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  • 51.
    Gibson, David V.
    et al.
    IC2 Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, USA.
    Foss, Lene
    School of Business and Economics, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway.
    Developing the entrepreneurial university: Architecture and institutional theory2017In: World Technopolis Review, ISSN 2234-4594, Vol. 6, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the diverse environmental contexts of universities worldwide there is a need for a theoretical orientation that addresses the entrepreneurial university in a range of settings. Applying the institutional perspective this research explores how universities are strongly influenced by, as well as active influencers in, their surrounding environment. To do this, we examine case narratives of two universities in each of the following countries: Norway, Sweden, Finland, the UK, and the U.S. Analysis focuses on five entrepreneurial dimensions as defined by Nelles and Vorley (2010a): Structures, Systems, Leadership, Strategies, and Culture while examining the impact of regional and national context at regulative, normative, and cognitive levels of analysis. We address two research questions: How do universities interact with their institutional context in developing entrepreneurially and what actors and forces are most important in motivating institutional change in developing a university's entrepreneurial architecture?

  • 52. Gibson, David V.
    et al.
    Foss, Lene
    The entrepreneurial University: Context and Institutional Change2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Gibson, David V.
    et al.
    IC² (Innovation, Creativity, Capital) Institute, The University of Texas, Austin, USA.
    Foss, Lene
    School of Business & Economics, UiT—The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Universities and Regional Innovation EcoSystems2013In: University-Industry Innovation Magazine, Vol. Spring/summer, no 1, p. 12-14Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Gibson, David V.
    et al.
    The University of Texas at Austin, IC2 InstituteAustinUSA.
    Foss, Lene
    Universitetet i Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Hodgson, Robert
    Zernike (UK), Scunthorpe, North Lincolnshire, England.
    Institutional perspectives in innovation ecosystem development2014In: Modern Concepts of Organisational Marketing / [ed] T. Kliewe & T. Kesting, Wiesbaden: Springer, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 55. Henry, C.
    et al.
    Foss, Lene
    School of Business, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway.
    Case sensitive? A review of the literature on the use of case method in entrepreneurship research2015In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 389-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the use of case method inentrepreneurship research, and to identify trends in its current application. A key objective of the paper is to lay the foundation for a future research agenda by critically reviewing relevant literatures and offering insights into the use of case method in particular settings. The paper also helps identify areas where case method could add value to research findings in future scholarship.

    Design/methodology/approach – Using a Boolean search, a systematic literature review (SLR) was undertaken across the “big five” entrepreneurship journals in the five-year period between 2008 and 2012 The search initially yielded a total of 269 “hits”. Following exclusion criteria, the list was refined to a total of 52 empirical papers, and these were reviewed using a comprehensive reading guide developed by the authors.

    Findings – The paper finds that relatively few articles published in the “big five” entrepreneurship journals use case method, despite repeated calls in the literature for more in-depth, qualitative approaches. This potentially suggests that case method is not fully accepted as a legitimate or sufficiently rigorous approach in the upper echelons of contemporary published entrepreneurship scholarship. Overall the paper argues for greater acceptance of the use of case method amongst the academic community, alongside greater confidence in its application. This can be achieved by learning from other disciplines where the case approach is more established.

    Research limitations/implications – While a comprehensive SLR was undertaken, the search was restricted to a limited time period and across a limited number of top tier journals.

    Practical implications – The paper highlights incidents where case method has been used successfully, identifies gaps in the literature and contributes towards setting a future research agenda that should be of particular value to qualitative researchers.

    Originality/value – The paper builds on extant literatures by furthering our understanding of the use of case method in entrepreneurship research. It should be of value to qualitative scholars applying case method in their empirical work, as well as those seeking to extend their methodological reach beyond a purely quantitative orientation. 

  • 56. Henry, C.
    et al.
    Foss, Lene
    UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, School of Business and Economics, Norway.
    Fayolle, A.
    Walker, E.
    Duffy, S.
    Entrepreneurial Leadership and Gender: Exploring Theory and Practice in Global Contexts2015In: Journal of small business management (Print), ISSN 0047-2778, E-ISSN 1540-627X, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 581-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reflects on extant scholarship on entrepreneurial leadership and gender, as published in both the Journal of Small Business Management and elsewhere. As such, it lays the foundation for the special issue, and contributes to current knowledge in the field. Our selected papers-summarized and critiqued in this article-collectively offer a contemporary view of women's entrepreneurial leadership at the global level that should usefully contribute to extending scholarly debates. In this regard, we highlight the diversity and complexity of women's entrepreneurial leadership, and demonstrate that it is both economically and contextually embedded, worthy of further scholarly attention. 

