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  • 801.
    Akselsson, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Barrögård, Emma
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Karusellbedrägeri: Problematiken kring mervärdesskattebedrägerier ur ett EG-rättsligt perspektiv2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, VAT fraud is a widely spread problem among intra-Community trade. Due to the growth of the common market and the structure of the harmonized VAT system, new forms of VAT fraud have arisen. The opening of the common market, in 1993, led to the abolition of physical border controls. The combination of physical and administrative controls was replaced by only administrative control.

    Until the VAT system is completely harmonized the principle of destination will be applied to intra-Community business-to-business transactions. Regulations on intra-Community transactions have been developed to avoid double taxation. These regulations mean that the purchaser will be taxed in its state of origin, and that the seller will be exempted from taxation in its state of origin.

    Carousel fraud is a form of VAT fraud that makes use of the VAT system and the lack of exchange of information between the member states. In general terms VAT fraud can be described as transactions with the same goods that are being sold at high speed between different companies in different countries. In connection to these sales one or more of the companies do not pay the output VAT, at the same time other companies in the chain of supply have the right to deduct input VAT. Due to this, the state will loose VAT revenues. Carousel fraud has been dealt with in EC case law. It is established in the Optigen judgment that the right, of a taxable person, to deduct input VAT cannot be affected by any other taxable person’s fraudulent behavior in the chain of supply as long as the taxable person did not know or have any means of knowledge of the fraud in question. The Kittel judgment states that a taxable person, who knew or should have known that, by his purchase, he was participating in a transaction of VAT fraud, should be seen as a participant in that fraud and therefore be refused entitlement to the right to deduct.

    This thesis examines whether the principle of prohibiting abusive practice is applicable to carousel fraud. The Halifax judgment states that the principle also applies to the sphere of VAT. The principle of prohibiting abusive practice has been developed to attack transactions of purely artificial nature, which only purpose is to obtain advantages by abusing the Community law. However, our conclusion is that the principle of prohibiting abusive practice cannot be applied to anyone in a chain of transactions that constitutes carousel fraud. Our opinion is that neither a taxable person in god faith nor a taxable person in bad faith can meet the criteria of the principle.

    There are different ways to approach carousel fraud. Within the EC, exchange of information and various organisations for anti fraud are being used to deal with the problem. The member states have also, in various ways, tried to handle carousel fraud. They have for example used reverse charge and joint liability. We believe that administrative measures are crucial to combat carousel fraud. More radical alternatives such as reverse charge and joint liability should not be used unless it is obvious that the administrative measures do not suffice.

  • 802.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    Hacettepe University.
    Genç akademisyenlerin yeni kurulan psikoloji bölümlerinde karşılaşabilecekleri sorunlar ve çözüm önerileri (The Problems And Solutions Suggestions That The Young Academicians From Recently Established Psychology Departments May Face)2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 803.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Hacettepe University.
    Cirhinlioğlu, Fatma
    Özkan, Bengi Öner
    Türk örnekleminde avukat olan ile olmayanların adalete ve Türkiye’deki hukuk sistemine ilişkin sosyal temsilleri (Social representations of justice system among lawyers vs. non lawyers in a Turkish sample)2004In: Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi (Hacettepe University-Journal of Faculty of Letters), ISSN 1301-5737, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 61-80Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 804.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Hacettepe University.
    Coştur, Recai
    Sorumluluk Yüklemesi Çerçevesinde Öfke ve Sempati Duyguları ile Yardım Etme ve Saldırganlık Davranışları (Judgments of Responsibility, Feelings of Anger/Sympathy and Social Conduct of Help-giving and Aggression)2007In: Türk Psikoloji Dergisi (Turkish Journal of Psychology), Vol. 22, no 59, p. 15-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was aimed to test in the domains of prosocial (help giving) and antisocial (aggression) behavior in a Turkish sample, consisting of 887 Hacettepe University students (463 males and 424 females). The results revealed that the social conduct theory within the perspective of judgments of responsibility was partially confirmed in the Turkish sample. The findings implied that both the help giving and the aggressive behaviors could be taken into consideration in the same conceptual framework. Generally, the expected cognition-emotion-behavior sequence was observed; hence, the attributional thoughts of responsibility/controllability determined the emotional reactions of anger and sympathy and these emotional reactions, in turn, directly influenced helping and aggressive behaviors. Indeed, for aggression, the results also indicated that cognitions of perceived controllability had only an indirect effect on aggressive behavior mediated by the emotions of anger and sympathy; there was no direct influence of cognitions on behavioral reactions. Hence, the results partially confirmed the cognition-emotion-behavior theory of social conduct for aggression in which an additional direct influence of cognitions on behavioral reactions was also present as postulated by Weiner (1995). On the other hand, for help giving, the findings were consistent with the literature confirming the theory which proposed that thoughts determined the feelings of anger and sympathy and these feelings, in turn, determined the actions.

  • 805.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Hacettepe University.
    Deniz, Şahin
    Hacettepe University.
    Aydın, Orhan
    Hacettepe University.
    Saldırgan Olan ve Olmayan Çocuklarda Düşmanca Niyet Yükleme Yanlılığının Cinsiyete Bağlı Olarak İncelenmesi (Hostile attributional bias in aggressive and nonaggressive children)2005In: Türk Psikoloji Dergisi (Turkish Journal of Psychology), ISSN 1300-4433, Vol. 20, no 55, p. 43-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the hostile attributional biases of aggressive and nonaggressive boys and girls among primary school children. The status of aggressiveness was assessed with a peer nomination instrument for a sample of 529 (230 girls and 293 boys) fifth grade children. Participants were presented with 11 ambiguous pictures with negative outcomes. For each picture a questionnaire with multiple choice answers was administered to measure the child's tendency to attribute personal/impersonal causality, positive/negative intentions and hostile attributional bias. A 2 (aggressive/nonaggressive) x 2 (sex) ANOVA was used to analyse the data. Results indicated that aggressive children attributed more personal causality, negative intentions to the ambiguous negative outcomes represented in the pictures than to the nonaggressive children. In relation to different forms of aggression such as physical, passive and the verbal, the findings showed some variability. Physically aggressive children displayed more hostile attribution than the nonaggressive ones. On the other hand, the form of passive aggressiveness was not significant in relation to the aggressiveness/nonaggressiveness status. On verbal aggression form, aggressive children indicated a propensity toward hostile attribution when compared to the nonaggressive types. A main effect of sex was obtained; boys attributed more personal causality, more negative intention and hostile attributional bias when compared to girls. All of the results were in line with literature.

