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  • 51.
    Aimar, Maude Eugenie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Milicevic, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Strategic Renewal in the Banking Industry: A middle managerial perspective with the focus on dynamic managerial capabilities in the Swedish Banking industry2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 52.
    Akbarali, Ahmed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Foma, Awambeng
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Determinants of Capital Structure in Family Firms2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most firms are using optimal combination of equity and debt so as to maximize firms value and the wealth of the shareholders. To achieve all these, firms should be aware of the factors that influence the capital structure decisions.

    Previous empirical studies attempted to explain what determines the choice of capital structure in firms. The focus was on firms in general without categorizing family firms and non-family firms. The primary objective of this study is to examine what determines the capital structure of family firms in OECD countries.

    Amadeus database was used to obtain the data needed for the statistical analysis. Measures for firm-specific characteristics were calculated based on the previous stud-ies. The study was conducted over a period of 9 years from 2005-2013. Dataset com-prised of 95 family firms resulting in 850 observations.

    The results from the study indicate that the capital structure for family firms in OECD countries is influenced by profitability, asset tangibility, growth, size, debt tax shield , non-debt tax shield and liquidity. Both pecking-order theory and trade-off theory explain the capital structure of family firms.

  • 53.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Exit in the context of portfolio firms2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Family business portfolios: Enduring entrepreneurship and exit strategies2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines how family business portfolios endure across time and investigates the entrepreneurial strategies that they engage in. The goal of this dissertation is addressed through five appended papers in which I have argued for the importance of business families owning multiple firms, that is, portfolio entrepreneurship. Portfolio entrepreneurship plays a central role in economic development as it is a prevalent phenomenon in developed and emerging economies. However, despite its importance, there is currently very little research on portfolio entrepreneurship, especially in the context of family firms.

    In so doing, I study nine business families owning multiple businesses in Pakistan. I conducted in-depth interviews with family owners and employees; the interviews were supplemented with other sources of data such as observations and archival material. When studying questions such as how a portfolio is built-up across generations, how and why business families exit and, when they exit, which businesses they choose to exit from, I draw on insights from the literature on portfolio entrepreneurship, business exit, family firms, socioemotional wealth, sensemaking, compassion and social identity theory in the five papers.

    The dissertation addresses the calls for studies on portfolio entrepreneurship in the context of family firms by examining the process through which a portfolio is constructed by studying performance and exit related issues. In other words, it examines both the growth and the contraction of portfolios. The study offers several contributions. First, it contributes to studies on enduring entrepreneurship by investigating how business families last across time despite encountering difficult situations and declining business. Second, the study contributes to the portfolio entrepreneurship literature by elucidating how portfolios are built across generations and the roles of both growth and contractions while addressing processual and contextual issues.

    Third, the study contributes to the business exit literature by looking at the exit process in a family business context and exploring multiple exits. This isunique, as it is, to the best of my knowledge, the first study on business exits looking at multiple exit in the context of family firms. Fourth, the study also contributes to the literature on family firms by exploring how and why business families refrain from exiting from their core legacy business and how their emotions influence the exit process.

    Finally, the study contributes to context-related issues. The study adds to the literature on contextualization and addresses the call for more context-specific studies in entrepreneurship scholarship. This dissertation is focused on context-based factors considering the spatial and social context, where the former has been undertaken by taking an emerging economy and country context as the setting, while the latter refers to the relational and emotional ties within family firms. In addition to its theoretical contributions, this dissertation has important implications for practice. The dissertation brings to the fore some promising and unique ways in which entrepreneurship endures across time and context through the transgenerational transmission of entrepreneurship and insights into how business families behave in a declining business situation. Additionally, this study offers insights for family owners and managers on how to address the dilemma of continued entrepreneurship, that is, how to encourage and foster enduring entrepreneurship in organizations, in particular in the context of family firms.

  • 55.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Firm growth and entrepreneurs: Role of kinship ties2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Kinship and the family business2015In: Theoretical perspectives on family businesses / [ed] Mattias Nordqvist, Leif Melin, Matthias Waldkirch and Gershon Kumeto, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 175-190Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this chapter is to review and synthesise the prior work on kinship in family firms and to open up future research avenues for this interesting and important topic. The study shows that kinship is highly relevant in family firms by revisiting the concept of family and kinship as well as the definition of family firms. This chapter explores important aspects related to family firms, such as continuity of generations, succession, inheritance and resource provision and links these to kinship. These aspects are identified as four functions of kinship and indicate the possible research gaps, thereby suggesting future kinship research avenues.

