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  • 451.
    Simmeborn Fleischer, Ann
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    ”Man vill ju klara sig själv”: Studievardagen för studenter med Asperger syndrom i högre utbildning2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary

    Since the beginning of the 21st century there has been a significantly increased number of studies on children and young adults with Autism Spectrum disorder (ASD). Most of this research falls within the domain of Medicine and only limited number of studies focusses on adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS) as students at university. Considering that there is an increase in numbers of individuals diagnosed with AS attending tertiary education researching this group of individuals is both timely and opportune.

    The number of students with cognitive disabilities, such as AS, seeking assistance to help their study efforts along at universities has increased in Sweden from 1427 students in 2010 to 1943 students in 2012. It should be noted that support in everyday student-life is guaranteed by legislation (that is, by Social Service Act (SoL) and  Support and Service for Persons with Certain Functional Impairments (LSS)) and that this same guarantee is valid also of studying at university. However, individuals with AS may at times have difficulty using available support, since they must identify their own needs and also communicate the nature of their need. This doctoral thesis is focusing on individuals with AS in need of such support in tertiary education.

    The thesis is comprised by two main studies: Study I, which is a case study, and Study II, which is a survey. Their common denominator is students with AS who have received legally guaranteed support as university students.

    study I

    The first study is a case study of three cases. This research is reported in the two first articles of the four articles comprising the entire thesis. The first article focusses on student narratives, whereas article two rather focusses on the accounts of next of kin as well as those of university coordinators I charge of assisting students in need. Data were collected through conversations. 

    The particular choice of method allows for the researcher to acquire more intimate knowledge of the participants learning of their experiences, feelings and expectations. To secure validity the data from students, next of kin and university coordinators was triangulated. Number and type of universities included in the study were sampled on the principle that there should be included universities from different parts of Sweden, of different sizes and with different academic profiles.

    The aim of Study I was to investigate how students with AS, as students in tertiary education, describe their life history and their everyday student-life. This particular focus is reported in the first article. Next of kin are central to individuals with AS. In the second article therefore, the perceptions of next of kind and how these understand their children’s or sibling’s university studies as well as the available support for them are accounted for. Also university coordinators in charge of study assistance at universities are of considerable importance. They decide the manner of support provided. It is therefore important to also describe how these outline and assess the existing support. This too is the focus of the second article.

    During data collection the focus was on students’ narratives of their everyday student-life at university as well as how they experienced their entire education experience from pre-school and to tertiary education. The views of their own future was also an issue that was addressed. The conversations with participants were facilitated by the researcher in terms of conveying previous research results on the nature of AS individuals’ experience of university education; of the researcher’s professional experiences of the situation and also of herself being next of kin to an individual with an AS diagnosis. As a means of helping conversations with next of kin and coordinators along the researcher used her own professional experience in relation to AS individuals, diagnosing, medication, legal framework, previous research and personal experience. Which next of kin to be interviewed - a mother, father and a sibling - was decided by the participating students themselves. For each university there is generally only one coordinator. These participated in the study.

    A conversation manual has been used as support for each data collecting conversation. In all, twelve such manuals have been used. The length of the conversations with participating students varied between 1 hour and 4 minutes to 4 hours and 50 minutes. Conversations with next of kind varied between 1 hour and 10 minutes to 3 hours and 23 minutes and for coordinators the duration varied between 1 hour and 10 minutes to 3 hours and 40 minutes. Every conversation was entirely adapted to each participating individual and their willingness to converse about the subject matter.

    The three cases were comprised of 15 transcribed conversations: three for each student, one for each next of kin, and also one for each university coordinator. As a first step in analysing the data the researcher read transcriptions multiple times to lay foundations for an understanding of entirety. During the third read notes were taken in the form of key words significant to content. Extraction of sentences containing these keywords followed. Key words were always significant in relation to the research questions. The surrounding text was taken too in order to preserve context. Together the keywords, the sentences and the surrounding contexts constituted meaningful units of text. These units, in every transcribed conversation, were condensed in order to shorten texts but still maintain the essence of its meaningful content. The condensed text units were coded and grouped in categories that reflected the essential and meaningful content of the conversations. Data culled from the next of kin and the coordinators were submitted to the same process of data analysis.

    Results showed that students with AS often do need assistance at university both in terms of studying as well as in their daily life off campus in order to manage an existence as students. Individuals with AS however have a cognitive disability that may challenge their efforts as students. In addition, they have difficulties describing their problems and often find it hard to define which needs for assistance they do have. When applying for assistance students are required to specify their special needs of support, and more importantly, also choose what kind of assistance they require. In other words, they are given a considerable freedom of choice. To students with AS this presents an obstacle. They often do not know what kind of assistance they require and what a certain kind of support would entail. Participating students reported that it was difficult for them to grasp how the support would actually function and how it would improve their studying. Instead, the possibility of acquiring support became yet another problem which made studying even more difficult for them. The availability of support with the accompanying freedom of choice as to the manner and content of the support may be seen as an expression of equifinality. That is, the support system has been designed to provide each disabled individual with equal opportunity of attaining support. The basic value underpinning the support system is that freedom of choice is valuable to each and every one. However, many students with AS have reported that they feel socially limited, alienated even stigmatised and that they communicate poorly.

    In analysing the narratives of students’ life histories as well as their everyday student-life as students two themes emerged: Struggle and Alienation. The next of kin described the demands of focus, both on and off campus, to be overwhelming for their children or siblings. They observed difficulties with planning ahead to shop for groceries, to do laundry, to cook or to do sundry domestic chores at home. University coordinators understood that students had such problems off campus but could not offer assistance relating to off-campus difficulties. However, they also found it difficult to offer these students assistance pertaining to certain aspects of student life. They found it tricky to pose questions regarding students’ disability, diagnosis and general life situation. It was thus a problem for them to acquire an understanding of what kind of assistance that would be suitable for each individual student.

    In all, the research clearly showed that students with AS are in need of both educational support and everyday student-life support and that these two aspects of assistance need to be coordinated. Results also suggested the need of a tool for knowledge and communication, especially for students and university coordinators. Such a tool would facilitate the communication and would serve as a basis in deciding what kind of remedial action that needs to be taken for the benefit of students with AS.

    Study II

    The second study was operationalized as a survey study employing a questionnaire consisting of 55 questions of which some were open-ended. This instrument was administered to students with Asperger Syndrome (AS), to students with mobility impairment (MD) and to students with impaired hearing (HD). Note that abbreviations relate to the Swedish nomenclature for these disabilities.

    This study also focussed on students with AS but addressed more general questions: How do students with AS, MD and HD describe problems, provided support and the experience of being given support? Are there similarities or differences between these three groups of students? This research is presented in the third article of the doctoral thesis.

    The aim of the second study was also to explore what characteristics of students with AS could be identified as particularly important in an effort to classify them as a code set with the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). A code set consists of a number of categories derived from the ICF classification system. It describes the type and nature of difficulties that for example students with AS may experience, thus constituting a checklist from which to work when university coordinators and students discuss the nature and manner of support needed and then succinctly be able to convey such information to other relevant staff. Such a tool will need to be straight-forward and given to students prior to meeting the coordinators in order to help students prepare for the meeting being fully informed of its content and purpose. The result of this exploratory second study is presented in the fourth article. 

    As the study of AS student cases progressed there arose questions regarding other students with different kinds of disability also. Do they have the same or similar problems? For this reason a second study was launched and mobility impaired students (MD) and hearing impaired students (HD) were included also. This study was descriptive but operationalized as a mixed methods design. The first part of it consisted of a quantitatively based questionnaire. All Swedish universities and higher education institutions were invited to take part. Fourteen coordinators from 12 universities accepted. They in turn asked students to take part. In all, 34 students decided to participate. These were divided into the following categories: 16 (AS), 11 (MD) and 7 (HD). Due to the relatively low number of participants the study is best considered to be a pilot study. It could be suggestive in reference to how everyday student-life on campus might be experienced by students with different disabilities and whether there are differences between the three studied groups in need of support.

    In the second part of the second study a first step was taken towards creating a code set; the beginning of a communication tool serving as a conversation manual between coordinator and students. The analysis of the data was qualitative but deductive. Data from several sources, including the questionnaire, were analysed, compared and linked to ICF-codes in order to identify a tentative content of a potential code set.