  • 806.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Hacettepe University.
    Güvenç, Gülden
    Kız ve erkek ergenlerde saldırgan ve olumlu sosyal davranışlar ile yaş, ilişkisel bağlam ve kişiler-arası duyarlılık arasındaki ilişkiler (Relations Between Age, Parental and Peer Attachment, Interpersonal Reactivity, Aggressive and Prosocial Behavior of Adolescents)2006In: Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi (Hacettepe University-Journal of Faculty of Letters), Vol. 23, no 2, p. 233-264Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 807.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Kindap Tepe, Y.
    Düşmanca niyet yükleme eğilimi ölçeği geliştirme çalışması [Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Hostile Attribution of Intent Scale]2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 808.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Kindap Tepe, Y.
    Düşmanca niyet yükleme eğilimi ölçeğinin psikometrik özelliklerinin incelenmesi [Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Hostile Attribution of Intent Scale]2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 809.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Plats, Identitet, Lärande (PIL).
    Borell, Klas
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Social scientists under threat: Resistance and self-censorship in Turkish academia2019In: British Journal of Educational Studies, ISSN 0007-1005, E-ISSN 1467-8527, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 169-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attacks on academic freedom in Turkey have become increasingly systematic in recent years and thousands of academics have been dismissed. This study reflects on the effects of this worsening repression through interviews with academics in the social sciences, both those dismissed and those still active in their profession. Although the dismissed academics are socially in a very precarious position, they are continuing their scholarly activities in alternative, underground forms. This resistance stands in contrast to the accommodation and self-censorship that seem, according to the interviewees, to prevail in university departments.

  • 810.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER).
    Borell, Klas
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Persson, Roland S.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Taking to the streets: A study of the street academy in Ankara2019In: British Journal of Educational Studies, ISSN 0007-1005, E-ISSN 1467-8527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In wide-ranging attacks on academic freedom in Turkey in recent years, thousands of academics have lost their university positions. At the end of 2016 oppositional academics, many of whom were dismissed from their positions for having signed a peace petition, established a Street Academy as an alternative way to reach out to both students and the public in Ankara. In this study we analyse the experiences of these street academy lecturers from the perspective of Social Representation Theory. Our main aims were to explore teaching experience perceptions and representations and, in addition, also the opportunities and challenges generated by this alternative academy. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with five female and five male street academy lecturers. The results of a qualitative thematic analysis revealed that the way participants explained their experiences could be organised into three major themes and several subordinate themes. One of the most salient results was that participating in the street Academy had become a way to defend academic freedom. More generally suggested results demonstrated that teaching in this new setting, outside of the universities and away from customised learning environments, was quite a novel experience. The possible implications of street academy lecturers? experiences are discussed.

  • 811.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Persson, Roland S.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Fel person på fel plats: Om högutbildade invandrare på den svenska arbetsmarknaden2017In: HR: Att ta tillvara mänskliga resurser / [ed] Helene Ahl, Ingela Bergmo-Prvulovic & Karin Kilhammar, Lund, SE: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1, p. 191-206Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 812.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Tepe, Yeliz Kındap
    Cumhuriyet UniversitySivasTurkey.
    Persson, Roland S.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Investigating Turkish university students’ attitudes towards refugees in a time of Civil War in neighboring Syria2018In: Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thousands of refugees have immigrated to Turkey because of the current Civil War in neighboring Syria. This is causing tensions between refugees and locals. These increasingly negative attitudes towards the incoming victims of conflict are of particular interest. The present study, therefore, aimed at determining the premises of the emergence of such negative attitudes. The research sample consisted of university students who all studied at various faculties at Cumhuriyet University in the Turkish province of Sivas. Data were collected by the Attitude Scale Towards Refugees, the Patriotism Attitude Scale, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, and the Cirhinlioğlu Religiosity Scale. Data were analyzed by Independent Sample t-tests as well as using Stepwise Regression Analyses. Results showed that the feeling of empathy correlated negatively with negative attitudes towards refugees, while blind patriotism, religiosity, and having nationalist/conservative orientations, correlated positively. Men were found to be more negative than women. The feeling of empathy was the most prominent factor in predicting the nature of attitudes towards refugees. Religious doctrine and distancing oneself from conservative and patriotic perspectives appeared to be effective in potentially preventing the development of negative attitudes. In conclusion, research results are discussed in the light of relevant literature.

  • 813. Al Akayshee, Sara
    Arbetsterapeutiska interventioner för barn med ADHD En scoping review2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 814. Al Ansari, A.
    et al.
    Strachan, K.
    Hashim, Sumaya
    RCSI Bahrain, Adliya, Kingdom of Bahrain.
    Otoom, S.
    Analysis of psychometric properties of the modified SETQ tool in undergraduate medical education2017In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Effective clinical teaching is crucially important for the future of patient care. Robust clinical training therefore is essential to produce physicians capable of delivering high quality health care. Tools used to evaluate medical faculty teaching qualities should be reliable and valid. This study investigates the psychometric properties of modification of the System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ) instrument in the clinical years of undergraduate medical education.

    Methods: This cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted in four teaching hospitals in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Two-hundred ninety-eight medical students were invited to evaluate 105 clinical teachers using the SETQ instrument between January 2015 and March 2015. Questionnaire feasibility was analyzed using average time required to complete the form and the number of raters required to produce reliable results. Instrument reliability (stability) was assessed by calculating the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the total scale and for each sub-scale (factor). To provide evidence of construct validity, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify which items on the survey belonged together, which were then grouped as factors.

    Results: One-hundred twenty-five medical students completed 1161 evaluations of 105 clinical teachers. The response rates were 42% for student evaluations and 57% for clinical teacher self-evaluations. The factor analysis showed that the questionnaire was composed of six factors, explaining 76.7% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.94 or higher for the six factors in the student survey; for the clinical teacher survey, Cronbach’s alpha was 0.88. In both instruments, the item-total correlation was above 0.40 for all items within their respective scales.

    Conclusion: Our modified SETQ questionnaire was found to be both reliable and valid, and was implemented successfully across various departments and specialties in different hospitals in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

  • 815.
    Al Attar, Haidar
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Melle, Ghada
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    INTERNET OCH PERSONER MED FUNKTIONSHINDER2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    People with disabilities constitute a big group of Internet users. Due to great advances in adaptive technology for people with disabilities more and more disabled will have access to Internet. For that reason it is extremely important for a web developer to be aware of different disabilities that complicate or prevent using Internet, different adaptive technologies that facilitate using Internet and different methods, both in design and programming, that make Internet accessible for people with disabilities.

    In this report we have dealt with three problems:

    • Which types of disabilities that complicate or prevent using Internet?

    • Which types of adaptive technologies are available concerning using Internet?

