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  • 51.
    Johansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Investigating the effect of power distribution on cooling a double-sided PCB: Numerical simulation and experiment2005In: Heat Transfer: Volume 4, 2005, p. 649-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anexperimental procedure for investigating the effect of power distribution onthe cooling of a double-sided PCB is implemented. A numberof computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are validated by laboratoryexperiments performed in 19.5°C temperature environment. Case temperatures of surface-mountedcomponents fully populating the PCB sides are measured and monitoredin simulations. Different combinations of power distribution with other coolingmethods, such as a heatsink tooled on a sealed oropen enclosure, at natural or forced convection, are studied. Thermallyefficient uniform and non-uniform power configurations are determined on adouble sided PCB. It is concluded that managing power distributionon a double-sided PCB can be considered as a measureto improve the thermal performance of electronic modules.

  • 52.
    Johansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Thermal Analysis of an Electronic Module with a Double-sided PCB Housed in a 2-MCU Enclosure for Avionic Applications2004In: Proceedings: 2004 International Symposium on Microelectronics, November 14-18, 2004, Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, Ca, Washington, D.C.: IMAPS--International Microelectronics and Packaging Society , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Johansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Thermal design evaluation of an electronic module for helicopter applications2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Johansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Method for Prognostics of Thermal Fatigue Failure of Solder Joints in Avionic Equipment2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Johansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Prognostics of Thermal Fatigue Failure of Solder Joints in Avionic Equipment2012In: IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, ISSN 0885-8985, E-ISSN 1557-959X, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 16-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A practical method has been suggested for solder joint thermal fatigue prognostics, which enables real-time fatigue calculations based on uncompressed temperature data embedded in a host system that performs safety-critical operations. The accuracy of the prognosticated remaining useful life depends on the level of details captured in the model, and the level of confidence from validation efforts.

  • 56. Johansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Lee, Jung Chuan
    Twigg, David W.
    Rassaian, Mostafa
    On thermomechanical durability analysis combined with computational fluid dynamics thermal analysis2007In: Volume 5: Electronics and Photonics, 2007, p. 233-240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results are presented on durability analysis of an electronic module subjected to thermal and power cycles, and vibration. A hierarchical analysis process for analyzing the durability of the module is described. The initial step is a transient thermal analysis of the unit in which the module is located. The three operating modes of the unit are modeled and analyzed using acommercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool. The tool generates a time history of the temperature at all points within the unit and module. The second step comprises exporting temperatures from the transient temperature analysis to a durability prediction tool. The temperatures calculated by the global analysis are mapped to the printed wiring assembly (PWA) mounted within the box, yielding the temperature distribution of the PWA as functions of time. The durability tool utilizes a modified Coffin Manson formula together with the transient temperature profile to estimate the durability of each lead and solder joint included in the module. Thermomechanical fatigue level of leads and solder joints within the unit are reported as a cumulative damage index (CDI). The CDI is the ratio of the number of cycles required for the test item to endure under a life time to the number of cycles the item is predicted to sustain before failure. Durability analysis of solder joint due to vibration is performed separately. The environment is specified according to the location where the unit is mounted. CDI due to vibration is added to form an overall CDI based on Miner's rule.

