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  • 51. Dahlman, Joakim
    et al.
    Sjörs, Anna
    Lindström, Johan
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Performance and autonomic responses during motion sickness2009In: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 56-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 52. Davies, Jessica
    et al.
    Hoe, Lee
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    An Investigation into the Impact of Parkinson's Disease upon Decision Making Ability and Driving Performance2011In: Diagnostics and Rehabilitation of Parkinson's Disease. / [ed] Juliana Dushanova, INTECH, 2011, p. 309-338Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 53. Dols, J.
    et al.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Peters, B.
    Bekiaris, E.
    Baten, G.
    Establishment of a common pan-european psn driving assessment scheme: The consensus project.2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 54. Dols, J.
    et al.
    Pardo, J
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Foerst, R.
    The TRAINER project: a new concept for novice drivers' training simulators2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 55. Dols, J.
    et al.
    Pardo, J.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Uneken, E.
    Verwey, W.
    The TRAINER project: a new simulator-based driver training curriculum2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 56. Donlau, Marie
    et al.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Independence in the toilet activity in children and adolescents with myelomeningocele - managing clean intermittent catheterization in a hospital setting2009In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 98, no 12, p. 1972-1976Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 57. Donlau, Marie
    et al.
    Imms, Christine
    Glad Mattsson, Gunilla
    Mattsson, Sven
    Sjörs, Anna
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Children and youth with myelomeningocele’s independence in managing clean intermittent catheterization in familiar settings.2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 3, p. 429-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  To examine the ability of children and youth with myelomeningocele to independently manage clean intermittent catheterization.

    Methods:  There were 50 participants with myelomeningocele (5–18 years); 13 of them had also participated in a previous hospital-based study. Their abilities and interest in completing the toilet activity were examined at home or in school using an interview and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Actual performance was observed and rated. Background variables were collected from medical records and KatAD+E tests.

    Results:  In total, 48% were observed to perform the toilet activity independently, in comparison with 74% who self-reported independence. Univariate analyses found KatAD+E could predict who was independent. COPM failed to do so. Ability to remain focused and ambulation were predictors of independence, but age, sex and IQ were not. Multivariable analysis found time to completion to be the strongest predictor of independence. Four children were independent in their familiar environment, but not in the hospital setting, and six of 13 children maintained focus only in their familiar environment.

    Conclusions:  Interviews were not sufficiently accurate to assess independence in the toilet activity. Instead, observations including time to completion are recommended. The execution of the toilet activity is influenced by the environmental context.

  • 58. Dukic, T
    et al.
    Hansson, L
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Effect of drivers' age and push button locations on visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception2006In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 78-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Earl, Robyn
    et al.
    Curtin University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Rehnberg, Anette
    The Swedish Transport Administration.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University.
    Visual search strategies of pedestrians with and without visual and cognitive impairments in a shared zone: A proof of concept study2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 57, p. 327-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shared zones have gained increasing popularity in urban land use and design as a means of incorporating the needs of multiple modes of transport, while at the same time promoting social interaction between users. Interactions within shared zones are based on a set of informal social protocols, communicated via eye contact and social cues. This proof of concept study utilised eye-tracking technology to examine the visual search strategies of individuals, with and without visual and cognitive impairments as they navigated a strategically chosen shared zone. In total 3960 fixations were analysed and the fixations were distributed across the shared zone and a pedestrian crossing. Those with impairments were more likely to fixate on traffic specific areas and objects compared to those without, suggesting that they required more input ascertaining when and where it was safe to perform tasks. However, the duration of fixation was not significantly different for an object whether it was traffic related or not, indicating a global need for increased processing time of the surrounding environment. Shared zones are claimed to increase driver awareness and safety and reduce congestion, but the implications on participation and safety for those with visual and cognitive impairments is yet to be extensively explored.

