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  • 51.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Why research on women entrepreneurs needs new directions2006In: Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, ISSN 1042-2587, E-ISSN 1540-6520, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 595-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research articles on women's entrepreneurship reveal, in spite of intentions to the contrary and in spite of inconclusive research results, a tendency to recreate the idea of women as being secondary to men and of women's businesses being of less significance or, at best, as being a complement. Based on a discourse analysis, this article discusses what research practices cause these results. It suggests new research directions that do not reproduce women's subordination but capture more and richer aspects of women's entrepreneurship.

  • 52.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Women and entrepreneurship: Contemporary classics2006In: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 661-664Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 53.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Women and humanities: Allies or enemies?2006In: Management Education and Humanites, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2006, p. 45-66Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Women’s enterprise – a boost or a detriment to the Scandinavian welfare system?2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, K.
    Pettersson, K.
    Sköld, B.
    Tillmar, M.
    Entrepreneurship in rural areas: The role of women?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    The introduction of entrepreneurship in contemporary Swedish education policy: Ugly duckling or beautiful swan?2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Can governments support both women and entrepreneurship?  2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminism in Sweden as well as in the other Scandinavian countries was largely formulated as state feminism. The women’s movement has cooperated with feminists in the state, resulting in societies that count as the most gender equal in the world. The Scandinavian countries are consistently ranked in the top position on international gender equality indices. The state has provided a large publicly financed welfare sector that both employs many women, and makes it possible to combine work and family through family friendly policies. The last decade has seen a political change influenced by neoliberal thought, in which politicians hand over welfare state responsibilities to the market, and instead encourage entrepreneurship, not least among women. The Swedish government has since 20 years back programs and policies to promote women’s entrepreneurship. The Swedish state has during the same period shrunk the public sector and privatized many operations in services and care, which traditionally employ many women. Instead, women are encouraged to start businesses in former public sectors. Empirical studies suggest however, that all of the increase of women’s entrepreneurship in these sectors is within low-paid, micro service businesses, typically child minding.

    Traditional state feminism has also changed character. Instead of public regulations, market solutions are advocated. In this paper we ask how to theorize this change from a feminist theory perspective; we ask what the implications for feminist action are, and we ask what consequences for women’s position in society are. We use research literature and policy texts as our empirical material and conduct a critical literature analysis. We conclude that the entrepreneurship discourse challenges, and possibly weakens state feminism and feminist action as we have known it in the Scandinavian countries, but may also offer new forms of feminist resistance, on market terms. 

  • 58.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholms universitet.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Entrepreneurship for Equality?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    From feminism to FemInc.ism: On the uneasy relationship between feminism, entrepreneurship and the Nordic welfare state2016In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 369-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminism in the Nordic countries was primarily formulated in terms of ‘state feminism’. The women’s movement cooperated with feminist government officials and politicians, resulting in societies that can be considered to be the most gender-equal societies in the world. Historically, the state provided for a large publicly-financed welfare sector which made it possible for many women to combine work and family through the state’s implementation of family-friendly policies, while simultaneously providing employment opportunities for many women.

    However, since the financial crisis of the 1990s, there has been a political change influenced by neo-liberal thought, in which politicians have handed over the welfare state’s responsibilities to the market, and, instead, the politicians have encouraged entrepreneurship, not least among women. Further to this development, there has been a change in emphasis from entrepreneurship (understood as starting and running a business) to entrepreneurialism which, in addition to a belief in the efficacy of market forces, also contains a social dimension where individuals are supposed to be flexible and exercise choice. In this article, we ask whether this entails a change in the feminist project in the Nordic countries, and if so, what the likely consequences are for this project, both in practice and in research.