  • 57. Henry, C.
    et al.
    Orser, B.
    Coleman, S.
    Foss, Lene
    School of Business and Economics, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Women’s entrepreneurship policy: a 13 nation cross-country comparison2017In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 206-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Government attention to women’s entrepreneurship has increased in the past two decades; however, there are few cross-cultural studies to inform policy development. This paper aims to draw on gender and institutional theory to report on the status of female-focused small and medium-sized enterprises/entrepreneurship policies and to ask how – and to what extent – do women’s entrepreneurship policies differ among countries?

    Design/methodology/approach: A common methodological approach is used to identify gaps in the policy-practice nexus.

    Findings: The study highlights countries where policy is weak but practice is strong, and vice versa.

    Research limitations/implications: The study’s data were restricted to policy documents and observations of practices and initiatives on the ground.

    Practical implications: The findings have implications for policy makers in respect of support for women’s entrepreneurship. Recommendations for future research are advanced.

    Originality/value: The paper contributes to extant knowledge and understanding about entrepreneurship policy, specifically in relation to women’s entrepreneurship. It is also one of the few studies to use a common methodological approach to explore and compare women’s entrepreneurship policies in 13 countries. 

  • 58. Henry, C.
    et al.
    Orser, B.
    Coleman, S.
    Foss, Lene
    School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University, Norway.
    Welter, Friederike
    IfM Bonn (Institut für Mittelstandsforschung), Germany.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, K.
    Braun, P.
    de Bruin, A.
    Diaz-Garcia, C.
    Gawell, M.
    Lawton Smith, H.
    Lewis, K.
    McGowan, P.
    Nziku, D.
    Pettersson, K.
    Sheikh, S.
    Tillmar, M.
    Yousafzai, S.
    Women’s entrepreneurship policy: A 13-nation cross-country comparison2017In: Entrepreneurial ecosystems and growth of women's entrepreneurship: A comparative analysis / [ed] atiana S. Manolova, Candida G. Brush, Linda F. Edelman, Alicia Robb & Friederike Welter, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017, p. 244-278Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Public policy is a key element within the entrepreneurial ecosystem in that policy has the potential to shape venture creation behavior and entrepreneurial outcomes. In response to studies documenting a gender gap in entrepreneurial activity, government attention to women’s entrepreneurship has increased in the past two decades. Nevertheless, there are few cross-cultural studies to inform policy development. This 13-nation study draws on gender and institutional theory to report on the status of female-focused SME/entrepreneurship policies and to ask: How - and to what extent - do women’s entrepreneurship policies differ among countries? A common methodological approach is used to identify gaps in the policy-practice nexus, highlighting countries where policy is weak but practice is strong and vice versa. Recommendations for future research are advanced. 

  • 59. Henry, C.
    et al.
    Orser, Barbara
    Coleman, Susan
    Foss, Lene
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Braun, Patrice
    de Bruin, Anne
    Diaz-Garcia, Cristina
    Gawell, Malin
    Lawton Smith, Helen
    Lewis, Kate
    McGowan, Pauric
    Niziku, Dina
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Sheikh, Shandana
    Tillmar, Malin
    Welter, Friederike
    Yousafzai, Shumaila
    Women’s entrepreneurship policy: A 13 nation cross-country comparison2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Henry, Colette
    et al.
    UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Foss, Lene
    UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Mikalsen, Geir
    UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Women's entrepreneurship research: What's context got to do with it?2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Henry, Colette
    et al.
    Dundalk Institute of Technology.
    Foss, Lene
    Tromsö University Business School.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    A Minority Report? Reviewing the research on women’s science & technology entrepreneurship2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Henry, Colette
    et al.
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Foss, Lene
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Gender and entrepreneurship research: A review of methodological approaches2016In: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 217-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the findings of a systematic literature review (SLR) of the gender and entrepreneurship literature published in 18 journals over a 30-year period. The SLR sought to identify methodological trends in the field of gender and entrepreneurship and to criticallyexplore the type of methodological innovations needed in future scholarship. Findings reveal aproliferation of large-scale empirical studies focused on male/female comparisons, often with little detail provided on industry sector or sampling methods and with either a weak or no feminist perspective. We argue that future scholars must develop the methodological repertoire to match emerging trends towards post-structural feminist approaches; this may require a radical move towards more innovative, in-depth qualitative methodologies such as life histories, case study or discourse analysis.

