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  • 51.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul.
    Economic Fundamentals of Power Plant Performance2012Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stability of the electricity industry is crucial for economic growth of all nations. Sustainable economic growth cannot be accomplished without secured energy supply. The book underlines how management of the electricity industry should be conducted and the efficient form of electricity market structure. The book also studies the electricity industry in Korea which has been a strongly supportive and vital factor in the economic development of Korea for the last few decades.

    The book focuses on the three market players of the electricity market and they are the suppliers, consumers and the government-related organizations. It includes detailed information on generation and finances at the generator level and analyzes the efficiency differences among generators, plants and business units by using different performance measurement methods. It identifies and analyzes different production factors' effectiveness and relationships in generation. The comprehensive analysis helps to provide explanations in the differences in the performance of the studied units. The book also discusses the implications of the findings for future resource allocation and how we can further enhance the efficiency of the industry.

    The book will appeal to those interested in energy and energy policies, as well as researchers and practitioners in the economic development and electricity and utilities industry.

  • 52.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Economic Integration, Currency Union, and Sustainable and Inclusive Growth in East Africa2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This edited volume is an outcome of a project funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA). The project involves development of Doctoral Programs in Economics and Management, Research Capacity Building and Training and Career Development Initiative at the University of Rwanda, College of Business and Economics (UR-CBE). The project is implemented jointly by J€onk€oping University, J€onk€oping International Business School (JIBS) and the College of Business and Economics at the University of Rwanda. The Doctoral Programs aim at building local teaching and supervision capacities, while the Career Development Initiative aims at assisting faculty and staff of UR-CBE to develop their research and academic writing skills. The chapters in this volume were selected from among papers presented at the conference ‘Recent Trends in Economic Development, Finance and Management Research in Eastern Africa’, in Kigali, Rwanda, on 4–6 May 2015. The conference was organized jointly by JIBS and CBE. The submissions focused on recent trends in economic development in the developing economies of East Africa. This was the first conference in what is planned to be a yearly event. Theoretical, methodological and empirical research and policy or practice-oriented papers were invited, provided they were based on sound conceptual foundations with well-thought methods. Applied and practice-oriented manuscripts could focus on Eastern Africa as a whole or a group of countries or individual economies in the region. Priority was given to studies on Eastern Africa, but submissions from the rest of Africa were also welcome. Papers from regions other than Africa were also welcome, provided they discussed the implications of the research findings in the African context.

  • 53.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Economic transformation for poverty reduction in Africa: A multidimensional approach2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
    Economics A Generalized Knowledge Production Function2009In: The ICFAI Journal of Industrial Economics, ISSN 0972-9208, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 7-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a generalized production model based on the knowledge production function. The model facilitates the relationships among corporate competitiveness strategy, innovation, efficiency, productivity growth and outsourcing, which are investigated at the firm level in a number of steps. First, in reviewing recent developments of researches on the above relationships, the paper discusses the data and methods of measuring these variables. Second, depending on availability of information, different measures are transferred into a single multidimensional index of corporate strategy, using principal component analysis. Third, stochastic frontier production function and factor productivity analysis are used to estimate the efficiency and factor productivity growth at the firm level. Fourth, the causal relationships between the five variables of interest are established and modeled. Finally, given the direction of causality, the implications of the findings for estimation of the relationship are discussed. For the empirical analysis, the author uses the Swedish firm-level innovation survey data covering both manufacturing and service sectors.

  • 55.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Effective Corporate Tax Rates and the Size Distribution of Firms2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Sinsoo-dong #1, Mapo-gu, Seoul, Korea.
    Efficiency and productivity impacts of restructuring the Korean electricity generation2013In: Korea and the World Economy, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 57-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the performance of various generation plants in the Korean electricity market. The objective is to compare performance before and after the 2001 separation by using data from 1995 to 2006. The efficiency and productivity of the generation units is estimated by using a stochastic frontier model as well as data envelopment analysis and Malmquist productivity index. The result suggests that generation is mainly affected by facility type, maintenance cost, real fuel cost, and other costs. The national generation plan is characterized by high efficiency of nuclear plants, base type facilities, and large size facilities. It is also found that efficiency enhancement from the separation effect is not clearly discernible when comparing periods before and after the separation. Suggestions are made for the better utilization of economies of scale to further raise the efficiency of generation companies and the electricity industry through enhancement of fuel purchasing power and reallocation of labour.