  • 57.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Pluriactivity and Portfolio Entrepreneurship in Informal Economies2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Portfolio entrepreneurship in family firms2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Portfolio entrepreneurship in family firms: Taking stock and moving forward2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Portfolio entrepreneurship is a critical but relatively unexplored aspect of entrepreneurship literature. In particular, little research exists on portfolio entrepreneurship in the context of family firms. Existing literature on portfolio entrepreneurship in the context of family firms tends to have multiple research gaps which are unaddressed. To this end, we explore the extant literature on portfolio entrepreneurship in general and portfolio entrepreneurship in the context of family firms in particular and bring forth three future research areas. First, we examine how triggers and motivations to indulge in portfolio entrepreneurship are relevant and important for family firms. Second, we explore the role of different settings for the exploration of the portfolio family firms. Third, we argue that performance and outcome results are important aspects to have a closer look at the growth and survival of portfolio family firms.

  • 60.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Portfolio entrepreneurship in family firms: Taking stock and moving forward2017In: The Routledge companion to family business / [ed] Franz W. Kellermanns, Frank Hoy, Routledge, 2017, p. 311-328Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Portfolio entrepreneurship in growing family firms2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Portfolio entrepreneurship in the context of family firms role of kinship ties2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Transgenerational growth: Family business portfolios in rural and urban contexts2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Brundin, Ethel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Hartel, C.
    Prodigies of Beliefs: Compassion and Positive organization2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Brundin, Ethel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Härtel, Charmine
    Transgenerational moral emotions: Activating compassion to develop a positive organizationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Harvest and after: Entrepreneurial recycling in family firm portfolios2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial exit is an integral component of the entrepreneurial process. Yet entrepreneurs often fail to realize the gains from their harvesting activities (Dehlen et al., 2012). This study extends our understanding of entrepreneurial recycling which allows a firm to re-allocate and re-invest the harvested resources (Mason & Harrison, 2006). Although entrepreneurial recycling is viewed as an important element of the post exit process (DeTienne & Chirico, 2013), with few exceptions there is little research present on this phenomenon. This is especially interesting in the case of a special breed of entrepreneurs called portfolio entrepreneurs (DeTienne, 2010; Rosa, 1998) who own multiple businesses simultaneously and undertake multiple exits as compare to entrepreneurs who start and harvest a single venture only (MacMillan, 1986). Theoretical and empirical research suggests that the context of family firms has a profound impact on portfolio entrepreneurship as well as on entrepreneurial recycling strategies (Carter & Ram, 2003).

  • 67.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    If we cannot have it then no one should: Business exit and re-entry2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Entrepreneurial exit strategies in family firm portfolios2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Exit strategies in family firm portfolios2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Surviving the legacy: Sensemaking of emotions and exit in portfolio firmsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Sieger, P.
    Ramirez-Pasillas, Marcela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Transgenerational growth in family business portfolios: Strategies and the rural and urban context2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Sieger, Philipp
    University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    If we cannot have it then no one should: Shutting down versus selling in family business portfolios2015In: Academy of Management Proceedings, January 2015 (Meeting Abstract Supplement) 15764, 2015 / [ed] John Humphreys, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates exit patterns in family business portfolios in times of declining performance. Drawing on social identity theory and a sample of six family business portfolios from Pakistan, we reveal that business families often prefer shutting down satellite portfolio firms rather than selling them. This is found to be mainly driven by the identity fit of the family and the satellite business and the desire to restart it at a later point in time. This study contributes to literature on portfolio entrepreneurship, business exit, and long-term success and endurance of family firms.

  • 73.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Ning, Ernestine
    Resourcefulness and Informal Economy:: From Pluriactivity to Portfolio Entrepreneurship2018In: The Family Business Group Phenomenon: Emergence and Complexities / [ed] Marita Rautiainen, Peter Rosa, Timo Pihkala, Maria José Parada, Allan Discua Cruz, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, p. 145--174Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Strategies and Markets Department, ESSCA School of Management, Angers, France.
    Sieger, Philipp
    Department of Management and Entrepreneurship, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). EGADE Business School, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico.
    If we can't have it, then no one should: Shutting down versus selling in family business portfolios2016In: Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, ISSN 1932-4391, E-ISSN 1932-443X, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 371-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How does a business family manage its business portfolio in times of declining performance to sustain the portfolio's long-term endurance? Drawing on social identity theory and six family business portfolios from Pakistan, we find that business families may prefer to shut down a satellite business rather than sell it, which is primarily driven by identity considerations. In addition, the family's goal to recycle the assets, the aim to restart the business later, and the increasing decline in performance are important contingency factors. This study contributes to the literature on portfolio entrepreneurship, business exit, and the enduring entrepreneurship of family firms.

  • 75.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Xavier, Lesage
    ESSCA School of Management, France.
    Should I Stay or Should I Leave: Founders Emotional Hangover and Exit Delay2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 76.
    al Hussaini, Ammar
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    What factors are driving forces for credit spreads?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine what affects the changes in credit spreads. A

    regression model was performed where the explanatory variables were; volatility,

    SP&500 index, interest-rate level the slope of yield curve and the dependent

    variable was credit spread for each of CSUSDA, CSUSDBBB, and CSUSDB. We

    found a positive correlation between these independent variables (Volatility, S&P

    500index) and a negative correlation between interest-rate level and credit spreads.