  • 60.
    Earl, Robyn
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia and Linköping University & Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Morris, Susan L.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Viewpoints of pedestrians with and without cognitive impairment on shared zones and zebra crossings2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 9, article id e0203765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Shared zones are characterised by an absence of traditional markers that segregate the road and footpath. Negotiation of a shared zone relies on an individual’s ability to perceive, assess and respond to environmental cues. This ability may be impacted by impairments in cognitive processing, which may lead to individuals experiencing increased anxiety when negotiating a shared zone.

    Method

    Q method was used in order to identify and explore the viewpoints of pedestrians, with and without cognitive impairments as they pertain to shared zones.

    Results

    Two viewpoints were revealed. Viewpoint one was defined by “confident users” while viewpoint two was defined by users who “know what [they] are doing but drivers might not”.

    Discussion

    Overall, participants in the study would not avoid shared zones. Pedestrians with intellectual disability were, however, not well represented by either viewpoint, suggesting that shared zones may pose a potential barrier to participation for this group.

  • 61.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Bedics, Beate Kärrdahl
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries: A 10-year follow-up2011In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 43, p. 323-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective and design: Long-term consequences of mild traumatic brain injuries were investigated based on a 10-year follow-up of patients from a previously published randomized controlled study of mild traumatic brain injuries. One aim was to describe changes over time after mild traumatic brain injuries in terms of the extent of persisting post-concussion symptoms, life satisfaction, perceived health, activities of daily living, changes in life roles and sick leave. Another aim was to identify differences between the intervention and control groups.

    Patients: The intervention group comprised 142 persons and the control group 56 persons.

    Methods: Postal questionnaires with a response rate of 56%.

    Results: No differences over time were found for the intervention and control groups in terms of post-concussion symptoms. In the intervention group some variables in life satisfaction, perceived health and daily life were decreased. Some roles had changed over the years for both groups. No other differences between the intervention and control groups were found. However, in both groups sick leave decreased.

    Conclusion: Early individual intervention by a qualified rehabilitation team does not appear to impact on the long-term outcome for persons with symptoms related to mild traumatic brain injuries. The status after approximately 3 weeks is indicative of the status after 10 years.

     

     

  • 62.
    Evans, Kiah L.
    et al.
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya J.
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Richmond, Janet E.
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Wagman, Petra
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Millsteed, Jeannine
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Viewpoints of working sandwich generation women and occupational therapists on role balance strategies2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 366-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational therapists need to be cognizant of evidence-based role balance advice and strategies that women with multigenerational caring responsibilities can implement independently or with minimal assistance, as role balance may not be the primary goal during many encounters with this population. Hence, this study aimed to identify the viewpoints on the most helpful role balance strategies for working sandwich generation women, both from their own perspectives and from the perspective of occupational therapists. This was achieved through a Q methodology study, where 54 statements were based on findings from interviews, sandwich generation literature and occupational therapy literature. In total, 31 working sandwich generation women and 42 occupational therapists completed the Q sort through either online or paper administration. The data were analysed using factor analysis with varimax rotation and were interpreted through collaboration with experts in the field. The findings revealed similarities between working sandwich generation women and occupational therapists, particularly in terms of advocating strategies related to sleep, rest and seeking practical assistance from support networks. Differences were also present, with working sandwich generation women viewpoints tending to emphasize strategies related to coping with a busy lifestyle attending to multiple responsibilities. In contrast, occupational therapy viewpoints prioritized strategies related to the occupational therapy process, such as goal setting, activity focused interventions, monitoring progress and facilitating sustainable outcomes.