  • 63.
    Henry, Colette
    et al.
    Dundalk Institute of Technology.
    Foss, Lene
    Tromsö University Business School.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Parallel Lines? A Thirty-Year Review of Methodological Approaches in Gender and Entrepreneurship Research2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 64. Henry, Colette
    et al.
    Lawton Smith, Helen
    Meschitti, Viviana
    Foss, Lene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    McGowan, Pauric
    Networking, gender and academia: an ecosystems approach2020In: Gender, science and innovation: New perspectives / [ed] H. Lawton Smith, C. Henry, A. Poulovassilis, & H. Etzkowitz, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2020Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 65. Iakovleva, T.
    et al.
    Oftedal, E.
    Foss, Lene
    Tromsø University, Norway.
    Absorptive and adaptive capability in commercializing new technology: A case study of emerging petroleum companies in Norway2015In: Developing, shaping and growing entrepreneurship / [ed] Alain Fayolle, Paula Kyrö & Francisco Liñán, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 223-249Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Iakovleva, Tatiana Aleksandrovna
    et al.
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiS - Universitetet i Stavanger.
    Oftedal, Elin Merethe
    School of Business & Economics, UiT—The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Foss, Lene
    School of Business & Economics, UiT—The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Achieving Strategic Fit through RRI -The case of e-Health start-ups in Norway2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 67. Iakovleva, Tatiana
    et al.
    Oftedal, Elin Merethe
    Foss, Lene
    Impact of entrepreneurial education on entrepreneurial intentions: University context and educational program characteristics2014In: ACERE Conference, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Iakovleva, Tatiana
    et al.
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiS - Universitetet i Stavanger.
    Oftedal, Elin Merethe
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiS - Universitetet i Stavanger.
    Foss, Lene
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiS - Universitetet i Stavanger.
    Impact of entrepreneurial education on entrepreneurial intentions: university enterprise context, educational program characteristics and theory of planned behavior2012In: Research in Entrepreneurship and small Business: Book of abstracts, European Council for Small Business and Entrepreneurship (ECSB) , 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 69. Iakovleva, Tatiana
    et al.
    Oftedal, Elin Merethe
    Foss, Lene
    Influence of the University Context on innovativeness, Creativity and Entrepreneurial Intentions of the Students - 5 Country Study2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Johansen, Svein Tvedt
    et al.
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT i Harstad - UiT Norges arktiske universitet.
    Foss, Lene
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT i Harstad - UiT Norges arktiske universitet.
    Learning to Share Time: Trust in a Consumer to Consumer Network2018In: 2018 ISPIM Innovation Conference: Innovation, the Name of the Game / [ed] I. Bitran, S. Conn, K. R. E. Huizingh, O. Kokshagina, M. Torkkeli & M. Tynnhammar, ISPIM/ Lappeenranta University of Technology Press , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Johansen, Vegard
    et al.
    Østlandsforskning AS - Østlandsforskning AS.
    Foss, Lene
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Effektene av ungdomsbedrift og studentbedrift: Hva betyr kjønn?2014In: Entreprenørskapsutdanning i Norge: Tilnærminger, utbredelse og effekter / [ed] V. Johansen & L. A. Støren, Fagbokforlaget, 2014, p. 229-244Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Johansen, Vegard
    et al.
    Eastern Norway Research Institute, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Foss, Lene
    University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    The effects of entrepreneurship education - Does gender matter?2013In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 255-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article asks whether entrepreneurship education have the same impact on women and men with regard to perceptions of business skills, career preferences and belief in local business opportunities. We examine the company programme (CP), a programme taught to 250,000 secondary school pupils in 37 European countries. The data includes interviews with 1,187 24 to 25 years old in Norway, and half of the sample had formerly participated in CP. Controlling for competing explanations, CP has a positive impact on women's perception of business skills, but no impact on male's perceptions of business skills. CP has a positive impact on men's preference for self-employment, but no impact on women's career preference. Finally, CP had no impact on belief in local business opportunities. Females are underrepresented vis-à-vis males on all dimensions investigated whether they have participated in CP or not. CP ought to be adjusted to have an even stronger influence on women. 

