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  • 51.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Aligning operations strategy and purchasing strategy2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possible advantages gained by outsourcing non-core competences and utilizing theglobalization of the market will be diminished if inter-firm relationships are notdesigned and managed properly. Hence, extended support for purchasing decisionsbased on market requirements in terms of order winners and delivery lead times isneeded. We provide a framework that combines the strategic implications from a wellknownpurchasing framework (Kraljic, 1983) with a decoupling based framework thatemphasizes the balance between efficiency and responsiveness, and the level ofcontrollability in the supply chain.

  • 52.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Decoupling points and product uniqueness impact on supplier relations2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Grad av kundorderstyrning2009In: PLANs forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2009: effektiva och lönsamma försörjningskedjor : artiklar från konferensen på Växjö universitet 19-20 augusti 2009, Stockholm: PLAN , 2009, p. 161-172Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Grad av kundorderstyrning är ett begrepp som används i många sammanhang men kanske inte alltid vilar på en så tydlig definition om vad som avses. Den vanligaste utgångspunkten är nog att utgå ifrån när en produkt blir knuten till en kundorder. Det här innebär att delar av materialflödet uppströms är prognosdrivna och de senare delarna, vars ledtid ligger inom leveransledtiden, är kundorderdrivna. Dessa två flöden sitter ihop i en lagerpunkt som fungerar som en buffert mellan flödena och den benämns ofta kundorderpunkt. Om man dessutom beaktar att man kan ha en stigande grad av säkerhet om kundordern längs flödet så kan flödet delas in i tre segment: spekulation, förväntan och åtagande, där den senare ligger efter kundorderpunkten. En annan aspekt är hur varianter skapas längs flödet. Detta är nära förknippat med utformningen av produktstrukturen och kan associeras med var i strukturen som dessa varianter skapas, d.v.s. variantspridningspunkten. Produktstrukturer kan inom ramen för detta ha olika uppbyggnad som t.ex. en specialprodukt som görs helt kundunik, eller en standardprodukt som ser likadan ut för alla kunder. Däremellan återfinns modulariserade strukturer som har inslag av standardmoduler,baserat på vilka man kan sätta samman kundunika lösningar. Sammanfattningsvis finns det tre olika grader av säkerhet om kundorder och några olika modeller för att hantera variantspridning. Detta innebär ett antal möjliga kombinationer, men enbart en delmängd av dessa är att betrakta som konkurrenskraftiga strategier. Syftet med den här artikeln är att belysa hur grad av kundorderstyrning kan definieras som ett koncept baserat på positionering av kundorderpunkt respektive positionering av variantspridningspunkt.

  • 54.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Strategiska frikopplingspunkter och samverkan i försörjningskedjor2010In: Bättre Produktivitet, ISSN 1402-1145, Vol. 8, no 8, p. 12-16Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Strategiska frikopplingspunkter och samverkan i försörjningskedjor2010In: PLANs Forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2010: Efterfrågedrivna försörjningskedjor / [ed] Sandor Ujvari, Stockholm: Logistikföreningen PLAN , 2010, p. 111-122Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledning och styrning av försörjningskedjor kräver en god överblick över kedjornas grundläggande strukturella egenskaper och över hur samverkan mellan olika aktörer i kedjorna formeras. Fundamentala egenskaper ur detta perspektiv är hur verksamhetens processer är strukturerade och ur vilken utgångspunkt de är definierade. För att säkerställa att processer genomförs endast då ett behov är identifierat är det viktigt att fokusera på centrala processdrivare i flödet. Förutom att avgöra vad som initierar en process är det också viktigt hur, och av vilken aktör, processen planeras och styrs. Om en aktör har full kontroll över processen kan processen betecknas som styrbar ur den aktörens perspektiv men om den ligger utanför aktörens kontroll så kan den på motsvarande sätt beteckna som ostyrbar. Beroende på vilken aktör som styr en process och om samma eller en annan aktör genomför processen så skapas olika förutsättningar för utformning av hur dessa aktörer samverkar. Traditionellt har den typen av frågor, kopplat till leverantörssamverkan, behandlats inom inköpsstrategin. För att illustrera hur produktions- och inköpsstrategi kan knytas närmare varandra exemplifieras detta med hur den välkända Kraljic-modellen kan integreras i ett processbaserade ramverket med hjälp av fokus på ordervinnare.