    • How can a web developer or programmer increase the accessibility to Internet for people with disabilities?To investigate how disabled people use adaptive technologies and which difficulties they experience when using Internet we have interviewed people with various types of disabilities.

  • 816.
    Al Attar, Haidar
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Sardupalovic, Berzad
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Webbutik2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is about creating a web-shop and marketing a web-bicycle. The basic idea of the web-bicycle is that it should be possible to connect the web-bicycle to the internet and register the exercise activity of the user in a database. Based on the registered information the user gets feedback from the experts to improve his/her health.

    Our commission in this project is to design a web-shop and a database for marketing the web-bicycle. The visitor of the web-shop should be able to get information about the web-bicycle, register him/herself, log in and send a reservation.

    The purpose of our thesis is to develop our knowledge and skills in creating an appealing, user friendly, dynamic website with connection to a database. This report contains scientific information about several web-related programming languages and technologies such as HTML, CSS, ASP.NET, VB.NET, JAVASCRIPT and AJAX. There is also information about the software that we used in our work, namely Visual Web Developer 2008 Express Edition, Adobe Photoshop CS and Microsoft Access.

  • 817.
    Al Doory, Omar
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management. Jönköping University.
    Freytag, Daniel
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management. Jönköping University.
    Developing waste-to-energi in Brazil: A pre-feasbility study for a waste-to-energi plant in Santa Catarina, Brazil2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 818. Al Hassan, Rami
    Underlätta utvärderingen av digital beläggning genom undersökning av en semantisk datastruktur för BIM-baserad FM2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The operational phase maintains the largest proportion of the building’s lifecycle cost. Moreover, the costs of the operational phase in a building’s lifecycle could be five to seven times higher than the initial investments. However, studies show that energy savings can be between 30-42% by performing occupancy detection in buildings. Therefore, this research paper is focused on assisting and facilitating BIM-based FM integration for occupancy assessment to support various evaluations of a building. The chosen approach to reach the aim of this study is the semantic web technology, considering the advantages it can provide in contrast to other web services such as SOAP or RESTful. A case study was conducted of a room located in the first floor of the school of engineering (JTH) building at Jönköping University. The case study investigated the data structure for the technologies which might be installed in the room later and the geometrical information of it. The used ontology in this study is RealEstateCore (REC). Furthermore, a literature review was conducted to investigate the occupancy information which can be gained by the technologies in that room. Results show that presence, location and count of occupancy can be obtained by CO2, temperature and WiFi positioning technol-ogy. However, every sensor has some exclusive properties and constraints for occupancy detection and estima-tion. Thus, the fusion of various sensors is an advantage as it can significantly increase the efficiency of indoor occupancy assessment. Also, the semantic web provided homogeneous data format that allows for greater in-teroperability between the BIM information and those technologies information. Moreover, REC ontology pro-vided most of the required semantics to describe room A and the CO2 and temperature sensors it might contain. However, the ontology lacked some of the required semantics to satisfy the description of the WiFi positioning system. Thus, extending the ontology to satisfy those required semantics is needed to reach more optimized results of the semantic web.

  • 819.
    al Hussaini, Ammar
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    What factors are driving forces for credit spreads?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine what affects the changes in credit spreads. A

    regression model was performed where the explanatory variables were; volatility,

    SP&500 index, interest-rate level the slope of yield curve and the dependent

    variable was credit spread for each of CSUSDA, CSUSDBBB, and CSUSDB. We

    found a positive correlation between these independent variables (Volatility, S&P

    500index) and a negative correlation between interest-rate level and credit spreads.

    These results were consistent with our hypothesis. However, the link between the

    slope of yield curve and credit spreads was positive and that was inconsistent with

    our hypothesis and some previous studies. The conclusion of this paper was a

    change in credit spread is related to the variables that we used in our model. And

    these variables explained about 50 per cent of this change.

  • 820.
    Al Khalaf, Aqil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Gadd, Anna
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Personer med afasi och kommunikation: En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 821.
    Al natur, Firas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Acikbas, Canberk
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    The Effect of Corporate Entrepreneurship on Software Development Process in the Automotive Industry2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In this study we connected corporate entrepreneurship with new product development (NPD) process in the automotive industry.Purpose: Our purpose in this thesis is to look in-depth on how corporate entrepreneurship effect the developing process of new software in the automotive industryMethod: This thesis was conducted interviews with Innovation and Digital Services Department which belongs to Volvo Cars. With the help of theoretical framework, we could connect our findings correlated with theoretical framework.Conclusion: The corporate entrepreneurship has indeed a big effect on the software development process, where it changes the internal structure entirely.

  • 822.
    Al Rammal, Monica
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Karabeg, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Kartläggning av sex kommuners planering av kollektivtrafiken i nya bostadsområden inom Jönköpings län2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Today we can see a steady increase in population, which calls on the municipalities to plan new residential areas and develop the old ones. This in turn leads to pressure on public transport with a focus on environmental issues and a desire for a different way of transport than by car becomes more and more relevant. The purpose is to give an overview and to understand the planning of public transportation today for six municipalities in Jönköping County.

    Method: The report has been conducted using qualitative studies in the form of interviews and literature studies. Document studies have also been used and have been downloaded from the municipalities' websites. Findings: When planning new residential areas, the municipalities try to bring public transport into account. In some municipalities, public transport has a more significant part in planning. If the municipality fail to achieve the aims of public transport planning, it will mainly result in negative environmental impacts. For the municipality to develop and make sure that the number of inhabitants increases, public transport should be an important part of the planning. When it comes to the cooperation between Jönköpings Länstrafik and the municipalities, they focus on public transport and that It will cover the need for travel in the municipalities. It is important that you already in the early stages of planning make sure that there is room for the public transport that is required.

    Implications: Public transport must continue to be a major part of planning and focus should be on realizing what is planned for public transport. Although the municipalities are planning public transport, there are residential areas that could have a significantly better access to public transport.

    Limitations: As time was not enough for a study covering all 13 municipalities in Jönköping County, it was decided to focus only on six municipalities with different circumstances and varying sizes.

  • 823.
    Alabdullatif, Talal
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management (CeLS).
    SABIC Green Logistics Systems & Profitability: To explore chemical industries green logistics and contribution to profitability with a particular case of SABIC2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Logistics is paramount in the business operations as it ensures transit of goods from one point to the other. Green logistics are measures in the logistics systems that are put in place to minimize the environmental implication of logistics operations while at the same time saving on cost. Thus, green logistics is adopted as it conveys a competitive merit which enhances performance of a company. Saudi Basic Industries (SABIC) is one of the biggest petrochemicals in Saudi Arabia and holds the fifth position in the world among the leading producers of petrochemicals. The company already has green logistics in place.