  • 63.
    Evans, Kiah L.
    et al.
    Curtin University and Edith Cowan University.
    Millsteed, Jeannine
    Edith Cowan University.
    Richmond, Janet E.
    Edith Cowan University.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University.
    Working Sandwich Generation Women Utilize Strategies within and between Roles to Achieve Role Balance2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 6, article id e0157469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasingly, women simultaneously balance the roles of mother, parental carer and worker. However, individual role balance strategies among these working ‘sandwich’ generation women have not been thoroughly explored. Eighteen women combining these three roles were interviewed about their individual role balance strategies. Findings were identified through the framework analysis technique, underpinned by the Model of Juggling Occupations. Achieving and maintaining role balance was explained as a complex process accomplished through a range of strategies. Findings revealed the women used six within-role balance strategies: living with integrity, being the best you can, doing what you love, loving what you do, remembering why and searching for signs of success. The women also described six between-role balance strategies: maintaining health and wellbeing, repressing perfectionism, managing time and energy, releasing responsibility, nurturing social connection and reciprocating. These findings provide a basis for health care providers to understand and potentially support working ‘sandwich’ generation women.

  • 64.
    Evans, Kiah L.
    et al.
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Millsteed, Jeannine
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Richmond, Janet E.
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Girdler, Sonya J.
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    The complexity of role balance: Support for the Model of Juggling Occupations2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 334-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This pilot study aimed to establish the appropriateness of the Model of Juggling Occupations in exploring the complex experience of role balance amongst working women with family responsibilities living in Perth, Australia.

    Methods: In meeting this aim, an evaluation was conducted of a case study design, where data were collected through a questionnaire, time diary, and interview.

    Results: Overall role balance varied over time and across participants. Positive indicators of role balance occurred frequently in the questionnaires and time diaries, despite the interviews revealing a predominance of negative evaluations of role balance. Between-role balance was achieved through compatible role overlap, buffering, and renewal. An exploration of within-role balance factors demonstrated that occupational participation, values, interests, personal causation, and habits were related to role balance.

    Conclusions: This pilot study concluded that the Model of Juggling Occupations is an appropriate conceptual framework to explore the complex and dynamic experience of role balance amongst working women with family responsibilities. It was also confirmed that the case study design, including the questionnaire, time diary, and interview methods, is suitable for researching role balance from this perspective.

  • 65.
    Evans, Kiah L.
    et al.
    Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Millsteed, Jeannine
    Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Richmond, Janet E.
    Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Girdler, Sonya J.
    Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    The impact of within and between role experiences on role balance outcomes for working Sandwich Generation Women2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 184-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women combining paid employment with dual caring responsibilities for children and aging parents, otherwise known as the sandwich generation, experience both benefits and costs related to role participation and quality of life. However, previous literature is inconclusive regarding the impact of this role combination on role balance. In the context of these mixed findings on role balance for working sandwich generation women, this study aimed to explore how within role characteristics and between role interactions are related to role balance for these women. This aim was achieved through the use of a questionnaire administered to 18 Australian working sandwich generation women. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation coefficients, with findings suggesting the women studied tended to experience neither role balance or role imbalance. Within-role characteristics, particularly within the mother and family member roles, were related to role balance. In addition, between-role conflict and role interactions involving either the home maintainer or family member roles had the greatest impact on role balance.

  • 66.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Anderson, Katie
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Joosten, Annette
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Parents’ perspectives on inclusive schools for children with Autism Spectrum Conditions2015In: International journal of disability, development and education, ISSN 1034-912X, E-ISSN 1465-346X, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 1-23Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) increasingly participate in inclusive education. The present study reviewed studies of children with ASC for parents’ perceptions of aspects they believed contributed to inclusive mainstream school settings. Understanding the parental perspective on the facilitators for inclusion of their child with ASC in mainstream schools is likely to improve inclusive practice. Twenty-eight empirical articles revealed that parents perceived teachers as playing a vital role in the inclusion of their children with ASC. The school was considered important in creating an environment that enabled inclusion, particularly through positive peer relations, prevention of bullying and help from support staff. At the societal level, funding and legislative policies were considered important. By understanding these aspects, policy-makers, teachers, school administrators and therapists may better be able to address parents’ inclusion concerns and thereby develop strategies to improve inclusion in mainstream schools.