    The data culled by the questionnaires was first cross-tabulated. The next phase of the analysis was the code set preparation, focussing only on students with AS. Analysed data were linked qualitatively and deductively to ICF together with information from five different sources: 1) Student narratives, 2) International diagnosis classifications, 3) National policy-documents of higher education, 4) National healthcare and 5) The Swedish Autism and Asperger Syndrome Association. In all, 10 documents were included on the basis of  the AS target group, age group young adults, education and education guidelines for higher education, remedial work, need of support as well as national and international sources relating to the target group. The aim was to integrate several perspectives of needs of support in reference to AS students and their everyday student-life on a university campus.

    Results of the second study showed that even though other groups also reported problems similar to those of the AS students their explanations varied. While the problems of AS students appeared linked to cognitive difficulties, the problems of mobility impaired students (MD) and hearing impaired students (HD) were linked to physical difficulties. The difficulties and each group would appear similar at first sight which in practical terms means that they also would be offered the same kind of support as students at university

    The analysis of the questionnaire suggested the importance of students acquiring a job after graduation, to be able to earn a living and lead a normal everyday student-life like most others. However, prior to such a possible future studies must be completed and participants’ experiences of being university students appeared not the best. They spoke of struggle and alienation. Some of the experiences common to all three groups were stress and concentration difficulties, fatigue and social limitations.

    Hence, the second study, just like the first study, clearly showed both problems and needs, which suggested the necessity of a knowledge and communication tool for coordinators and students. An ICF-based code set for students with AS in higher education could serve as such a tool.

    In conclusion, results also suggested that if students with AS are to be included in higher education, and exclusion mechanisms such as stigmatisation and alienation be overcome, then clearly structured solutions - individual to each student - are also needed. Offered support must conform to multifinality rather than to equifinality as is currently the case in Sweden. Individual support cannot be based entirely on a diagnosis but also on an analysis of each student’s experienced difficulties in their immediate university environment of studying. Then, possibly, the available and legally guaranteed support would become as empowering as it was intended to actually be.

     

  • 452.
    Simmeborn Fleischer, Ann
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Support to students with Asperger syndrome in higher education - the perspectives of three relatives and three coordinators2012In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 54-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of students with disabilities attend institutes of higher education (HE). Among this group are persons with Asperger syndrome (AS). Persons with AS have a cognitive impairment that can interfere with their studies and the ability to describe their needs and ask for support. This study deals with an assessment of the support services for students with AS from the perspectives of the students’ relatives and the students’ service providers at the universities they attend. The aim of this study was to investigate: (i) earlier experiences and events in relation to the transition of students with AS to HE, according to the relatives’ perceptions of how these experiences and events affect university studies; (ii) the perceptions of both the relatives of students with AS and the co   ordinators for students with disabilities with respect to the study environment and support for students with AS.

    The approach is a case study methodology involving relatives and university coordinators for three students with AS. The coordinators’ way of working with students with disabilities is primarily based on the coordinators’ own ideas. No specific organisational routines exist for students with AS.

    The results reveal that the needs of students with AS have to be made explicit and incorporated into the support system. Relatives lack information about the situation and opportunities to engage in collaboration. Universities must adapt the support system to the cognitive impairments experienced by AS students and the difficulties of their everyday lives. The relatives of students with AS may play the central role in supporting the students and in understanding their impairment.

  • 453.
    Simmeborn Fleischer, Ann
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Adolfsson, Margareta
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Students with disabilities in higher education - perceptions of support needs and received support: a pilot study2013In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 330-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students with disabilities in higher education frequently need support to succeed in their studies. Perceived problems in managing studies and everyday life may be the same for students with different disabilities although the reasons for support may vary between them. In this pilot study, a questionnaire aimed to survey everyday functioning in students with disabilities was tested. Thirty-four students with Asperger syndrome (AS), motor disabilities or deafness/hearing impairments were asked 55 close- and open-ended questions regarding participation restrictions and available support programmes. One aim was to test the usefulness of the questionnaire. Another aim was to identify students’ perceptions of their everyday student-life and the support they are offered, with a special focus on comparing perceptions of needs and support between student with AS and the other student groups. The results indicate the need to plan recruitment of participants carefully and that the questionnaire was useful. The descriptive analyses conducted, indicated that the groups primarily reported the same difficulties, but the open-ended comments indicated that the reasons for the problems vary between the groups. It indicates that likert type responses to questions concerning perceived difficulties need to be supplemented by open-ended questions concerning perceived reasons to problems.

  • 454.
    Sjöman, Madeleine
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Offer eller förövare?: Elevens narrativa roll i skolinspektörernas gestaltning av skolproblem2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens övergripande syfte är att undersöka hur skolproblem och elevens aktörsroll gestaltas med hjälp av olika språkliga mönster i rapporter från skolinspektionen i en kommun. Undersökningen är upplagd som en fallstudiedesign, där den teoretiska utgångspunkten är socialkonstruktionism. Empirin består av 33 skolrapporter från utbildningsinspektionen genomförda under 2005 i en kommun. Varje rapport omfattar ca 10 sidor, en sammanfattande beskrivning och en mer ingående redogörelse av den enskilda skolan. I studien genomfördes två kvalitativa textanalyser: en tematisk innehållsanalys av rapporternas sammanfattning och en narrativ analys av den mer ingående beskrivningen av skolan.

     

    Innehållsanalysen visade att skolproblemet gestaltades implicit eller explicit inom ramen för följande teman: måluppfyllelse, undervisning, samverkan, organisation och skolmiljö. Vidare visade den narrativa analysen att eleven gestaltades, antingen implicit eller explicit, i första hand som offer men även som hjälte, syndabock eller förövare. Inspektörernas beskrivning av elevens roll i relation till fenomenet skolproblem ger upphov till olika tolkningsmöjligheter, vilket i sin tur möjligen kan försvåra skolutvecklingsarbetet.

  • 455.
    Sjöman, Madeleine
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Peer interaction in preschool: Necessary, but not sufficient: The influence of social interaction on the link between behavior difficulties and engagement among children with and without need of special support2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to enhance knowledge regarding engagement among children with and without need of special support due to behavior difficulties. The influence of social interaction as well as the provision of special support in Swedish preschool were investigated. Specifically, the aim was to explore children’s engagement at the nodal point between environmental factors, children’s behavior and characteristics, peer-to-child interaction and teacher responsiveness, both in a cross-sectional perspective and over time. In addition, predictive factors for special support were explored.

    A prospective longitudinal survey design with three data points was used, with both quantitative and qualitative data. The sample consisted of 829 children, 425 boys and 394 girls (10 missing) from 92 preschool units in six municipalities in Sweden. The children participated in at least one wave of data collection. The preschool staff rated the children’s engagement, behavior difficulties, and the provision of special support. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted. For the cross-sectional analyses 663 children participated, and for the longitudinal analyses, 203 children participated. For the cross-sectional analyses logistics regression and content analyses as well as mediation analyses were used, meanwhile, structural equation models were used for longitudinal analyses, that is, growth curve model with multivariate analyses as well as autoregressive, cross-lagged panel analyses.

    Overall, children with high levels of hyperactive behavior were less engaged in everyday activities in preschool. In addition, the peer-to-child interaction and teacher responsiveness were rated lower for these children, both in current time and longitudinally. Children’s hyperactive behavior had more negative influence on their core engagement (e.g. attentional behavior and persistence behavior), compared to their developmental engagement, (e.g.problem solving, involvement in complex rule-based play, more common for older preschoolers). The levels of social interaction explained a large percent of the negative effect between hyperactive behavior and engagement. Peer-to-child interaction explained between 56-78 percent, whereas teacher responsiveness explained between 33-34 percent.