  • 57.
    Lang, Jenny
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Hellén, Johan
    Saab AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lim, Jang-Kwon
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Kista, Sweden.
    Schodt, Bo
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn M. J.
    Saab AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Poder, Ralf
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bakowski, Mietek
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Kista, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Thermo-mechanical Reliability and Performance Degradation of a Lead-free RF Power Amplifier with GaN-on-SiC HEMTs2016In: Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials (ECSCRM), IEEE, 2016, no 12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objects under investigation in this study are RF-transistors, solder joint materials and thermal interface materials (TIM). In total 50 RF power amplifier demonstrators consisting each of a PCB board containing one GaN-on-SiC, HEMT, CHZ015A-QEG, from UMS in SMD quad-flat no-leads package (QFN) were assembled for the study. Two types of lead-free solders (Sn63Pb36Ag2 and SnAgCu (SAC305)) and two types of TIM materials (NanoTIM and TgonTM 805) for PCB attachment to liquid cold plate were tested for thermo-mechanical reliability. The demonstrators were subjected to thermal cycles (TC) and power cycles (PC) and evaluated electrically, thermally and structurally. A set of 24 demonstrators were subjected to thermal stress by 2300 thermal cycles (TC) between -20°C and 80°C and remaining 26 demonstrators were subjected to the electrical stress by power cycling (PC) with a drain current of 100 mA at a drain voltage of 45 V and a cycle time of 2 min. High-frequency (HF) characterization of all the boards was done before exposure to the thermal and electrical stresses. Static electrical characterization of all the devices was performed by measuring threshold voltage and blocking voltage and output characteristics. The static electrical and HF characterization was repeated after 2300 thermal cycles and after 1100, 4700 and 14500 power cycles. In addition, the packages were inspected by optical microscopy and by 2D-Xray microscopy, in order to reveal possible failures in solder joints. The main reason for the thermal cycling tests was to test the solder joint reliability. The suggested tests were based on standard IPC 785, treating HEMT devices and solder. One thermal cycle took 113 min. One month of the accelerated test is equal to about one year use in field conditions. The rampup slope was 2-3°C/min and the dwell time was 15 min. The temperature in the chamber and the temperature on at least one board were recorded during the whole test.

    The main reason for the power cycling tests was to investigate degradation of the transistor package and TIM, including the die during cyclic heating and cooling. The temperature distribution on the HEMT package and PCB was measured, several times during the test by thermal imaging and by thermocouples. Power cycling was performed at room temperature with demonstrator boards mounted on a liquid cold plate. The power cycling implies DC-test with on/off sections where the demonstrators reach steady state in-between. The cycle time was set to 2 min. The boards were ID labeled and underwent a screening procedure under which some were visually inspected, powered up and investigated with X-ray. After finishing TC and PC tests selected boards were visually inspected in white light, X-rayed and a couple of boards were subjected to cross-section investigations for failure analysis.

  • 58.
    Lang, Jenny
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Lim, Jang-Kwon
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Kista, Sweden.
    Hellén, Johan
    Saab AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn M.J.
    Saab AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schodt, Bo
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Poder, Ralf
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Bakowski, Mietek
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Kista, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Reliability study of a RF power amplifier with GaN-on-SiC HEMTs2016In: ECS Transactions, Pennington, N.J.: Electrochemical Society, 2016, Vol. 75, no 12, p. 49-59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RF power amplifier demonstrators containing each one GaN-on- SiC, HEMT, CHZ015A-QEG, from UMS in SMD quad-flat noleads package (QFN) were subjected to thermal cycles (TC) and power cycles (PC) and evaluated electrically, thermally and structurally. Two types of lead-free solders (Sn63Pb36Ag2 and SnAgCu (SAC305)) and two types of TIM materials (NanoTIM and TgonTM 805) for PCB attachment to liquid cold plate were tested for thermo-mechanical reliability. Changes in electrical performance of the devices namely reduction of the current saturation value, threshold voltage shift, increase of the leakage current and degradation of the HF performance were observed as a result of an accumulated current stress during PC. No significant changes in the investigated solder or TIM materials were observed.

  • 59.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    About the effect of anodic pulses and periodic current reversion on electrodeposits2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Deposizione pulsate di cromo duro con inversione di corrente2008In: Galvanotecnica e nuove finiture, ISSN 1121-855X, Vol. 2, p. 84-89Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    EAST – European Academy of Surface Technology2015In: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, ISSN 0020-2967, Vol. 93, no 6, p. 281-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Electrolytic methods for manufacturing of miniaturized structures2015In: EAST Special Forum, Milano, 1-2/10, 2015., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Examination of coatings and interfaces by CT X-ray2016In: Surface Characterization, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Pulse plating of copper on printed circuit boards2012In: Pulse Plating: including 25 tables / [ed] W. Hansal & S. Roy, Eugen G. Leuze Verlag , 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Pulse reversal plating of hard chromium2008In: Galvanotecnica e nuove finiture, ISSN 1121-855X, Vol. 2, p. 84-89Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Pulse reversal plating of hard chromium2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Survey of pulse plating of copper from sulphuric acid solutions2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Leisner, Peter
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Influence of process parameters on crack formation in direct current and pulse reversal plated hard chromium2009In: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, ISSN 0020-2967, E-ISSN 1745-9192, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 90-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has for a long time been known that crack free chromium coatings can be obtained by pulse reversal plating, but it has only much later been understood that reoxidation of hydrogen from the surface during the anodic periods is essential for obtaining crack free deposits. In this paper, it is shown that a specific anodic charge depending on the charge of the previous cathodic pulse is needed to obtain a crack free coating and that residual stress in the coating will be less at more frequent current reversals. Furthermore, too large an anodic charge will result in redissolution of chromium and thereby decrease the current efficiency.

