The biggest difference that was measured was on manufacturer 3 where 9 CRI shifted between 2700K-6000K. A comparison could be made and showed that two of five of the suppliers specifications did not match with the authors measurements. By analyzing the answers from the survey, some conclusions could be drawn. There were very different opinions regarding the technical specifications of tunable white luminaires. Some felt that it is enough as it is today, while others felt that more information was needed. The majority considered it very important to have a good CRI when selecting tunable white luminaires in their projects. One could also see that many lighting designers wanted to present color reproduction in TM-30-15 instead of the CRI method or to present CRI at given color temperatures. What can be determined by this study is that there is a tendency for some luminaire suppliers to have worse CRI than presented. This study only measured tunable white fixtures from five companies operating in Sweden and only at 100% luminosity. However, the authors consider that this study could lead to a discussion about better specifications for tunable white luminaires, as well as giving the reader an increased understanding of the complexity of the subject.

  • 46.
    Håkansson, Olof
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Zäther, John
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Företagets påverkan för ett ökat BIM-användande i byggproduktionen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There is an academic exaggeration about what potential BIM has to revolutionize the construction industry. Despite the potential, BIM is not fully utilized in the construction field, which is partly due to a lack of competence. There is too much focus on what BIM can be used for, instead of focusing on how BIM can be used. There is a mythical enthusiasm about the term, which is sometimes seen as a universal tool. BIM-coordinators are rarely located at the construction site and have difficulty understanding the problems that may arise and there is a gap in the information chain between the production and planning departments that needs to be bridged to promote the work of the production department. The aim of the report was to investigate how the use of BIM can increase in the production department. 

    Method: This report consists of a qualitative study based on the latest research in the field. The theories presented in the framework of the report have been the foundation for the formation of the study’s issues and the formation of the semi-structured interviews that where the main method for data collection.  

    Findings: In order to increase the use of BIM in the construction field, clear strategies and guidelines are required for how the construction field workers will use BIM. More resources needs to be added to BIM planning and the knowledge in the construction sites needs to be more in-depth about the processes that BIM entails so that they can set requirements for the construction planning. A clearer shared goal is required through better cooperation and an early dialogue between production and planning. BIM needs to be seen as a way of working and not as a role.  

    Implications: In order to accept BIM as a new way of working, it requires that the benefits has to be proven. Today’s BIM-coordinators have no excellence, but instead they work as a teacher for the staff in the constructions sites. More staff in the construction sites need to work with BIM daily and resources in terms of time and space needs to be set aside in construction sites. The boundary between the production and the planning departments needs to be erased to increase trust in each other. 

    Limitations: This report consists internal factors that a company itself can influence to increase the use of BIM in the construction field. The report does not consist external factors such as legal barriers, software and client requirements. The thesis is done together with Skanska Hus Syd and is thereby geographically restricted to the region Skåne. 

    Keywords: BIM, implementation, standardization, organisation, attitude, knowledge, production. 

  • 47.
    Isaksson, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Linderoth, Henrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Environmental considerations in the Swedish building and construction industry: the role of costs, institutional setting, and information2018In: Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, ISSN 1566-4910, E-ISSN 1573-7772, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 615-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite increasing evidence that being an environment-friendly company not only benefits the environment but also makes long-term economic sense, the transition to a more sustainable society is extremely slow. This is true of the building and construction industry as well. At a strategic level, environmental issues have received more attention with the establishment of roles such as environmental managers and implementation of advanced environmental management systems. However, adoption has been slow in the absence of a holistic approach to environmental challenges, partly reinforced by a perception that giving more than the legally required level of environmental consideration will only add to costs without corresponding financial benefits. This raises the following question that the study aims to answer: What is the most important factor influencing decision makers’ in adopting environmental considerations? To this end, it analysed questionnaire data collected from decision makers in the Swedish construction industry along with an in-depth case study of a specific building and construction company. The results show that decision makers perceive informational and institutional constraints on the adoption of environmental considerations. Lack of information is perceived as the biggest obstacle to environmental considerations. If information and knowledge about clients’ and end users’ financial benefits from adopting environmental considerations need to be exploited, they have to be supported by contractual forms that discard a short-term focus on the investment costs of a building in favour of a focus on long-term operational and maintenance costs and benefits.