  • 67.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Barnett, Tania
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Horlin, Chiara
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Olov
    Lund University.
    Siljehav, Jessica
    Lund University.
    Fristedt, Sofi
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Lee, Hoe C.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Chee, Derserri Y.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Wretstrand, Anders
    Lund University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Viewpoints of adults with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders on public transport2015In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 80, p. 163-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Public transport is low cost, allows for independence, and facilitates engagement and participation for non-drivers. However, the viewpoints of individuals with cognitive disabilities are rarely considered. In Australia, the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is approximately 1% and increasing. Many individuals with ASD do not possess a driver's licence, indicating that access to public transport is crucial for their independence. However, at present, there is no research on the opinions of adults with ASD on public transport. Aim: To identify the viewpoints of adults with ASD regarding the barriers and facilitators of public transport usage and their transportation preferences, and to contrast these against the viewpoints of neurotypical adults. Methods: Q. method was used to identify the viewpoints of both participant groups on public transport. Participants consisted of 55 adults with a diagnosis of ASD and a contrast group of 57 neurotypical adults. Both groups completed a Q sort task which took place in either Perth or Melbourne, Australia. Results: The most prominent viewpoint indicated that both groups preferred to use public transport over driving and believed that it supported their independence. This viewpoint also indicated that both groups preferred to use electronic ticketing when using public transport. Interestingly, the second most prominent viewpoint indicated that both groups preferred to drive themselves by private car rather than use public transport. Discussion: It appears that the viewpoints of adults with and without ASD regarding public transportation were largely similar. However, questions arose about whether the preference for public transport in the ASD group may be more a result of difficulties obtaining a driving licence than a deliberate choice. The only barrier specified by adults with ASD related to crowding on public transport. Safety and convenience in relation to location and timing of services were barriers reported by neurotypical adults.

  • 68.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Bjällmark, Anna
    Department of Medical Engineering, School of Technology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Mathilda
    Department of Medical Engineering, School of Technology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    The influences of static and interactive dynamic facial stimuli on visual strategies in persons with Asperger syndrome2011In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 935-940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies, using eye tracking methodology, suggest that different visual strategies in persons with autism spectrum conditions, compared with controls, are applied when viewing facial stimuli. Most eye tracking studies are, however, made in laboratory settings with either static (photos) or non-interactive dynamic stimuli, such as video clips. Whether or not these results are transferable to a “real world” dialogue situation remains unclear. In order to examine the consistency of visual strategies across conditions, a comparison of two static conditions and an interactive dynamic “real world” condition, in 15 adults with Asperger syndrome and 15 matched controls, was made using an eye tracker. The static stimuli consisted of colour photos of faces, while a dialogue between the participants and the test leader created the interactive dynamic condition. A within-group comparison showed that people with AS, and their matched controls, displayed a high degree of stability in visual strategies when viewing faces, regardless of the facial stimuli being static or real, as in the interactive dynamic condition. The consistency in visual strategies within the participants suggests that results from studies with static facial stimuli provide important information on individual visual strategies that may be generalized to “real world” situations.

  • 69.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Bjällmark, Anna
    KTH, Medicinsk bildteknik.
    Larsson, Matilda
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Recognition of facially expressed emotions and visual search strategies in adults with Asperger syndrome2011In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 210-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can the disadvantages persons with Asperger syndrome frequently experience with reading facially expressed emotions be attributed to a different visual perception, affecting their scanning patterns? Visual search strategies, particularly regarding the importance of information from the eye area, and the ability to recognise facially expressed emotions were compared between 24 adults with Asperger syndrome and their matched controls. While wearing a head mounted eye tracker, the participants viewed 12 pairs of photos of faces. The first photo in each pair was cut up into puzzle pieces. Six of the 12 puzzle pieced photos had the eyes bisected. The second photo showed a happy, an angry and a surprised face of the same person as in the puzzle pieced photo. Differences in visual search strategies between the groups were established. Adults with Asperger syndrome had greater difficulties recognizing these basic emotions than controls. The distortion of the eye area affected the ability to identify emotions even more negatively for participants with Asperger syndrome.