    Over time, the level of hyperactive behavior decreased more dramatically for girls than for boys. However, boys who became more engaged, showed less hyperactive behavior over time. The majority (63%) of the children displaying behavior difficulties (BD) did not receive special support on top of what was provided to all children in the classroom. No support was related to children being a second language learner in Swedish (EL2) or BDs that did not disturb the peer group or the teachers. Children more often received special support if the staff perceived the child’s behavior difficulties as disruptive in preschool activities or among peers. The most common type of support, mentioned by the staff, was paying attention to the child’s negative behavior, achieved by at least one member of the staff staying close to the child. Other examples of attention to the child’s negative behavior involved the preschool staff providing special support by paying attention to critical situations, by teacher’s proximity to the children, or by distracting the child from situations that could trigger negative behavior. Distractions were used more often for children with high engagement and BD.

    Concerning directional and transactional paths, children’s core engagement was a significant predictor for both peer-to-child interaction and teacher responsiveness. That is, high levels of core engagement at T1 predicted both types of social interaction at T2, which in turn predicted children’s levels of core engagement at T3. Children’s hyperactive behavior did not predict lower ratings in social interactions in preschool over time, whereas, high ratings in peer-to-child interactions and teacher responsiveness were significant predictors for decreased hyperactive behavior over time. Once again, social interactions were important factors for promoting a decrease in children’s hyperactive behavior. Children with high levels of core engagement were more likely to be met by teacher responsiveness and positive peer-to-child interactions over time.

    Several statistical relations exist between children’s engagement, BD, social interactions and special support in preschool settings. This thesis shows that perceived negative behaviors such as BD can co-exist with more positively perceived behaviors or characteristics, such as engagement. However, this research shows that well-functioning peer-to-child interaction and teacher interactions improve child engagement for children with hyperactive behavior, special support is not always provided and seldom focused on improving children’s engagement. In order to improve engagement among children in need of special support due to BD, it is necessary to consider both hyperactive behavior and engagement as well as the influence of social interactions. Teacher responsiveness and peer-to-child interaction may work as supportive factors for children with hyperactive behavior to help sustain attention and stay actively engaged in the activities. Preschool teachers need to self-reflect on their organization, planning ofeveryday activities and how to design special support that consider individual children’s needs for improving their engagement.

  • 456.
    Sjöman, Madeleine
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Social interactions and change in children’s engagement and externalizing behavior difficulties in preschoolManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 457.
    Sjöman, Madeleine
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU). Mälardalens Högskola.
    Interaction processes as a mediating factor between children's externalized behaviour difficulties and engagement in preschool2016In: Early Child Development and Care, ISSN 0300-4430, E-ISSN 1476-8275, Vol. 186, no 10, p. 1649-1663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined social interaction as a mediator between externalized behaviour difficulties and children's engagement in preschool. Data from 663 children (340 boys), aged 18–71 months, were collected at 81 Swedish preschool units in six municipalities to test a path model that included child, teacher, and child groups. The results indicated that behaviour difficulties and engagement may occur simultaneously. Hyperactivity had a direct negative influence on engagement, which was not the case with conduct problems. Teachers’ responsiveness as well as positive interactions with peers had an indirect influence on the relationship between hyperactivity and engagement. Responsive staff and positive interactions within the child group seem to contribute to children's engagement despite hyperactivity. Children's engagement, as well as special support to stimulate engagement in preschool, is discussed.

  • 458.
    Sjöman, Madeleine
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Axelsson, A.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Mälardalens högskola.
    Danielsson, H.
    Social interactions - predictor of children’s engagement and hyperactivity in preschoolManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 459. Sonnander, K
    et al.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Utvecklingsstörning2007In: Barn som har föräldrar med utvecklingsstörning, Stockholm: Socialstyrelsen , 2007, , p. 27-34p. 27-34Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 460.
    Strand, Anne-Sofie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    The School Situation for Students with a High Level of Absenteeism in Compulsory School: Is There a Pattern in Documented Support?2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 551-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a retrospective descriptive content analysis of all identified school documents for 90 ninth-grade students with a history of truancy, collected from two Swedish compulsory schools. The study investigates individual, school, and psychosocial factors in the documents and three analyses are presented: (1) a general analysis of the documents, (2) a comparison of truant students with and without learning difficulties (LD), and (3) a comparison between students with LD who received no special educational support and those who did receive support. Predictors for truancy were credits in the fall of the eighth grade, difficulties in mathematics, and relationship problems. For 50% of the students, frequent truancy first became evident after the seventh grade. No connections were found between documented educational and social support, learning difficulties, and level of truancy.

  • 461.
    Strand, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Anbäcken, Els-Marie
    Department of Social Work, Linköping University.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Social support for adolescents with a high level of truancy in Swedish compulsory schooling2015In: Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, ISSN 1082-4669, E-ISSN 1532-7671, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 293-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to explore whether 15 students with a high level of truancy have experienced social support at school. The analysis is based on systems theory with a focus on the social context at school. The study is based on data collected in an earlier school document study (Strand & Granlund, 2013) and on 2 earlier interview studies with the school staff (Strand & Cedersund, 2013) and the students themselves (Strand, 2012). Data triangulation was conducted using person-based content analysis. The students were divided in three groups of the school system. For the winners, we found that engaged adults close to them made a positive difference that restored their relationship with school. The unchallenged and the losers of the school system had poor social relationships with the school staff, especially within the classroom. A dearth of relationships with classmates was observed for all 3 groups. There was a low level of agreement between the information taken from the school documents, what the school staff members said, and what the students themselves said for all of the groups. What the students perceived as support was not the same as the school had noted as provided and received support.

  • 462.
    Ståhl, Ylva
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Almborg, Ann-Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Contents of Swedish school health questionnaires2011In: British Journal of School Nursing, ISSN 1752-2803, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 82-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study aims to analyse and link the content of the health information requested in questionnaires used locally in Swedish child and school health services. Background: In industrialized countries, children's health needs are changing from physical to psychosocial needs and the questionnaires used for health screening and guiding health promotion must therefore adapt to these changes. Methods: Questionnaires were analysed, together with health items linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY). The inter-rater agreement for linking was 80%. Standard age groups were used to improve the comparability across different questionnaires. Results: The information requested for the youngest children focused on communication and acquiring language. For the children aged 6 years and above, health questionnaires related to mental functions, the school situation, psychosomatic symptoms and issues associated with taking care of one's health. Conclusions: The information relating to health in questionnaires revealed that interest focused on health items strongly related to the different age groups and to psychosocial health. The focus was the child as a person rather than the child within a family and school environment.

  • 463.
    Ståhl, Ylva
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Andersson-Gäre, Boel
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Mapping of children's health and development data on population level using the classification system ICF-CY2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, p. 51-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate if essential health and development data of all children in Sweden in the Child Health Service (CHS) and School Health Service (SHS) can be linked to the classification system International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY). Method: Lists of essential health terms, compiled by professionals from CHS and SHS, expected to be used in the national standardised records form the basis for the analysis in this study. The essential health terms have been linked to the codes of ICF-CY by using linking rules and a verification procedure. RESULTS: After exclusion of terms not directly describing children's health, a majority of the health terms could be linked into the ICF-CY with a high proportion of terms in body functions and a lower proportion in activity/participation and environment respectively. Some health terms had broad description and were linked to several ICF-CY codes. The precision of the health terms was at a medium level of detail. CONCLUSION: ICF-CY can be useful as a tool for documenting child health. It provides not only a code useful for statistical purposes but also a language useful for the CHS and SHS in their work on individual as well as population levels. It was noted that the health terms used by services mainly focused on health related to body function. This indicates that more focus is needed on health data related to child's functioning in everyday life situations.

  • 464.
    Ståhl, Ylva
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Andersson-Gäre, Boel
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Views on health information and perceptions of standardized electronic records among staff in Child and School Health Services2011In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 201-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To investigate how nurses and physicians in the Child and School Health Services view the documentation and transfer of health information. Another aim concerns their perceptions of a nationally standardized electronic health record.

    BACKGROUND: Problems of mental health among children and adolescents currently pose one of the greatest challenges facing all European countries. The continuity of health work demands that all health information follow the child's development, disregarding the organizational arrangement.

    METHODS: The study was descriptive and comprised 484 questionnaires to nurses and physicians in the Child and School Health Services in Sweden.

    RESULTS: More information about children's health was transferred than documented in the health record when children started school. This additional health information concerned psychosocial health and foremost family function. There was a consensus concerning the usefulness of a nationally standardized electronic health record, although there were group differences between nurses and physicians.