    In order to answer this question, we reviewed existing Nordic research on women’s entrepreneurship and examined how this body of work conceptualizes entrepreneurship, gender, the state, and equality. We also considered whether any trends could be identified. We relate our findings to recent changes in government policy and conclude that the current discourse on entrepreneurship challenges, and possibly weakens, state feminism, but we also conclude that this discourse may also provide space for new forms of feminist action, in market terms. We coin the term FemInc.ism to denote feminist action through enterprise and we discuss a number of important challenges that research on this phenomenon is faced with.

  • 60.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Is institutional support for women’s entrepreneurship feminist?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Nordregio.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Will business ownership support gender equality?2012In: g12 Nationell konferens för genusforskning / [ed] Alnebratt, Kerstin & Holgersson, Charlotte, Göteborg, 2012, p. 38-38Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Tillmar, Malin
    Women’s entrepreneurship in rural areas: A literature review2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Bergmo-Prvulovic, IngelaStockholms universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.Kilhammar, KarinJönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    HR: Att ta tillvara mänskliga resurser2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Bergmo-Prvulovic, IngelaJönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.Kilhammar, KarinJönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Human resource management: A Nordic perspective2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Conceptualizing entrepreneurship as creative space 2011In: Presented at 4th EuroMed Conference of the EuroMed Academy of Business, Elounda, Greece, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews and challenges received conceptualizations of entrepreneurship. We find entrepreneurship too narrowly defined, the business contexts in which it is customarily applied limiting, and the focus of input measured as forms of capital and output measured as economic gain restrictive. It black-boxes what entrepreneurs really do, reveals little about the process or the phenomenon of entrepreneurship, and its application in contexts other than business unnecessarily imposes business values that are not appropriate in such contexts. We further argue for the use of case studies as a fruitful way of unpacking the entrepreneurial process, and offer an example of such a case study. The analysis of the case results in a conceptualization of entrepreneurship as creative space, with three interrelated and co-dependent process movements: conservation, coordination and creation. We suggest entrepreneurship as creative space as a productive metaphor in studying what entrepreneurs really do, and also recommend a return to the original definition of entrepreneurship as entreprendre, that is, to undertake something.

  • 66.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Czarniawska, Barbara
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Many words about tea2010In: ENTER: Entrepreneurial Narrative Theory Ethnomethodology and Reflexivity: An Issue about The Republic of Tea / [ed] William B. Gartner, Clemson University Digital Press , 2010, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 191-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Florin Samuelsson, Emilia
    Networking through empowerment and empowerment through networking: results from a practical experiment using networking through empowerment to enhance women's entrepreneurship2000Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 68.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Florin Samuelsson, Emilia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Testing networking strategies for nascent women entrepreneurs2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Florin Samuelsson, Emilia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Walking a tightrope: Women entrepreneurs on the pricing decision as a delicate act of balancing inner and outer forces1999In: Sailing the Entrepreneurial Wave into the 21st Century: proceedings for the USASBE Entrepreneurship Conference in January 1999 / [ed] Scott William Kunkel, San Diego: University of San Diego , 1999Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a pilot study on the rationales for pricing decisions among a group of female entrepreneurs. For the purpose of avoiding pre-determined categories and allowing novel ideas and concerns to emerge, a focus group methodology was employed. Unlike the dominating literature on the subject which sees pricing as a rational decision based on costs, customer value and competition, this study suggests that both contextual factors and psychological factors are important. Important contextual factors were culture, regional characteristics and gender. Important psychological factors were sense of fairness, morals, identity, self-image, need for confirmation and self-confidence.