  • 57.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economic Statistics, Stockholm School of Economics, Box 6501, S-11383, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Efficiency measurement in rotating panel data1998In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 919-930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rotating panel data are used with estimation of stochastic production frontier. The model can be viewed as a generalization of the regular production function estimation that accommodates technical inefficiency as well as firm heterogeneity. In particular, while estimating technical efficiency for each firm over time we control for firm-specific effects and separate them from technical inefficiency. Estimation of the model is considered in two steps. In the first step we estimate parameters of the underlying production function using generalized least squares method which are then used in the estimation of technical efficiency in the second step. As an empirical application we used rotating data on 1425 Swedish dairy farms observed during 1976-1988. The mean technical efficiency of these farms is found to be 94.5% and 16% of the farms are fully efficient. Evidence of technical regress about 1% annum is observed during 1976 to 1984.

  • 58.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Viktoriagatan 30, S-411 25 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Estimating random effects production function models with selectivity bias: an application to Swedish crop producers1994In: Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0169-5150, E-ISSN 1574-0862, Vol. 11, no 2-3, p. 171-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the estimation of production functions and measurement of the rate of technical change is performed when selectivity bias is expected. A sample selection model consisting of a selection and a regression equation is estimated using Heckman’s two-stage method. It is discussed in the context of a production function where the underlying technology is represented by a translog functional form. For the regression, a random effects model with heteroscedastic variances is assumed. This model and an alternative conventional model retaining heteroscedasticity without considering selectivity bias are estimated using the Generalized Least Squares method. The data used are a large rotating panel data set from Swedish crop producers over the period 1976-1988. The empirical results from the comparison between these two models show that the introduction of heteroscedasticity and the integration of sample selection in the production relationship is important. The impact of a correction for selectivity bias on the results, in terms of input elasticities and returns to scale is found to be significant.

  • 59.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Estimation of Productivity in Korean Electric Power Plants: A Semiparametric Smooth Coefficient Model2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Economics at the Department of Food and Resource Economics, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Globalization and the EU's Development Strategy, 1970–20072013In: Journal of Globalization Studies, ISSN 2075-8103, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 3-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses the KOF globalization index to investigate the development of globalization in recent decades. The index is decomposed into economic, social and political components. The analysis is based on a panel dataset consisting of 50 developed and developing countries observed during the period between 1970 and 2007. The index serves as a useful tool in comparing the globalization process among countries and how it has evolved over time. The focus here is on the EU's development strategy in the wake of the recent wave of globalization. The results show the evidence of large variations in the level and development of globalization and its underlying components across countries, regions and over time.

  • 61.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, University of Sogang, South Korea.
    Healthy aging as a solution to the ‘ticking time bomb’: dealing with aging population in urban China2018In: Sociology International Journal, E-ISSN 2576-4470, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 94-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health is considered an important determinant of economic growth and competitiveness. The health of the elderly population determines its need for resources and care. Investing in healthy aging contributes to economic and social well-being. This study reviews literature on the social and economic aspects of healthy aging. It summarizes alternative approaches in literature to ease pressures of a rapidly growing aging population. Literature refers to China’s aging population as a ‘ticking time bomb’ which is paradoxically both a challenge and an opportunity for the country. This study’s main focus is on strategies for healthy aging, policy practices, organizations and resources for promoting healthy aging in China. It uses up-to-date theories and methods applied to household surveys and population statistics to quantify the problem generate an idea of the resource requirements and possible benefits of specific policies and measures aimed at healthy aging. It draws conclusions with respect to the conditions of healthy aging in China and what the state policy for this is.