  • 69.
    Leisner, Peter
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Møller, Patrick
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Additive-free pulse reversal plating of cupper on printed circuit boards2003In: EAST-Forum 2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Leisner, Peter
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Edström, Curt
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Hansen, Åsa
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Poder, Ralf
    SP.
    Controlling throwing power of functional silver by pulse plating: Invited paper2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Leisner, Peter
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Hansal, W.
    Pulse plating of chromium2012In: Pulse Plating / [ed] Wolfgang E. G. Hansal & Sudipta Roy, Bad Saulgau: Eugen G. Leuze Verlag , 2012, p. 250-268Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Leisner, Peter
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Möller, Patrick
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Fredenberg, Mikael
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Pulse reversal plating of copper for electronics applications2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Leisner, Peter
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Möller, Patrick
    Fredenberg, Mikael
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Recent progress in pulse reversal plating of copper for electronics applications2007In: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, ISSN 0020-2967, E-ISSN 1745-9192, Vol. 85, no 1, p. 40-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on demands for modern printed circuit board (pcb) manufacturing, the copper electroplating process is discussed. Electroplating from an additive free solution using low frequency pulse reversal plating with superimposed cathodic pulsation is suggested, which meets the demands for precise dimensions, high ductility and conductivity, low costs and environmental friendliness.

  • 74.
    Leisner, Peter
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Elektroplätering av antibakteriella beläggningar2015In: Ytforum, ISSN 0349-4470, no 1, p. 23-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 75.
    Leisner, Peter
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Introduction to pulse plating2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Leisner, Peter
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Structure modification and process control by pulsed electrodeposition2015In: EUROMAT 2015, Warsaw, Sep. 20-24, 2015., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Leisner, Peter
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Edström, Curt
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Sandulache, G.
    Hansal, W.
    Influence of pulse reverse plating parameters on throwing power in a silver cyanide bath2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Leisner, Peter
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Edström, Curt
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Wang, Hui
    Chang Zhou University, China.
    Influence of anodic pulses and periodic current reversion on electrodeposits2014In: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, ISSN 0020-2967, E-ISSN 1745-9192, Vol. 92, no 6, p. 336-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how anodic pulses and periodic current reversion influence electrodeposition. Depending on the involved metal and electrolyte, very different effects can be observed and taken advantage of. The Wagner number, Wa, describing the current distribution is shown to be useful for predicting the throwing power at low frequencies of current reversion, even in complex electrochemical systems, but is less useful at higher frequencies. Passivation can occur due to oxide formation, super-saturation of metal salts or depletion of complexing agents at the electrode surface. Furthermore, dissolution and desorption processes in the anodic period can have strong influence on the succeeding cathodic electrocrystallisation affecting preferred crystal orientation, intrinsic stress and current efficiency. A literature survey is combined with experiments from silver plating from a cyanide bath.