  • 73.
    Kamovich, Uladzimir
    et al.
    School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Foss, Lene
    School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    In search of alignment: A review of impact studies in entrepreneurship education2017In: Education Research International, ISSN 2090-4002, E-ISSN 2090-4010, Vol. 2017, article id 1450102Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses the concept of alignment as a framework to examine empirical research on the impact of entrepreneurship education interventions on students. Alignment assumes that effective instruction requires congruence between three instructional components: intended outcomes, instructional processes, and assessment criteria. Given the extant diversity and complexity of entrepreneurship education impact, scholars have not been able to explain how teaching approaches and methods are being adjusted to the variety of expected outcomes. In order to address this gap, we critically reviewed the published empirical studies on entrepreneurship education impact in 20 journals over a 15-year period (2000–2015). We found 16 empirical studies that met our inclusion criteria. Our findings revealed that teaching objectives, teaching methods, and teaching content receive scant attention from researchers. This study will be of value to scholars researching the impact of heterogeneous entrepreneurship education practices and approaches on individuals. Our analytical framework could contribute to less contradictory findings of entrepreneurship education impact studies. We also identify research limitations and suggest avenues for future research.

  • 74. Longva, K. K.
    et al.
    Foss, Lene
    UiT – The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Measuring impact through experimental design in entrepreneurship education: A literature review and research agenda2018In: Industry & higher education, ISSN 0950-4222, E-ISSN 2043-6858, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 358-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    True experimental design and quasi-experimental design are considered to be rigorous research designs appropriate for assessing the impact of pedagogical interventions. This study explores the extent and application of experimental design in impact research on entrepreneurship education (EE) based on a systematic literature review. The findings reveal a substantial lack of methodologically rigorous studies on EE impact, which has severe implications for the accumulated knowledge on the subject. Furthermore, the article summarizes the findings from the body of experimental impact studies with a strong research design and concludes by indicating fruitful avenues for future research. 

  • 75.
    Longva, Kjersti Kjos
    et al.
    Fakultet for biovitenskap, fiskeri og økonomi - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Foss, Lene
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT i Tromsø - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    A systematic literature review of experimental impact studies on entrepreneurship education2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Løvland, Jarle
    et al.
    Entreprenørskap, innovasjon og regional utvikling - Nordlandsforskning.
    Foss, Lene
    Fakultet for biovitenskap, fiskeri og økonomi - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Enterprise development in Norwegian fishing industry2002In: Researching enterprise development: action research on the cooperation between management and labour in Norway / [ed] M. Levin, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2002, p. 61-76Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Naughton, Bernard
    et al.
    University of Oxford, Saïd Business School, Oxford, UK.
    Foss, Lene
    School of Business & Economics, UiT—The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Responsible innovation and commercialisation in the university context: A case study of an academic entrepreneur in digital healthcare2019In: Responsible innovation in digital health: Empowering the patient / [ed] Tatiana Iakovleva, Elin M. Oftedal & John Bessant, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019, p. 197-220Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 78. Oftedal, E.
    et al.
    Foss, Lene
    UiT the Arctic University of Norway: Challenges at the arctic crossroads2015In: The entrepreneurial university: Context and institutional change / [ed] Lene Foss & David V. Gibson, London: Taylor & Francis, 2015, p. 190-220Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The establishment of the University of Tromsø (UiT) has transformed its challenged and remote starting point into a centre of knowledge relevant in the High North. As the Arctic north has currently gained more national and international interest because of resources within petroleum and mining, the UiT is pivotal in furthering the region’s sustainable development. The UiT has developed academic spin-outs and been instrumental in spurring industrial development where there was none. However, the region faces challenges as a remote region such as the lack of financial resources, distant markets, organizational and competency thinness, and high vulnerability for new and fledgling businesses.