    CONCLUSIONS: All information about children's health is not documented although the professional's positive perceptions to electronic health records may provide a basis to improve documentation.

    IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: The results indicate challenges to develop a common language to document psychosocial issues necessary for providing a holistic view of children's health.

  • 465.
    Ståhl, Ylva
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Simeonsson, Rune
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Andersson-Gäre, Boel
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Psychosocial health information in free text notes of Swedish children's health records2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 616-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High-quality documentation of children’s health is an important priority in health care given trends of declining mental health and reduced well-being in children. There is a lack of information concerning psychosocial health in the standardized part of the national health record in the Child Health Service and the School Health Service in Sweden. Further, little is known if the free text notes in the health record, besides information on physical health, also include information on children’s psychosocial health. The aim of this study was to describe what is recorded concerning children’s health and development in free text notes.

    Methods: The study was based on a retrospective analysis of text using an inductive approach for qualitative analyses of content.

    Results: The analysis of the free text notes in the health records yielded seven categories: development, family, health problems, living habits, medical issues, preschool/school and leisure, and well-being. The categories mainly covered psychosocial aspects of health and were not only about health and development problems of the child but also what was covered during the visits. The information was unevenly distributed across the ages. A stronger focus on the youngest age groups within a family and preschool setting is needed. There was novel information in the free text notes such as pain, general health, emotions, mother’s mental health and leisure activities, which was not covered in the standardized part of the health records.

    Conclusion: The free text notes mainly reflected a psychosocial perspective on health. The findings of this study suggest that requesting more information on children’s psychosocial health in the standardized part of the health records could contribute to more comprehensive and informative health records in the Child health Service and the School Health Service in Sweden.

  • 466.
    Svedbom, Jörgen
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Pedagogy and Health Promotion2012In: Journal of Physical Education & Health - Social perspective, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 53-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyze three aspects of the relationship between general pedagogy and Health education.

    Two different doctoral dissertations on Health education, claimed to be written from different scientific positions (hermeneutic and positivistic), were analyzed from science--philosophical, knowledge-theoretical and methodological points of view.

    The analysis showed that none of the dissertations contained any deeper discussion on science-philosophical or knowledge-theoretical issues and that both of the dissertations were written mainly in the hermeneutic tradition.

    The reason for this is probably that Health education, especially promotive Health education, handles divergent questions that seldom, or never, can be handled with positivistic methods.

    One consequence of this is that the results of research on promotive Health education rarely, or never, are normative and can tell how to teach about health in a specific educational situation. Instead the results can be used as a background for didactic reflection whey planning and realizing Health education initiatives.

    Another consequence is that the present trend with demand for evidence based Health education, can be questioned! Because promotive Health education is so heavily loaded with divergent questions, and because pedagogical research, according to Habermas, has an emancipatory or critical “knowledge interest”. Research can explain what is going on in one situation but not predict what will happen in a similar, but other situation! Therefore this paper argues that the idea of evidence based, promotive health education is hard, or impossible, to realize.

  • 467.
    Svensson, Erica
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    "Man tar inte bara en bok hur som helst, utan man har ett syfte med varje bok": En kvalitativ studie om hur fem lärare i grundskolans tidigare år beskriver deras användning av högläsning i undervisningen.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reading aloud is an important activity that promotes pupil´s vocabulary and develops language and literacy development, and the understanding of how a story is constructed. But it's not enough to just read directly from the book. Teachers also need to teach reading strategies those pupils eventually self-operated by individual reading. To find out how the teachers in this study describe their use of reading aloud study takes as its starting point a qualitative approach with semistructured interviews. Through semi-structured interviews with five teachers from a school study answers the following questions:

    • How is reading aloud used by the teacher in the classroom, and how is reading aloud adapted to the students?
    • How are reading strategies used during reading aloud by the teacher?
    • What is the purpose of the teachers by reading aloud?
    • What advantages and disadvantages do the teachers find in reading aloud?

    Results are interpreted and based on the hermeneutic theory. The study is based on the socio-cultural theory where learning in interaction with others is essential. The results show that teachers use reading strategies for reading aloud to develop students' reading comprehension and vocabulary, as well as teachers describe recital positive.

  • 468.
    Svensson, Lisa
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Förskollärares kollegiala lärande2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att ur ett sociokulturellt perspektiv skapa kunskap om förskollärares beskrivningar av kollegialt lärande i förskolan. Hattie (2012) och Timperley (2013) talar om vikten av det kollegiala lärandet. Sökningar visar att det finns brist på forskning avseende förskollärares kollegiala lärande. Studiens frågeställningar rör sig om förskollärares beskrivningar av vad kollegialt lärande kan innebära samt deras beskrivningar av sina erfarenheter av kollegialt lärande. Utifrån det sociokulturella perspektivet ses människor som deltagare i en social interaktion där handlingar och tänkande är situerade i en social kontext (Säljö, 2011). I läroplanen beskrivs förskolan som en social och kulturell mötesplats och ett av förskollärarens uppdrag är att ge barnen möjlighet att ta del av människors olika tankar och handlingar. Den metod som används är kvalitativ intervju med fem yrkesverksamma förskollärare anställda inom den kommunala förskolan. Informationen genererad ur förskollärarnas berättelser har kategoriserats och teman har skapats. Resultaten visar att det finns en omedvetenhet kring begreppet kollegialt lärande hos förskollärarna. Det finns flera olika tolkningar av vad begreppet kollegialt lärande innebär både i teorier och hos förskollärarna. Resultatet visar att olika faktorer såsom tid, resurser och organisation påverkar möjligheterna till kollegialt lärande och att förskolechefer har en central roll för att det kollegiala lärandet ska kunna ske. Det framkommer att det finns en vilja hos förskollärarna att delta i olika former av kollegialt lärande.

  • 469.
    Swärd, Ann-Katrin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Literacy Research.
    Att säkerställa skriftspråklighet genom medveten arrangering: Wittingmetodens tillämpning i några olika lärandemiljöer2009In: Vår skola. Specialundervisning, ISSN 0284-6829, no 2, p. 4-7, 25-27-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 470.
    Swärd, Ann-Katrin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, School Based Research and Professional Development. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Ett renoveringsarbete - varför blev det så?2014In: Ungdomar läser och skriver - specialpedagogiska perspektiv / [ed] Fischbein, Siv, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2014, 1, p. 121-134Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 471.
    Swärd, Ann-Katrin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Improve students' self-esteem through Re-learning in Reading and Writing2012In: The European Journal of Social & Behavioural Science, ISSN 2301-2218, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 317-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When students’ fail in their reading and writing development it also affects their self-esteem and self-confidence. Too many students in Sweden fail in literacy development and therefore don’t reach the goal stated in the curriculum. Their future education will not be what students had wished, instead they are more or less forced to enter an individual program at high school or quit after nine year in compulsory school. Many of these students have low self-esteem and self-confidence and their self-efficacy are also low when entering high school. The aim of this part of a longitudinal Grounded Theory-study was to conceptualize and generate a theory about what four teachers and their students in high school actually do when working with reading and writing using a specific method. The results based on qualitative research interviews, observations, questionnaires, video recording, and analysis in the tradition of grounded theory, show how teacher and students strive to increase and ensure every student in their reading and writing skills through what is labelled didactic arranging. Teachers’ systematic work with reading and writing, their self-efficacy and beliefs in every student’s possibilities helps students to increase their self-esteem and self-confidence.

  • 472.
    Swärd, Ann-Katrin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, School Based Research and Professional Development. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Re-learning in Reading and Writing – is it Possible?2012In: International Conference on Education & Educational Psychology (ICEEPSY 2012) / [ed] Zafer Bekirogullari, 2012, p. 104-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing failing in reading and writing among student in Swedish schools results in that many students can’t reach the goal stated in the curriculum in compulsory school. Therefore they are forced to enter an individual program at the upper secondary school. The specific aim of this part of a longitudinal Grounded Theory-study was to conceptualize and generate a theory about what two teachers and their students in one class in upper secondary school actually do when working with re-reading and re-writing using a specific method. The results based on qualitative research interviews, observations, questionnaires, video recording, and analysis in the tradition of grounded theory, show that these teachers strived systematically to ensure every student's reading and writing development through what is labeled didactic arranging. Teachers, students and the didactic procedures are shown to be in constant interaction. It was also found to be important that the teachers believed that every student could re- learn reading and writing and help them to believe in their re-learning so they could increase their low self-esteem and self-confidence.