    These results were consistent with our hypothesis. However, the link between the

    slope of yield curve and credit spreads was positive and that was inconsistent with

    our hypothesis and some previous studies. The conclusion of this paper was a

    change in credit spread is related to the variables that we used in our model. And

    these variables explained about 50 per cent of this change.

  • 77.
    Aleem, Majid
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Islam, Md. Shariful
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Successful Succession in Family Businesses: Individual Level Factors and Succession Planning Models.2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Individual level factors related to the successor have a central role to play in the succession process of the business. When these factors are viewed in relation to succession planning models, these factors have a direct relation to the succession models in terms of success or failure of the succession process. The major contributing factor to the success or failure of the succession process is that of the leadership provided to the organization by the predecessor. These leadership qualities change from one form to another during different phases of the succession planning models.

  • 78.
    Ali, Majid
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Marketing and Logistics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Significant Attributes and Challenges Related to Cross-Functional Team Communications2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of the research work is to investigate the importance of the communication in the cross-functional teams and in what which communicational tools provide better convenience of communication in cross-functional team members.

    Methodology

    An empirical study including the data collection from the interviews conducted from the participants working in cross-functional teams. Qualitative approach has been adopted to understand the communicational attributes in the cross-functional teams. For the analysis both deductive and abductive approach has been used. With the help of theoretical framework and empirical data, conclusions drown for better understanding of the concept.

    Findings

    The author has divided the search in two main segments, communicational effects on cross-functional team performance and effectiveness of particular communicational tools used by team members and team leaders. Empirical findings shows that without proper communication, cross-functional team are less tend to perform well to achieve set goals as well as face to face communications are more effective than other communicational tools. 

    Research limitations

    The research work is limited to Scandinavian countries. Organizational communicational structures are not studied due to time factor. Other limitation of this research work is effect of cultural differences on communication.

    Implications

    The research work provides deep understanding of the different communicational effects on cross-functional team performance. The choice of communicational tool and proportional importance for the team members will help managers while selecting the tools of communication with the team members.

    Originality / value

    During the literature studies, author determined that there is potential of research for the communicational tools used in cross-functional team communications. The social media is taking over the traditional communicational tools which provide value for findings. 

  • 79.
    Alibegovic, Sandra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Hawkins, Andrew
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Parmar, Mitesh
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Empowerment, Contextual Performance & Job Satisfaction -      A Case Study of the Scandic Hotels in Jönköping -2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between job satisfaction among hotel employees as well as the relationship between employee empowerment and contextual performance behaviours.

    Background: Most managers and scholars emphasize that an organization’s most important tool for gaining a competitive advantage is its people and; in order for the firm to attain success employees must be involved and active. It has been argued that success within the hotel industry lies with customer satisfaction, of which is the result of overall job satisfaction of the employee. Most hotels strive to empower their employees in order to deliver better quality service. In addition, contextual performance behaviours are also common practice in such places where employees have a broad range of duties and tasks. Both empowerment and contextual performance behaviours are thus seen to provide overall job satisfaction.

    Method: The research approach used was that of a single case study, using a survey instrument to collect data on facets empowerment and contextual performance behaviours. The Scandic Hotels of Jonkoping were used for this purpose. The data collected were then analysed by way of factor analysis and multiple regression methods to validate the hypotheses formed in the theoretical framework.

    Findings and

    Conclusions: Based on the results of the analysis, the majority of the hypotheses were supported.  Training and rewards showed a significant relationship with overall job satisfaction. Job dedication behaviours also showed similar results. In addition, information sharing and trust and training and rewards proved to have interrelationships as facets of empowerment.  Interpersonal facilitation and job dedication behaviours were also proved to be distinct behaviours within contextual performance.

  • 80.
    Alizada, Zekria
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Clarin, Oscar
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Impact of Loss Aversion Bias on Herding Behavior of Young Swedish Retail Investors: A Behavioral Perspective on Young Swedish Retail Investors' Decision Making in the Stock Market2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Kahneman and Tversky (1974, 1979 & 1992) argue that individuals are bound to numerous behavioral biases that may lead to the emergence of different irrational behaviors. This is often observed with even a higher degree among participants of financial and stock markets as agents such as investors are frequently exposed to significant level of risk and uncertainty (Kahneman, 2013; Kahneman, Knetsch & Thaler, 1991; Kahneman & Tversky, 1974, 1979, 1992). Also, empirical studies indicate that a significant level of herding exists among investors when they are exposed to a high degree of risk and uncertainty such as those in financial crises (Galariotis, Rong & Spyrou, 2014; Litimi, 2017; Hott, 2009).

    Purpose: the main purpose of this thesis is to explore if the loss aversion bias has a significant causal impact on forming herding behavior among young Swedish retail investors.

    Method: an online analytical questionnaire including eight questions has been conducted to collect primary data, with 77 Swedish retail investors under the age of 35 participating in the study. Furthermore, a multiple regression analysis has been implemented to analyze and interpret the data.