  • 79. Oftedal, E.
    et al.
    Iakovleva, T.
    Foss, Lene
    Responsible Innovation in E-health - an Overview of Research Status2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Oftedal, E. M.
    et al.
    Tromsø University Business School (TUBS), Universitetet i Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Foss, Lene
    Tromsø University Business School (TUBS), Universitetet i Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Comparing paradoxes: The cases of Norway and Thailand2013In: Female Entrepreneurship and the New Venture Creation: An International Overview, Taylor & Francis, 2013, p. 63-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 81. Oftedal, E. M.
    et al.
    Iakovleva, T. A.
    Foss, Lene
    School of Business and Economics, UiT – The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    University context matter: An institutional perspective on entrepreneurial intentions of students2018In: Education + Training, ISSN 0040-0912, E-ISSN 1758-6127, Vol. 60, no 7-8, p. 873-890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: How university context (UC) enhances students’ entrepreneurial intentions and opportunity recognition is an emerging topic. It is known that students learn, not only from educational programmes, but also from the context in which they are embedded. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of such context on student’s entrepreneurial intentions and opportunity recognition.

    Design/methodology/approach: The authors use a three-dimensional institutional framework to describe UC including regulative, normative and cognitive structures. Regulative structures refer to rules and regulations, support initiatives in relation to entrepreneurship; normative structures include shared values and norms; while cognitive structures apply to knowledge among students and faculty. A heterogeneous sample of 196 respondents from five countries was used to create reliable measures of UC and to test the hypotheses with the help of regression analysis.

    Findings: The findings indicate that two dimensions of UC in particular (regulative and normative) were shown to be of great importance in increasing entrepreneurial intentions and opportunity recognition among students.

    Originality/value: The study contributes to this further by suggesting a reliable and theory-grounded scale of UC. Furthermore, this study adds to the discussion on entrepreneurship education by proving evidence of the importance of UC on entrepreneurial intentions. The important contribution is acknowledgement of the fact that social systems both constrain and enable entrepreneurs in their discovery, evaluation and exploitation of opportunities. The authors have established that “would-be student entrepreneurs” do not exist separately from their structural context. Attempts to understand them outside of this context cannot, therefore, fully capture their nature. 

  • 82. Oftedal, Elin M.
    et al.
    Iakovleva, Tatiana
    Foss, Lene
    Unlocking the Entrepreneurial Potential through University Context2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 83. Oftedal, Elin Merethe
    et al.
    Foss, Lene
    Do you speak the innovation policy language? A case study of administrative officers input to developing entrepreneurial universities2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 84.
    Oftedal, Elin Merethe
    et al.
    School of Business & Economics, UiT—The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Foss, Lene
    School of Business & Economics, UiT—The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Hitting the institutional wall? The journeys of three firms from idea to market2019In: Responsible innovation in digital health: Empowering the patient / [ed] Tatiana Iakovleva, Elin M. Oftedal & John Bessant, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019, p. 140-161Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 85. Oftedal, Elin Merethe
    et al.
    Foss, Lene
    Unlocking the Entrepreneurship potential through University Context2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Oftedal, Elin Merethe
    et al.
    School of Business and Economics, UiT–The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Foss, Lene
    School of Business and Economics, UiT–The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Iakovleva, Tatiana
    Stavanger Business School, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    Responsible for responsibility? A study of digital e-health startups2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 19, article id 5433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responsible innovation (RI) has received increased attention from policymakers and academics as a solution to grand challenges and is viewed as the main driver for innovation. The United Nations has suggested 17 Sustainable Development Goals and responsible innovation can be seen as a tool that allows the movement of society towards reducing inequality, coping with environmental challenges and sustaining countries’ economic and societal development. Our knowledge of how businesses act responsibly in solving these challenges is scarce. An inductive analysis of 14 e-health startups in Norway, shows that responsibility is highly prevalent. Entrepreneurs have instant contact with users (patients or healthcare professionals), which increases inclusiveness, anticipation and reflection as the main elements of responsibility. However, firms' contextual and strategic awareness of responsibility remains low, which means an absence of focused strategies to exercise responsibility. Consequently, entrepreneurial startups are prevented from reaching broader stakeholders and fully reflecting the knowledge obtained. Moreover, RI activities are often bundled with other activities on the "path" to successful commercialization. This paper contributes to and enriches the current RI understanding from a firm perspective and suggests some implications for practitioners as well as policymakers to enhance sustainable development in the healthcare sector.