  • 48.
    Isaksson, Anders
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Linderoth, Henrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Bosch, Petra
    Chalmers.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    BIM use in the production process among medium sized contractors: A survey of Swedish medium sized contractors2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) is claimed to transform the AEC industry, whereas current research has argued that diffusion of BIM use proceeds at a slower rate than the optimistic predictions. However, governmental initiatives where public clients in countries like Finland, Singapore, United Kingdom and Sweden start to require a Building Information Model as a part of the project delivery, are supposed to increase the pace of diffusion of BIM use. Today, larger contractor firms use BIM to a varying extent. But BIM use in mid-sized contractor firms, with 50 – 500 employees, which successfully can compete with larger contractors on projects up to 50 million Euros, is relatively unknown. The aim of the paper is to explore the current use and perceived challenges and driving forces of BIM-implementation among mid-sized contractors. The data used in this study is collected through a survey send to chief executive officers, or their closest sub-ordinates, of mid-sized construction firms in Sweden. The survey is based on a technology-, organization-, environment framework that is used in information systems research in order to study the use of inter-organizational information systems. The total population of firms in the survey is 136. The preliminary results presented in this paper are based on 31 answers (30 percent response rate). 58 percent of the respondents said that they have been involved in a project where BIM has been used in some way. The most commonly used application is visualization. The highest obstacles perceived are that partners are not using BIM, there is no demand from clients, and there is no internal demand in the company. For the two last obstacles there were significant differences between users and non-users. The most common perceived driving forces were that BIM is a means for following the technical development and BIM can give the company competitive advantages. Moreover, the results indicate that the main driver behind BIM-implementation is mainly determined by an individual’s subjective positive or negative evaluation of BIM, rather than by external pressure from clients and partners, or by internal capacity and knowledge to use BIM.

  • 49.
    Jacobsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Umeå universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Linderoth, Henrik
    Umeå universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    The influence of contextual elements, actors' frames of reference, and technology on the adoption and use of ICT in construction projects: a Swedish case study2010In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 13-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contemporary research on construction-related ICT (information communication technologies), little distinction is made between the use of ICT in permanent line organizations and its use in temporary organizations (for example, in building and construction projects). This paper makes that distinction. The aim is to understand how the interplay among contextual elements, actors' frames of reference, and the ICT itself, influences the adoption and use of ICT in a building and construction project. This will be done through a description and analysis of a case study of ICT use in a major Swedish construction company. It is concluded that the well-defined duration of the temporary organization (the construction project) stands in sharp contrast to the generally indefinite duration of ICT-mediated change processes. However, by analysing the ICT application to be implemented, it can be revealed whether it can be 'ready packed' for, or delimited to, certain processes in order to achieve immediate benefits. When implementing more encompassing ICT applications, the challenge for the company is to find alternative ways of implementation in the project-based organization and of creating alternative spaces for innovation and renewal where new ICT can be tested and experimented with.

  • 50.
    Jacobsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Linderoth, Henrik C. J.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Rowlinson, Steve
    Department of Real Estate and Construction, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    The role of industry: an analytical framework to understand ICT transformation within the AEC industry2017In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 35, no 10, p. 611-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite wide-ranging research on information and communication technologies (ICT) in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry, little is known about the role that industry plays in the adoption and use of ICT. Based on observations of how the drivers for ICT use seem to be inconsistent with the industry’s central characteristics, and drawing on information systems (IS) research that demonstrates the role of shared systems of meaning, the purpose here is to develop an analytical framework that explains how industry shapes the adoption and use of ICT. Building on a theoretically driven approach and a case study, a framework is first sketched and then substantiated through empirical illustrations. Three dimensions of industry are highlighted: the socio-cognitive environment, the market and production environment and institutional actors. It is explained how the interplay of these dimensions shapes the way the industry functions, which in turn influence the adoption and use of ICT. The outcomes of the interplay can either be aligned or misaligned with ICT, which explains why certain aligned applications are rapidly adopted, whereas other applications are not. The primary implication is that the framework can aid in analysing the need for structural adaptation when trying to achieve ICT-induced change.

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