    Conclusion: it can be concluded that there is not a significant correlation between the degree of loss aversion and the degree of herding behavior within the sample group of young Swedish retail investors. Hence, loss aversion bias cannot be considered as one of the major contributors of herding within the target population.

  • 81.
    Aljafari, Asma
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Bagyo, Rares
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Insider Trading: the Case of Family Business and Capitalization Levels Event study on earning announcements.: Master’s thesis within Business Administration2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Is the stock market reacting differently when it comes to family businesses than non-family businesses? It is known that family firms have a special effect on investors especially when it comes to news and decision making. This study is focused on the insider trading issue on the Swedish financial market. We apply the event study methodology on 1280 observations of interim and annual financial report announcements, taken from family and non-family companies. We found family businesses more secure when it comes to insider trading. The market is more susceptible to reaction when the financial news are released by non-family firms. The difference between the two categories is up to 10%. The study contains an insider trading analysis by taking into account the capitalization level, the interim versus annual report and the family status. We also discuss and contrast the Swedish law with insider trading efficiency and ethical aspects.

  • 82.
    Almen, Tomas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Efrem, Pierre
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Wilen, Patrik
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    How an acquisition affects the relation between the labour union and the company: A case study of Volvo Cars and IF Metall2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background:

    Between 1991 and 2001 the number of firms acquired by other firms tripled (Johnson & Scholes, 2005). This trend has led to a huge increase in cross-border acquisitions, where Sweden is no exception. Statistics show that companies with U.S. origin are the ones that acquire most Swedish companies (Nutek, 2007). Hence, acquisitions made by U.S. businesses will presumably influence managerial issues in Sweden in different ways.

    Problem and purpose:

    An industry that is characterized by many merger and acquisitions is the car industry. Ford Motor Company’s acquisition of Volvo Cars is of particular interest to address. Several conditions within the company changed due to the acquisition process, including the type of management. This might have affected Volvo Car’s relation with its labour union IF Metall to some extent, and thus, creating an interesting area of research.

    The purpose with this thesis is to investigate how the relation between a labour union and a company is affected when U.S. and Swedish types of management are mixed as a result of an acquisition.

    Method:

    In order to fulfill the purpose of this thesis a qualitative case study approach is used. The primary data is collected through interviews with people connected to Volvo Cars and IF Metall. In addition to this the authors incorporated secondary data which is based on literature, articles and academic publications.

    Conclusions:

    When a U.S. company acquire a Swedish company the relation between the labour union and the acquired company are affected in several ways. The labour union and the members can expect to have less influence in the decision making process, there will be less resources devoted to work related training programs, the competence level of the members will decrease and the working conditions will become worse.

  • 83.
    Almlöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Haag, Kajsa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Sund, Lars-Göran
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Divorce and death in the family firm: A business law perspective2010In: European Business Law Review, ISSN 0959-6941, E-ISSN 1875-841X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 101-118Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 84.
    Almér, Erik
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Franzén Leibnitz, Ida
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Eriksson, Gustav
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Paradox of CSR Marketing in Sweden: A comparative analysis of Corporate Social Resposibility marketing between Swedish and American FMCG retailers with a corporate identity perspective2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the deceptive paradox of communicating Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). CSR is becoming increasingly important for corporations to engage in so as to be perceived as a socially responsible and respectable organization. While companies are encouraged to engage in CSR activities, they are at the same time discouraged to communicate these activities. The Reputational Institutes survey of the Swedish public in regards to CSR communication also displays that Swedes are more hesitant to welcome CSR communications from companies than compared to the American public. Through a comparative study on fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) retailers operating in Sweden and the U.S, and an in-depth interview with one Swedish FMCG retailer, the stated CSR activities in each company’s sustainability report were compared to the communication of CSR activities on each company’s Facebook page for the year 2015. Our findings show support for this hesitation towards CSR communication, particularly in Sweden, and that there exist support for the use of the “expert- and endorsed CSR communication process” in Sweden. We also found that the Swedish and the American companies’ sustainability reports contained similar content, yet were communicated in different ways; Swedish companies marketed Strategic CSR activities to a higher extent whilst American companies marketed Promotional CSR activities. 

  • 85.
    Alonso, Daniel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Hoang, Thanh Trung
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Effective transition in family business: In the perspective of corporate entrepreneurship succesion2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 86.
    AlSharif, Ebrahim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Al Haj Omar, Dalia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Influence of Psychic Distance on Internationalization: A Multiple Case Study of Swedish SMEs within the Service Industry2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: SMEs represent 97% of Swedish companies that have an increase in the Swedish export by 16% in 2017. Furthermore, Sweden is eager to support its companies to lead the service revolution abroad. This expansion creates the need for overcoming international risks of inconstant psychic distance in terms of culture, economy and geography.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the psychic distance and its influence on internationalization.

    Method: The current study was based on qualitative research to fulfill the purpose, to answer its three research questions and to fit its time frame using semi-structured interviews of a multiple case study with Swedish SMEs within the service industry. The interviews took place with top managers who have broad knowledge and experiences related to this study.