    Purpose: To explore chemical industries green logistics practices and profitability with a particular case study of SABIC. The goal of this paper was achieved by investigating how has SABIC incorporated green practices into supply chain operations to remain profitable. The study answers “how has chemical industries incorporated green practices into supply chain operations to stay profitable?’ And “how do logistic managers recognize green logistics and to what level do chemical industries apply green logistics? Investigating a chemical industry green logistics is important as it contributes to literature since no single study has been carried out in this area. Suggestions from this study are crucial to SABIC, other chemical industry besides any other industry since in one way or the other companies do logistics.

    Method: The study utilized interpretivism. This study was a case study type of thesis focusing merely on SABIC, and it employed induction approach as well as the qualitative method of collecting data.  Interviews were used to explore the experiences, beliefs, motivations and views of individual participants. Using non-probability sampling method, five members in SABIC supply chain department were selected.

    Conclusion: The results show that SABIC or chemical industries utilize most of the green logistics activities (fuel efficiency, route optimization package optimization and calculating carbon emission). However, it was found out that fuel efficiency, route optimizations, and packaging optimization were most common activities. It was also discovered that one major objective of chemical industries going green was to cut cost which contributes positively to its profitability. However, reverse logistics was not familiar because of its nature; it cannot be sufficient on its own.

  • 824.
    Aladov, V ,A.
    et al.
    RAS, Submicron Heterostruct Microelect Res & Engn Ctr, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Valyukhov, V. P.
    Peter Great St Petersburg Polytech Univ, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Zakgeim, A. L.
    RAS, Submicron Heterostruct Microelect Res & Engn Ctr, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Chernyakov, A. E.
    RAS, Submicron Heterostruct Microelect Res & Engn Ctr, St Petersburg, Russia.
    A study of thermal regime in the high-power LED arrays2018In: St. Petersburg Polytechnical University Journal: Physics and Mathematics, ISSN 2405-7223, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 39-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal resistance and temperature distribution for high-power AlGaInN LED chip-on-board arrays were measured by different methods and tools. The p-n junction temperature was determined through measuring a temperature-dependent forward voltage drop on the p-n junction, at a low measuring current after applying a high heating current. Furthermore, the infrared thermal imaging technique was employed to obtain the temperature map for the test object. A steady-state 3D computational model of the experimental setup was created including temperature-dependent power dissipation in the LED chips. Simulations of the heat transfer in the LED array were performed to further investigate temperature gradients observed in the measurements. Simulations revealed possible thermal deformation of the assembly as the reason for the hot spot formation. The bending of the assembly was confirmed by surface curvature measurements.

  • 825.
    Alam, Milea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Law.
    Nederländska ränteavdragsbegränsningsregler i Sverige?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the fact that the Swedish tax authority had paid attention to the issues concerning tax avoidance with the use of interest deduction, the first Swedish rules on interest deduction limitations on intra-group loans were introduced for associated companies in 2009. These rules were inspired by the equivalent Dutch rules on interest deduction limitations. Since the tax avoidance continued, the scope of the Swedish interest deduction limitation rules were extended in 2013. However, it has been shown that due to the formulation and the scope of the current Swedish rules, the legislation causes both interpretation issues and continuing tax avoidance. This thesis aims at examining the outcome of introducing similar rules as the Dutch interest deduction limitation rules in Sweden, instead of the current Swedish legislation, in order to analyze which of these legislations that better fulfills the purpose of the Swedish rules on interest deduction limitations. The thesis shows that there are both similarities as well as differences, with regards to both the formulation and the scope, between the Swedish and the Dutch rules on interest deduction limitations. It appears in the thesis that the differences in every provision of the Dutch legislation do not provide a possible solution to the remaining issues with the Swedish rules on interest deduction limitations. The author of the thesis considers a mixed application, containing some current Swedish provisions and some selected provisions similar to the Dutch provisions, to better fulfill the purpose of the Swedish rules on interest deduction limitations.

  • 826.
    Alamere, Hind
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Röntgensjuksköterskor av att arbeta i MR miljö: en kvalitativ intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the early 1980s, the use of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in medical diagnostics increased. MRI examination is considered a safer method than the use of ionizing radiation. But there are some risks connection to with MRI examinations, for example, the strong magnetic field can affect ferromagnetic objects in the MR examinations room which may become projectiles. During MRI examinations, the safety for both patients and staff is of high importance. The radiographer is responsible for the safety associated with MRI examinations; this is possible by having knowledge about the safety routines. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate how radiographers experience their work in MRI environment. Method: Materials for this study were collected through interviews with four radiographers at two different MRI units. The interviews were analyzed by a manifest content analysis. Result: Three main categories were defined: the experience of collaboration; the experience of routines and the experience of need for development. All the participants felt safe and secure working in the MRI environment since they had good communication with each other and safety routines. The interaction with each other was a way to prevent accidents and injuries during the MRI examination. To be able to feel higher secure and safety in this environment, more understanding and knowledge from other staff from units were something the participants wanted.

  • 827.
    Al-Ammari, Jummana
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Al-Sahli, Yara
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Patienters upplevelse av vad som påverkar förmåga till egenvård vid diabetes mellitus typ 2: En litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 828.
    Alander, Julia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, School age educare.
    Stomberg-Käll, Emilia
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, School age educare.
    Hur inspirerande och inbjudande är skolgården?: En kvalitativ studie om elever i fritidshems perspektiv på skolgården2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 829.
    Alanko, Rosanna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Oskarsson, Tina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Kommunikation mellan patient och ortopedingenjör: En kvalitativ studie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En studie har genomförts med syftet att undersöka diabetespatienters tolkning av informationen som ges av deras respektive ortopedingenjör under ett patientmöte samt undersöka vad ortopedingenjören anser sig ha förmedlat för information till patienten under patientmötet. Metoden i studien är kvalitativ där intervjuer med semistrukturerade öppna frågor har använts. I studien ingick två ortopedingenjörer samt två diabetespatienter. Efter avslutade intervjuer har materialet från intervjuerna analyserats och bildat kategorier. Dessa kategorier har sedan använts för att finna skillnader samt likheter mellan ortopedingenjörens och patientens tolkningar. Patientmötens har spelats in för att få möjligheten att se vart missförstånd uppstått. Genomgående i resultatet var att ortopedingenjören anser sig ha förmedlat mer information än vad patienten beskriver under intervjuerna. Några missförstånd upptäcktes men kommunikationen mellan parterna var god.  