  • 70.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    The theory of conditional social equality: Group homogeneity as a prerequisite for challenging (some) inequalities among older men2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Golding, B.
    Federation University Australia.
    How the Men’s Shed idea travels to Scandinavia2017In: Australian Journal of Adult Learning, ISSN 1443-1394, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 316-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Australia has around 1,000 Men’s Sheds – informal communitybased workshops offering men beyond paid work somewhere to go, something to do and someone to talk to. They have proven to be of great benefit for older men’s learning, health and wellbeing, social integration, and for developing a positive male identity focusing on community responsibility and care. A Men’s Shed is typically selforganized and ‘bottom-up’, which is also a key success factor, since it provides participants with a sense of ownership and empowerment. Men’s Sheds are now spreading rapidly internationally, but the uptake of the idea varies with the local and national context, and so too may the consequences. Our paper describes how the Men’s Shed travelled to Denmark, a country with considerably more ‘social engineering’ than in Australia, where Sheds were opened in 2015, via a ‘top-down’ initiative sponsored by the Danish Ministry of Health. Using data from the study of the web pages of the Danish ‘Shed’ organizations, from interviews with the central organizer, and from visits and interviews with participants and local organizers at two Danish Men’s sheds, we describe how the idea of the Men’s Shed on the Australian model was interpreted and translated at central and local levels. Preliminary data indicate that similar positive benefits as exist in Australia may result, provided that local ownership is emphasized.

  • 72.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Golding, Barry
    Federation University, Australia.
    How the idea of a Men’s Shed travels to Scandinavia2017In: Getting of wisdom – Learning in later life: International Exchange and Conferences, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Australia has around 1,000 Men’s Sheds – informal community-based workshops offering men beyond paid work somewhere to go, something to do and someone to talk to. They have proven to be of great benefit for older men’s learning, health and wellbeing, social integration, and for developing a positive male identity focusing on community responsibility and care. A Men’s Shed is typically self-organized and ‘bottom-up’, which is also a key success factor, since it provides participants with a sense of ownership and empowerment. Men’s Sheds are now spreading rapidly internationally, but the uptake of the idea varies with the local and national context, and so too may the consequences. Our paper describes how the Men’s Shed travelled to Denmark, a country with considerably more ‘social engineering’ than in Australia, where Sheds were opened in 2015, via a ‘top-down’ initiative sponsored by the Danish Ministry of Health. Using data from the study of the web pages of the Danish ‘Shed’ organizations, from interviews with the central organizer, and from visits and interviews with participants and local organizers at two Danish Men’s sheds, we describe how the idea of the Men’s Shed on the Australian model was interpreted and translated at central and local levels. Preliminary data indicate that similar positive benefits as in Australia may result, provided that local ownership is emphasized.

  • 73.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Golding, Barry
    Federation University, Australia.
    The Nordic translation of “Men’s Shed”, a gendered model for adult learning2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic/Aim:

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight empirical examples of habilitation effects of an adjusted education for young adults with high-functioning autism. Our paper draws upon findings from a project researched - an IT education called the IT-track  - which is an example of an initiative that has had the intention to help to break the isolation and exclusion in favor of inclusion. The IT-track started in January 2012 and is founded by The European Social Fund (ESF), Region Jönköping, Höglandet’s Coordinating Association and Eksjö Municipality. It targets young people diagnosed with high-functioning autism between 19-30 years old. The IT-track offers upper secondary and university courses in programming, CAD and computer systems, as well as internship experience.

    Theoretical/Methodological framework

    • Supported education
    • Supported employment
    • Sense of coherence

    The study is inspired by ethnographic methodology (Hammersley & Atkinson, 2007), where researchers reside within the environments and situations they want to learn about. Data was collected by way of participant observations, natural conversations, research interviews with students and one focus group interview with the staff (van Manen, 1990). The different data collection methods complemented each other and, taken together, provide a rich description of the students’ experiences of the IT-track.

    Expected findings:

    The context of the present study is focused on (i) the students’ experiences of the IT-track, (ii) the students’ previous school experiences, and (iii) how they relate to their future. The findings involve:

    • Identified adjustments at the IT-track
    • To get structure in everyday life
    • To function better socially with others 
    • Extended horizons of possibility
    • Employment and internship

    Relevance for Nordic adult education and learning research:

    The findings have relevance for Nordic adult education and learning research due to a prior lack of research into Asperger syndrome and education of younger adults. This paper highlights the need for a better understanding of how environments can be adapted in order to be supportive and contributing to learning and habilitation.

