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  • 51.
    Ahl, Helene
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Why research on women entrepreneurs needs new directions2006Ingår i: Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, ISSN 1042-2587, E-ISSN 1540-6520, Vol. 30, nr 5, s. 595-621Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research articles on women's entrepreneurship reveal, in spite of intentions to the contrary and in spite of inconclusive research results, a tendency to recreate the idea of women as being secondary to men and of women's businesses being of less significance or, at best, as being a complement. Based on a discourse analysis, this article discusses what research practices cause these results. It suggests new research directions that do not reproduce women's subordination but capture more and richer aspects of women's entrepreneurship.

  • 52.
    Ahl, Helene
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Women and entrepreneurship: Contemporary classics2006Ingår i: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 26, nr 6, s. 661-664Artikel, recension (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 53.
    Ahl, Helene
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Women and humanities: Allies or enemies?2006Ingår i: Management Education and Humanites, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2006, s. 45-66Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 54.
    Ahl, Helene
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Women’s enterprise – a boost or a detriment to the Scandinavian welfare system?2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 55.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Berglund, K.
    Pettersson, K.
    Sköld, B.
    Tillmar, M.
    Entrepreneurship in rural areas: The role of women?2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 56.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    The introduction of entrepreneurship in contemporary Swedish education policy: Ugly duckling or beautiful swan?2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 57.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Can governments support both women and entrepreneurship?  2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminism in Sweden as well as in the other Scandinavian countries was largely formulated as state feminism. The women’s movement has cooperated with feminists in the state, resulting in societies that count as the most gender equal in the world. The Scandinavian countries are consistently ranked in the top position on international gender equality indices. The state has provided a large publicly financed welfare sector that both employs many women, and makes it possible to combine work and family through family friendly policies. The last decade has seen a political change influenced by neoliberal thought, in which politicians hand over welfare state responsibilities to the market, and instead encourage entrepreneurship, not least among women. The Swedish government has since 20 years back programs and policies to promote women’s entrepreneurship. The Swedish state has during the same period shrunk the public sector and privatized many operations in services and care, which traditionally employ many women. Instead, women are encouraged to start businesses in former public sectors. Empirical studies suggest however, that all of the increase of women’s entrepreneurship in these sectors is within low-paid, micro service businesses, typically child minding.

    Traditional state feminism has also changed character. Instead of public regulations, market solutions are advocated. In this paper we ask how to theorize this change from a feminist theory perspective; we ask what the implications for feminist action are, and we ask what consequences for women’s position in society are. We use research literature and policy texts as our empirical material and conduct a critical literature analysis. We conclude that the entrepreneurship discourse challenges, and possibly weakens state feminism and feminist action as we have known it in the Scandinavian countries, but may also offer new forms of feminist resistance, on market terms. 

  • 58.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholms universitet.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Entrepreneurship for Equality?2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 59.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    From feminism to FemInc.ism: On the uneasy relationship between feminism, entrepreneurship and the Nordic welfare state2016Ingår i: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 369-392Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminism in the Nordic countries was primarily formulated in terms of ‘state feminism’. The women’s movement cooperated with feminist government officials and politicians, resulting in societies that can be considered to be the most gender-equal societies in the world. Historically, the state provided for a large publicly-financed welfare sector which made it possible for many women to combine work and family through the state’s implementation of family-friendly policies, while simultaneously providing employment opportunities for many women.

    However, since the financial crisis of the 1990s, there has been a political change influenced by neo-liberal thought, in which politicians have handed over the welfare state’s responsibilities to the market, and, instead, the politicians have encouraged entrepreneurship, not least among women. Further to this development, there has been a change in emphasis from entrepreneurship (understood as starting and running a business) to entrepreneurialism which, in addition to a belief in the efficacy of market forces, also contains a social dimension where individuals are supposed to be flexible and exercise choice. In this article, we ask whether this entails a change in the feminist project in the Nordic countries, and if so, what the likely consequences are for this project, both in practice and in research.

    In order to answer this question, we reviewed existing Nordic research on women’s entrepreneurship and examined how this body of work conceptualizes entrepreneurship, gender, the state, and equality. We also considered whether any trends could be identified. We relate our findings to recent changes in government policy and conclude that the current discourse on entrepreneurship challenges, and possibly weakens, state feminism, but we also conclude that this discourse may also provide space for new forms of feminist action, in market terms. We coin the term FemInc.ism to denote feminist action through enterprise and we discuss a number of important challenges that research on this phenomenon is faced with.