  • 87.
    Oftedal, Elin Merethe
    et al.
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT i Tromsø - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Iakovleva, Tatiana A.
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiS - Universitetet i Stavanger.
    Foss, Lene
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT i Tromsø - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Dynamic Drivers of responsible innovation2017In: ISPIM, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Oftedal, Elin Merethe
    et al.
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT - UiT Norges arktiske universitet.
    Iakovleva, Tatiana A.
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiS - Universitetet i Stavanger.
    Foss, Lene
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT - UiT Norges arktiske universitet.
    Solheim, Anne
    IRIS - International Research Institute of Stavanger - NORCE Norwegian Research Centre AS.
    Kickul, J.
    New York University.
    The role of microfoundations in explicating dynamic capabilities: A case study of the Norwegian petroleum sector2010In: Energy and Innovation: Structural Change and Policy Implications / [ed] M. Van Geenhuizen, W. Nuttall, D. V. Gibson & E. M. Oftedal, Purdue University Press, 2010, p. 369-398Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 89.
    Ottesen, Geir Grundvåg
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, Tromsø, Norway.
    Foss, Lene
    Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Grønhaug, Kjell
    Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Bergen, Norway.
    Exploring the accuracy of SME managers’ network perceptions2004In: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, E-ISSN 1758-7123, Vol. 38, no 5/6, p. 593-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the accuracy of small‐ to medium‐sized (SME) managers' perceptions of their information exchanges with important market actors such as customers, competitors and suppliers. In this way, examines an important dimension of managers' network perceptions, which are assumed to be necessary for optimal utilisation of their networks. By comparing managers' perceived frequency of information exchanges with external actors with an “objective” tracking of their actual behaviour, reveals substantial perceptual errors. Findings are discussed and implications highlighted.

  • 90.
    Pogessi, Sara
    et al.
    Faculty of Economics, Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy.
    Mari, Michela
    Faculty of Economics, Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy.
    De Vita, Louisa
    Faculty of Political Science, Sociology, Communication, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Foss, Lene
    School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Women entrepreneurship in STEM fields: literature review and future research avenues2019In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to explore the published management research on women entrepreneurs in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (also known as STEM) fields in order to offer a first, comprehensive state-of-the-art of this research. In doing so, a systematic literature review (SLR) of 32 papers has been undertaken. The results of this SLR show that the literature on this topic is still limited and fragmented. However, seeds have been sown for stimulating the theoretical debate and the empirical knowledge on these issues. Based on our analysis of these selected papers, we offer a vibrant research agenda for future developments.

  • 91.
    Prebensen, N. K.
    et al.
    Tromsø University Business School, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Foss, Lene
    Tromsø University Business School, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Coping and co-creating in tourist experiences2011In: The international journal of tourism research, ISSN 1099-2340, E-ISSN 1522-1970, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 54-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores how a tourist copes and co-creates experiences in various situations and with various people during a vacation. Tourist experiences are explored in social (service provider and other consumers) and physical encounters ('servicescape'). The study reveals examples of coping and co-creation strategies and the subsequent effects on tourist evaluations. The present work provides personal experiences and a diary as methods. The study proposes ways of dealing with tourist coping and co-creating strategies. 