  • 74.
    Ahl, Helene J.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    The Making of the Female Entrepreneur: A Discourse Analysis of Research Texts on Women’s Entrepreneurship2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from a social constructionist understanding of gender, this thesis examines how the female entrepreneur is constructed in research articles about women’s entrepreneurship. It finds that even if the texts celebrate women’s entrepreneurship, they do it in such a way as to recreate women’s secondary position in society.

    Building on Foucault’s theory of discourse, the thesis analyzes the discursive practices by which this result was achieved. These practices include certain assumptions that are taken for granted about women, men, business, work, and family. One of these assumptions is that men and women must be different. Despite research results to the contrary, many texts insist that the genders are different and construct three kinds of arguments in support of this. One is making a mountain out of a molehill, i.e. stressing small differences while ignoring similarities. Another is the self-selected woman, which proclaims women entrepreneurs as unusual women. The third is called the good mother and consists of molding an alternative, feminine model of entrepreneurship while leaving the dominant model intact. These arguments reproduce the idea of essential gender differences and the idea of the woman as the weaker sex.

    The discursive practices also include certain ontological and epistemological assumptions, which are questioned in the thesis. In addition, they contain disciplinary regulations as well as writing and publishing practices that reinforce the discourse. The practices and the ensuing research results are moreover dependent on the particular context in which the articles are produced. This means that their results and conclusions cannot be transferred to other contexts uncritically.

    By discussing these practices, the thesis opens the way for alternative ways of theorizing and researching women’s entrepreneurship. Suggestions for alternative research practices include the addition of institutional aspects to the research agenda, such as labor market structure, family policy, and legislation. The thesis also suggests a shift in epistemological position – from gender as something that is given, to gender as something that is produced.

  • 75.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Marlow, S.
    Gendering entrepreneurship: have the sisters done for themselves?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Marlow, S.
    Postfeminist times: New opportunities or business as usual?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Marlow, Susan
    Haydn Green Institution of Enterprise and Innovation, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Analysing entrepreneurial activity through a postfeminist perspective: A brave new world or the same old story?2018In: Postfeminism and organization / [ed] P. Lewis, Y. Benschop, & R. Simpson, London: Routledge, 2018, p. 141-159Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical component of the contemporary neoliberal turn has been the rise of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial behaviours (Campbell and Pedersen, 2001). In developed nations, this era has been exemplified by a marked increase in entrepreneurship and new venture creation; entrepreneurial activity has also been integrated into the corporate environment encouraging individualised employee agency to generate innovative problem solving (Dannreuther and Perren, 2012) At a micro-level, we have seen the emergence of the ‘enterprising self’ and society where individuals assume responsibility for their own lives managing social welfare provisions previously provided by the state (du Gay, 1994; Down and Warren, 2008; Ahl and Nelson, 2015). These shifting expectations have been made possible by enabling legislative and institutional changes such as de-regulation, the decline of trade unions, privatisation of state services and liberalised markets (Perren and Dannreuther, 2012). Contemporaneously, the populist cultural promotion of entrepreneurship through various media has positioned it as a desirable career option with increasing status and social worth (Swail, Down, and Kautonen, 2013). 