  • 830.
    Alaouir, Taima
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Gustavsson, Robin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Schmidt, Nathalie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Factors Driving Purchase Intention for Cruelty-free Cosmetics: A study of female millennials in Jönköping, Sweden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ethical consumerism is no longer a niche market and consumers are increasingly aware of the power they have when purchasing ethical and believe they can make a change. Most corporations have realized the importance of being ethical and incorporate it into their business strategies. Therefore, it is important to study consumers’ ethical purchasing patterns and which factors affect their intentions to purchase.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis was to test which of the following factors: social media, attitude, altruism, environmental knowledge, and financial factors, has a positive influence on female millennials, in Jönköping, purchasing intention towards cruelty-free cosmetic products.

    Method: This study was based on a conceptual framework which intended to test the most relevant constructs influencing ethical purchase intention, as proposed by previous researchers and theory. Hence, this paper follows a deductive approach which used quantitative methods to fulfil the purpose of this explanatory research. The data was gathered through a survey answered by 108 female millennials regarding their purchasing of cosmetics.

    Conclusion:   Both factors, attitude and environmental knowledge had a direct positive effect on consumers purchase intention towards cruelty-free cosmetics. The study provides empirical support for an indirect effect of altruism on purchase intention since the analysis showed that altruism had a direct effect on attitude. However, social media and financial constructs did not show any significant support for its positive effect on purchase intention in the empirical findings in this study.

  • 831.
    Alashkar, Zeen
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Andersson, Stephanie
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Vägnätsanalys i Jönköping: Fokus på cykelvägarna2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In a world with an increased awareness of the harm caused by traffic to the environment and health, it is preferable that more people choose cycling instead of driving. The purpose of this work is to create an attractive city environment for cyclists which will give a greater sense of security and leading to more people considering the use of bicycles. Method: The methods chosen to make the analysis is to check the demands and recommendations from Trafikverket, moreover make observations according to Mini Cycleability Index in order to see if the West Center of Jönköping is attractive to cyclists. Geographical Information systems has been used as a method for data collection and analysis. At last an interview was held with Jönköping municipality to discover what future plans they have regarding the studied area and how relevant the plans are with the findings of this research. Further purpose of the interview with the municipality was to see how they perform a road-network analysis and obtain an opinion on the analysis performed in this paper. Findings: The results show that the road system in Jönköping West Center has roads of shifting qualities. The grades have been split into three; great, good and poor. Great being the highest grade and poor the lowest. The three qualities of roads do exist within the area, however the poor roads appear to be more frequent than the others. The evaluation system is built upon how well the roads perform in the categories: space, safety and continuity. Implications: The conclusion of this work is that there are several roads as graded poor within the area that need to be considered for reconstruction to create an attractive area for cyclists. In the area the results showed that the roads graded as great mostly runs from north to south and few exists from east to west. Due to this it is difficult to bike within the area as the connectivity between the great graded roads are lacking. Limitations: The investigation is limited to the choice of the area (Jönköping West Center) and the aspects analyzed which are safety, space and continuity. Due to the time aspect further limitations on data collection has come, where a measurement of cyclists and a survey could have been useful to do. In order to suit the Cycleability index with the choice of area and the methods available to use, there has been a reduction of the amount categories evaluated

  • 832. Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Chen, Shengbin
    Molau, Ulf
    Responses of lichen communities to 18 years of natural and experimental warming2017In: Annals of Botany, ISSN 0305-7364, E-ISSN 1095-8290, Vol. 120, no 1, p. 159-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims 

    Climate change is expected to have major impacts on high alpine and arctic ecosystems in the future, but empirical data on the impact of long-term warming on lichen diversity and richness are sparse. This study report the effects of 18 years of ambient and experimental warming on lichens and vascular plant cover in two alpine plant communities, a dry heath with sparse canopy cover (54 %) and a mesic meadow with a more developed (67 %) canopy cover, in sub-arctic Sweden.

    Methods 

    The effects of long-term passive experimental warming using open top chambers (OTCs) on lichens and total vascular plant cover, and the impact of plant cover on lichen community parameters, were analysed.

    Key Results 

    Between 1993 and 2013, mean annual temperature increased about 2 °C. Both site and experimental warming had a significant effect on cover, species richness, effective number of species evenness of lichens, and total plant canopy cover. Lichen cover increased in the heath under ambient conditions, and remained more stable under experimental warming. The negative effect on species richness and effective number of species was driven by a decrease in lichens under experimental warming in the meadow. Lichen cover, species richness, effective number of species evenness were negatively correlated with plant canopy cover. There was a significant negative impact on one species and a non-significant tendency of lower abundance of the most common species in response to experimental warming.

    Conclusions 

    The results from the long-term warming study imply that arctic and high alpine lichen communities are likely to be negatively affected by climate change and an increase in plant canopy cover. Both biotic and abiotic factors are thus important for future impacts of climate change on lichens.

  • 833.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering and Lighting Science.
    Chen, Shengbin
    College of Ecology and Environment, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, China.
    Sun, Shou-Qin
    Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Science, Chengdu, China.
    Molau, Ulf
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bryophyte cover and richness decline after 18 years of experimental warming in Alpine SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Bryophytes in the Arctic and Alpine regions are important in terms of biodiversity, cover and biomass. However, climate change and widespread shrubification of alpine and arctic tundra is predicted to increase in the future, with potentially large impacts on bryophyte communities.

    2. We studies the impact of 18 years of experimental warming with open top chambers (OTCs) on bryophyte cover, richness and diversity in an alpine mesic meadow and a heath plant community in Northern Sweden. In addition we investigated the relationship between deciduous shrubs and bryophytes.

    3. Cover and richness of bryophytes both declined due to long-term warming, while diversity did not show any significant responses. After 18 years, bryophyte cover had decreased by 71% and 26 in the heath and meadow, while richness declined by 39% and 26%, respectively.

    4. Synthesis. Decline in total bryophyte cover in both communities in response to long-term warming was driven by a general decline in many species, with only two individual species showing significant declines. Although most of the species included in the individual analyses did not show any detectable changes, the cumulative change in all species was significant. In addition, species loss was slower than the general decline in bryophyte abundance. As hypothesized, we found significant negative relationship between deciduous shrub cover and bryophyte cover, but not bryophyte richness, in both plant communities. This is likely due to a more delayed decline in species richness compared to abundance, similar to what was observed in response to long-term warming.