  • 79.
    Lindgren, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Using thermo.mechanical simulation and optimization in product development2004In: SSoCC´04, Båstad 13-14/4 2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 80. Lindgren, Mats
    et al.
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Johansson, Alf
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Danielsson, Torkel
    Gunnarsson, Niklas
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Multi-disciplinary Approach to Design of a Power Electronics Module for Harsh Environments2009In: Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, 2009: EuroSime 2009, 2009, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of experimental and computer simulation methods has been applied to reliability analysis of a newly designed resin transfer molded power electronics module for automotive applications, comprising the glass-fiber epoxy multi-layer PCB, populated with various electronic packages. Evaluation of thermo-mechanical stability, determination of moisture ingress, and testing the adhesion quality between the molding compound and the module PCB have been performed along with investigation of heat transfer paths in the module. The experiments in harsh environments have revealed thermo-mechanical stability and acceptable moisture ingress for the module test samples with relatively large BGA components on the glass-fiber epoxy PCBs of different thickness and different solder mask types. Thermal images of the module have been obtained and the CFD model was created and validated with temperature measurements in power-on tests. Extreme heat dissipation modes have been studied by modeling.

  • 81.
    Lindgren, Mats
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Experimental Evaluation of Glob-top Materials for use in Harsh Environments2005In: Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging, ISSN 1551-4897, E-ISSN 1555-8037, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 253-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents results of experimental evaluation of glob-top materials for multi-chip-modules (MCM) in harsh environments. Material and process tests have been performed with the purpose to find a material which would fulfill the reliability requirements for use e.g. in military or automotive applications. Seven polymer materials, i.e. four epoxies, two silicones and one polyurethane material have been selected and evaluated in the experiments. The most critical material and process parameters for glob-top have been identified and measured. Based on the experimental results, application-based scoring of studied epoxy materials has been performed. Material evaluation results have been summarized in conclusions about the most suitable glob-top material for use in harsh environments.

  • 82.
    Lindgren, Mats
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Thermal and thermo-mechanical analysis for design evaluation of an automotive radar module2004In: Quality and Reliability Engineering International, ISSN 0748-8017, E-ISSN 1099-1638, Vol. 20, no 7, p. 709-726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the substrate technology, assembly method, and housing material on the thermal, thermo-mechanical and cost performance of a radar module for automotive applications has been studied to address the product reliability aspects during the design phase. Flip chip and wire bonding have been evaluated for Multi-Chip Module—Laminate/Deposition (MCM-L/D) and Multi-Chip Module—Deposition (MCM-D) substrate technologies used for electronic packaging solutions in a harsh environment. Solder ball and direct attachment have been investigated as second-level assembly. As a result of thermal and thermo-mechanical simulations and cost analysis, radar module designs combining MCM-D and MCM-L/D with wire bonding have been revealed, which are preferable for use in different temperature environments with respect to two performance criteria, the maximum junction temperature and the manufacturing cost. Simulation-based guidelines have been developed for designing radar modules used in automotive applications while satisfying temperature and stress constraints provided for the module.

  • 83.
    Lindgren, Mats
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Törnvall, Magnus
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Application of simulation-based decision making in product development of an RF module2007In: Microelectronics and reliability, ISSN 0026-2714, E-ISSN 1872-941X, Vol. 47, no 2-3, p. 302-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results of simulation-based design evaluation for thermal and thermo-mechanical performance and cost of packaging technology of a RF module for automotive application. Combination of thermal, thermo-mechanical and cost analysis within the multi-attribute decision making enabled design ranking and revealed two MCM-L/D and MCM-D designs with wire bonding assembly preferred for use in automotive applications for different temperature environments. Simulation-based design guidelines were developed for designing electronic modules exhibiting good thermal and thermo-mechanical performance. By application-based partitioning of the importance weights assigned to the reliability and cost criteria, the guidelines were extended to cover other application areas.

  • 84.
    Lindgren, Mats
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Törnvall, Magnus
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Application of simulation-based decision making in product development of an RF module2004In: 5th IEEE conference in Thermal and Mechanical Simulation and Experiments in Micro-Electronics and Micro-Systems: EuroSimE 2004, 2004, p. 233-240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results of simulation-based design evaluation for thermal and thermo-mechanical performance and cost of packaging technology of an RF module for automotive applications. A combination of thermal, thermo-mechanical and cost analysis within the multi-attribute decision making framework enabled design ranking and revealed two MCM-L/D (multi-chip module-laminate/deposition) and MCM-D (deposition) designs with the wire bonding assembly preferred for use in automotive applications for different temperature environments. Simulation-based design guidelines were developed for designing electronic modules exhibiting good thermal and thermo-mechanical performance. By application-based partitioning of the importance weights assigned to the reliability and cost criteria, the guidelines were extended to cover other application areas.