    Conclusion: Psychic distance is changing in terms of culture, economy and geography as all SMEs have been exposed to its distances differently. A further outcome shows the relevance of business practices, theoretical methods, and models, although none of the interviewed SMEs have used any of these models. This result might show how those models could have solved various issues the interviewees faced. Cultural distance is a permanent distance that exists in all markets. However, economic distance constitutes a challenging factor to face economic costs and institutional differences but simultaneously gaining profits abroad could certify to meet this challenge. Geographic distance is mostly not considered an issue in the service industry. The psychic distance may decrease within the service industry due to international managerial skills and technology.

    Managerial Contribution: It is hoped that this study will assist SMEs to gain a clear idea about overcoming the psychic distance during internationalization, for instance, by learning from outcomes of the study from meta-analysis or by using relevant theories and models.

  • 87.
    Alzubaidi, Huda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Bou Assaf, Aida
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Johansson, Helen
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Sports sponsorship: Brand awareness, brand image and purchase intention of sport audience towards linked and unlinked sponsors2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to research in the two different types of sponsors i.e. linked and unlinked sponsors. An investigation of whether a difference between these two types of sponsors exists. This difference is measured in terms of brand awareness and brand image and how these two affect the purchase intention.

    Background: Sponsorship is today used by companies as a major marketing tool. A long existence of sponsorship has throughout the years followed the same philosophy, invest for a return. As the rapid growth of sponsorship during the past decades has contributed to a complex measure of its results, this issue has been highlighted by various researchers. A new phenomena of distinguishing between linked and unlinked sponsors has shown to contribute to different result whereas others argue for no difference between these two types of sponsors. Factors have shown to affect the sponsorship deals which are critical to be aware of in order to maximize the effectiveness of sponsorship deals.

    Method: JIK and four of its sponsors are selected as a case study of this investigation. Therefore, both qualitative and quantitative methodologies are applied. Qualitative methodology is used in the form of interviews with the sports club to get a deeper understanding of JIK and its sponsors. Contrary, quantitative methodology is applied in the form of questionnaire to measure the brand awareness, brand image and purchase intention of the audience.

    Conclusion: It is found that the brand awareness and brand image influence the purchase intention positively for both types of sponsors, linked and linked. Interestingly, a difference is proven to be present between the linked and unlinked sponsors. Concluding, the linked sponsors are more effective than unlinked.

  • 88.
    Amare, Abel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Ghahramani, Behrad
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Framework for generalizing entrepreneurship policies from developed to developing countries: A case study on Jönköping and Mashhad2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 89.
    Amerian, Irsa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Pisareva, Natallia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Integrating Social Media into the Marketing Communication Strategy: The Case of ID242012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem:  Integration of social media tools in marketing practice of B2B companies is not a widespread phenomenon yet. However, particular patterns of involvement already exist. Companies get connected through social media and they use Web 2.0 tools to engage the customers in communication and to interact and build relationships with them.

     

    Purpose: The overall purpose of this thesis is to deepen and broaden the knowledge of the application of social media into the communication strategy of B2B micro-firms. It aims to compare the integration of social media in direct and indirect, or through publications in press, ways of communicating the customers, and investigates if social media are an appropriate tool to build relationships with the customers. 

     

    Method:  In order to fulfil the research purpose, authors conducted a case study research, used an inductive approach, and gathered the primary data through observation and interviews. Respondents were representing a supplying company, mass media professionals and retailing companies.

     

    Conclusion:  Integrating of social media channels can be performed through linking different online platforms of the company, engaging its business partners in joint projects and following customers’ preferences in their choice of the appropriate channels. Results of the study illustrate that social media can empower the companies to create, maintain and reinforce relationships both with customers and mass media professionals. The study differentiates various social media platforms in their relevance for communication with customers and mass media professionals. It demonstrates that the blend of the social media and traditional platforms employed by a company is not a constant, but rather a dynamic combination, coordinated with the goals and resources of the company and its marketing strategy. Finally, it suggests companies to be consistent and persistent in developing their social media strategy, providing timely and constantly updated information.  