  • 60.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Is institutional support for women’s entrepreneurship feminist?2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 61.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Nordregio.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Will business ownership support gender equality?2012Ingår i: g12 Nationell konferens för genusforskning / [ed] Alnebratt, Kerstin & Holgersson, Charlotte, Göteborg, 2012, s. 38-38Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 62.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Tillmar, Malin
    Women’s entrepreneurship in rural areas: A literature review2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 63.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Bergmo-Prvulovic, IngelaStockholms universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.Kilhammar, KarinHögskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    HR: Att ta tillvara mänskliga resurser2017Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 64.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan.
    Bergmo-Prvulovic, IngelaHögskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.Kilhammar, KarinHögskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Human resource management: A Nordic perspective2019Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 65.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Conceptualizing entrepreneurship as creative space 2011Ingår i: Presented at 4th EuroMed Conference of the EuroMed Academy of Business, Elounda, Greece, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews and challenges received conceptualizations of entrepreneurship. We find entrepreneurship too narrowly defined, the business contexts in which it is customarily applied limiting, and the focus of input measured as forms of capital and output measured as economic gain restrictive. It black-boxes what entrepreneurs really do, reveals little about the process or the phenomenon of entrepreneurship, and its application in contexts other than business unnecessarily imposes business values that are not appropriate in such contexts. We further argue for the use of case studies as a fruitful way of unpacking the entrepreneurial process, and offer an example of such a case study. The analysis of the case results in a conceptualization of entrepreneurship as creative space, with three interrelated and co-dependent process movements: conservation, coordination and creation. We suggest entrepreneurship as creative space as a productive metaphor in studying what entrepreneurs really do, and also recommend a return to the original definition of entrepreneurship as entreprendre, that is, to undertake something.

  • 66.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Czarniawska, Barbara
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Many words about tea2010Ingår i: ENTER: Entrepreneurial Narrative Theory Ethnomethodology and Reflexivity: An Issue about The Republic of Tea / [ed] William B. Gartner, Clemson University Digital Press , 2010, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 191-210Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 67.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Florin Samuelsson, Emilia
    Networking through empowerment and empowerment through networking: results from a practical experiment using networking through empowerment to enhance women's entrepreneurship2000Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 68.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Florin Samuelsson, Emilia
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Företagsekonomi.
    Testing networking strategies for nascent women entrepreneurs2001Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 69.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan.
    Florin Samuelsson, Emilia
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan.
    Walking a tightrope: Women entrepreneurs on the pricing decision as a delicate act of balancing inner and outer forces1999Ingår i: Sailing the Entrepreneurial Wave into the 21st Century: proceedings for the USASBE Entrepreneurship Conference in January 1999 / [ed] Scott William Kunkel, San Diego: University of San Diego , 1999Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a pilot study on the rationales for pricing decisions among a group of female entrepreneurs. For the purpose of avoiding pre-determined categories and allowing novel ideas and concerns to emerge, a focus group methodology was employed. Unlike the dominating literature on the subject which sees pricing as a rational decision based on costs, customer value and competition, this study suggests that both contextual factors and psychological factors are important. Important contextual factors were culture, regional characteristics and gender. Important psychological factors were sense of fairness, morals, identity, self-image, need for confirmation and self-confidence.

  • 70.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    The theory of conditional social equality: Group homogeneity as a prerequisite for challenging (some) inequalities among older men2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 71.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Golding, B.
    Federation University Australia.
    How the Men’s Shed idea travels to Scandinavia2017Ingår i: Australian Journal of Adult Learning, ISSN 1443-1394, Vol. 57, nr 3, s. 316-333Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Australia has around 1,000 Men’s Sheds – informal communitybased workshops offering men beyond paid work somewhere to go, something to do and someone to talk to. They have proven to be of great benefit for older men’s learning, health and wellbeing, social integration, and for developing a positive male identity focusing on community responsibility and care. A Men’s Shed is typically selforganized and ‘bottom-up’, which is also a key success factor, since it provides participants with a sense of ownership and empowerment. Men’s Sheds are now spreading rapidly internationally, but the uptake of the idea varies with the local and national context, and so too may the consequences. Our paper describes how the Men’s Shed travelled to Denmark, a country with considerably more ‘social engineering’ than in Australia, where Sheds were opened in 2015, via a ‘top-down’ initiative sponsored by the Danish Ministry of Health. Using data from the study of the web pages of the Danish ‘Shed’ organizations, from interviews with the central organizer, and from visits and interviews with participants and local organizers at two Danish Men’s sheds, we describe how the idea of the Men’s Shed on the Australian model was interpreted and translated at central and local levels. Preliminary data indicate that similar positive benefits as exist in Australia may result, provided that local ownership is emphasized.