  • 473.
    Swärd, Ann-Katrin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Re-learning in Reading and Writing – is it possible?2012In: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, E-ISSN 1877-0428, Vol. 69, no 24, p. 104-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing failing in reading and writing among student in Swedish schools results in that many students can’t reach the goal stated in the curriculum in compulsory school. Therefore they are forced to enter an individual program at the upper secondary school. The specific aim of this part of a longitudinal Grounded Theory-study was to conceptualize and generate a theory about what two teachers and their students in one class in upper secondary school actually do when working with re-reading and re-writing using a specific method. The results based on qualitative research interviews, observations, questionnaires, video recording, and analysis in the tradition of grounded theory, show that these teachers strived systematically to ensure every student's reading and writing development through what is labeled didactic arranging. Teachers, students and the didactic procedures are shown to be in constant interaction. It was also found to be important that the teachers believed that every student could re- learn reading and writing and help them to believe in their re-learning so they could increase their low self-esteem and self-confidence.

  • 474.
    Swärd, Ann-Katrin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Literacy Research.
    Säkerställa skriftspråklighet - vad kan det innebära?2010In: Dyslexi - aktuellt om läs- och skrivsvårigheter, ISSN 1401-2480, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 9-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 475.
    Swärd, Ann-Katrin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Literacy Research.
    Vad erfarna och skickliga lärare gör när de arbetar med läs- och skrivundervisning2010In: Specialpedagogisk tidskrift - att undervisa, ISSN 2000-429X, no 1, p. 17-18Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 476.
    Tai, Lok Hei
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    The effects of witnessing domestic violence on the daily functioning of children aged, 3 to 8 years2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Domestic violence, intimate partner violence, is a major social problem is the world.  This systematic study will discuss the effects on children who witness domestic violence and how those effect can be coded in the ICF-CY coding system, Body functions and Activities and participation. The effects of witnessing domestic violence were categorized by the contexts of ICF-CY, Body function and Activities and participation. The result showed that there are negative impacts in mental function, immunological system functions, digestive system, communication and interpersonal interactions and relationships. All effects can be coded with ICF-CY Body functions and Activities and participation.

  • 477.
    Tang, Julia
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Chen, Nigel T M
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia; Curtin Autism Research Group, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia .
    Bölte, Sven
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia; Curtin Autism Research Group, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia; Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Centre for Psychiatry Research; Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet & Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Girdler, Sonya
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia; Curtin Autism Research Group, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia .
    A systematic review and meta-analysis of social emotional computer based interventions for autistic individuals using the Serious Game frameworkIn: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 478.
    Tang, Julia
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Chen, Nigel T M
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia; Curtin Autism Research Group, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia .
    Bölte, Sven
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia; Curtin Autism Research Group, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia; Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Centre for Psychiatry Research; Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet & Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Girdler, Sonya
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia; Curtin Autism Research Group, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia .
    Atypical visual processing but comparable levels of emotion recognition in adults with autism during the processing of social scenes2019In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the underlying visual scanning patterns of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during the processing of complex emotional scenes remains limited. This study compared the complex emotion recognition performance of adults with ASD (n = 23) and matched neurotypical participants (n = 25) using the Reading the Mind in Films Task. Behaviourally, both groups exhibited similar emotion recognition accuracy. Visual fixation time towards key social regions of each stimuli was examined via eye tracking. Individuals with ASD demonstrated significantly longer fixation time towards the non-social areas. No group differences were evident for the facial and body regions of all characters in the social scenes. The findings provide evidence of the heterogeneity associated with complex emotion processing in individuals with ASD.

  • 479.
    Tang, Julia
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Horlin, Chiara
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Face recognition and visual search strategies in autism spectrum disorders: Amending and extending a recent review by Weigelt et al.2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1-19, article id e0134439Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this review was to build upon a recent review by Weigelt et al. which examined visual search strategies and face identification between individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing peers. Seven databases, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, ERIC, Medline, Proquest, PsychInfo and PubMed were used to locate published scientific studies matching our inclusion criteria. A total of 28 articles not included in Weigelt et al. met criteria for inclusion into this systematic review. Of these 28 studies, 16 were available and met criteria at the time of the previous review, but were mistakenly excluded; and twelve were recently published. Weigelt et al. found quantitative, but not qualitative, differences in face identification in individuals with ASD. In contrast, the current systematic review found both qualitative and quantitative differences in face identification between individuals with and without ASD. There is a large inconsistency in findings across the eye tracking and neurobiological studies reviewed. Recommendations for future research in face recognition in ASD were discussed.

  • 480.
    Tang, Julia S. Y.
    et al.
    Curtin Autism Research Group, School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Chen, Nigel T. M.
    Curtin Autism Research Group, School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin Autism Research Group, School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Bӧlte, Sven
    Curtin Autism Research Group, School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin Autism Research Group, School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    A systematic review and meta-analysis of social emotional computer based interventions for autistic individuals using the serious game framework2019In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 66, article id 101412Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: Adopting the elements of the Serious Game framework has been hypothesised as a strategy to promote the efficacy of social emotional computer-based interventions (CBI) for autistic individuals. This systematic review aimed to review the application of Serious Game principles in current social emotional CBI targeting autistic individuals and evaluate the effect of these principles in remediating social emotional outcomes via meta-analysis.

    Methods: Database searches identified 34 studies evaluating social emotional CBI with 17 controlled efficacy studies included in meta-regressions analyses. Narrative synthesis summarised the attributes of each CBI based on the five Serious Game principles; motivating storyline, goal directed learning, rewards and feedback, increasing levels of difficulty and individualisation.

    Results: Based on the scores of the Serious Game assessment tool we developed, findings revealed on average a limited (45%) integration of Serious Game design principles in social emotional CBI for autistic individuals. Main findings from the meta-regressions of 17 controlled efficacy studies revealed a moderating effect of Serious Game design principles on the distant generalisation of social emotional skills and transferability of outcomes among autistic individuals. No significant moderating effects of Serious Game was found for close generalisation and maintenance outcomes.

    Conclusion: Overall, findings suggest that the Serious Game design framework has utility in guiding the development of social emotional CBI which improve the social emotional skills of autistic individuals. 

  • 481.
    Tang, Julia S Y
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin Autism Research Group, School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Chen, Nigel T M
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Bölte, Sven
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Designing a Serious Game for Youth with ASD: Perspectives from End-Users and Professionals.2019In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 978-995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years have seen an emergence of social emotional computer games for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). These games are heterogeneous in design with few underpinned by theoretically informed approaches to computer-based interventions. Guided by the serious game framework outlined by Whyte et al. (Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 45(12):1-12, 2014), this study aimed to identify the key motivating and learning features for serious games targeting emotion recognition skills from the perspectives of 11 youth with ASD and 11 experienced professionals. Results demonstrated that youth emphasised the motivating aspects of game design, while the professionals stressed embedding elements facilitating the generalisation of acquired skills. Both complementary and differing views provide suggestions for the application of serious game principles in a potential serious game.

  • 482.
    Thompson, Melanie
    et al.
    Curtin University.
    Elliott, Catherine
    Curtin University.
    Willis, Claire
    University of Western Australia.
    Ward, Roslyn
    University of Western Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University.
    Gubbay, Anna
    University of Western Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University.
    Can, Want and Try: Parents’ Viewpoints Regarding the Participation of Their Child with an Acquired Brain Injury2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 7, article id e0157951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background 

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a leading cause of permanent disability, currently affecting 20,000 Australian children. Community participation is essential for childhood development and enjoyment, yet children with ABI can often experience barriers to participation. The factors which act as barriers and facilitators to community participation for children with an ABI are not well understood. 

    Aim

    To identify the viewpoints of parents of children with an ABI, regarding the barriers and facilitators most pertinent to community participation for their child. 

    Methods 

    Using Q-method, 41 parents of children with moderate/severe ABI sorted 37 statements regarding barriers and facilitators to community participation. Factor analysis identified three viewpoints. 