  • 78.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Marlow, Susan
    University of Leicester, UK.
    Analysing women's entrepreneurship from an institutional perspective2010In: Presented at "The European School of Entrepreneurship" conference, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Thyne, UK, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Marlow, Susan
    University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Can sisters do it for themselves? Critiquing the possibilities of entrepreneurship through a postfeminist perspective2017In: 2017 Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, AOM 2017, Academy of Management , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Marlow, Susan
    Entrepreneurship and the postfeminist turn: Women’s final emancipation or the same old story?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Marlow, Susan
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Exploring the dynamics of gender, feminism and entrepreneurship: advancing debate to escape a dead end?2012In: Organization, ISSN 1350-5084, E-ISSN 1461-7323, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 543-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrary to the neo-liberal thesis that entrepreneuring is an open and accessible endeavour where personal effort alone determines reward and status, it has been demonstrated that there is a persistent, but occluded, gender bias within the entrepreneurial discourse. Accordingly, women are positioned as lacking and incomplete men; however, despite calls to employ feminist theory as an analytical frame to demonstrate the reproduction of such subordination, there is scant evidence this has emerged. Within this article, we respond to this call by demonstrating how post structural feminist analysis reveals the gendered assumptions informing entrepreneurship theory that embed prevailing hetero-normative assumptions. These assumptions limit the epistemological scope of contemporary research which positions women as failed or reluctant entrepreneurial subjects; as such, in the absence of feminist theorizing these analyses remain descriptive rather than explanatory. Accordingly, the current entrepreneurial research agenda is in danger of reaching an epistemological dead end in the absence of a reflexive critical perspective to inform the idea of who can be and what might be an entrepreneur. Finally, we draw upon these arguments to reflect upon current approaches to theorizing within the broader field of entrepreneurial enquiry.

  • 82.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Marlow, Susan
    University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Exploring the false promise of entrepreneurship through a postfeminist critique of the enterprise policy discourse in Sweden and the UK2019In: Human Relations, ISSN 0018-7267, E-ISSN 1741-282XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary theories of neoliberalism and entrepreneurship are entwined; both hinge upon the use of agency within free markets to realize individual potential, enhance status and attain material rewards. Postfeminism, as a discrete but related discourse, suggests this context is conducive to encouraging women to draw upon their agency, skills and personal profile to enhance achievements and returns. We draw from these related, but discrete discourses, when critically analysing how postfeminist assumptions shape Swedish and UK government policies aimed at expanding women’s entrepreneurship. Despite differing historical antecedents regarding state engagement with equality and welfare regimes, we illustrate how postfeminist assumptions have infiltrated policy initiatives in both cases. This infiltration has, we suggest, suppressed criticisms that in a context of persistent structural discrimination, lack of welfare benefits and contrived aspirational role models, entrepreneurship constitutes a poor career choice for many women. Consequently, we challenge the value of contemporary policy initiatives encouraging more women to enter entrepreneurship.

  • 83.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Marlow, Susan
    Birmingham University.
    Recognising the inter-sectionality between feminist theory and entrepreneurship: advancing debate and escaping the dead end2011In: Presented at European Group of Organization Studies, Gothenburgh, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 84.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nelson, Teresa
    Simmons College, USA.
    Contextualizing women’s entrepreneurship: How discourses on gender, public policy and welfare state regimes position women entrepreneurs2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nelson, Teresa
    Simmons College, Boston USA.
    How policy positions women entrepreneurs: A comparative analysis of state discourse in Sweden and the United States2015In: Journal of Business Venturing, ISSN 0883-9026, E-ISSN 1873-2003, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 273-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research compares the positioning of women entrepreneurs through entrepreneurship policy over two decades (1989–2012) in Sweden and the United States. Given Sweden’s uniquely family-friendly welfare state, we could expect different results, yet in both countries we find a legacy of discourse subordinating women’s entrepreneurship to other goals (i.e., economic growth) and a positioning of women as ‘other’, reinforcing a dialogue of women’s inadequacy or extraordinariness without taking full account of the conditions shaping women’s work experience. From this analysis we derive a conceptual schematic of assumptions presented through the discourse, aligning and distinguishing the U.S. and Swedish approaches

  • 86.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nelson, Teresa
    Simmons College, USA.
    Moving forward: Institutional perspectives on gender and entrepreneurship2010In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 5-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a re‐directed and purposeful attention to the design of research on gender and entrepreneurship moving forward.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper questions the value of more studies on the men v. women binary and encourages research on the institutions supporting the gendered construction.