  • 62.
    Heshmati, Almas
    South Korea.
    Healthy Residential Environment for Elderly People: A Comparison of Japan, Korea and Sweden2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    How to Write a Successful Research Proposal2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
    Integrated water resource management in the Kurdistan region2009Book (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Introduction and Summary2016In: Economic Integration, Currency Union, and Sustainable and Inclusive Growth in East Africa / [ed] Almas Heshmati, Springer, 2016, , p. 232p. 1-7Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This edited volume is a collection of selected studies on economic integration, currency union and sustainable and inclusive growth in East Africa. The volume consists of 11 inter-related studies. These are largely grouped into economic integration and its trade effects; financial sector development and a common currency; research, innovation and knowledge, and the shadow economy; inclusive and sustainable growth; and the conflict-growth nexus and reconstruction. The studies together provide a comprehensive picture of the state of economic development, growth and integration in East Africa. Several studies cover major parts or the entire continent, but the main focus is on economic development and cooperation among countries in East Africa—Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania. By employing diverse up-to-date data and methods this volume provides a wealth of empirical evidence and provides sound recommendations to researchers and policymakers in East Africa for designing and implementing effective and inclusive strategies and policies for promoting development and economic integration.

  • 66.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Introduction and Summary of Poverty and Well-Being in East Africa: A Multifaceted Economic Approach2016In: Poverty and Well-Being in East Africa: A Multi-faceted Economic Approach / [ed] Almas Heshmati, Springer, 2016, , p. 281p. 1-7Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume is a collection of selected studies on poverty and well-being in East Africa. Eleven authors agreed to have their papers included in this volume. The studies can be grouped into four domains: child poverty and malnutrition, dynamics and determinants of poverty, multidimensional measures of poverty, and energy-environment-poverty relationships. The core argument for use of multidimensional poverty and for bringing out this edited volume is the need to account for all dimensions of poverty in its measurement and classification of individuals and households as poor/nonpoor. Research on the use of a multidimensional measure of poverty has received much attention. Poverty dimensions include material standards of living, health, education, housing, personal security, access to information, freedom, participation in an organization, corruption, trust, and employment. The studies in this volume together provide a comprehensive picture of the state of multidimensional poverty, its measurement, causal factors and policies and practices in Burundi, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, and Tanzania. In these countries poverty rates are high and multifaceted and these represent a major challenge to the governments and organizations which are aiming at alleviating poverty and promoting the well-being of the poor. By employing diverse up-to-date data and methods, the papers in this volume provide a wealth of empirical evidence and sound recommendations to researchers and policymakers in East Africa to design and implement effective and inclusive strategies and policies for promoting development and reducing poverty.

  • 67.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Introduction to Determinants of economic growth in Africa and Summary of the contributions2018In: Determinants of economic growth in Africa / [ed] Almas Heshmati, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, p. 1-14Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Introduction to economic transformation for poverty reduction in Africa2017In: Economic Transformation for Poverty Reduction in Africa: A Multidimensional Approach / [ed] Almas Heshmati, New York: Routledge, 2017, p. 1-6Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Introduction to Studies on Economic Development and Growth in Selected African Countries2017In: Studies on economic development and growth in selected African countries / [ed] Almas Heshmati, Singapore: Springer, 2017, p. 1-7Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major policy challenge facing Africa is how to sustain a high rate of economic growth that is both socially inclusive and environmentally sustainable. Growth and its sustainability influence many other challenges facing the continent. This volume is a collection of selected empirical studies on economic development and growth in Africa. The papers were presented at the second conference on Recent Trends in Economic Development, Finance and Management Research in Eastern Africa, Kigali, Rwanda, June 20-22, 2016. The studies are grouped into domains influencing economic development and growth in Africa.