    Results 

    This study identified three distinct viewpoints, with the perceived ability to participate decreasing with a stepwise trend from parents who felt their child and family "can" participate in viewpoint one, to "want" in viewpoint two and "try" in viewpoint three. 

    Conclusions 

    Findings indicated good participation outcomes for most children and families, however some families who were motivated to participate experienced significant barriers. The most significant facilitators included child motivation, supportive relationships from immediate family and friends, and supportive community attitudes. The lack of supportive relationships and attitudes was perceived as a fundamental barrier to community participation. 

    Significance 

    This research begins to address the paucity of information regarding those factors that impact upon the participation of children with an ABI in Australia. Findings have implications for therapists, service providers and community organisations.

  • 483.
    Tony, Mary Pushpy
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    The effectiveness of Assistive Technology to support children with Specific Learning Disabilities: Teacher Perspectives2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the UNICEF report, up to ten percent of children in the world have affected specific learning disabilities (SLD) and the majority of these children are educated in general education classrooms. An important resource for children with learning disabilities to flourish in the classroom is access to assistive technology. To prepare children on how to utilize assistive technology in the learning environment is important for teachers. This systematic review focused on teacher perspectives on assistive technology regarding children with SLD. Six scholarly articles were used for this study. The information drawn from the articles showed that teachers are receptive to assistive technology in their classrooms. They perceived assistive technology as an important supportive device for improving the vital skills of reading and writing comprehension. However, it is clear from their perspectives that the teachers needed more support than they were able to access in order to feel comfortable to implement and use assistive technology in the classroom. Therefore the need for professional development and training and the integration of appropriate technical devices are vital to enhance the development of children with SLD. Future research will be focus on how pre-service teachers are being prepared for AT use as a part of their pre-service training program and professional development.

  • 484.
    Trejo, Karina
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    The participatory profiles of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy : with and without mental health issues2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 485.
    Ullenhag, Anna
    et al.
    Health Care Sciences Postgraduate School, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet Neuropediatric Unit, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital Q2:07, Solna, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Lena
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalens University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena
    Health Care Sciences Postgraduate School, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet Neuropediatric Unit, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital Q2:07, Solna, Sweden.
    Cultural validity of the Children's assessment of participation and enjoyment/Preferences for activities of children (CAPE/PAC)2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 428-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate whether the activity items of the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment/Preferences for Activities of Children (CAPE/PAC) were relevant for Swedish children.

    Subjects: A total of 337 typically developed children aged 6–17 years old.

    Methods: The CAPE/PAC was translated into Swedish in accordance with accepted translation procedures. By means of 14 group interviews with children with and without disabilities aged 6–15 years old and parents, available leisure activities were listed. These were matched to the items in the CAPE/PAC. Sixteen new potential activities were added and tested on 337 typical developed children from different regions of Sweden. A cutoff level of activities performed by >10% was set to identify relevant activities. Differences between the original and a proposed Swedish version were analysed using paired-samples t-tests of standardized mean scores.

    Results: Three new activity items were included, for 10 items new activity examples were added, and three not relevant items were excluded. In the Swedish version the outcome of standardized mean diversity score was significantly higher compared with the outcome of the original version. Conclusions:When using instruments in new contexts, it is not enough simply to translate; validation of the item relevance to the new context is essential.

  • 486.
    Ullenhag, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Neuropediatric unit, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bult, Maureen
    Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience and Center of Excellence for Rehabilitation Medicine, University Medical Center, Utrecht and Rehabilitation Center De Hoogstraat-Network for Childhood Disability Research in the Netherlands, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Nyquist, Anna
    Norwegian School of Sport Science, Department of Physical Education and Beitostølen Healthsport Centre, Beitostølen, Norway.
    Ketelaar, Marie
    Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience and Center of Excellence for Rehabilitation Medicine, University Medical Center, Utrecht and Rehabilitation Center De Hoogstraat-Network for Childhood Disability Research in the Netherlands, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Jahnsen, Ranvig
    Oslo University Hospital, Department of Neuroscience for children, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.
    Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Neuropediatric unit, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalens University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    An international comparison of patterns of participation in leisure activities for children with and without disabilities in Sweden, Norway and the Netherlands2012In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 369-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate whether there are differences in participation in leisure activities between children with and without disabilities in Sweden, Norway and the Netherlands and how much personal and environmental factors explain leisure performance.

    Methods: In a cross-sectional analytic design, the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment, CAPE, was performed with 278 children with disabilities and 599 children without disabilities aged 6–17 years. A one-way between-groups ANOVA explored the differences in participation between the countries. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis assessed if age, gender, educational level, living area and country of residence explained the variance in participation.

    Results: Scandinavian children with disabilities participated in more activities with higher frequency compared to Dutch children. The strongest predictor was country of residence. For children without disabilities, differences existed in informal activities, the strongest predictor was gender.

    Conclusion: Differences in school- and support systems between the countries seem to influence patterns of participation, affecting children with disabilities most.

  • 487.
    Ullenhag, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Neuropediatric Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Neuropediatric Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Differences in patterns of participation in leisure activities in Swedish children with and without disabilities2014In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 464-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To compare participation in leisure activities between Swedish children with and without disabilities and to examine whether age, gender, presence of disabilities, and mother’ seducational level influence participation.

    Method: A Swedish version of the Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment was used to study the diversity, intensity, and enjoyment of participation in leisure activities of children aged 6 to 17 years. Fifty-five of the children had disabilities and 337 of the children did not have disabilities. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to explore the impact of age, gender, mother’s level of education, and disability on the diversity, intensity, and enjoyment of leisure activities. At-test for independent samples was used to compare the diversity and intensity of participation between children withand without disabilities.

    Results: The multiple regression analysis explained 4–36% of the variance of diversity, intensity, and enjoyment. Children with disabilities participated with higher diversity, but with less intensity, than children without disabilities. Younger children had higher levels of enjoyment.

    Conclusions: Children with disabilities participated in several different activities, but the presence of a disability was associated with lower intensity ofparticipation. The low explanatory value of the investigated variables indicates that the combined effect of several variables needs to be taken into consideration when designing participation interventions.

  • 488.
    Ullergård Pappas, Cecilia
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Skönlitteraturens betydelse för elevers läsinlärning och läslust.: En kvalitativ studie på grundskolelärares arbete med skönlitteratur i undervisningen i årskurserna F—3.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en kvalitativ studie vars syfte är att studera skönlitteraturens betydelse för elevers läsutveckling och läslust samt att undersöka hur grundskolelärare inom årskurserna F—3 jobbar med skönlitteratur i undervisningen. Frågeställningarna som har legat till grund för studien har varit ”hur används skönlitteratur i undervisningen för att stödja elevers läsinlärning och läslust?” och ”vad är den generella inställningen till arbete med skönlitteratur utifrån lärares perspektiv?” Detta har besvarats genom att läsa litteratur inom ämnet och genom att intervjua fyra verksamma klasslärare som undervisar i ämnet svenska. Intervjuerna som hölls var semistrukturerade och kvalitativa och det empiriska materialet analyserades ur ett sociokulturellt perspektiv samt ur ett konstruktivistiskt perspektiv.

    Den litteratur som studerats har visat att arbete med skönlitteratur har många positiva fördelar. Några av dessa är ökat ordförråd, berikad fantasi och en ökad förståelse för sig själv och andra samt för omvärlden. Läraren spelar en viktig roll i elevers läsutveckling och hur de motiverar eleverna till läsning har stor betydelse för deras läslust. Samtliga lärare i studien finner arbete med skönlitteraturen viktigt och inkluderar läsning i undervisningen på olika sätt. De ser alla många fördelar med att arbeta med skönlitteratur och har en positiv inställning till skönlitteratur i undervisningen men finner vissa aspekter mer kritiska än andra. Dessa innefattar tidsbrist och somliga elevers ointresse för böcker. Resultatet visar även att samtliga lärare i studien har en medvetenhet bakom skönlitteraturundervisningen men att det ibland infaller som en utfyllnad i undervisningen när det blir tid över.