  • 70.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Black, Melissa
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
    Tang, Julia
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
    Fitzgerald, Patrick
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
    Leung, Denise
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
    Ordqvist, Anna
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University & Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Tan, Tele
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Local visual perception bias in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders; do we have the whole picture?2016In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 117-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: While local bias in visual processing in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been reported to result in difficulties in recognizing faces and facially expressed emotions, but superior ability in disembedding figures, associations between these abilities within a group of children with and without ASD have not been explored.

    Methods: Possible associations in performance on the Visual Perception Skills Figure–Ground test, a face recognition test and an emotion recognition test were investigated within 25 8–12-years-old children with high-functioning autism/Asperger syndrome, and in comparison to 33 typically developing children.

    Results: Analyses indicated a weak positive correlation between accuracy in Figure–Ground recognition and emotion recognition. No other correlation estimates were significant.

    Conclusion: These findings challenge both the enhanced perceptual function hypothesis and the weak central coherence hypothesis, and accentuate the importance of further scrutinizing the existance and nature of local visual bias in ASD.

  • 71.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    From my perspective - Perceived participation in mainstream schools in students with autism spectrum conditions2012In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 191-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine perceived participation in students with ASC and their classmates in mainstream schools and to investigate correlations between activities the students wanted to do and actually participated in.

    Methods: Twenty-two students with ASC and their 382 classmates responded to a 46-item questionnaire regarding perceived participation in mainstream schools.

    Results: On 57% of the items, students with ASC perceived lower participation than their classmates. These results emphasize the importance of knowledge about students’ perceived participation. However, positive correlations between what the students wanted to do and actually did indicate that students with ASC may be participating to the extent that they wanted.

    Conclusion: Students with ASC perceived lower overall participation in mainstream school than their classmates. The correlations between “I want to” and “I do” statements in students with ASC indicated that aspects of autonomy are important to incorporate when studying, and interpreting, self-rated participation in mainstream schools.

  • 72.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Larsson, M
    Bjällmark, Anna
    Department of Medical Engineering, School of Technology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    The importance of the eye area in face identification abilities and visual search strategies in persons with Asperger syndrome2010In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 724-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Partly claimed to explain social difficulties observed in people with Asperger syndrome, face identification and visual search strategies become important. Previous research findings are, however, disparate. In order to explore face identification abilities and visual search strategies, with special focus on the importance of the eye area, 24 adults with Asperger syndrome and matched controls viewed puzzle pieced photos of faces, in order to identify them as one of three intact photos of persons. Every second puzzle pieced photo had the eyes distorted. Fixation patterns were measured by an eye tracker. Adults with Asperger syndrome had greater difficulties in identifying faces than controls. However, the entire face identification superiority in controls was found in the condition when the eyes were distorted supporting that adults with Aspergers syndrome do use the eye region to a great extent in face identification. The visual search strategies in controls were more effective and relied on the use of the ‘face information triangle’, i.e. the two eyes and the mouth, while adults with Asperger syndrome had more fixations on other parts of the face, both when obtaining information and during the identification part, suggesting a less effective use of the ‘face information triangle’.

  • 73.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Oehlers, K
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Can you see it too? Correlations between observed and self-rated participation in mainstream schools for students with and without autism spectrum conditions.2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin Univeristy, Perth, Australia.
    Oehlers, Kirsty
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA , Australia.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin Univeristy, Perth, Australia.
    Can you see it too? Observed and self-rated participation in mainstream schools in students with and without autism spectrum disorders2015In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 365-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine the degree to which observations can capture perception of participation, observed and self-rated levels of interactions for students with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were explored.

    Methods: Frequencies and levels of involvement in interactions with classmates were observed and compared in 22 students with ASD and 84 of their classmates in mainstream schools, using a standardized protocol. Self-reported participation measurements regarding interactions with classmates and teachers from five questionnaire items were correlated with the observations. In total, 51 516 data points were coded and entered into the analyses, and correlated with 530 questionnaire ratings.

    Results: Only one weak correlation was found in each group. Compared with classmates, students with ASD participated less frequently, but were not less involved when they actually did.