  • 72.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Golding, Barry
    Federation University, Australia.
    How the idea of a Men’s Shed travels to Scandinavia2017Ingår i: Getting of wisdom – Learning in later life: International Exchange and Conferences, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Australia has around 1,000 Men’s Sheds – informal community-based workshops offering men beyond paid work somewhere to go, something to do and someone to talk to. They have proven to be of great benefit for older men’s learning, health and wellbeing, social integration, and for developing a positive male identity focusing on community responsibility and care. A Men’s Shed is typically self-organized and ‘bottom-up’, which is also a key success factor, since it provides participants with a sense of ownership and empowerment. Men’s Sheds are now spreading rapidly internationally, but the uptake of the idea varies with the local and national context, and so too may the consequences. Our paper describes how the Men’s Shed travelled to Denmark, a country with considerably more ‘social engineering’ than in Australia, where Sheds were opened in 2015, via a ‘top-down’ initiative sponsored by the Danish Ministry of Health. Using data from the study of the web pages of the Danish ‘Shed’ organizations, from interviews with the central organizer, and from visits and interviews with participants and local organizers at two Danish Men’s sheds, we describe how the idea of the Men’s Shed on the Australian model was interpreted and translated at central and local levels. Preliminary data indicate that similar positive benefits as in Australia may result, provided that local ownership is emphasized.

  • 73.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Golding, Barry
    Federation University, Australia.
    The Nordic translation of “Men’s Shed”, a gendered model for adult learning2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic/Aim:

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight empirical examples of habilitation effects of an adjusted education for young adults with high-functioning autism. Our paper draws upon findings from a project researched - an IT education called the IT-track  - which is an example of an initiative that has had the intention to help to break the isolation and exclusion in favor of inclusion. The IT-track started in January 2012 and is founded by The European Social Fund (ESF), Region Jönköping, Höglandet’s Coordinating Association and Eksjö Municipality. It targets young people diagnosed with high-functioning autism between 19-30 years old. The IT-track offers upper secondary and university courses in programming, CAD and computer systems, as well as internship experience.

    Theoretical/Methodological framework

    • Supported education
    • Supported employment
    • Sense of coherence

    The study is inspired by ethnographic methodology (Hammersley & Atkinson, 2007), where researchers reside within the environments and situations they want to learn about. Data was collected by way of participant observations, natural conversations, research interviews with students and one focus group interview with the staff (van Manen, 1990). The different data collection methods complemented each other and, taken together, provide a rich description of the students’ experiences of the IT-track.

    Expected findings:

    The context of the present study is focused on (i) the students’ experiences of the IT-track, (ii) the students’ previous school experiences, and (iii) how they relate to their future. The findings involve:

    • Identified adjustments at the IT-track
    • To get structure in everyday life
    • To function better socially with others 
    • Extended horizons of possibility
    • Employment and internship

    Relevance for Nordic adult education and learning research:

    The findings have relevance for Nordic adult education and learning research due to a prior lack of research into Asperger syndrome and education of younger adults. This paper highlights the need for a better understanding of how environments can be adapted in order to be supportive and contributing to learning and habilitation.

  • 74.
    Ahl, Helene J.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    The Making of the Female Entrepreneur: A Discourse Analysis of Research Texts on Women’s Entrepreneurship2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from a social constructionist understanding of gender, this thesis examines how the female entrepreneur is constructed in research articles about women’s entrepreneurship. It finds that even if the texts celebrate women’s entrepreneurship, they do it in such a way as to recreate women’s secondary position in society.

    Building on Foucault’s theory of discourse, the thesis analyzes the discursive practices by which this result was achieved. These practices include certain assumptions that are taken for granted about women, men, business, work, and family. One of these assumptions is that men and women must be different. Despite research results to the contrary, many texts insist that the genders are different and construct three kinds of arguments in support of this. One is making a mountain out of a molehill, i.e. stressing small differences while ignoring similarities. Another is the self-selected woman, which proclaims women entrepreneurs as unusual women. The third is called the good mother and consists of molding an alternative, feminine model of entrepreneurship while leaving the dominant model intact. These arguments reproduce the idea of essential gender differences and the idea of the woman as the weaker sex.