  • 85.
    Lindgren, Mats
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Poder, R.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Methods for predicting corrosion on electronic products2014In: Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology, ISSN 1478-422X, E-ISSN 1743-2782, Vol. 49, no 7, p. 661-664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface insulation resistance (SIR) measurements have become necessary to perform, especially due to the introduction of lead free solders. It has been reported that SIR and other test methods have to be used for evaluating the reliability of printed wiring boards. This paper presents an investigation on how the SIR test environment influences the test results. The factors varied were temperature and humidity. The temperature was varied between 40 and 85°C, and the relative humidity was varied between 60 and 85%. Furthermore, the influence of different types of process chemicals on SIR was evaluated. Seven lead free solder pastes, of which five were no-clean and two were water soluble, were compared. The influence of using conformal coating was also studied. These solder pastes were used to verify the developed method. A proper test method for SIR measurements is suggested in the paper, as well as a recommendation for use of conformal coating.

  • 86.
    Lindgren, Mats
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Tegehall, P-E.
    Factors influencing the surface insulation resistance2005In: IMAPS Nordic 2005: the IMAPS Nordic Annual Conference, Tönsberg, Norway, 2005 : 11-14 September 2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Lindgren, Mats
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Meuwissen, M.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Simulation assisted investigation and improvement of the performance of an electronics assembly subjected to temperature cycling2005In: Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Micro-Electronics and Micro-Systems, 2005: EuroSimE 2005, 2005, p. 269-276Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical simulation techniques are used increasingly in the (re-)design of micro-electronics because of their time and cost saving potentials. The current paper describes the application of such techniques for analysing and improving the thermo-mechanical performance of an electronics assembly. An initial finite element model is implemented and its predictions are compared to measurements. Based on this comparison, the model is further refined by an improved assessment of the input to the model in the form of materials properties: the properties of the moulding compound, failure behaviour of the lead-compound interface and failure behaviour of the lead material itself. Finally an updated model is used to determine directions for improvement of the behaviour of the assembly design.

  • 88. Ludvigsson, M.
    et al.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Andersson, P.E.
    Dyreklev, P.
    Nilsson, D.
    Norberg, B.
    Grund-Bäck, L.
    Malmros, I.
    Falk, K.
    Clausén, U.
    Laminated display based on printed elelctronics2016In: Engineering Transparancy, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 89. Möller, Patrick
    et al.
    Fredenberg, M.
    Dainese, M.
    Aronsson, C.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Östling, M.
    Metal printing of copper interconnects down to 500 nm using ECPR: Electrochemical pattern replication2006In: Microelectronic Engineering, ISSN 0167-9317, E-ISSN 1873-5568, Vol. 83, no 4-9, p. 1410-1413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    rinting of copper patterns with dimensions from 100 μm down to 500 nm lines and 280 nm space was demonstrated using electrochemical pattern replication with a master electrode (template) having a pattern depth of 2500 nm. SEM measurements were done to measure the mean line width as well as CD variations on the master and the replicated copper lines. It was found that accurate replication of 500 nm thick metal patterns was enabled by the process and that CD variations in the master were dominating compared to the variations introduced by the electrochemical pattern transfer itself.