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  • 56.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Triadic perspective on customization and supplier interaction in customer-driven manufacturing2018In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 3-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Customization and customer-driven manufacturing are both explicitly based on the focal actor’s interaction with the customer actor. The impact of these aspects on the internal operations of the focal actor is relatively well known compared to the limited number of studies performed on the impact on the focal actor’s supplier. The purpose here is therefore to investigate how the concept of customization complements the concept of customer-driven and how customer requirements affect interaction between a supplier and the supplier’s supplier in a triad. Frameworks for different perspectives are developed where match and mismatch between the actors on the perception of flow driver and flow differentiation is highlighted. The frameworks are then applied on a case company to illustrate application.

  • 57.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Johansson, Eva
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Customer-differentiated triadic interaction based on decoupling points2017In: Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, ISSN 2398-5364, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 185-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The integration of supply chains together with the disintegration of individual actors in the supply chain shifts the focus from actors to challenges in the interaction between actors. This paper sets out to identify risk strategies for different supplier interactions in triadic configurations, in order to outline supply strategies.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Companies participating in a research project recounted the challenges they faced regarding the integration of customer order-based management and supply from a triad perspective. Six triad configurations were identified, based on the literature, resulting in three risk strategies, which were empirically illustrated in practice by the participating companies.

    Findings

    A key finding is that a triad perspective for a customer-differentiated approach to supplier interaction results in a material classification that highlights the circumstances in which to apply ‘balance efficiency’, ‘postpone’, ‘balance responsiveness’ and ‘speculate’ supply strategies.

    Research limitations/implications

    The research has focused on process drivers and controllability and the results may require careful interpretation when there is a mix of standardized and customized products since further interaction differentiation then may be required.

    Practical implications

    The strategies developed herein provide guidelines for differentiated supplier interaction with explicit focus on triads where customer actors directly influence supplier actors. This approach highlights how outsourcing must be carefully executed when supplier actors are involved in delivery to customer orders.

    Originality/value

    The paper sheds new light on how customer requirements impact supplier interaction in terms of decoupling points related to both delivery strategy and control strategy. The study also presents a novel application of the Kraljic matrix in in terms of risk strategies in different triad configurations.

  • 58.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Tiedemann, Fredrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Johansson, Eva
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Leagility in a triad with multiple decoupling points2015In: Advances in production management systems: Innovative production management towards sustainable growth / [ed] S. Umeda, M. Nakano, H. Mizuyama, N. Hibino, D. Kiritsis, G. von Cieminski, Berlin: Springer, 2015, Vol. 459, p. 113-120Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leagility is a strategic concept that represents a combination of lean and agile. Lean is assumed to be a cost-based strategy that is appropriate in a forecast-driven context upstream of the customer order decoupling point (CODP). Agile is the corresponding flexibility-based strategy in a customer-order-driven context downstream of the CODP. Competitive advantage is based on that the position of the CODP is aligned with the market requirements. In a dyad setting this alignment can be realized with relative ease but in a triad setting it becomes more complicated if both supply actors pursue a leagile strategy. If lean based purchasing faces an agile based delivery strategy or the opposite, where agile based purchasing faces a lean based delivery strategy, the interface is misaligned. In this paper, four interface configurations are identified and empirical examples of each are given based on a case study.