  • 90.
    Andersen, Axel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Hristov, Emil
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Convert your enemy into a friend: Innovation strategies for collaboration between record companies and BitTorrent networks2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: Record companies are facing a downturn in sales of music. This is seen as consequence of the growth of distribution of music through Internet by file sharing networks such as BitTorrent networks. On one side there are record companies who feel threatened of the illegal file sharing, and on the other side file sharing BitTorrent networks has increased dramatically in number of users since they first approached. Some record companies have responded by taking hostile actions towards the BitTorrent networks and their users with lawsuits and penalties for illegal file sharing. Other record companies and artists have joined forces with BitTorrent networks and see them as an advantage. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyze if, and how record companies can collaborate with the BitTorrent networks. Method: A hermeneutic inductive approach is used, in combination with qualitative interviews with both record companies and BitTorrent networks. Conclusions: It is argued that record companies can find a way in communicating and cooperating with BitTorrent networks. Instead of adopting hostile approaches and trying to restrict the technologies adopted by end users, companies should open themselves up and accept the current changes initiated and developed by BitTorrent networks. Thus, it was concluded that companies have to concentrate around collaborating with BitTorrent networks rather than fiercely protecting old business models. By opening up to the users, record companies will adopt open innovations approach that is characterized by combining external and internal ideas, as well internal and external paths to market, thus obtaining future technological developments. As for the BitTorrent networks, by going from outlaw to crowdsourcing mode, the networks’ creative solutions can be further harnessed by record companies. Finally, strengthening relationships between customers and music artists can be considered as beneficial for both record companies and BitTorrent networks. Thus, giving opportunities for customers to win special items, tickets for concerts, watch sound check, eat dinner backstage with the group, take pictures, get autographs, watch the show from the side of the stage, etc. can lead to valuable relationship in a long run.

  • 91.
    Andersen, Axel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Hristov, Emil
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Karimi, Hamid
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Second Life: New opportunity for higher educational institutions2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bachelor thesis within Business Administration

    Title: Second Life – New opportunity for higher educational institutions

    Authors: Axel Andersen, Emil Hristov & Hamid Karimi

    Tutor: Olga Sasinovskaya

    Date: May, 2008

    Subject terms: Second Life, virtual worlds, distance learning, marketing, universities, stu-dents, interactions

    Executive summary

    Background: Virtual worlds such as Second Life have been used in the corporate world for a few years now. However, it is only recently that higher educational institutions have seen the marketing and educational potential inside this world. Several hundred universities around the world are currently involved in Second Life and a majority of them give fully accredited academic courses inside SL. As traditional distance learning can sometimes be interpreted as low on interactions, SL represents a new means for interactive distance learn-ing.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore if, why and to what extent Second Life can be used as a marketing and pedagogical tool within higher educational institutions.

    Method: A mixed qualitative and quantitative method was utilized in this study. For the qualitative side: in-depth interviews with SL teachers from five universities around the world were held and these were complemented by observations at educational institutions inside SL. For the quantitative side: a questionnaire was designed and sent out to 50 SL-students. This primary data have been combined with appropriate secondary data concern-ing distance learning and education within SL.

    Theoretical framework: The theoretical framework can be divided into two main sec-tions: a marketing section with primarily service management theories and a pedagogical section where cognitive apprenticeship theory is applied.

    Conclusion: Higher educational institutions can use SL to promote their schools to pro-spective students and to other stakeholders such as new teacher recruits. All of the univer-sities that were under our scrutiny felt SL had strengthened their university’s brand. Fur-thermore, SL represents an opportunity for universities that are looking to increase col-laborations with other international universities and who are interested in enhancing the public image of themselves as pioneering and global universities. Therefore, it is highly ad-visable that a university such as JIBS enters SL, if not on pedagogical reasons then on stra-tegic and marketing reasons. In general, a majority of the students interviewed were satis-fied or very satisfied with the quality of the SL-courses they had taken and an overwhelm-ing majority would recommend SL-courses to other students. The empirical findings showed that the most frequent courses taken within SL are design courses, although no limits were perceived to exist of which courses that can be held within SL. A majority of the students also felt SL aided their learning experience. However, due to some of the cur-rent flaws of SL – such as the slow graphics and the high demands of computer hardware – SL should be viewed mainly as a learning tool that complements, rather than substitutes other current educational forms.

  • 92.
    Anderson, Catrine
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Schüldt, Francesca
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Åstrand, Therese
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Organisational culture’s influence on the integration of sustainability in SMEs: A multiple case study of the Jönköping region2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Existing literature suggests research about sustainability and Small- and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) to be limited. SMEs tend to have less resources than large companies and as a result of this sustainability integration may be challenging. Despite these resource restrictions, some SMEs still succeed in integrating sustainability. Some literature suggests that organisational culture could influence the integration of sustainability.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how organisational culture attributes influence the integration of sustainability in Swedish SMEs.

    Method: To fulfil the purpose of this thesis, a multiple case study consisting of six SMEs in the Jönköping region is performed. Qualitative semi-structured interviews are conducted with the manager and/or head of sustainability. Furthermore, structured interviews are conducted with managers and employees, in an attempt to gain insights into the values and cultural attributes of the organisational culture of the SME.

     

    Main Findings: The results reveal that an organisational culture which emphasises internal relationships, stability and goal-setting and planning seem to facilitate the integration of sustainability. SMEs with the attribute of valuing internal relationships are aided in the integration of sustainability through the existence of tightly knit groups that work together toward the long-term goal of integrating sustainability. The positive influence of stability stems from the fact that the attribute provides structure, economic stability, and a stable employee base. A high focus on goal-setting and planning may enable the integration of sustainability through providing clear missions and objectives which the company strives toward.