    Conclusions: Observations alone do not capture the individuals’ perception of participation and are not sufficient if the subjective aspect of participation is to be measured.

  • 75.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Stuart, G
    Danielsson, H
    Brahm, S
    Lönebrink, M
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Visual acuity in adults with Asperger's syndrome: No evidence for "eagle-eyed" vision2011In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 70, no 812, p. 812-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are defined by criteria comprising impairments in social interaction and communication. Altered visual perception is one possible and often discussed cause of difficulties in social interaction and social communication. Recently, Ashwin et al. suggested that enhanced ability in local visual processing in ASC was due to superior visual acuity, but that study has been the subject of methodological criticism, placing the findings in doubt.

    Methods: The present study investigated visual acuity thresholds in 24 adults with Asperger’s syndrome and compared their results with 25 control subjects with the 2 Meter 2000 Series Revised ETDRS Chart.

    Results: The distribution of visual acuities within the two groups was highly similar, and none of the participants had superior visual acuity.

    Conclusions: Superior visual acuity in individuals with Asperger’s syndrome could not be established, suggesting that differences in visual perception in ASC are not explained by this factor. A continued search for explanations of superior ability in local visual processing in persons with ASC is therefore warranted.

  • 76.
    Falkmer, T
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. HHJ. CHILD.
    Transport Mobility for Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy (CP).2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 77.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Driving Assessment: what should we assess and from which perspective.2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Driving instruction for persons with Cerebral Palsy: a retrospective study of educational problems.1998Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Kartläggning av transportsituationen för barn med funktionshinder.1999Report (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    State of the Art Lecture: the Transport Mobility Situation for Children with Disabilities, what can be done?2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    The TRAINER project: development of a new cost-effective pan-european driver training methodology and how to evaluate it.2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    The transport situation for children with autism-spectrum disorders.2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 83.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet, Sweden.
    Truck and bus driver training, can simulation contribute?2005In: Driver behaviour and training volume II / [ed] Dorn, Lisa, Hampshire: Asghate , 2005, p. 93-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on driver behaviour over the past two decades has clearly demonstrated that the goals and motivations a driver brings to the driving task are important determinants for driver behaviour. The importance of this work is underlined by statistics: WHO figures show that road accidents are predicted to be the number three cause of death and injury by 2020 (currently more than 20 million deaths and injuries p.a.). The objective of this second edition and of the conference, on which it is based, is to describe and discuss recent advances in the study of driving behaviour and driver training. It bridges the gap between practitioners in road safety, and theoreticians investigating driving behaviour, from a number of different perspectives and related disciplines. A major focus is to consider how driver training needs to be adapted, to take into account driver characteristics, goals and motivations, in order to raise awareness of how these may contribute to unsafe driving behaviour, and to go on to promote the development of driver training courses that considers all the skills that are essential for road safety.As well as setting out new approaches to driver training methodology based on many years of empirical research on driver behaviour, the contributing road safety researchers and professionals consider the impact of human factors in the design of driver training as well as the traditional skills-based approach. The readership includes road safety researchers from a variety of different academic backgrounds, senior practitioners in the field of driver training from regulatory authorities and professional driver training organizations such as the police service, and private and public sector personnel who are concerned with improving road safety.