  • 834. Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Calluna AB, Nacka, Sweden.
    Juhanson, Jaanis
    Michelsen, Anders
    Ľuptáčik, Peter
    Impacts of twenty years of experimental warming on soil carbon, nitrogen, moisture and soil mites across alpine/subarctic tundra communities2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species. Long-term warming also caused loss of nitrogen, carbon and moisture from the mineral soil layer in mesic meadow, but not in wet meadow or heath or from the organic soil layer. There was a significant site effect on the density of one mite species, Oppiella neerlandica, and all soil parameters. A significant plot-scale impact on mites suggests that small-scale heterogeneity may be important for buffering mites from global warming. The results indicated that juvenile mites may be more vulnerable to global warming than adult stages. Importantly, the results also indicated that global warming may cause carbon and nitrogen losses in alpine and tundra mineral soils and that its effects may differ at local scale.

  • 835. Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Molau, Ulf
    Climate change and climatic events: community-, functional- and species-level responses of bryophytes and lichens to constant, stepwise, and pulse experimental warming in an alpine tundra2014In: Alpine Botany, ISSN 1664-2201, E-ISSN 1664-221X, Vol. 124, no 2, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally imposed three different kinds of warming scenarios over 3 years on an alpine meadow community to identify the differential effects of climate warming and extreme climatic events on the abundance and biomass of bryophytes and lichens. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open top chambers (an average temperature increase of 1.87 °C), (b) a yearly stepwise increase of warming (average temperature increases of 1.0; 1.87 and 3.54 °C, consecutively), and (c) a pulse warming, i.e., a single first year pulse event of warming (average temperature increase of 3.54 °C only during the first year). To our knowledge, this is the first climate change study that attempts to distinguish between the effects of constant, stepwise and pulse warming on bryophyte and lichen communities. We hypothesised that pulse warming would have a significant short-term effect compared to the other warming treatments, and that stepwise warming would have a significant mid-term effect compared to the other warming treatments. Acrocarpous bryophytes as a group increased in abundance and biomass to the short-term effect of pulse warming. We found no significant effects of mid-term (third-year) stepwise warming. However, one pleurocarpous bryophyte species, Tomentypnum nitens, generally increased in abundance during the warm year 1997 but decreased in control plots and in response to the stepwise warming treatment. Three years of experimental warming (all treatments as a group) did have a significant impact at the community level, yet changes in abundance did not translate into significant changes in the dominance hierarchies at the functional level (for acrocarpous bryophytes, pleurocarpous bryophytes, Sphagnum or lichens), or in significant changes in other bryophyte or lichen species. The results suggest that bryophytes and lichens, both at the functional group and species level, to a large extent are resistant to the different climate change warming simulations that were applied.

  • 836.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Qatar University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Impacts of different climate change regimes and extreme climatic events on an alpine meadow community2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 21720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate variability is expected to increase in future but there exist very few experimental studies that apply different warming regimes on plant communities over several years. We studied an alpine meadow community under three warming regimes over three years. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open-top chambers (ca. 1.9 °C above ambient), (b) yearly stepwise increases in warming (increases of ca. 1.0, 1.9 and 3.5 °C), and (c) pulse warming, a single first-year pulse event of warming (increase of ca. 3.5 °C). Pulse warming and stepwise warming was hypothesised to cause distinct first-year and third-year effects, respectively. We found support for both hypotheses; however, the responses varied among measurement levels (whole community, canopy, bottom layer, and plant functional groups), treatments, and time. Our study revealed complex responses of the alpine plant community to the different experimentally imposed climate warming regimes. Plant cover, height and biomass frequently responded distinctly to the constant level of warming, the stepwise increase in warming and the extreme pulse-warming event. Notably, we found that stepwise warming had an accumulating effect on biomass, the responses to the different warming regimes varied among functional groups, and the short-term perturbations had negative effect on species richness and diversity.

  • 837.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Molau, Ulf
    University of Gothenburg.
    Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient addition causes decline of bryophytes and lichens in alpine meadow and heath communitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Global change is predicted to have large and rapid impact on polar and alpine regions. Bryophytes and lichens increase their importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning at higher latitudes/altitudes. Here we report from a seven year factorial experiment with nutrient addition and warming on the abundance of bryophytes and lichens in an alpine meadow and heath community. Treatments had significant negative effect on relative change of total abundance bryophytes and lichens, the largest decline to the nutrient addition and the combined nutrient addition and warming treatments, bryophytes decreasing most in the meadow, lichens most in the heath. Nutrient addition, and the combined nutrient addition and warming brought rapid decrease in both bryophytes and lichens, while warming had a delayed negative impact. Of sixteen species that were included the statistical analyses, we found significant negative effects on seven species. We show that impact of simulated global change on bryophytes and lichens differ in in time and magnitude among treatments and plant communities. Our results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of climate change models, as short-term studies are poor predictors of longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens, similar to what have been shown for vascular plants. Species-specific responses may differ in time, and this will likely cause changes in the dominance structures of bryophytes and lichens over time.

  • 838. Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Molau, Ulf
    Testing reliability of short-term responses to predict longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens to environmental change2015In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 58, no Supplement C, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental changes are predicted to have severe and rapid impacts on polar and alpine regions. At high latitudes/altitudes, cryptogams such as bryophytes and lichens are of great importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning. This seven-year factorial experiment examined the effects of fertilizing and experimental warming on bryophyte and lichen abundance in an alpine meadow and a heath community in subarctic Sweden. The aim was to determine whether short-term responses (five years) are good predictors of longer-term responses (seven years). Fertilizing and warming had significant negative effects on total and relative abundance of bryophytes and lichens, with the largest and most rapid decline caused by fertilizing and combined fertilizing and warming. Bryophytes decreased most in the alpine meadow community, which was bryophyte-dominated, and lichens decreased most in the heath community, which was lichen-dominated. This was surprising, as the most diverse group in each community was expected to be most resistant to perturbation. Warming alone had a delayed negative impact. Of the 16 species included in statistical analyses, seven were significantly negatively affected. Overall, the impacts of simulated warming on bryophytes and lichens as a whole and on individual species differed in time and magnitude between treatments and plant communities (meadow and heath). This will likely cause changes in the dominance structures over time. These results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of data used in climate change models, as models based on short-term data are poor predictors of long-term responses of bryophytes and lichens.

  • 839.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Qatar University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Čuchta, Peter
    Academy of Science of the Czech Republic.
    Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 18161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effects of micro-scale, site and 19 and 21 years of experimental warming on Collembola in three contrasting alpine subarctic plant communities (poor heath, rich meadow, wet meadow). Unexpectedly, experimental long-term warming had no significant effect on species richness, effective number of species, total abundance or abundance of any Collembola species. There were micro-scale effects on species richness, total abundance, and abundance of 10 of 35 species identified. Site had significant effect on effective number of species, and abundance of six species, with abundance patterns differing between sites. Site and long-term warming gave non-significant trends in species richness.