    Findings – The paper suggests a re‐framing of gender (to include men, women, femininity, masculinity, etc.) both in topics investigated and in building the cadre of scholars engaged. It asks for discrimination of gender from biological sex in language use and believes that dialogue will be improved if the word “gender” is maintained as a socially constructed phenomenon directed at distinguishing the norms around “what women do” and “what men do”. Researchers, too, must necessarily confront personal pre‐existing ideas and language shaped by the norms and habits of one's upbringing and daily life in societies that are not acute observers of gender in action.

    Originality/value – The paper assesses trends in research on gender and entrepreneurship and recommends ideas regarding new directions to create better research and application in practice, teaching, and training.

  • 87.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nelson, TeresaSimmons College, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Special Issue: Institutional perspectives on gender and entrepreneurship2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nelson, Teresa
    Simmons College, USA.
    The case for an instituional perspective on women's entrepreneurship2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 89.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nelson, Teresa
    Simmons College, Boston.
    Welfare Systems and Policies for Women’s Entrepreneurship in Sweden and the United States2011In: Presented at 9th International Triple Helix Conference, Stanford, USA, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 90.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Samuelsson, E. F
    Företagsnätet Empag: (An evaluation of a networking initiative for women entrepreneurs)1999Report (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 91.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Samuelsson, Emilia
    The pricing of an entrepreneurs: An identity construction dilemma1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 92.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet.
    Kvinnors företagande och genusordningen2013In: Arbete och jämställdhet - förändringar under femtio år / [ed] Eva Blomberg & Kirsti Niskanen, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2013, p. 169-187Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Swedish welfare state retrenchment and the call for women’s entrepreneurship to fill the void2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last two decades have seen major welfare state retrenchment in Sweden. The public sector, which used to be a large and stable employer for women, was downsized. Public schools and public health and care services were privatized. Customer choice models were introduced. The rhetoric connected to privatization stressed the unique opportunities for women formerly employed by the state to start their own businesses in this sector, now open for competition and private initiatives. In this paper we ask what the results were. We discuss the results from a feminist perspective, i.e we ask if privatization and business ownership has improved women’s situation on the labor market, or not. The paper draws together the research findings from our own empirical research (about fifteen different studies) as well as from research done by other Nordic scholars in the field.