  • 59.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Hedvall, Lisa
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    A Flow Based Foundation for Capacity Dimensioning2018In: Advances in Production Management Systems. Production Management for Data-Driven, Intelligent, Collaborative, and Sustainable Manufacturing. APMS 2018 / [ed] Moon I., Lee G., Park J., Kiritsis D., von Cieminski G., Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 384-391Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To proactively decide on the volume of capacity available in a period of time is referred to as capacity dimensioning. The actual dimensioning of capacity concerns both the regular capacity, to cater for systematic variations, and safety capacity, to handle the stochastic variations. Despite the critical impact of these two types of variations, the support in the literature is limited in terms of formal methods for resource management based on dimensioning of capacity in general, and of safety capacity in particular. Capacity is one aspect of resources’ capabilities and as a point of departure for developing such methods, the two overarching challenges of form-place-time matching and capacity balancing are defined. These challenges are exploited to provide a holistic approach to the combination of capacity and the generic form, place and time transformations performed to create customer value. This approach requires alignment between these types of transformation to enable a homogenous perspective on different types of resources such as machines and stock shelves. Such transformations are performed over time and a discrete-time period-based approach requires that the intra-period transfers and inter-period variations are integrated. Finally, the preconditions for proactive and reactive control related to capacity required are outlined. A foundation for capacity dimensioning is then established based on capacity balancing, period transfers and flow control.

  • 60.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Hedvall, Lisa
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Mattsson, Stig-Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Hierarchical adaptive control of safety buffers in manufacturing2019In: IFAC-PapersOnLine, E-ISSN 2405-8963, Vol. 52, no 13, p. 2626-2631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buffer management is an important part of manufacturing planning and control where the safety buffers provide robustness in relation to uncertainty in demand and supply. Hierarchical control of safety buffers highlights the significance of decisions made at different levels and for different purposes with inter-level feedback and intra-level adaptation. A period-based view of time complements the hierarchical control by identifying inter-period and intra-period aspects of managing uncertainty and thereby promoting a proactive dominated or reactive dominated way of managing uncertainty. By combining these two inter vs. intra based concepts, a hierarchical approach to adaptive safety buffer control in manufacturing planning and control is outlined.

  • 61.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Johansson, Eva
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Inventory classification based on decoupling points2015In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 218-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ideal state of continuous one-piece flow may never be achieved. Still the logistics manager can improve the flow by carefully positioning inventory to buffer against variations. Strategies such as lean, postponement, mass customization, and outsourcing all rely on strategic positioning of decoupling points to separate forecast-driven from customer-order-driven flows. Planning and scheduling of the flow are also based on classification of decoupling points as master scheduled or not. A comprehensive classification scheme for these types of decoupling points is introduced. The approach rests on identification of flows as being either demand based or supply based. The demand or supply is then combined with exogenous factors, classified as independent, or endogenous factors, classified as dependent. As a result, eight types of strategic as well as tactical decoupling points are identified resulting in a process-based framework for inventory classification that can be used for flow design.

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  • 62.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Johansson, Eva
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Persson, Tong
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Process based inventory classification2009In: The 21st Annual Nofoma Conference 11-12 June 2009 Jönköping Sweden: Proceedings / [ed] Susanne Hertz, 2009, p. 875-889Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a process based approach for inventory classification that can provide operational support and also offer a baseline for evaluation of inventory management across different delivery strategies.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The research is based on a literature overview and deductive conceptual model development.

    Findings

    Taking a process approach to inventory management highlights the drivers of different types of decoupling points. This approach paves the way to a process based classification using endogenous and exogenous factors of supply and demand as key drivers of inventory classification, enabling a more generic approach to inventory management across different delivery strategies such as make-to-stock and assemble-to-order.

    Research limitations/implications

    Process based inventory classification does not provide improved support for an accounting driven perspective of inventory but provides a complementary operational focus. Future work involves empirical research using this classification as a foundation.

    Practical implications

    Inventory classifications are frequently based on the materials flows, e.g. raw materials, work in process, and finished goods) or volume (e.g. standard ABC inventory management). A process based classification is, however, of practical use in a set of contexts usually not emphasized by present methods.

    What is original/value of paper

    A new approach to inventory classification is presented which in contrast with most present standard techniques emphasizes a process based perspective. The technique is therefore well aligned with the key perspective of operations and supply chain management involving the balancing of supply and demand in replenishment and fulfilment processes.