  • 90.
    Möller, Patrick
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Fredenberg, Mikael
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Dainese, M.
    Aronsson, C.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Östling, M.
    Metal Printing of Interconnects Down to 500 nm Using ECPR: ElectroChemical Pattern Replication2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 91.
    Möller, Patrick
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Wiwen-Nilsson, P.
    Fredenberg, M.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Östling, M.
    Printing of Metal Interconnects for Microelectronics: the Electro Chemical Pattern Replication (ECPR) Project2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Möller, Patrick
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Wiwen-Nilsson, P.
    Fredenberg, M.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Montelius, L.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Östling, M.
    ElectroChemical Pattern Replication (ECPR): metal printing for microelectronics2004In: Sur/Fin Interfinish 2004: Chicago, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Möller, Patrick
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Wiwen-Nilsson, P.
    Fredenberg, Mikael
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Montelius, L.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Östling, M.
    ECPR – ElectroChemical Pattern Replication for direct metallization2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 94. Ottesen-Hansen, E.
    et al.
    Ambat, R.
    Møller, Patrick
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Minari, D.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Gunnarsson, Niklas
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Ljungcrants, H.
    Corrosion behaviour of nano-crystalline MAX phase nc-TiC/a-SiC2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 95. Pavlatou, E.A.
    et al.
    Chrysagis, K.
    Zoikis–Karathanasis, A.
    Rasmussen, J.B.
    Rasmussen, A.A.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Gradewald, L.
    Kampakas, N.S.
    Panayiotakopoulos, G.
    SelfClean: Novel Self-cleaning, anti-bacterial coatings, preventing disease transmission on everyday touched surfaces2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Payandeh, Mostafa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Belov, Ilja
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Wessén, Magnus
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting. RheoMetal.
    Effect of Material Inhomogeneity on Thermal Performance of a Rheocast Aluminum Heatsink for Electronics Cooling2016In: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 2116-2127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between microstructural inhomogeneity and thermal conductivity of a rheocast componentmanufactured from two different aluminum alloys was investigated. The formation of two different primarya-Al particles was observed and related to multistage solidification process during slurry preparationand die cavity filling process. The microstructural inhomogeneity of the component was quantified as thefraction of a1-Al particles in the primary Al phase. A high fraction of coarse solute-lean a1-Al particles inthe primary Al phase caused a higher thermal conductivity of the component in the near-to-gate region. Avariation in thermal conductivity through the rheocast component of 10% was discovered. The effect of aninhomogeneous temperature-dependent thermal conductivity on the thermal performance of a largerheocast heatsink for electronics cooling in an operation environment was studied by means of simulation.Design guidelines were developed to account for the thermal performance of heatsinks with inhomogeneousthermal conductivity, as caused by the rheocasting process. Under the modeling assumptions, the simulationresults showed over 2.5% improvement in heatsink thermal resistance when the higher conductivity nearto-gate region was located at the top of the heatsink. Assuming homogeneous thermo-physical properties ina rheocast heatsink may lead to greater than 3.5% error in the estimation of maximum thermal resistanceof the heatsink. The variation in thermal conductivity within a large rheocast heatsink was found to beimportant for obtaining of a robust component design.

  • 97.
    Pinate, Santiago
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Surface treatment for medical devices: Analysis of coating materials in High-Frequency surgery instruments2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electric burn and tissue sticking are two major concerns in electrosurgery. The improvement of the surgical instrumentation to avoid these two problems could be achieved by surface treatment. A material selection criteria was used to assist with the selection of suitable candidates to be use as coating material in order to improve the performance of the stainless steel as the current state-of-the-art material in electrosurgery instruments. Two target surfaces were chosen to be coated: inner and outer surface. The inner surface requires a conductive material with a non-stick capability. The outer surface requires an electrical insulation coating easy to clean. TiN, AlN, CrN, and Al2O3 were selected as candidates for the inner surface, while Parylene and ZrO2 were selected for the outer surface. Four research questions guided the investigation to determine the coating materials with the best performance, to assess the characterization techniques, and to evaluate eventual impact of the coating on the thermal spread. An active coated rectangular electrode was connected to a HF-unit in the bipolar cut mode and introduced to an organic testing gel to simulate electrosurgery conditions. A fully coated squared sample was tested to determine the voltage peak of the electric breakdown. The results of the present study reveal that TiN and Al2O3 improved the performance of the sample, when compared to the stainless steel and should assure the non-stick behavior. Both Parylene and ZrO2 failed to provide a continuous electrical insulation. Two new methods of testing that performs closer to real conditions were suggested as an improvement of the existing measurement technics. Moreover, a relationship between the coating and the thermal spread was identified and proposed as a mechanism that enhances tissue adhesion. 