  • 94. Berglund, K.
    et al.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Pettersson, K.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Movi(e)ing practices of gender, rurality and entrepreneurship2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Tales of heroine entrepreneurs2017In: The Routledge companion to global female entrepreneurship / [ed] Colette Henry, Teresa Nelson, Kate Lewis, New York: Routledge, 2017, p. 320-339Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Department of Management and Organization Stockholm Business School at Stockholm University.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Department of Urban and Rural Development Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    School of Business and Economics Linnaeus University.
    Women's entrepreneurship, neoliberalism and economic justice in the postfeminist era: A discourse analysis of policy change in Sweden2018In: Gender, Work and Organization, ISSN 0968-6673, E-ISSN 1468-0432, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 531-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 1990s, there has been investment in women's entrepreneurship policy (WEP) in Sweden, which continued until 2015. During the same period, Sweden assumed neoliberal policies that profoundly ch7anged the position of women within the world of work and business. The goals for WEP changed as a result, from entrepreneurship as a way to create a more equal society, to the goal of unleashing women's entrepreneurial potential so they can contribute to economic growth. To better understand this shift we approach WEP as a neoliberal governmentality which offers women 'entrepreneurial' or 'postfeminist' subject positions. The analysis is inspired by political theorist Nancy Fraser who theorized the change as the displacement of socioeconomic redistribution in favour of cultural recognition, or identity politics. We use Fraser's concepts in a discourse analysis of Swedish WEP over two decades, identifying two distinct discourses and three discursive displacements. Whilst WEP initially gave precedence to a radical feminist discourse that called for women's collective action, this was replaced by a postfeminist neoliberal discourse that encouraged individual women to assume an entrepreneurial persona, start their own business, compete in the marketplace and contribute to economic growth. The result was the continued subordination of women business owners, but it also obscured or rendered structural problems/solutions, and collective feminist action, irrelevant.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-07-16 00:00
  • 97.
    Boström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Bergmo Prvulovic, Ingela
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Chaib, Christina
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Chaib, Mohamed
    Petersson, Rune
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Universities’ regional engagement in regional settings in Sweden2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Boström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Chaib, Mohamed
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Chaib, Christina
    Bergmo Prvulovic, Ingela
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Petersson, Rune
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Universities Regional Engagement in Regional settings in Sweden: and the case of the National Centre of Lifelong Learning (Encell), Jönköping University2010In: Council of Europe Standing Conference of Ministers of Education: "Education for Sustainable Democratic Societies: The Role of Teachers". 23rd session in Ljubliana, Slovenia, 4-5 June 2010.Introduction to sub-theme C Partnerships and networking in Education: Illustrative case from Sweden, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Brundin, Ethel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Estéen, Jonas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Wigren, Caroline
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Högteknologiska företag i Jönköpings kommun: (High-technology companies in Jönköping)1997Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 100.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Henry, Colette
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Review of Policy and Practice Implications in Gender and Entrepreneurship Research2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars across all discipline areas are increasingly being asked to demonstrate the impact of their research (Mohrman et al., 2001; Steyaert, 2011). In so doing, entrepreneurship researchers have become aware of the considerable disparity between the knowledge generated by academic scholars and that which can be usefully employed by entrepreneurs and managers in practice (Steffens et al., 2013). With specific regard to women’s entrepreneurship, while scholars have proved that gender does matter (Brush et al., 2010, Kelley et al., 2012), and that entrepreneurship in itself is a gendered phenomenon (Jennings & Brush, 2013), the extent to which gender scholars have been concerned with the actual impact of their research has not been evidenced to the same extent. However, assessing impact can be a highly complex issue, involving both subjective and objective assessments, often on a longitudinal basis (Storey, 2000; Henry et al., 2005). Thus, by way of proxy, we consider the manner in which scholars articulate the intended impact of their research to be an important first step toward a robust assessment of impact over time. With this in mind, this paper seeks to critically explore the articulated policy and practice implications of women’s entrepreneurship research. Our key objective is to consider whether there has been a notable shift in focus with regard to such implications since the first studies on female entrepreneurship appeared, and if so, to consider whether there is a link between such a shift and the different theoretical perspectives[1] adopted.  

    We draw on a comprehensive data set compiled from the gender and entrepreneurship literatures over a 30-year period. Consistent with Denyer & Neely (2004), we conducted a systematic literature review (SLR) of relevant empirical papers published in top tier journals. For the purposes of this paper, consistent with Katz (2003) and Brush (2007), we focused on articles published in the ‘Big Five’ entrepreneurship journals (i.e. ERD, ETP, JBV, JSBM, SBE) between 1983 and 2012. We compare the different levels of focus on policy and practice implications between the three decades included in our review, and highlight notable variances. The paper builds on and contributes to extant literatures by furthering our understanding of policy and practice implications in gender and entrepreneurship research.

    The paper is organised as follows. In the first section we discuss the issue of policy and practice implications, how this has attracted increased attention in the social sciences and the particular tradition within the field of entrepreneurship. The second section focuses on the development of gender perspectives in entrepreneurship research, outlining the particular questions that have guided our empirical study. The third section details the methodology, and this is followed by the presentation of our findings, which are subsequently discussed. Finally, some concluding remarks are provided, with an indication of avenues worthy of future research.

    [1] For example, gender as a variable (GAV), feminist standpoint theory (FST) and post-structural feminism (PSF).

     

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