  • 63.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Naim, Mohammed M.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Exploiting the Order Book for Mass Customized Manufacturing Control Systems With Capacity Limitations2007In: IEEE transactions on engineering management, ISSN 0018-9391, E-ISSN 1558-0040, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Customer specific requirements is one of the key drivers in a supply chain strategy based on mass customization. At the same time there are intense pressure on price and short delivery lead times providing a complex environment for managing the supply chain. The complexity can be reduced by introducing the concept of a customer order decoupling point (CODP). The CODP separates the supply chain into two key processes that can be categorized as make-to-order (MTO) and make-to-stock (MTS) and constitutes the two key building blocks of a system based on the mass customization concept. The dynamic properties of the MTS environment have been extensively researched using the automatic pipeline-, inventory-, and order-based production control system (APIOBPCS) archetype. In contrast to MTS systems, the customer facing MTO process, which is usually exposed to a more volatile demand stream suitable for an agile strategy, is less well investigated. Agility does, however, frequently not mean that infinite capacity is available but that there is some surplus capacity available and that the capacity can be adapted to the customer requirements in certain time frames. When the adaptation is not instant but requires some time to take effect the delay creates a dynamic backlog represented by the order book which affects the delivery lead time. Since controlling lead times is a key factor in providing reliable delivery promises an order book control logic is introduced. It is also shown that the new MTO model of the customer facing part of a mass customization system is an extension to the well established APIOBPCS framework.

  • 64.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Naim, Mohammed, M.
    Towill, Denis, R.
    The System Simplification Approach in Understanding the Dynamic Behaviour of a Manufacturing Supply Chain1992In: Journal of Systems Engineering, ISSN 0938-7706, Vol. 2, p. 164-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The classic Forrester three-echelon supply chain model is frequently presented by authors, researchers and consultants as an example of the dynamical problems inherent in a badly designed supply chain. In particular, the Forrester model is said to highlight clearly the 'Law of Industrial Dynamics'; that is, demand is amplified at each echelon of a supply chain. Despite such widespread acceptance as an example of supply chain 'problems' there is no evidence that the Forrester model has been used as a basis for studies on developing general principles whereby such 'problems' may be avoided. In order to achieve the foregoing objective, this paper presents the analytical steps required in obtaining an understanding of the internal workings of Forrester's supply chain. Following the derivation of a block diagram representation of an echelon

    within the supply chain, system simplification is undertaken via the elimination of redundant information paths. Without this vital step, there is little doubt that the fundamental problem with this supply

    chain (that orders placed on an echelon pipeline comprise 'real' and 'safety' orders) would have been missed. Instead, by highlighting this fact at an early stage in the research an appropriate range of solutions may be developed.

    The paper describes the simplification procedures adopted.

  • 65.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Integrating Production and Engineering Perspectives on the Customer Order Decoupling Point2005In: International Journal of Operations & Production Management, ISSN 0144-3577, E-ISSN 1758-6593, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 623-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Traditionally the customer order decoupling point (CODP) has focused mainly on the separation of production performed on speculation from commitment to customer orders. Engineering has, with few exceptions in this context, simply been viewed as occurring before production activities in a sequential manner. As competition increases, customer requirements for short lead-times in combination with customisations requires further integration of processes involving both engineering and production activities making the traditional view of the CODP insufficient in these cases. The purpose of this paper is thus to provide a more general approach to enterprise integration of cross-functional processes in order to extend the applicability of the CODP as a logistics oriented concept.

    Design/methodology/approach – We use evolutionary approach to define the CODP as a two-dimensional concept based on the integration of engineering and production.

    Findings – The extended CODP captures the complexity in terms of possible configurations, but also provides a framework for the issues that must be handled when positioning the CODP in terms of both engineering and production simultaneously.

    Practical implications – The two-dimensional CODP is an important extension to make the theory better reflect reality and hence increase the scope and acceptance of both the concept CODP per se, and the analysis based on the CODP.