  • 70.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economic Statistics, Stockholm School of Economics, Box 6501, Stockholm, S-113 83, Sweden.
    Labour demand and efficiency in Swedish savings banks2001In: Applied Financial Economics, ISSN 0960-3107, E-ISSN 1466-4305, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 423-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is concerned with the estimation of labour demand. The model is generalized to incorporate a variane function. A flexible translog functional form is used where the demand labour is a function of wages, outputs, quasi-fixed inputs and a time variable. The variance function appears multiplicatively with the demand function and it accommodates both positive and negative marginal effects with repect to the determinants of employment. The model includes features of the usual panel data models. A multi-step procedure is used to estimate the parameters of the model. Focus is on the estimation of productivity and efficiency of labour in Swedish savings banks. The labour productivity and afficiency in defined in terms of a shift in the labour demand over time and the bank’s distance from the labour demand frontier, respectively. Empirical resuls show that the average labour efficiency is about 96%.

  • 71.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Measurement of a multidimensional index of globalization2006In: Global Economy Journal, ISSN 1524-5861, Vol. 6, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we present two composite indices of globalization. The first is based on the Kearney/Foreign Policy magazine and the second is obtained from principal component analysis. They indicate which countries have become most global and show how globalization has developed over time. The indices are composed of four components: economic integration, personal contact, technology and political engagement, each generated from a number of variables. A breakdown of the index into major components provides possibilities to identify sources of globalization and associate it with economic policy measures. The empirical results show that a low rank in the globalization process is due to political and personal factors with limited possibility for the developing countries to affect. The high ranked developed countries share similar patterns in distribution of various components. ©2006 The Berkeley Electronic Press. All rights reserved.

  • 72.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economic Statistics, Stockholm School of Economics, Box 6501, SE 113 83 Stockholm, Sweden.
    On the Growth of Micro and Small Firms: Evidence from Sweden2001In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 213-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between the size, age and growth rate of firms is examined for a large sample of micro and small firms in Sweden. These firms have between 1-100 employees and operate in a geographically concentrated area. Micro and small firms are dominant in the industrial structure and thus their growth patterns are crucial to the economic growth of the region. The period of study is of particular interest because it allows us to evaluate the effects of various regional development policy programs on the growth and formation of firms. The data is an unbalanced panel covering the period 1993-1998. We allow for the exit and entry of firms. The growth rate is defined in terms of the number of employees, sales and assets. In the estimation of the growth rate we control for various factors characterizing the sample firms, their capital structure, performance, human capital, and local labor market conditions. Our results show that the relationship between the growth, size and age of firms is very sensitive with respect to the method of estimation, functional form and definition of growth and size.

  • 73.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, S-411 80 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    On the single and multiple time trends representation of technical change1996In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 3, no 8, p. 495-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with the estimation of production functions and measurement of the rate of technical change. Multiple time trends are introduced as an alternative to the single time trend representation of technical change. The underlying technology is represented by Cobb-Douglas and translog functional forms. Random effects models with homoscedastic variances is assumed. The models are estimated using the generalized least squares method. The data used are a large rotating panel data set from Swedish crop producer farms over the period 1976-1988. The empirical results show that a single or multiple time trends representation yield different time behaviour of technical change. The latter is found to perform much better.