    The discursive practices also include certain ontological and epistemological assumptions, which are questioned in the thesis. In addition, they contain disciplinary regulations as well as writing and publishing practices that reinforce the discourse. The practices and the ensuing research results are moreover dependent on the particular context in which the articles are produced. This means that their results and conclusions cannot be transferred to other contexts uncritically.

    By discussing these practices, the thesis opens the way for alternative ways of theorizing and researching women’s entrepreneurship. Suggestions for alternative research practices include the addition of institutional aspects to the research agenda, such as labor market structure, family policy, and legislation. The thesis also suggests a shift in epistemological position – from gender as something that is given, to gender as something that is produced.

  • 75.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Marlow, S.
    Gendering entrepreneurship: have the sisters done for themselves?2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 76.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Marlow, S.
    Postfeminist times: New opportunities or business as usual?2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 77.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Marlow, Susan
    Haydn Green Institution of Enterprise and Innovation, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Analysing entrepreneurial activity through a postfeminist perspective: A brave new world or the same old story?2018Ingår i: Postfeminism and organization / [ed] P. Lewis, Y. Benschop, & R. Simpson, London: Routledge, 2018, s. 141-159Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical component of the contemporary neoliberal turn has been the rise of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial behaviours (Campbell and Pedersen, 2001). In developed nations, this era has been exemplified by a marked increase in entrepreneurship and new venture creation; entrepreneurial activity has also been integrated into the corporate environment encouraging individualised employee agency to generate innovative problem solving (Dannreuther and Perren, 2012) At a micro-level, we have seen the emergence of the ‘enterprising self’ and society where individuals assume responsibility for their own lives managing social welfare provisions previously provided by the state (du Gay, 1994; Down and Warren, 2008; Ahl and Nelson, 2015). These shifting expectations have been made possible by enabling legislative and institutional changes such as de-regulation, the decline of trade unions, privatisation of state services and liberalised markets (Perren and Dannreuther, 2012). Contemporaneously, the populist cultural promotion of entrepreneurship through various media has positioned it as a desirable career option with increasing status and social worth (Swail, Down, and Kautonen, 2013). 

  • 78.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Marlow, Susan
    University of Leicester, UK.
    Analysing women's entrepreneurship from an institutional perspective2010Ingår i: Presented at "The European School of Entrepreneurship" conference, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Thyne, UK, 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 79.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Marlow, Susan
    University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Can sisters do it for themselves? Critiquing the possibilities of entrepreneurship through a postfeminist perspective2017Ingår i: 2017 Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, AOM 2017, Academy of Management , 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 80.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Marlow, Susan
    Entrepreneurship and the postfeminist turn: Women’s final emancipation or the same old story?2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 81.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Marlow, Susan
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Exploring the dynamics of gender, feminism and entrepreneurship: advancing debate to escape a dead end?2012Ingår i: Organization, ISSN 1350-5084, E-ISSN 1461-7323, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 543-562Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrary to the neo-liberal thesis that entrepreneuring is an open and accessible endeavour where personal effort alone determines reward and status, it has been demonstrated that there is a persistent, but occluded, gender bias within the entrepreneurial discourse. Accordingly, women are positioned as lacking and incomplete men; however, despite calls to employ feminist theory as an analytical frame to demonstrate the reproduction of such subordination, there is scant evidence this has emerged. Within this article, we respond to this call by demonstrating how post structural feminist analysis reveals the gendered assumptions informing entrepreneurship theory that embed prevailing hetero-normative assumptions. These assumptions limit the epistemological scope of contemporary research which positions women as failed or reluctant entrepreneurial subjects; as such, in the absence of feminist theorizing these analyses remain descriptive rather than explanatory. Accordingly, the current entrepreneurial research agenda is in danger of reaching an epistemological dead end in the absence of a reflexive critical perspective to inform the idea of who can be and what might be an entrepreneur. Finally, we draw upon these arguments to reflect upon current approaches to theorizing within the broader field of entrepreneurial enquiry.