    Originality/value – By the introduction of a new two-dimensional approach, a more comprehensive CODP typology is defined. We also provide a classification of customer order influence based on a combined engineering and production perspective where the efficient CODPs constitute a set providing the highest level of customer value in terms of engineering adaptations.

  • 66.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Introducing a Customer Order Decoupling Zone in Logistics Decision-Making2005In: International Journal of Logistics, ISSN 1367-5567, E-ISSN 1469-848X, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 211-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this paper is to explore the properties of the so-called customer order decoupling point (CODP) to enhance the knowledge and understanding of its possible use in operations and logistics. More specifically, the purpose is to enhance the applicability of the CODP framework so that it also covers scenarios with a gradual increase in certainty concerning information about customer demand. Differentiating between decisions made under certainty and decisions made under uncertainty of customer demand has been identified as a key issue in operations strategy and supply chain management. The CODP identifies this distinction but the concept is limited in that it assumes either total uncertainty or total certainty concerning customer demand. Acknowledging a gradual increase in certainty across multiple independent dimensions provides a point of departure for extending the decoupling point to a decoupling zone. Based on the decoupling zone, we extend the established framework for positioning the CODP and identify eight key decisions related to the decoupling zone that concern positioning, fulfilment strategies and buffer sizing.

  • 67.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Tang, Ou
    IEI.
    A structural framework for closed-loop supply chains2008In: International Journal of Logistics Management, ISSN 0957-4093, E-ISSN 1758-6550, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 344-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The concept of the customer order decoupling point (CODP) has been used in manydifferent contexts as an important structural concept for the traditional forward supply chain. TheCODP is rarely explicitly applied in reverse supply chain management and the purpose of this paper isto show that the CODP can be an important corner stone of a framework for analysis of the closed-loopsupply chain containing both forward and reverse material flows.Design/methodology/approach – Conceptual similarities are identified using analogies betweenforward and reverse supply chains. First, the concepts are discussed in their original context offorward flows and thereafter the concepts are applied on reverse flows. Finally, a holistic closed-loopmodel is established.Findings – The conventional CODP framework for forward flow supply chains can be extended tocover also reverse material flows and therefore providing a foundation for a more comprehensivediscussion of closed-loop supply chains useful in both education, research, and industrial applications.Using the suggested extended framework it is possible to identify nine fundamental supply chainconfigurations.Practical implications – Differentiating between demand driven and forecast driven activitiesplays a critical role in practical supply chain management and this paper highlights that this approachalso can be applied to closed-loop supply chains and therefore extending the reach of the toolboxpreviously developed for the forward supply chain.Originality/value – The concept CODP has not previously been comprehensively treated for theclosed-loop supply chain and this paper provides a foundation for establishing a strategic structuralframework for discussing issues such as lean vs agile and balancing efficiency and responsiveness in amore comprehensive context involving also reverse material flows.

  • 68.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Tang, Ou
    Differentiering inom återkopplade logistiksystem baserat på kundorderpunkten2006In: Plans forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2006: effektivitet och samverkan i försörjningskedjor : artiklar från konferensen på Högskolan Väst i Trollhättan den 23-24 augusti 200 / [ed] Oscar Jellbo och Rikard Sjöström, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2006, p. 260-276Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Försörjningskedjor har vanligtvis fokus på det s.k. framåtflödet från råmaterial till kunder på marknaden. I många sammanhang är dock även returflödet av stor betydelse, men utvecklingen av koncept och verktyg för att styra dessa flöden har inte samma omfattning som för framåtflödet. T.ex. finns det idag en god förståelse för kundorderpunktens betydelse i framåtflöden för att tydliggöra de olika förutsättningarna i det prognosdrivna respektive det efterfrågedrivna flödet. Den här artikeln syftar till att visa att kundorderpunkten även kan vara ett viktigt hjälpmedel i analysen av returflöden och därmed också för hela det återkopplade logistiksystemet. Genom att förstå hur kundorderpunkten även kan användas i returflödet så öppnas möjligheter för att se analogier mellan framåt- och returflödet och därmed underlätta för att se hur metoder och tekniker inom en typ av flöde också kan tillämpas på den andra typen av flöde.