  • 74.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Performance of State owned Enterprises - A Review2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Poverty and Well-Being in East Africa: A Multi-faceted Economic Approach2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, East Building, Room #217, Seoul 136-713, South Korea, and Soran University, Soran, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
    Preconditions to industrial development in the Kurdistan Region2012In: Perspectives on Kurdistan's Economy and Society in Transition / [ed] Heshmati, A., Dilani, A., Baban, S.M.J., New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012, p. 305-326Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates a number of factors currently vital to development within the Kurdistan Region. These include: the labor market, a mismatch of education and demand for labor, the economic development plan and policy, capacity building for post conflict reconstructions, inflow of foreign direct investment (FDI), the industrial development model and a macroeconomic policy of the region. All of the above factors are considered preconditions for industrial development of the Kurdistan Region. This study points to a number of limitations in the current development approach. The use of macroeconomics and sector-specific policies and indicators to measure performance and structure of the regional economy is lacking in Kurdistan due to the lack of an internally formulated economic plan, basic national account and statistics. All these are necessary conditions for regional planning and its implementation. Also, the taxation system is either outdated or nonexistent. The Regional Government relies heavily on oil and gas revenues. The introduction of a new taxation system, combined with diversification of the sources of revenue, will reduce government dependency on oil revenues. The banking system is characterized by a low level of savings, volume of credits and limited inter-bank relationships. The Regional Central Bank needs to initiate policies to develop credit channels that promote entry, survival and growth of small and medium size enterprises. Irregularities in the flow of revenues, high dependency on hostile neighbors, and shortage of production factors may cause shocks and instability in the economy. A policy of enhanced self-sufficiency based on close cooperation between government, as well as university and business sector should be given a high priority at this stage. ©2012 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 77.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University, TEPP, College of Engineering, South Korea, and Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    Productivity growth, efficiency and outsourcing in manufacturing and service industries2003In: Journal of economic surveys (Print), ISSN 0950-0804, E-ISSN 1467-6419, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 79-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a survey of recent contributions to, and developments of, the relationship between outsourcing, efficiency and productivity growth in manufacturing and services. The objective is to provide a thorough and up-to-date survey that provides a significant discussion on data, as well as on the core methods of measuring efficiency and productivity. First, the readers are introduced to the measurement of partial and total factor productivity growth. Different parametric and non-parametric approaches to the productivity measurement in the context of static, dynamic and firm-specific modelling are discussed. Second, we survey the econometric approach to efficiency analysis. The issues of modelling, distributional assumptions and estimation methods are discussed assuming that cross-sectional or panel data are available. Third, the relationship between outsourcing and productivity growth in manufacturing and services is discussed. The correspondence between a number of hypotheses and empirical findings are examined. Examples of varieties of relevant empirical applications, their findings and implications are presented. Fourth, measurement of inputs and outputs in manufacturing and services are discussed. Finally, to promote useful research, a number of factors important to the analysis of outsourcing, efficiency and productivity growth in the service sector are summarised.

  • 78.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economic Statistics, Stockholm School of Economics, Box 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Quality adjusted measures of services in public schools2002In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 136, no 3, p. 655-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study considers specification and estimation of cost functions in public schools. A number of production characteristics are included in the specification to control for observable differences between municipalities in the provision of their school services. Both parametric and non-parametric approaches are used to take into account the quality differences in school services. These approaches are then compared to the alternative output measure without any adjustment for quality differences. The sensitivity of different elasticities and returns to scale (RTS) measures with respect to alternative model specifications and quality adjustments are also analyzed. In the empirical section we examine performances of 286 Swedish municipalities in the production of primary and secondary school education during the 1992/3-1994/5 school years. ©2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 79.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Realities of Economic Development in the Kurdistan Region2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea.
    Rwanda Handbook of Economic and Social Policy: Volume 12018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Sogang University.
    Studies on economic development and growth in selected African countries2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is a collection of studies on economic development and growth in selected African countries. It consists of an introduction/summary and 15 inter-related empirical studies grouped into 5 research areas: women’s empowerment and demand for healthcare; the impact of institutions, aid, inflation and FDI on economic growth; capital structure and bank-loan growth effects; trade, mineral exports and exchange rate; and growth, productivity and efficiency in various industries. While it provides a comprehensive picture of the state of economic development and growth in most parts of the continent, the main focus is on economic development and growth in Ethiopia and Rwanda – two countries undergoing rapid economic and social development.

  • 82.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Survey of Models on Demand, Customer Base-Line and Demand Response and Their Relationships in the Power Market2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of demand-side management as a tool to reliably meet electricity demand at peak time has stimulated interest among researchers, consumers and producer organizations, managers, regulators and policymakers, This research reviews the growing literature on models used to study demand, consumer baseline (CBL) and demand response in the electricity market. After characterizing the general demand models, it reviews consumer baseline based on which further study the demand response models. Given the experience gained from the review and exiting conditions it combines an appropriate model for each case for possible application to the electricity market and discusses the implications of the results. In the literature these aspects are studied independently. The main contribution of this survey is attributed to the simultaneous treatment of the three issues as sequentially interdependent. The review is expected to provide a full understanding of the demand, CBL and demand response in the power market and their relationships. It enhances demand response in the electricity market. The objective is through a combination of demand and supply side managements to reduce demand through different demand response programs during peak times and thereby save costly power generation and energy resources and at the same time reduce vulnerability.