    The highest species richness was observed in poor heath, but mean species richness tended to be highest in rich meadow and lowest in wet meadow. Warming showed a tendency for a negative impact on species richness. This long-term warming experiment across three contrasting sites revealed that Collembola is capable of high resistance to climate change. We demonstrated that micro-scale and site effects are the main controlling factors for Collembola abundance in high alpine subarctic environments. Thus local heterogeneity is likely important for soil fauna composition and may play a crucial role in buffering Collembola against future climate change.

  • 840.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Visby, Sweden.
    Little, Chelsea, J.
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Visby, Sweden.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Dominance hierarchies, diversity and species richness of vascular plants in an alpine meadow: contrasting short and medium term responses to simulated global change2014In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 2, article id e406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the impact of simulated global change on a high alpine meadow plant community. Specifically, we examined whether short-term (5 years) responses are good predictors for medium-term (7 years) changes in the system by applying a factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to 20 plots in Latnjajaure, subarctic Sweden. Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient enhancement caused dramatic shifts in dominance hierarchies in response to the nutrient and the combined warming and nutrient enhancement treatments. Dominance hierarchies in the meadow moved from a community being dominated by cushion plants, deciduous, and evergreen shrubs to a community being dominated by grasses, sedges, and forbs. Short-term responses were shown to be inconsistent in their ability to predict medium-term responses for most functional groups, however, grasses showed a consistent and very substantial increase in response to nutrient addition over the seven years.

    The non-linear responses over time point out the importance of longer-term studies with repeated measurements to be able to better predict future changes. Forecasted changes to temperature and nutrient availability have implications for trophic interactions, and may ultimately influence the access to and palatability of the forage for grazers. Depending on what anthropogenic change will be most pronounced in the future (increase in nutrient deposits, warming, or a combination of them both), different shifts in community dominance hierarchies may occur. Generally, this study supports the productivity–diversity relationship found across arctic habitats, with community diversity peaking in mid-productivity systems and degrading as nutrient availability increases further. This is likely due the increasing competition in plant–plant interactions and the shifting dominance structure with grasses taking over the experimental plots, suggesting that global change could have high costs to biodiversity in the Arctic.

  • 841.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Little, Chelsea J.
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Molau, Ulf
    Vascular plant abundance and diversity in an alpine heath under observed and simulated global change2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 10197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global change is predicted to cause shifts in species distributions and biodiversity in arctic tundra. We applied factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to a nutrient and species poor alpine/arctic heath community for seven years. Vascular plant abundance in control plots increased by 31%. There were also notable changes in cover in the nutrient and combined nutrient and warming treatments, with deciduous and evergreen shrubs declining, grasses overgrowing these plots. Sedge abundance initially increased significantly with nutrient amendment and then declined, going below initial values in the combined nutrient and warming treatment. Nutrient addition resulted in a change in dominance hierarchy from deciduous shrubs to grasses. We found significant declines in vascular plant diversity and evenness in the warming treatment and a decline in diversity in the combined warming and nutrient addition treatment, while nutrient addition caused a decline in species richness. The results give some experimental support that species poor plant communities with low diversity may be more vulnerable to loss of species diversity than communities with higher initial diversity. The projected increase in nutrient deposition and warming may therefore have negative impacts on ecosystem processes, functioning and services due to loss of species diversity in an already impoverished environment.

  • 842.
    AL-Athami, Ahmed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Ehigiator, Efosa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Roadmap for establishing a common channel for digital skills development: Developing employees’ digital skills in the Jönköping Region2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the past few decades, organizations has shifted towards digitalization. Making it necessary for employees within an organization to acquire the necessary digital skills to cope with digitalization. These skills are necessary for employees to carry out their daily activities without setback. It is therefore important for an organization to provide a channel or an avenue for employees to acquire these skills without stress or difficulty.  

     

    Purpose: The purpose of the thesis is to explore an innovative strategy for digital skills development for employees, which can foster communication and collaboration and improve employees work performance within the organization.

     

    Method: A qualitative study was used to conduct the research. The authors used semi-structured interviews to collect data from employees of the municipalities being studied. The interviewees were employees from Nässjö, Jönköping and Habo municipalities. From the interview findings an analysis was performed comparing the findings between the three municipalities.

     

    Conclusion: The results outline some of the benefits of using innovative learning systems for digital skills development of employees and how these leaning systems can improve employees’ performance. Organizations should make it a priority to continually reinvest in developing employees’ digital skills in the public sector and need to be aware about the barriers to adopt innovative learning methods. Some of these barriers are lack of training programs, lack of managerial support among others. A coherent strategy is needed to address these barriers and facilitate skills development process. Further research regarding other alternative methods to improve employees’ digital skills that were not discussed in this research can be explored by other researchers using larger samples, different theories and data collection methods.

  • 843.
    Al-Athwari, Baseem
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    Altmann, Jorn
    Seoul National University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    A Conceptual Model and Methodology for Evaluating E-Infrastructure Deployment and Its Application to OECD and MENA Countries2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As information and communication technologies have spread throughout the world, countries have realized the importance of investing more and more in building ICT-relevant infrastructure. However, for fostering further information and communication technology (ICT) development, countries are in need of an analysis tool for measuring their advancement in ICT-relevant infrastructure. Motivated by a variety of attempts to generate measures of ICT development, this study aims to develop an index that quantifies the level of ICT-relevant (e-infrastructure) deployment. In particular, this study introduces two e-infrastructure indices that are composed of six components, namely electricity, telecommunication, Internet, processing power, broadcasting, and human capital. Each component is generated from one or more indicators. This composition provides the possibility of tracking each of them separately and to identify strengths and weaknesses of each country with respect to the ICT-relevant area of the component. It will also help pointing out the source of failure in developing the ICT-related infrastructure and to develop policies for enhancing ICT-related infrastructure accordingly. For the index computation, the study uses a parametric and a non-parametric computation method rather than the traditional approaches which are frequently used in literature. In addition to this, this study also aims at analyzing the indices ranking differences among OECD countries and Middle East & North Africa (MENA) countries, using data for the time period between 2000 and 2007. The ranking of the countries shows that MENA and OECD countries differ significantly in their e-infrastructure development. However, a small group of MENA countries are ranked higher than a few OECD countries. Those countries belong to the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).