  • 69.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Tiedemann, Fredrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Customization and Variants in Terms of Form, Place and Time2019In: Advances in production management systems: Production management for the factory of the future / [ed] F. Ameri, K. E. Stecke, G. von Cieminski & D. Kiritsis, Springer, 2019, p. 383-391Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in customization has increased due to globalization, and globalization makes competing on price more difficult if access to low-cost production is unavailable. Customization usually implies the creation of variants, where the final products are customized in form, place and/or time. However, the relation between customization and variants is unclear; therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze customization in terms of form, place and time, as well as relate it to product proliferation (i.e., variant creation). Here, a time perspective is used, creating a clear relation to flow thinking. Using flow thinking and the two strategic decoupling points related to flow driver (customer order decoupling point) and flow differentiation (customer adaptation decoupling point) provides a better understanding of what, where and when customization can be applied.

  • 70.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Tiedemann, Fredrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Frikopplingstänkande och kundanpassning jämfört med variantspridning i termer av form, plats och tid2017In: Bättre Produktivitet, ISSN 1402-1145, no 4, p. 18-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för olika typer av kundanpassning har tilltagit i och med att det blivit allt svårare att konkurrera med enbart pris om man inte har tillgång till lågkostnadsproduktion. Kundanpassning innebär vanligen att många varianter skapas. Kopplingen mellan kundanpassning och variantspridning är dock inte entydig och syftet här är att analysera denna relation. Utgångspunkten för analysen är de tre perspektiven form, plats och tid vilka utgör en plattform för flödesstrukturer med variantspridning. Genom tidsperspektivet så skapas en tydlig koppling till frikopplingstänkande.

  • 71.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Tiedemann, Fredrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Kundanpassning och variantspridning i termer av form, plats och tid2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för olika typer av kundanpassning har tilltagit i och med att det blivit allt svårare att konkurrera med enbart pris om man inte har tillgång till lågkostnadsproduktion. Kundanpassning innebär vanligen att många varianter skapas. Kopplingen mellan kundanpassning och variantspridning är dock inte entydig och syftet här är att analysera denna relation. Utgångspunkten för analysen är de tre perspektiven form, plats och tid vilka utgör en plattform för flödesstrukturer med variantspridning. Genom tidsperspektivet så skapas en tydlig koppling till frikopplingstänkande.

  • 72.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Towill, Denis, R.
    Mohammed, Naim
    Smoothing Supply Chain Dynamics1991In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 231-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A three-echelon Forrester production distribution system is used as a supply chain reference model for comparing various methods of improving total dynamic performance. Many authors have exploited the original simulation results for the nominal system, especially when describing problems associated with supply chain behaviour. However, few of these authors have attempted to produce a dynamically superior supply chain as distinct from offering detailed organisational and attitudinal changes needed to achieve any improvement. As the starting point of this paper, the production-distribution system has been transformed into a block diagram representation capable of considerable simplification. A combination of analysis and simulation can then be used to gain a far deeper understanding of the system dynamics than has so far been published. Thus, although the Forrester model is far from optimal, it does provide a well established benchmark against which proposals may be evaluated. For the purpose of illustration, five different approaches are then used to improve the supply chain dynamics. These are

    -“fine tuning” the existing ordering policy parameters;

    -reducing system delays;

    -removal of the distribution echelon;

    -changing the individual echelon decision rules;

    -better use of information flow throughout the supply chain.

    It is shown that by better utilisation of the information flow, significant reductions in the demand amplification can be achieved without substantial expenditure. This is because it is only necessary to separate out the flow of “real” orders from “system” orders as they are passed up the chain. Such collaboration does, however, correspond to the establishment of an integrated supply chain in which the concept of “total system stocks” is accepted.