  • 83.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    The causal relationships between international trade and environmental sustainability2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
    The economy of southern Kurdistan2012Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Part of Southern Kurdistan is located in Northern Iraq called Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Certain aspects in regard to the economy of Kurdistan Region of Iraq are covered in this book. These include the labor market policy concerning different public and private employment programs; the mismatch of education produced and skills demanded for development; the economic development plan and policy of the regional government; reconstruction and development capacity building of the region; the highly desired inflow of foreign direct investment to the region; adoption of an industrial development model and industrial policy of the region; limited macroeconomic policy and several other equally important factors such as governance and security. ©2012 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 85.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    The Effect of Credit Guarantees on R&D Investment of SMEs in Korea2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Korean government has invested significant amount of resources through credit guarantee funds to promote SMEs survival, performance and R&D investment. This study attempts to identify determinants of provision of credit guarantees and estimate their effects on firms R&D expenditures. The relationship between duration of credit and firm’s survival and performance is also investigated. Account is made for heterogeneity by various characteristics of firms when looking at credit guarantee and in-house R&D investment relationships. This study results in identification of factors that enhances efficiency of funds and their effects on firms’ R&D investment behavior. It enables feedback effects on the public funds selection of firms guaranteed. A number of policy measures are proposed to promote a better balance between public and private investments to reduce the risk of business failure.

  • 86.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    The Effect of Credit Guarantees on R&D Investment of SMEs in Korea2015In: Asian Journal of Technology Innovation, ISSN 1976-1597, E-ISSN 2158-6721, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 407-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Korean government has invested a significant amount of resources through credit guarantee funds for promoting SMEs' survival, performance and R&D investments. This study attempts to identify the determinants of providing credit guarantees and estimates their effects on firms' R&D expenditures. It takes into account the heterogeneity of various characteristics of firms when looking at credit guarantees and in-house R&D investment relationships. This study identified factors that enhance the efficiency of funds and their effects on firms' R&D investment behaviours. It enables feedback effects on the public funds that were selected by the guaranteed firms. It proposes a number of policy measures to promote a better balance between public and private investments to reduce risks of business failures.

  • 87. Heshmati, Almas
    The relationship between income inequality, poverty and globalization2007In: The impact of globalization on the world's poor: Transmission mechanisms / [ed] Machiko Nissanke, Erik Thorbecke, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, p. 59-93Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    The Role of Natural Resources in Southern Kurdistan’s Economic Development2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 89.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Korea.
    The Social and Economics of Healthy Ageing in China2016In: World Health Design, ISSN 1654-9694, no January, p. 62-68Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    T he need for healthy ageing is a challenge to many countries with a significant share of elder people. The literature refers to the China’s ageing population as a ticking time bomb, a challenge and also an opportunity. Health is considered an important determinant of economic growth and competitiveness. The health of the older population determines its need for resources and care. Thus, investing in healthy ageing contributes to economic and social well-being. This study is a review of the literature on social and economics of healthy ageing. It aims to summarize the alternative approaches presented in the literature to ease the pressure from rapidly growing ageing population. Conclusions are drawn in respect with the conditions of heathy ageing in China and state policy.

  • 90.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Sogang University.
    Abolhosseini, Shahrouz
    National Iranian Oil Company.
    European energy security: Challenges and green opportunities2017In: The political economy of clean energy transitions / [ed] D. Arent, C. Arndt, M. Miller, F. Tarp, & O. Zinaman, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, p. 292-310Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Abolhosseini, Shahrouz
    TEMEP, Seoul National University.
    Market design for trading commoditized renewable energy2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology plays an important role in achieving a higher level of energy efficiency. In particular, energy efficiency can be achieved by integrating information technology into electricity networks to enable the interaction between suppliers and customers (smart grids). Power generation by renewable energy sources can also benefit from this integration of technologies. Distributed power generation, which will be the basis of renewable energy production, encourages the production of renewable energy resources and, accordingly, decreases transmission loss, increases energy saving, and enhances energy efficiency. Therefore, integrating distributed, renewable energy sources and smart grids within local marketplaces for trading renewable energy in small units can be a promising combination. In this paper, we propose a structure of a marketplace for renewable energy sources, design a market mechanism for trading in this market, and outline the requirements for such a market to function efficiently. Finally, we conclude and present recommendations to policymakers to provide incentives to generators to increase deployment of renewable energy sources and to end users to save electricity and to consume clean energy.