  • 82.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Marlow, Susan
    University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Exploring the false promise of entrepreneurship through a postfeminist critique of the enterprise policy discourse in Sweden and the UK2019Ingår i: Human Relations, ISSN 0018-7267, E-ISSN 1741-282XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary theories of neoliberalism and entrepreneurship are entwined; both hinge upon the use of agency within free markets to realize individual potential, enhance status and attain material rewards. Postfeminism, as a discrete but related discourse, suggests this context is conducive to encouraging women to draw upon their agency, skills and personal profile to enhance achievements and returns. We draw from these related, but discrete discourses, when critically analysing how postfeminist assumptions shape Swedish and UK government policies aimed at expanding women’s entrepreneurship. Despite differing historical antecedents regarding state engagement with equality and welfare regimes, we illustrate how postfeminist assumptions have infiltrated policy initiatives in both cases. This infiltration has, we suggest, suppressed criticisms that in a context of persistent structural discrimination, lack of welfare benefits and contrived aspirational role models, entrepreneurship constitutes a poor career choice for many women. Consequently, we challenge the value of contemporary policy initiatives encouraging more women to enter entrepreneurship.

  • 83.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Marlow, Susan
    Birmingham University.
    Recognising the inter-sectionality between feminist theory and entrepreneurship: advancing debate and escaping the dead end2011Ingår i: Presented at European Group of Organization Studies, Gothenburgh, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 84.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Nelson, Teresa
    Simmons College, USA.
    Contextualizing women’s entrepreneurship: How discourses on gender, public policy and welfare state regimes position women entrepreneurs2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 85.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Nelson, Teresa
    Simmons College, Boston USA.
    How policy positions women entrepreneurs: A comparative analysis of state discourse in Sweden and the United States2015Ingår i: Journal of Business Venturing, ISSN 0883-9026, E-ISSN 1873-2003, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 273-291Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research compares the positioning of women entrepreneurs through entrepreneurship policy over two decades (1989–2012) in Sweden and the United States. Given Sweden’s uniquely family-friendly welfare state, we could expect different results, yet in both countries we find a legacy of discourse subordinating women’s entrepreneurship to other goals (i.e., economic growth) and a positioning of women as ‘other’, reinforcing a dialogue of women’s inadequacy or extraordinariness without taking full account of the conditions shaping women’s work experience. From this analysis we derive a conceptual schematic of assumptions presented through the discourse, aligning and distinguishing the U.S. and Swedish approaches

  • 86.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Nelson, Teresa
    Simmons College, USA.
    Moving forward: Institutional perspectives on gender and entrepreneurship2010Ingår i: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 5-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a re‐directed and purposeful attention to the design of research on gender and entrepreneurship moving forward.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper questions the value of more studies on the men v. women binary and encourages research on the institutions supporting the gendered construction.

    Findings – The paper suggests a re‐framing of gender (to include men, women, femininity, masculinity, etc.) both in topics investigated and in building the cadre of scholars engaged. It asks for discrimination of gender from biological sex in language use and believes that dialogue will be improved if the word “gender” is maintained as a socially constructed phenomenon directed at distinguishing the norms around “what women do” and “what men do”. Researchers, too, must necessarily confront personal pre‐existing ideas and language shaped by the norms and habits of one's upbringing and daily life in societies that are not acute observers of gender in action.

    Originality/value – The paper assesses trends in research on gender and entrepreneurship and recommends ideas regarding new directions to create better research and application in practice, teaching, and training.

  • 87.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Nelson, TeresaSimmons College, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Special Issue: Institutional perspectives on gender and entrepreneurship2010Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 88.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Nelson, Teresa
    Simmons College, USA.
    The case for an instituional perspective on women's entrepreneurship2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 89.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Nelson, Teresa
    Simmons College, Boston.
    Welfare Systems and Policies for Women’s Entrepreneurship in Sweden and the United States2011Ingår i: Presented at 9th International Triple Helix Conference, Stanford, USA, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 90.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Samuelsson, E. F
    Företagsnätet Empag: (An evaluation of a networking initiative for women entrepreneurs)1999Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 91.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Samuelsson, Emilia
    The pricing of an entrepreneurs: An identity construction dilemma1999Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 92.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet.
    Kvinnors företagande och genusordningen2013Ingår i: Arbete och jämställdhet - förändringar under femtio år / [ed] Eva Blomberg & Kirsti Niskanen, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2013, s. 169-187Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 93.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Swedish welfare state retrenchment and the call for women’s entrepreneurship to fill the void2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The last two decades have seen major welfare state retrenchment in Sweden. The public sector, which used to be a large and stable employer for women, was downsized. Public schools and public health and care services were privatized. Customer choice models were introduced. The rhetoric connected to privatization stressed the unique opportunities for women formerly employed by the state to start their own businesses in this sector, now open for competition and private initiatives. In this paper we ask what the results were. We discuss the results from a feminist perspective, i.e we ask if privatization and business ownership has improved women’s situation on the labor market, or not. The paper draws together the research findings from our own empirical research (about fifteen different studies) as well as from research done by other Nordic scholars in the field.