  • 98.
    Rossi, S.
    et al.
    University of Trento.
    Parziani, N.
    University of Trento.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology. University of Trento and SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Abrasion resistance of vitreous enamel coatings in function of frit composition and particles presence2015In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 332-333, p. 702-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vitreous enamel is an inorganic coating applied on metallic substrates as powder and fired at relatively high temperature in order to cover the surface forming the coating. This kind of layer shows, at the same time, very good functional and aesthetical properties. In several applications, good mechanical resistance together with corrosion protection is required and enamel is a good alternative to other coatings. Enamel presents optimum corrosion protection and high hardness values but the low fracture toughness reduces its resistance to abrasive wear related to brittle fracture. The microstructure of enamel, the chemical composition of the frit, and the deposition parameters are crucial for the final properties. Moreover, it is possible to introduce mill additives in the frit or hard particles inside the layers to improve final resistance. In this paper, abrasion resistance of enamel is tested by Taber Abraser test. Mill additives (spodumene or quartz), hard (WC or SiC) or solid lubricant (graphite) particles have been added to the frit to study their influence on the abrasion resistance. The abrasion resistance of modified enamels was evaluated through mass loss after abrasion and wear track were observed by SEM in order to evaluate the abrasion damage. An improvement of the abrasion resistance was obtained modifying the frit with mill additives. The introduction of SiC and WC particles produced an important modification in wear mechanism of the glassy coating, reducing the crack nucleation due to the low pores quantity and good interface between vitreous matrix and particles. In these cases the wear mechanism is limited to scratches on the surface.

  • 99.
    Sarius, N.G.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Lauridsen, J.
    Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, IFM, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Lewin, E.
    Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Jansson, U.
    Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, H.
    Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, IFM, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Öberg, Å.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden .
    Sarova, G.
    Harting, Corporate Technology Services, Espelkamp, Germany .
    Staperfeld, G.
    Harting, Corporate Technology Services, Espelkamp, Germany.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Eklund, P.
    Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, IFM, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hultman, L.
    Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, IFM, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Contact Resistance of Ti-Si-C-Ag and Ti-Si-C-Ag-Pd Nanocomposite Coatings2012In: Journal of Electronic Materials, ISSN 0361-5235, E-ISSN 1543-186X, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 560-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ti-Si-C-Ag-Pd and Ti-Si-C-Ag nanocomposite coatings were deposited by direct-current magnetron sputtering on Cu substrates with an electroplated Ni layer. Analytical electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show that the nanocomposites consist of TiC, Ag:Pd, and amorphous SiC. The contact resistance of these coatings against a spherical Au-Co surface was measured for applied contact forces up to 5 N. Ti-Si-C-Ag-Pd coatings with Ag:Pd top coating had ~10 times lower contact resistance at contact forces below 1 N (~10 mΩ at ~0.1 N), and 2 to 3 times lower for contact forces around 5 N (<1 mΩ at 5 N), compared with the Ti-Si-C-Ag coating.

  • 100.
    Sarius, N.G.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Lauridsen, J.
    Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, IFM, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lewin, E.
    Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lu, J.
    Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, IFM, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Högberg, H.
    Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, IFM, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Öberg, Å.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Ljungcrantz, H.
    Impact Coatings AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Eklund, P.
    Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, IFM, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hultman, L.
    Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, IFM, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ni and Ti diffusion barrier layers between Ti-Si-C and Ti-Si-C-Ag nanocomposite coatings and Cu-based substrates2012In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 206, no 8-9, p. 2558-2565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sputtered Ni and Ti layers were investigated as a diffusion barrier to substitute electroplated Ni between Ti–Si–C and Ti–Si–C–Ag nanocomposite coatings and Cu or CuSn substrates. Samples were subjected to thermal annealing studies by exposure to 400 °C for 11 h. Dense diffusion barrier and coating hindered Cu from diffusing to the surface. This condition was achieved for electroplated Ni in combination with magnetron-sputtered Ti–Si–C and Ti–Si–C–Ag layers deposited at 230 °C and 300 °C, and sputtered Ti or Ni layers in combination with Ti–Si–C–Ag deposited at 300 °C.

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