  • 92.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Sogang University.
    Abolhosseini, Shahrouz
    Seoul National University.
    Altmann, Jörn
    Seoul National University.
    The Development of Renewable Energy Sources and its Significance for the Environment2015Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book analyzes the effects of power generated by renewable energy sources, renewable energy production technologies, energy efficiency, and market regulation of carbon emissions. It elaborates on how these parameters have direct and indirect effects on carbon emission reduction, such as the results of an environmental tax that could directly reduce carbon emissions by decreasing fossil fuel consumption or by stimulatingenergy savings through technological innovation, as well as how renewable energy sources can affect both economic growth and theenvironment. In addition to a detailed analysis of the interrelationships between renewable energy consumption, production technology, and market regulation, "The Development of Renewable Energy Sources and its Significance for the Environment" proposes a model for measuring the effectiveness and results of the interaction between these links. Furthermore, a structure for a marketplace of renewable energysources is put forward, as well as an outline of the requirements that must be met in order for this market to function. Suitable policy recommendations to enhance the market for renewable energies are also provided.

  • 93.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Al-Hammadany, Firas H.
    Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Department of Information Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Multinomial logit model of choices of Internet modes in Iraq2014In: Business and Economic Research, ISSN 2162-4860, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 114-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is a country that has the potential to explode onto the Internet market due to the fact that much of Iraq is still largely without access to the Internet. Iraq’s market has much room for corporate and individual investments in Internet technology, mainly, Internet access. However, this requires a deep understanding of the user with regards to the Internet and the market characteristics involved. This study is concerned with the users’ choice of Internet mode connections in Iraq. There are several determinants of Internet use, namely, age, education, employment, utilization, and location. Through use of the multinomial logit models, these variables are analysed to define their numerical values and relevance to the Internet modes of choice in Iraq.

  • 94.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, K526, Sogang University, Korea.
    Al-Hammadany, Firas H.
    Ministry of Foreign Ministry, Director of Information Technology Department, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Bany-Mohammed, Ashraf
    CIS Department, College of IT, Middle East University, Amman, Jordan.
    Analysis of Internet Usage Intensity in Iraq: An Ordered Logit Model2013In: Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology, ISSN 2069-5934, Vol. 3, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensity of Internet use is significantly influenced by government policies, people’s levels of income, education, employment and general development and economic conditions. Iraq has very low Internet usage levels compared to the region and the world. This study uses an ordered logit model to analyse the intensity of Internet use in Iraq. The results showed that economic reasons (internet cost and income level) were key cause for low level usage intensity rates. About 68% of the population revealed that Internet access at homes is costly. Thus, it is no wonder that Internet cafés is the most commonly used mode of Internet use followed by broadband and dial-up connections. Iraq has to develop proper strategies to enhance the rate of Internet use in the country. These strategies need to focus on decreasing internet access prices, increasing awareness about the importance of the technology and internet education in schools and universities.