  • 73.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Towill, Denis R.
    Naim, Mohammed M.
    A Reference Model for Smoothing Supply Chain Dynamics1991In: Transformation of Science and Technology into Productive Power: Proceedings of the XIth International Conference on Production Research, 1991, p. 405-411Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A three-echelon Forrester production distribution system is used as a supply chain model for comparing various methods of improving total dynamic performance. Five different approaches are used. These are:

    - "fine tuning" the existing ordering policy parameters;

    - reducing system delays;

    - removal of the distribution echelon;

    - changing the individual echelon decision rules;

    - better use of information flow throughout the supply chain.

    It is shown that by better utilisation of the information flow, substantial reductions in the demand amplification can be

    achieved without substantial expenditure.

  • 74.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Wong, Hartanto
    Naim, Mohammed
    Postponement based on the positioning of the differentiation and decoupling points2007In: Advances in Production Management Systems: International IFIP TC 5, WG 5.7 Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems (APMS 2007), September 17–19, Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Jan Olhager, Fredrik Persson, New York: Springer , 2007, p. 143-150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural analysis of supply chains often involves postponement to some degree. The concept has received a lot of attention in the literature but the understanding of how to operationalize the concept still deserves some attention. A framework is introduced that provides an integrative picture of how different aspects of supply chain and operations management interplay in a postponement context. The framework is founded on a process/object perspective where a set of characteristics, properties and concepts are identified for each entity.

  • 75.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Yang, Biao
    School of Business, Management and Economics, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.
    Yang, Ying
    Newcastle University Business School, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK .
    Williams, Sharon J.
    College of Human & Health Sciences, Swansea University, Swansea, UK .
    Decoupling thinking in service operations: a case in healthcare delivery system design2017In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 387-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of decoupling thinking has been well established in the manufacturing operations and supply chain management literature. This paper explores how this decoupling thinking can be applied in service operations and in particular in health care. It first reviews the relevant literature on decoupling fundamentals, the front- and back-office distinction, and new emerging decoupling thinking in service operations. Subsequently, a flow-based framework including content and process is developed for decoupling thinking in service operations. The framework provides an integrated perspective on customer contact, flow driver and flow differentiation (level of customisation). The framework hence, through flow differentiation, introduces the concept of standardisation versus customisation in a service context. This is followed by a health care case example to illustrate how the framework can be applied. The managerial implications are primarily in terms of a modularised approach to system design and management. The framework offers potential for benchmarking with other service systems as well as with manufacturing systems based on the shared foundation in decoupling thinking. Finally, suggestions are provided for further research opportunities derived from this research. 

  • 76. Wong, Hartanto
    et al.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Naim, Mohammed
    Analysis of form postponement based on optimal positioning of the differentiation point and stocking decisions2009In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 1201-1224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyse the use of form postponement based on the positioning of the differentiation point and stocking policy. Six classes of manufacturing configurations are identified based on the choice of whether or not form postponement is employed and the decision regarding the stocking policy for the final product configurations as well as for the generic component. Analytical evaluation methods based on queuing models are used to assess operational measures for each class of configuration and solution algorithms are developed todetermine the optimal positioning of the differentiation point and the optimalstocking levels. This allows us to compare the relative merits of all manufacturingconfigurations based on their respective best performances. The results of anumerical experiment show how different operational parameters may influencethe choice of optimal configuration, the preference of early or late postponement,and the relative cost savings obtained from employing form postponement.

  • 77.
    Wong, Hartanto
    et al.
    Cardiff University.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Naim, Mohammed
    Cardiff University.
    Evaluation of postponement in manufacturing systems with non-negligible changeover times2010In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 258-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to examine the cost or benefit implications of employing postponement in the manufacturingenvironments characterised by non-negligible changeover times incurred when switching production from oneproduct to another. Four manufacturing configurations are distinguished based on the choice of manufacturingtechnology and on whether or not postponement is employed. Analytical evaluation methods based on queuingmodels are used to assess operational measures for each configuration and solution algorithms are developedto determine the optimal decisions that may include stocking level, batch size and differentiation point.A numerical experiment is carried out to identify how the system performance is affected by different parameters.

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