  • 94.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Kindap Tepe, Y.
    Düşmanca niyet yükleme eğilimi ölçeği geliştirme çalışması [Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Hostile Attribution of Intent Scale]2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 95.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Kindap Tepe, Y.
    Düşmanca niyet yükleme eğilimi ölçeğinin psikometrik özelliklerinin incelenmesi [Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Hostile Attribution of Intent Scale]2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 96.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Globala studier. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Lärandepraktiker i och utanför skolan (LPS), Plats, Identitet, Lärande (PIL).
    Borell, Klas
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. SALVE (Socialt arbete, Livssammanhang, Välfärd).
    Social scientists under threat: Resistance and self-censorship in Turkish academia2019Ingår i: British Journal of Educational Studies, ISSN 0007-1005, E-ISSN 1467-8527, Vol. 67, nr 2, s. 169-186Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Attacks on academic freedom in Turkey have become increasingly systematic in recent years and thousands of academics have been dismissed. This study reflects on the effects of this worsening repression through interviews with academics in the social sciences, both those dismissed and those still active in their profession. Although the dismissed academics are socially in a very precarious position, they are continuing their scholarly activities in alternative, underground forms. This resistance stands in contrast to the accommodation and self-censorship that seem, according to the interviewees, to prevail in university departments.

  • 97.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Lärandepraktiker i och utanför skolan (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER).
    Borell, Klas
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. SALVE (Socialt arbete, Livssammanhang, Välfärd).
    Persson, Roland S.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Taking to the streets: A study of the street academy in Ankara2019Ingår i: British Journal of Educational Studies, ISSN 0007-1005, E-ISSN 1467-8527Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In wide-ranging attacks on academic freedom in Turkey in recent years, thousands of academics have lost their university positions. At the end of 2016 oppositional academics, many of whom were dismissed from their positions for having signed a peace petition, established a Street Academy as an alternative way to reach out to both students and the public in Ankara. In this study we analyse the experiences of these street academy lecturers from the perspective of Social Representation Theory. Our main aims were to explore teaching experience perceptions and representations and, in addition, also the opportunities and challenges generated by this alternative academy. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with five female and five male street academy lecturers. The results of a qualitative thematic analysis revealed that the way participants explained their experiences could be organised into three major themes and several subordinate themes. One of the most salient results was that participating in the street Academy had become a way to defend academic freedom. More generally suggested results demonstrated that teaching in this new setting, outside of the universities and away from customised learning environments, was quite a novel experience. The possible implications of street academy lecturers? experiences are discussed.

  • 98.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Persson, Roland S.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Fel person på fel plats: Om högutbildade invandrare på den svenska arbetsmarknaden2017Ingår i: HR: Att ta tillvara mänskliga resurser / [ed] Helene Ahl, Ingela Bergmo-Prvulovic & Karin Kilhammar, Lund, SE: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1, s. 191-206Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 99.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Tepe, Yeliz Kındap
    Cumhuriyet UniversitySivasTurkey.
    Persson, Roland S.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Investigating Turkish university students’ attitudes towards refugees in a time of Civil War in neighboring Syria2018Ingår i: Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thousands of refugees have immigrated to Turkey because of the current Civil War in neighboring Syria. This is causing tensions between refugees and locals. These increasingly negative attitudes towards the incoming victims of conflict are of particular interest. The present study, therefore, aimed at determining the premises of the emergence of such negative attitudes. The research sample consisted of university students who all studied at various faculties at Cumhuriyet University in the Turkish province of Sivas. Data were collected by the Attitude Scale Towards Refugees, the Patriotism Attitude Scale, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, and the Cirhinlioğlu Religiosity Scale. Data were analyzed by Independent Sample t-tests as well as using Stepwise Regression Analyses. Results showed that the feeling of empathy correlated negatively with negative attitudes towards refugees, while blind patriotism, religiosity, and having nationalist/conservative orientations, correlated positively. Men were found to be more negative than women. The feeling of empathy was the most prominent factor in predicting the nature of attitudes towards refugees. Religious doctrine and distancing oneself from conservative and patriotic perspectives appeared to be effective in potentially preventing the development of negative attitudes. In conclusion, research results are discussed in the light of relevant literature.

  • 100.
    Almén, Lars
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    High school students access to digital tools in education2017Ingår i: EDULEARN17 Proceedings, IATED Publications , 2017, s. 365-373Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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