  • 95. Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Auzer, K.
    Is there a relationship between oil boom and fall of agriculture in Kurdistan region?2013In: Kurdistan region's economy / [ed] Manuel Ferez, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea.
    Auzer, Khazal
    Soran University, Kurdistan Region – F.R. Iraq.
    The role of natural resources in Kurdistan regional government’s economic development2018In: UKH Journal of Social Sciences, ISSN 2520-7806, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oil and gas industry of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq developed rapidly between 2007 and 2013, described as the “good days” of the Kurdistan Region’s economy. However, the Kurdistan Regional Government has faced a severe economic crisis since 2014, with falling oil prices and disruption to oil production. As a newly oil-exporting region, the flow of revenues derived from oil exports plays an important role in the region’s economic development. This paper addresses three questions: What are the challenges of the resource curse facing oil-exporting countries; how has oil and gas industry development contributed to the improvement of other economic sectors, particularly the agricultural sector in the Kurdistan Region; and what policy recommendations can be made to counter the challenges of the resource curse? We argue that the Kurdistan Region’s economy is over-reliant on revenues from the oil industry and that excess revenues have not been sufficiently and effectively invested in the other crucial economic sectors, such as agriculture, to diversify sources of income.

  • 97.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Sogang University.
    Biwei, Su
    Korea University.
    Seon-Ae, Kim
    Korea University.
    Measurement and Analysis of Well-Being in Developed Regions in China2015In: China Economic Policy Review, ISSN 1793-9690, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 1550006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for studies on well-being in China has increased in recent years. However, women’s well-being is an area that has not received adequate attention. The purpose of this research is to have a clear understanding of how well women have compared with men on the whole in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangdong — the three developed provinces in China. To achieve this, we computed and compared the well-being of 4,367 women and men by utilizing the latest survey data of 2009 from the Chinese Family Panel Studies. We have measured well-being by computing multidimensional indices which are dependent on five domains: material and educational well-being, health, behavior and risks, family and peer relationships, and subjective well-being. These domains were aggregated either with the same weights or with different weights estimated by the principal component analysis. The findings suggest that, generally, men have a higher level of well-being than women in all these three provinces in China. Also, the domains of behavior and risks as well as material and educational well-being contribute most to individuals’ well-being. Furthermore, women score much lower than men do in subjective well-being.

  • 98.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Sogang University.
    Cesar Sr., Flavio
    Brazilian Ministry of Communications.
    Determinants and Policy Simulation of Firms Cooperation in Innovation2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research introduces an agent-based simulation model representing the dynamic processes of cooperative R&D in the manufacturing sector of South Korea. Firms' behavior is defined according to empirical findings on the Korean Innovation Survey 2005 and captured in a multivariate probit regression model. The econometrics model identifies the determinants on firms' likelihood to participate in cooperation with other organizations when conducting innovation activities.These determinants are translated into simulation parameters which are calibrated to the point that the simulated artificial world are equivalent to the one observed in the real world. The aim of the simulation game is to investigate the differences in sector responses to internal and external changes, including cross-sector spillovers, when applying three different policy strategies to promote cooperation in innovation. The findings indicate possible appropriate (or non-appropriate) policy strategies to be applied depending on the target industries.

  • 99.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Korea University, Seoul, South Korea, and Soran University, Iraq.
    Dilani, A.
    International Academy for Design and Health, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Baban, S. M. J.
    University of Kurdistan Hawler, Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq.
    Introduction to and summary of the contributions2012In: Perspectives on Kurdistan's economy and society in transition / [ed] Heshmati, A., Dilani, A., Baban, S.M.J., New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012, p. 1-6Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Korea University, Seoul, South Korea, and Soran University, Iraq.
    Dilani, A.International Academy for Design and Health, Stockholm, Sweden.Baban, S. M. J.University of Kurdistan Hawler, Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq.
    Perspectives on Kurdistan’s economy and society in transition2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The First World Kurdish Congress was held in October 2011 at Rotterdam with the theme of researching science and culture towards increased progress in Kurdistan. The papers presented focused on various important aspects of health, education, economy, culture and political science in Kurdistan. The objective was to create a network of academicians to exchange and develop knowledge on how to further enhance the progress within the Kurdish society. This book is a collection of 20 studies presented at the Congress. The presentation topics are diverse, covering several areas pertinent to the current Kurdish situation. The studies are divided into eight areas including: human rights and freedom; greater Kurdistan, education and nation building; diaspora; politics and international relations; corruption; health care and trauma; and economy, business and science and technology. ©2012 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

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