    Slutsatsen är att samtliga lärare i studien jobbar med skönlitteratur i undervisningen och att de har kunskap om skönlitteraturens många fördelar och har en positiv inställning till skönlitteratur i undervisningen. Tidsbrist kan dock försvåra arbetet med skönlitteratur. 

  • 489.
    Vale, Maria do Carmo
    et al.
    Pediatric Neurodevelopment Unit, Hospital Dona Estefânia, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Pereira-da-Silva, Luıs
    Woman, Children and Adolescent’s Medicine Teaching and Research Area, NOVA Medical School of Lisbon, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Pimentel, Maria João
    Pediatric Neurodevelopment Unit, Hospital Dona Estefânia, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Marques, Teresa Nunes
    Early Intervention Program Regional Lisbon Area, Ministry of Social Security and Solidarity, Portugal.
    Rodrigues, Helena
    Department of Special Education, Ministry of Education and Science, Portugal.
    Cunha, Gilda
    Department of Exact Science, Lisbon School of Health Technology, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Machado, Maria do Céu
    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Sanches-Ferreira, Manuela
    Special Education Department, School of Education, Porto Polytechnic, Porto, Portugal.
    Simeonsson, Rune J.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Education, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Classifying Functioning of Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: The Utility of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth2017In: Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, ISSN 1741-1122, E-ISSN 1741-1130, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 285-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observational cross-sectional study carried out in a pediatric neurodevelopment unit of a tertiary-care hospital. A sample of 355 children with median ((min.–max.) 1.0–17.3) years with intellectual disability (30.4% borderline, 43.1% mild, 19.7% moderate, 5.1% severe, and 1.7% profound disability) was seen over a period of 3 years. Based on clinical observation and psychological evaluation, a neurodevelopmental pediatrician selected ICF-CY body functions codes, and respective qualifiers, to effectively describe functioning of children. Based on evaluation reports, a psychologist and a special educator assigned the previously chosen ICF-CY body functions codes to 139 and 67 children, respectively. Inter-rater agreement was estimated using simple and weighted Cohen's kappa coefficients and Gwet's AC1 statistic and Gwet's weighted kappa coefficient statistic. A set of eight ICF-CY codes was identified as efficiently describing impairments of body functions of children with intellectual disability: global mental functions b117 and b122; specific mental functions b147, b163, b164, and b167; and voice and speech functions b320 and b330. Results indicate a correspondence between the level of severity of qualifiers assigned to ICF-CY codes and the level of intellectual disability. Inter-rater agreement was variable among raters, with the best agreements found for qualifying intellectual functions (b117) and psychomotor functions (b122). A profile of eight ICF-CY codes effectively describes functioning of children with intellectual disability, providing an alternative to medically based classification, based on diagnoses with functionally based classification of children's characteristics. The findings contribute to define a comprehensive set of codes to reliably record individual differences of functioning in this population.

  • 490.
    Valencia Hernández, María Luisa
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Cognitive behavioural therapy intervention for children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and anxiety: A systematic literature review from 2009 to 2019.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Young people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are more prone to experience anxiety disorders at a greater level compared to their neurotypical developing counterparts, causing lifelong impairments in family, social, academic and adaptive functioning. Early interventions in childhood have been designed to minimize these stressful events and to optimize children’s developmental outcomes. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is considered a first-line intervention of anxiety. The review aimed to synthesize empirical literature on modified CBT interventions from 2009 until 2019 focusing on reducing anxiety in children and adolescents with ASD. A systematic review of the literature was conducted in five databases. As a result, 10 articles were included to review. Modifications found were: a) audiovisual support and written materials, b) parental partic-ipation, c) sessions length, d) language, e) sensory and motor accommodations, f) emphasis into the behav-ioural component, g) enhancement of individual’s attention and participation, h) facilitating materials to access the content of CBT, and i) participants’ specific interests and worries. The interventions showed significant reductions in youth anxiety levels. Future research should focus on addressing which specific modifications contribute to anxiety reduction since to date, there is no evidence comparing standard CBT to modified CBT interventions. Moreover, there is a lack of anxiety-assessment instruments specially designed for individuals with ASD. In addition, considering the longstanding prevalence of male autistic rates, ASD diagnostic instru-ments should be revised to reduce bias that can mislead to an inattentive ascertainment of females with ASD.

  • 491.
    Van den Berg, Femke Marij
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, School Based Research and Professional Development. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Promoting culturally relevant pedagogy amongst pre-service teachers: A systematic literature review on how pre-service teachers in teacher education programs can develop culturally relevant pedagogy that enables them to establish a classroom environment that suits the needs of all learners.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This century is characterized by an increasing pace of globalization and migration that results in an increased diversity of classroom populations in Western countries. However, the teacher workforce still consists mostly of white females that come from different cultural backgrounds than their students, and who seem to lack the skills to respond to diversity in the classroom effectively. This raises the question of how the cultural mismatch can be overcome. The aim of this research is to explore how pre-service teachers can develop culturally relevant pedagogy, so they can establish a classroom environment that suits the needs of all learners. A systematic literature review is conducted, and 10 articles were analysed. The results show pre-service teachers can develop culturally responsive pedagogy through courses that offer knowledge or a combination of knowledge and field-based experiences. Factors that contribute to increased culturally relevant pedagogy are: previous experience with diversity, connecting theory and practice, modelling, learning through a community of learners, and critical reflection. However, research indicates that becoming a culturally relevant teacher is a time consuming process. Hence, it is recommended that teacher education programs include more courses in the curriculum to enable pre-service teachers develop this skill over time through taking part in a community of learners. In addition, as much of the current research originates from the United States, it is suggested future research focuses on other Western countries.

  • 492.
    van Dijk, Lieselotte
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Interventions reducing anxiety in hospitalized children: A systematic literature review from 2010 to 20172017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A medical procedure is a threatening and stressful experience for many children. The consequent increased feelings of anxiety in hospitalized children can negatively affect their healing process, their psychological health, and their behavioural, cognitive, emotional and academic development. To limit these negative results, knowledge about interventions that could contribute to a decrease in anxiety in hospitalized children is needed. The aim of this review was to examine interventions aiming at reducing anxiety in hospitalized children that undergo a medical procedure. A systematic literature was conducted in three databases that has resulted in 10 articles that met the inclusion criteria. The 10 selected articles included a total of 11 interventions for this review. The results showed that the intervention technique Distraction was effective in reducing anxiety for most hospitalized children. The intervention technique Information provision showed both significance and non-significance and the intervention techniques Medication and Modelling showed a non-significant change in anxiety. Besides, an active distraction form and a longer duration of the intervention might contribute to the effectiveness in reducing the hospitalized child’s anxiety level. Future research needs to focus on the anxiety level of both children and their parents, in addition to the upcoming intervention use of multimedia applications. Furthermore, the characteristics of the hospitalized child and the collaboration with the child and parents should be taken into account before applying interventions aiming at reducing anxiety in hospitalized children.

  • 493.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Boyes, Mark
    School of Psychology, Speech Pathology Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Joosten, Annette
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Is using the strengths and difficulties questionnaire in a community sample the optimal way to assess mental health functioning?2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 0144039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important characteristic of a screening tool is its discriminant ability or the measure's accuracy to distinguish between those with and without mental health problems. The current study examined the inter-rater agreement and screening concordance of the parent and teacher versions of SDQ at scale, subscale and item-levels, with the view of identifying the items that have the most informant discrepancies; and determining whether the concordance between parent and teacher reports on some items has the potential to influence decision making. Cross-sectional data from parent and teacher reports of the mental health functioning of a community sample of 299 students with and without disabilities from 75 different primary schools in Perth, Western Australia were analysed. The study found that: a) Intraclass correlations between parent and teacher ratings of children's mental health using the SDQ at person level was fair on individual child level; b) The SDQ only demonstrated clinical utility when there was agreement between teacher and parent reports using the possible or 90% dichotomisation system; and c) Three individual items had positive likelihood ratio scores indicating clinical utility. Of note was the finding that the negative likelihood ratio or likelihood of disregarding the absence of a condition when both parents and teachers rate the item as absent was not significant. Taken together, these findings suggest that the SDQ is not optimised for use in community samples and that further psychometric evaluation of the SDQ in this context is clearly warranted.