     Managerial Implications: This study urges three implications for managers of SMEs; 1. It provide managers with some understanding of how their organisational culture may affect sustainability integration. 2. It provide insight into the challenges companies may face as the result of lacking certain cultural attributes. 3.  It provide indications of which attributes that could be beneficial to develop or incorporate into the organisational culture in order to aid the integration of sustainability.

  • 93.
    Anderson, Helén
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Dahlin, Peter
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Havila, Virpi
    Uppsala Universitet.
    A meta analysis of Swedish doctoral dissertations on mergers and acquisitions2009In: IMP Asia 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) are complex and frequent business phenomena. Over the years, quite some research has been made on many different aspects of mergers and acquisitions, but the phenomenon is still far from understood. In this paper we analyze in total 57 doctoral dissertations that focus on mergers and acquisitions that have been presented and defended at Swedish Universities and Business Schools between the years 1971-2008. Our aim is to contribute to a more comprehensive picture of the state-of-the-art of the existing body of knowledge on mergers and acquisitions. In this first analysis we give a general overview of the dissertations.

  • 94.
    Anderson, Helén
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköpings Universitet.
    On the Dynamics of Buyer-Seller Interaction within a Local Business Network: A Study of Örnsköldsviks Industrigrupp in the mid-80s, mid-90s and mid-00s.2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Anderson, Lovisa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Glimberg, Jonas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Swedish GAAP or Voluntary Adoption of IFRS: Factors Affecting the Choice for Swedish Large Unlisted Corporate Groups2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this thesis was to examine whether large unlisted corporate groups in Sweden plan to adopt K3 (Swedish GAAP) or plan to voluntarily adopt IFRS for their first financial year starting after December 31st, 2013 and what factors affect the choice managers make.

    Design/method/approach - In order to fulfill the purpose, 241 large unlisted corporate groups were sampled and a questionnaire was sent out to the sampled corporate groups willing to participate. A total of 109 responses were recieved.

    Findings – It was found that the vast majority of large unlisted corporate groups in Sweden will adopt K3 (Swedish GAAP) for their first financial year starting after December 31st, 2013. The reasons why these large unlisted corporate groups plan to adopt K3 is mainly because it is simpler and less costly than IFRS, or because managers are not well informed about the accounting regulations and have taken advice from their auditor. The corporate groups planning to adopt IFRS often do so because of legitimacy reasons, or because it is beneficial to adopt IFRS already for the first financial year starting after December 31st, 2013 if there are plans to list the corporate group on a stock exchange.

    Research limitations/implications – The response rate achieved was 45.2 percent, which means that the results are representative of the entire population with 95 percent confidence and a 9.2 percent margin of error. The research was delimited to Swedish large unlisted corporate groups.

    Practical implications – The results give a deeper knowledge about what factors affect the choice of accounting framework for large unlisted corporate groups in Sweden and can potentially help companies facing a similar choice later on.

    Originality/value – There has been very little research performed in the area of voluntary adoption of IFRS for unlisted companies. This study aimed to contribute to the closing of this gap, and to create opportunities for further research.

  • 96.
    Andersson, Arvid
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Clausson, Carl-Filip
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Johansson, Daniel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Competence barriers to innovation: A study on small enterprises2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is, in most cases, a necessity for firms in today’s changingmarket place. It has the potential to offer firms numerous advantages,including increased profit and growth. However, innovationis no easy process and there are many barriers and impedimentsto innovation that needs to be overcome in order to efficiently innovate.A study conducted by Vinnova (2007) showed that 18% ofSMEs consider a shortage of qualified personnel as a high barrier toinnovation.

    How are competence barriers to innovation experienced by smallenterprises in the selected sample? Do competence barriers to innovationvary depending on different firm characteristics and in thatcase how? Which consequences do small enterprises encounter as aresult of facing competence barriers to innovation? Are small enterprisesthat face high competence barriers to innovation more likelyto encounter consequences?

    The purpose of this research report is to investigate competencebarriers to innovation within small enterprises and the consequencesthese barriers might result in.

    Competence barriers to innovation are considered moderate in thissample. The highest barrier was shortage of qualified personnel necessaryfor innovation. In general, small enterprises that experienceda higher level of competition also faced higher competence barriersto innovation. The most frequently reported consequences fromfacing competence barriers to innovation were; inability to acceptcertain jobs or contracts, decreased profitability and difficulty in expandingthe business. Small enterprises which face higher competencebarriers to innovation are more likely to encounter consequences.