  • 92. Sigdel, D.
    et al.
    Foss, Lene
    Board and Team Dynamics and Commercial Development in Scientific Spinoffs: A Case Study of four Biotech Companies2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 93. Sigdel, D.
    et al.
    Foss, Lene
    Entrepreneurial Competencies in University Spin-offs: How do Team Composition and Informational Diversity Matter?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 94. Solnørdal, M. T.
    et al.
    Foss, Lene
    School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Closing the energy efficiency gap-A systematic review of empirical articles on drivers to energy efficiency in manufacturing firms2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 11030518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has identified an extensive potential for energy efficiency within the manufacturing sector, which is responsible for a substantial share of global energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The purpose of this study is to enhance the knowledge of vital drivers for energy efficiency in this sector by providing a critical and systematic review of the empirical literature on drivers to energy efficiency in manufacturing firms at the firm level. The systematic literature review (SLR) is based on peer-reviewed articles published between 1998 and 2016. The findings reveal that organizational and economic drivers are, from the firms' perspective, the most prominent stimulus for energy efficiency and that they consider policy instruments and market drivers to be less important. Secondly, firm size has a positive effect on the firms' energy efficiency, while the literature is inconclusive considering sectorial impact. Third, the studies are mainly conducted in the US and Western European countries, despite the fact that future increase in energy demand is expected outside these regions. These findings imply a potential mismatch between energy policy-makers' and firm mangers' understanding of which factors are most important for achieving increased energy efficiency in manufacturing firms. Energy policies should target the stimulation of management, competence, and organizational structure in addition to the provision of economic incentives. Further understanding about which and how internal resources, organizational capabilities, and management practices impact energy efficiency in manufacturing firms is needed. Future energy efficiency scholars should advance our theoretical understanding of the relationship between energy efficiency improvements in firms, the related change processes, and the drivers that affect these processes. 

  • 95.
    Thapa, Raj Kumar
    et al.
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiS - Universitetet i Stavanger.
    Iakovleva, Tatiana A.
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiS - Universitetet i Stavanger.
    Foss, Lene
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiT i Tromsø - UiT - Norges arktiske universitet.
    Responsible Research and Innovation: A Systematic Literature Review2017In: XXVIII ISPIM Conference: Composing the Innovation Symphony, Vienna 18-21 June, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Thapa, Raj Kumar
    et al.
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiS - Universitetet i Stavanger.
    Iakovleva, Tatiana Aleksandrovna
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiS - Universitetet i Stavanger.
    Foss, Lene
    School of Business & Economics, UiT—The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Responsible research and innovation: A systematic review of conceptual papers & future research agenda2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 97.
    Thapa, Raj Kumar
    et al.
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiS - Universitetet i Stavanger.
    Iakovleva, Tatiana Aleksandrovna
    Handelshøgskolen ved UiS - Universitetet i Stavanger.
    Foss, Lene
    School of Business & Economics, UiT—The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Responsible research and innovation: A systematic review of conceptual papers and future research agenda2018In: Proceedings of the 2018 ISPIM Innovation Conference / [ed] Iain Bitran, Steffen Conn, K.R.E Huizingh, Olga Kokshagina, Marko Torkkeli & Marcus Tynnhammar, ISPIM/ Lappeenranta University of Technology Press , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) is currently gaining significant attention from policy and academic circles. The publication of the papers in wide variety of journals signifies the fact that discussion about RRI is raised in interdisciplinary field of studies. Furthermore, interest in RRI is growing in recognition of the role of RRI in making science and innovation for society with society. Yet relevant knowledge is widely dispersed across disciplines, which makes it not only ambiguous, but also, difficult on bringing RRI into research and innovation practices. In this study, we conducted a systematic literature review (SLR) of 126 conceptual papers on RRI from the period 2003-2016 and conducted thematic and ontological analysis of those 126 papers selected for the study. On so doing, we categorized the emerged themes into RRI domain ontology as drivers, tools, enablers, outcomes and barriers. The paper thus makes original contribution in understanding RRI and its aspirations and what could it mean for adopting RRI practices in research and innovation activities. The paper also suggests avenues for future research. 

  • 98.
    Thapa, Raj Kumar
    et al.
    UiS Business School, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    Iakovleva, Tatiana
    UiS Business School, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    Foss, Lene
    UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Responsible research and innovation: a systematic review of the literature and its applications to regional studies2019In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 2470-2490Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While innovation should be about socioeconomic transformation of society, concerns have been raised about its negative externalities including growing disparities within and between regions. Arguably, Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) offers a potential solution to address these concerns. However, in theory, its conceptualization and operationalization remain ambiguous. Further, in practice, this makes its application to regional development difficult. Accordingly, this study first conducts a systematic literature review of conceptual papers on RRI. It identifies themes and categorizes them into four domains: drivers, tools, outcomes and barriers. Second, these domains are applied to regional innovation studies. The paper contributes to an increased understanding of RRI and its applications to sustainable regional development as well as how RRI and regional innovation studies can benefit from each other. 

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