  • 494.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    McAuliffe, Tomomi
    James Cook University, Townsville, Qld, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Should schools expect poor physical and mental health, social adjustment, and participation outcomes in students with disability?2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 1-23, article id e0126630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on whether students with disabilities have worse physical and mental health, social adjustment, and participation outcomes when compared to their peers without disabilities is largely inconclusive. While the majority of case control studies showed significantly worse outcomes for students with disabilities; the proportion of variance accounted for is rarely reported. The current study used a population cross-sectional approach to determine the classification ability of commonly used screening and outcome measures in determining the disability status. Furthermore, the study aimed to identify the variables, if any, that best predicted the presence of disability. Results of univariate discriminant function analyses suggest that across the board, the sensitivity of the outcome/screening tools to correctly identify students with a disability was 31.9% higher than the related Positive Predictive Value (PPV). The lower PPV and Positive Likelihood Ratio (LR+) scores suggest that the included measures had limited discriminant ability (17.6% to 40.3%) in accurately identifying students at-risk for further assessment. Results of multivariate analyses suggested that poor health and hyperactivity increased the odds of having a disability about two to three times, while poor close perceived friendship and academic competences predicted disability with roughly the same magnitude. Overall, the findings of the current study highlight the need for researchers and clinicians to familiarize themselves with the psychometric properties of measures, and be cautious in matching the function of the measures with their research and clinical needs.

  • 495.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Passmore, Anne
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Black, Melissa
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Cuomo, Belinda
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Belongingness in Early Secondary School: Key Factors that Primary and Secondary Schools Need to Consider2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 9, article id e0136053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is unknown if, and how, students redefine their sense of school belongingness after negotiating the transition to secondary school. The current study used longitudinal data from 266 students with, and without, disabilities who negotiated the transition from 52 primary schools to 152 secondary schools. The study presents the 13 most significant personal student and contextual factors associated with belongingness in the first year of secondary school. Student perception of school belongingness was found to be stable across the transition. No variability in school belongingness due to gender, disability or household-socio-economic status (SES) was noted. Primary school belongingness accounted for 22% of the variability in secondary school belongingness. Several personal student factors (competence, coping skills) and school factors (low-level classroom task-goal orientation), which influenced belongingness in primary school, continued to influence belongingness in secondary school. In secondary school, effort-goal orientation of the student and perception of their school's tolerance to disability were each associated with perception of school belongingness. Family factors did not influence belongingness in secondary school. Findings of the current study highlight the need for primary schools to foster belongingness among their students at an early age, and transfer students' belongingness profiles as part of the handover documentation. Most of the factors that influenced school belongingness before and after the transition to secondary are amenable to change.

  • 496.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Passmore, Anne
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    The personal and contextual contributors to school belongingness among primary school students2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    School belongingness has gained currency among educators and school health professionals as an important determinant of adolescent health. The current cross-sectional study presents the 15 most significant personal and contextual factors that collectively explain 66.4% (two-thirds) of the variability in 12-year old students' perceptions of belongingness in primary school. The study is part of a larger longitudinal study investigating the factors associated with student adjustment in the transition from primary to secondary school. The study found that girls and students with disabilities had higher school belongingness scores than boys, and their typically developing counterparts respectively; and explained 2.5% of the variability in school belongingness. The majority (47.1% out of 66.4%) of the variability in school belongingness was explained by student personal factors, such as social acceptance, physical appearance competence, coping skills, and social affiliation motivation; followed by parental expectations (3% out of 66.4%), and school-based factors (13.9% out of 66.4%) such as, classroom involvement, task-goal structure, autonomy provision, cultural pluralism, and absence of bullying. Each of the identified contributors of primary school belongingness can be shaped through interventions, system changes, or policy reforms.

  • 497.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Centre for Research into Disability and Society, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, and School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Passmore, Anne Elizabeth
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Parkin, Timothy
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    School belongingness and mental health functioning across the primary-secondary transition in a mainstream sample: Multi-group cross-lagged analyses2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 6(e99576), p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between school belongingness and mental health functioning before and after the primary-secondary school transition has not been previously investigated in students with and without disabilities. This study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the bi-directional relationships between these constructs, by surveying 266 students with and without disabilities and their parents, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Cross-lagged multi-group analyses found student perception of belongingness in the final year of primary school to contribute to change in their mental health functioning a year later. The beneficial longitudinal effects of school belongingness on subsequent mental health functioning were evident in all student subgroups; even after accounting for prior mental health scores and the cross-time stability in mental health functioning and school belongingness scores. Findings of the current study substantiate the role of school contextual influences on early adolescent mental health functioning. They highlight the importance for primary and secondary schools to assess students' school belongingness and mental health functioning and transfer these records as part of the transition process, so that appropriate scaffolds are in place to support those in need. Longer term longitudinal studies are needed to increase the understanding of the temporal sequencing between school belongingness and mental health functioning of all mainstream students.

  • 498.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Centre for Research into Disability and Society, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Passmore, Anne Elizabeth
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    The impact of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence and mental health functioning across the primary-secondary school transition2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 1-13, article id e89874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students negotiate the transition to secondary school in different ways. While some thrive on the opportunity, others are challenged. A prospective longitudinal design was used to determine the contribution of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence (AC) and mental health functioning (MHF) of 266 students, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Data from 197 typically developing students and 69 students with a disability were analysed using hierarchical linear regression modelling. Both in primary and secondary school, students with a disability and from socially disadvantaged backgrounds gained poorer scores for AC and MHF than their typically developing and more affluent counterparts. Students who attended independent and mid-range sized primary schools had the highest concurrent AC. Those from independent primary schools had the lowest MHF. The primary school organisational model significantly influenced post-transition AC scores; with students from Kindergarten--Year 7 schools reporting the lowest scores, while those from the Kindergarten--Year 12 structure without middle school having the highest scores. Attending a school which used the Kindergarten--Year 12 with middle school structure was associated with a reduction in AC scores across the transition. Personal background factors accounted for the majority of the variability in post-transition AC and MHF. The contribution of school contextual factors was relatively minor. There is a potential opportunity for schools to provide support to disadvantaged students before the transition to secondary school, as they continue to be at a disadvantage after the transition.

  • 499.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Wilson, Nathan
    University of Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Sim, Angela
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Scott, Melissa
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjorn
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Factors associated with primary school teachers' attitudes towards the inclusion of students with disabilities2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1-12, article id e0137002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Teachers' attitudes toward inclusion are often based on the practical implementation of inclusive education rather than a specific ideology and understanding of inclusiveness. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with primary school teachers' attitudes towards inclusion of students with all disabilities in regular schools.

    Method

    Seventy four primary school teachers participated in a cross-sectional survey conducted in Western Australia. Teachers' attitudes and efficacy toward integration of students with disabilities were measured using the Opinions Relative to Integration of Students with Disabilities scale and Bandura's Teacher Efficacy scale respectively.

    Results

    Four teacher attributes-age, gender, teaching self-efficacy and training collectively explained 42% of the variability in teachers' attitude toward including students with disabilities.

    Conclusion

    The current study further contributes to the accumulation of knowledge that can unpack the complex pattern of factors that should be considered to promote positive attitudes towards inclusive schools.

  • 500.
    Wang, Minzhi
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    How are the strategies teachers use to facilitate participation of children in need of special supports in three ‘inclusive schools’ in Finland: From teachers’ perspective2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Inclusion enable children with special needs pursue their education or activities with their peers who are not disabled. Participation of children can be promoted by inclusion. Teachers are key for developing inclusive schools and improve the participation of children with special needs. The aim of this study is to describe strategies teachers use to facilitate participation of children in need of special supports in three ‘inclusive schools’ in Finland. To study this issue, interviews were conducted with eight participants from these three schools. The ICF-CY model was used to analyze the interview data. Results show that teachers’ strategies of promoting children’s participation in these Finnish ‘inclusive’ schools are diverse, teachers use strategies that focus on children’s environmental factors as well as factors that relate to children themselves. Most of teachers believe strategies that make changes on children environmental factors can help children participate in classroom tasks and activities. Some factors to influence difference of the strategies in different schools were found, different school situations and seems to be a decisive role on teachers’ strategies of improving the participation of the children. This study gives a promising view of the actions that teachers take to promote participation of children in need of special support.

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