  • 84.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Unsafe transport mobility for children with disabilities, what can be done?2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Anderson, Katie
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia .
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Horlin, Chiara
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Diagnostic Procedures in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Literature Review2013In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 329-340Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, ‘gold standard’ diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a lengthy and time consuming process that requires suitably qualified multi-disciplinary team (MDT) personnel to assess behavioural, historical, and parent-report information to determine a diagnosis. A number of different tools have been developed to assist in determination. To optimise the diagnostic procedures, the best diagnostic instruments need to be identified. This study is a systematic review addressing the accuracy, reliability, validity and utility of reported diagnostic tools and assessments. To be included in this review, studies must have (1) identified an ASD diagnostic tool; (2) investigated either diagnostic procedure or the tools or personnel required; (3) be presented in English; (4) be conducted in the Western world; (5) be one of three types of studies [adapted from Samtani et al. in Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:1–13, 2011], viz. (a) cohort studies or cross-sectional studies, (b) randomised studies of test accuracy, (c) case–control studies. MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Scopus, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were scrutinised for relevant literature published from 2000 inclusive on 20th January 2012. In total, 68 articles were included. 17 tools were assessed. However, many lacked an evidence base of high quality-independent studies. The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) stood out with the largest evidence base and highest sensitivity and specificity. When the ADI-R and ADOS were used in combination they revealed levels of accuracy very similar to the correct classification rates for the current ‘gold standard’ diagnostic procedure viz. 80.8 % for ASD. There is scope for future studies on the use of the ADI-R and ADOS in combination.

  • 86.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Anund, A.
    Larsson, J.
    The Swedish School Bus System and Injuries Among Children2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 87.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Anund, A
    Sörensen, G
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    The transport mobility situation for children with autism spectrum disorders.2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 90-100Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Anund, Anna
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Gerland, Gunilla
    Kartlägning av transportsituationen för barn med autismspektrumstörning2001Report (Other academic)
  • 89. Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Bjällmark, Anna
    Larsson, M.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Face Processing in Persons with Asperger Syndrome2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 90. Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Bjällmark, Anna
    Larsson, M.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Recognition of Faces and Expressions for People with Asperger Syndrome: The Nature of the Problem2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 91.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Dahlman, J
    Dukic, T
    Bjällmark, Anna
    Larsson, M
    Fixation identification in centroid versus start-point modes using eye-tracking data2008In: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 106, no 3, p. 710-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fixation-identification algorithms, needed for analyses of eye movements, may typically be separated into three categories, viz. (i) velocity-based algorithms, (ii) area-based algorithms, and (iii) dispersion-based algorithms. Dispersion-based algorithms are commonly used but this application introduces some difficulties, one being optimization. Basically, there are two modes to reach this goal of optimization, viz., the start-point mode and the centroid mode. The aim of the present study was to compare and evaluate these two dispersion-based algorithms. Manual inspections were made of 1,400 fixations in each mode. Odds ratios showed that by using the centroid mode for fixation detection, a valid fixation is 2.86 times more likely to be identified than by using the start-point mode. Moreover, the algorithm based on centroid mode dispersion showed a good interpretation speed, accuracy, robustness, and ease of implementation, as well as adequate parameter settings.

  • 92.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Fulland, J
    Gregersen, NP
    A literature review of road vehicle transportation of children with disabilities.2001In: Journal of Traffic Medicine, ISSN 0345-5564, Vol. 29, no 3-4, p. 54-62Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Gregersen, NP
    A comparison of eye movement behavior of inexperienced and experienced drivers in real traffic environments2005In: Optometry and Vision Science, ISSN 1040-5488, E-ISSN 1538-9235, Vol. 82, no 8, p. 732-739Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 94.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Gregersen, NP
    A questionnaire-based survey on road vehicle travel habits of children with disabilities2001In: IATSS Research, ISSN 0386-1112, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 32-41Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Gregersen, N.P.
    Assessment of learner driver's hazard perception in real traffic environment.2004In: Vision in vehicles IX, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Gregersen, N.P.
    Evaluation of the TRAINER Tools through Assessment of Learner Drivers' Hazard Perception in Real Traffic Environments.2004In: Vision in vehicles X, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 97.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Gregersen, NP
    Fixation patterns of learner drivers with and without cerebral palsy (CP) when driving in real traffic environments2001In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 171-185Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 98.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Gregersen, NP
    Perceived Risk among Parents Concerning the Travel Situation for Children with Disabilities2002In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 149-158Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Gregersen, N.P.
    Pilot plans2001Report (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Gregersen, N.P.
    Road vehicle transportation of children with disabilites2001Conference paper (Other academic)
12345 51 - 100 of 221
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