  • 844.
    Alavizadeh, Zahra
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    PLC Controlled System for Local Humidity Management in Electronic Enclosures2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis is about investigation a power efficient anti-moisture device thatcan be implemented in electronic enclosures in severe climatic environments.First, some of the existing knowledge and previous works were introduced. Then arelevant theoretical background including three main approaches in humiditymanagement are described, comparison between the enclosure heaters and localheaters, some psychrometics concepts that have been used in the project, heattransfer fundamentals, environmental test basics, some humidity and temperaturesensing techniques, computational fluid dynamics, programmable logic controlfundamentals, comparison PLCs with microcontrollers was provided.A series experiments have been performed in order to find the power efficient andmost effective anti-moisture method. Based on the analysis of the experiment data,the local heater system has been designed. CFD assisted parametric study of thelocal heater has been performed in order to find the best feasible design includingthe size and location. The local heater has been built based on the results ofparametric study. Different materials have been tested in laboratory in order tofind the proper material for final prototype of heater. The implemented localheater has been integrated with programmable logic control device. The controlalgorithm has been developed for activation/deactivation of local heater. The logiccontrolled PCB local heater has been experimentally evaluated.In the end the results achieved from environmental test have been presented andanalyzed. Some conclusions on the results and also future work have been discussed.

  • 845.
    Alayón, Claudia
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Exploring sustainable manufacturing principles and practices2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry remains a critical force in the quest for global sustainability. An increasing number of companies are modifying their operations in favor of more sustainable practices. It is hugely important that manufacturers, irrespective of the subsector they belong to, or their organizational size, implement practices that reduce or eliminate negative environmental, social and economic impacts generated by their manufacturing operations.

    Consequently, scholars have called for additional studies concerning sustainable manufacturing practices, not only to address the paucity of related literature, but also to contribute to practitioners’ understanding of how to incorporate sustainability into their operations. However, apart from expanding the knowledge of sustainable manufacturing practices, it is first key to understand the ground set of values, or principles, behind sustainable manufacturing operations. For that reason, the purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the existing body of knowledge regarding sustainable manufacturing principles and practices.

    The results presented in this thesis are based on three studies: a systematic literature review exploring sustainability principles applicable to manufacturing settings, and two empirical studies addressing sustainable manufacturing practices.

    In general, it is concluded from the literature that there is a little knowledge about sustainability principles from a manufacturing perspective. In relation to the most common sustainable manufacturing practices, it is concluded that these practices mainly refer to energy and material management, and waste management. Similarly, the study of the adherence of sustainable manufacturing practices to sustainable production principles concluded that the principles concerning energy and materials conservation, and waste management were found to create the highest number of practices. Although most manufacturers still engage in reactive sustainable manufacturing practices driven by regulatory and market pressures, some industrial sectors were found to be more prone to develop proactive sustainable manufacturing strategies than others. Furthermore, SMEs were found to lag behind large organizations regarding adherence to sustainable manufacturing principles.

  • 846.
    Alayón, Claudia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Sannö, A.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Johansson, Glenn
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Sustainable production in surface treatment SMEs: an explorative study of challenges and enablers from the CEOs perspective2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 847.
    Alayón, Claudia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Sannö, Anna
    Mälardalen University,School of Innovation, IDT-Design and Engineering.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Johansson, Glenn
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Mälardalen University,School of Innovation, IDT-Design and Engineering, .
    Sustainable production adoption by surface treatment SMEs: Challenges and enablers2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The adoption to sustainable production is a continuous but necessary strive for manufacturing operations, including small and medium enterprises, SMEs. Meeting the future needs of the economic, social and environmental dimensions provides challenges for SMEs. In order for these challenges to be met understanding of internal and external enablers is required. Studies focusing on the enablers for sustainability amongst SMEs are rare; hence these companies are important players in the supply chain to focal companies. In order to enhance the understanding of the adoption of sustainable production for the sector surface treatment SMEs, an explorative study has been conducted. In this study, the focus has been placed in the identification and analysis of the challenges and enablers for adoption of sustainable production. Two stages of empirical data collection were undertaken: a focus group session and an online questionnaire. The findings present challenges based on the limitations of the surface treatment process but also where enablers for the social, economic and environmental for meeting those challenges are strongly linked. The results showed that these SMEs face challenges in their way towards sustainable production, mainly due to: low economic profitability, need for improvement in old working procedures, lack of fully understanding regarding environmental legislation, difficulty in ensuring workforce, lack of technology development and resistance towards change. These challenges could be faced through internal and external enablers, where the support of large-size customers and other stakeholders is critical for these SMEs.

  • 848.
    Alayón, Claudia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Johansson, Glenn
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Conceptual sustainable production principles in practice: Do they reflect what companies do?2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 141, p. 693-701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common understanding of sustainable production principles and the identification of sustainable manufacturing practices among practitioners are key starting points in studying how manufacturers are making their operations more sustainable. However, there is a lack of insight in the literature connecting conceptual sustainable production principles, and the practices reflecting these principles. Using semi-structured interviews founded on the sustainable production principles posed by the Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, this paper presents an outlook of how companies in different industries carry out manufacturing practices related to the sustainability production principles. Results showed that the majority of sustainable manufacturing practices remain strongly centered on the environmental dimension of sustainability, with the greatest number of practices emanating from principles concerning energy and material conservation, and waste management. Similarly, reactive sustainable manufacturing practices prevailed over proactive sustainable manufacturing practices, as most of the practices aimed to comply with regulatory and market pressures. Quality and environmental management systems were acknowledged as important tools for putting sustainable production principles into practice; while Swedish environmental and social regulations were found to drive sustainable manufacturing practices. This study connects sustainable production principles with sustainable manufacturing practices and opens the way for further studies on a global or sector-specific scale.

  • 849.
    Alayón, Claudia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Johansson, Glenn
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Implementation of sustainable production principles within Swedish manufacturers2014In: Proceedings of The 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014, Göteborg: Chalmers university , 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Both, a common understanding on sustainable production principles and the identification of sustainable production practices within manufacturers constitute key starting points when the aim is to study how Swedish manufacturers are working towards sustainable production. Using an interview guide based on the sustainable production principles by the Lowell Center of Sustainable Production (LCSP), this paper provides an overview of how Swedish manufacturers comply with these set of principles.

  • 850.
    Alayón, Claudia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Johansson, Glenn
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Sustainability in manufacturing: A literature review2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased sustainability awareness among consumers and other stakeholders has created a challenging environment for manufacturers. In order to remain in current markets it is expected from manufacturer's operations to be conscious about their impact on sustainability issues. The paper reports on a systematic review which examines sustainability practices in manufacturing companies. The systematic review aims to identify empirical-based papers to pinpoint sustainability issues addressed within manufacturing industry. To do so, trending topic categories were identified for each sustainability dimension (environment, people and profit). This paper provides further direction for future research.

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