  • 97.
    Andersson, Axel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Svanberg, Emanuel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Alterations in the Liquidity Premium as an Effect of Exchange Traded Funds: A Study Performed on Nasdaq Composite between 1997 and 20162018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Investors have historically demanded a return premium for taking on the risk of illiquidity both in terms of characteristic and systematic liquidity risk. Recent research have presented results suggesting that the liquidity premium is diminishing. The increasing popularity of passive investments such as Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) have been proposed as a driving force for the declining trend. Despite the popularity of ETFs, there is limited research how they impact the financial markets. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how the liquidity premium has developed in the United States between 1997 and 2016 and to explore if developments in the liquidity premium can be linked to the capital inflow to the United States ETF market. The thesis uses measures of stocks’ spreads and order book depths as proxies for the characteristic and systematic liquidities. The proxies are used to test if liquidity has influenced stock returns over 1-year, 5-years and the entire 20-year period. The empirical results obtained through Fama-MacBeth regressions show that the liquidity premium can fluctuate by both sign and magnitude year by year. The characteristic risk premium is negative and significant for the entire 20-year period and the 1-year regressions suggests a clear negative trend. The systematic liquidity premium on the other hand is positive and significant for the entire 20-year period but the 1-year regressions do not show a clear trend. The empirical results show no statistical significance that ETFs influence the liquidity premium. However, the graphical interpretation of the 1-year regressions suggests that the characteristic liquidity premium is negatively correlated with the growth of ETFs. The negative characteristic premium implies that investors are not being adequately compensated for the risk of illiquidity and should therefore avoid a liquidity-based investing strategy which has generated excess return in the past.

  • 98.
    Andersson, Carl
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Vallin, Sara
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Why Bother?: A Multiple Case Study of SMEs’ Engagement in CSR2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Corporate social responsibility has continuously developed ever since the concept

    first was introduced in the 1950’s up until today. In its beginning, managers who engaged in CSR

    did so to improve workforce efficiency. In this day and age, CSR has come to include social,

    environmental and economic topics and is now about creating value for the society at large.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find the underlying reasons for why SMEs engage in CSR activities.

    Method: To properly fulfill the purpose of this study, we have conducted a qualitative case study.

    The empirical data has been collected through ten in-depth semi-structured interviews with ten

    different organizations from four different industries.

    Conclusion: The results show that SMEs believe there are expectations from customers/clients

    to engage in CSR and by doing so they create a competitive advantage over their competitors. In

    addition to this, most SMEs that engage in CSR is in the strategic stage of CSR, in activities

    connected to the environment. Furthermore, there are several industry-related differences as to

    why SMEs engage in CSR. These differences include factors such as competitive advantage,

    customer expectations, and requirements to follow rules and regulations.

  • 99.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Franzén, Jenny
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Fries, Hannes
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Business Intelligence: Analysis of vendors’ and suppliers’ arguments for BI2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Organizations are exposed to a rapidly changing business environment with never ending challenges. Investments in information technology (IT) have been one common approach to support organizations. Business Intelligence (BI), an off-spring from IT, is a system that assists many organizations in taking more accurate and timely decisions, improving process monitoring and providing better support for decision making. Recently organizations have started to realize the value of investing in BI, by discovering its analytical methods and capabilities to create business value.

    Problem

    Investments in BI have increased substantially over the past years and one reason for this might be due to vendors praise about BI’s ability to deliver business value. Significantly increased business value, better decision making, and high returns on investments are only a few benefits that have been claimed for. When considering the fact that it is very difficult to measure any direct benefits from IT investments in general, and BI as a consequence, an interest for analyzing the arguments used for selling BI emerged.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this thesis is to identify what arguments vendors and suppliers use when selling BI solutions, and explore their value by analyzing them through the use of existing theories from literature.

    Method

    A qualitative approach has been adopted, where unstructured interviews with BI vendors and suppliers were conducted. An inductive approach has been applied to gather arguments and then shifted to a deductive, in order to finalize the study and analyze arguments with appropriate theory. The research has been performed from without the Swedish market with well-known organizations.

    Conclusions

    A single version of the truth, control, and time savings are credible arguments for investing in BI. Furthermore, cost savings and improved analytical capabilities are fairly credible, whereas increased efficiency has least credibility when analyzed against theories. In general, we believe that the ability to gain from these positive effects from BI, organizations have to take an active role in realizing these.

  • 100.
    Andersson, Danny
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Futic, Miran
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Magnusson, Fredrik
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The change in buying behavior after becoming a mother: In the aspect of ecological food2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background for study:The ecological trend has grown in the latest years, and earlier studies has shown that women are most likely to buy ecological food. However, becoming a mother comes with new expenses connected with the baby. The aim of this study is to investigate how women’s buying behavior changes when they become a mother and we will connect this to ecological buying behavior..Purpose:The purpose with the thesis is to find out how and why the buying behavior of food changes after becoming a mother and in what way this affect the purchasing of ecological food.Researchquestions:What are the factors affecting mothers, when deciding to buy ecological or regular food? How and why does becoming a mother change the buying behavior of food?Theoretical framework:The frame of reference contains models of the buyer decision process that leads to the purchase, and the consumer decision making model show how the characteris-tics influence the purchase. The authors also used the means-end chain model to see which attributes affects the consumer.Method:To be able to carrying out with the study, we used an qualitative approach with focus groups as our method of data collection to get a deeper understanding for the subject.Conclusions:The conclusions to be drawn from this study is that the price is still the most important factor but also the time that many participants feel that they don’t have when it comes to grocery shopping.

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