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  • 4001.
    Björklund, Anita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Svensson, Tommy
    Begreppet 'Hälsa' som vägvisare för arbetsterapeuter.2005In: Arbetsterapeuten, ISSN 0345-0988, no 9, p. 10-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4002.
    Björklund, Anita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Svensson, Tommy
    Femton arbetsterapeutstudenters paradigmutveckling genom utbildning och yrkespraktik: en sexårsstudie2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studien handlar om paradigmutveckling hos arbetsterapeutstudenter, senare arbetsterapeuter, under en sexårsperiod. Speciellt studeras deras världsbild och verksamhetssyn enligt Törnebohms paradigmteori. Kvalitativ data samlades in genom essäfrågor, första veckan och sista terminen på arbetsterapeutprogrammet vid Hälsohögskolan i Jönköping, samt efter tre års yrkespraktik. Genom kvalitativ innehållsanalys framträdde informanternas syn på arbetsterapi vilken kan karaktäriseras som "allmänhetens syn" 1995, "teoretisk syn" 1998 och en "erfarenhetsbaserad/kontextuell syn" 2001.

  • 4003.
    Björklund, Anita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Svensson, Tommy
    Health, the Body and Occupational Therapy2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 26-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterise conceptions of health in a group of experienced occupational therapists. Data-collection involved the occupational therapists´ personal accounts of the meaning of health and data analysis was accomplished qualitatively. The material was found to comprise 52 distinguishable articulations of the meaning of health, which were categorized under three main themes: 22 articulations of Health as “feeling fine“; 20 articulations of Health as ability to act; and 10 articulations of Health as an objective state of body and/or mind. The results show a very strong tendency towards holistic health conceptions and also toward a phenomenological view on the body. If this tendency should be taken to reflect current basic views within the profession this would indicate a movement away from biomedical frames of reference on the theoretical level. This would seem to imply consequent movements on the practice level away from organ focused interventions to the benefit of interventions in the person/context dimension of occupational performance. Studies of processes of change seem to be needed and we suggest that a paradigm theory approach probably be most pertinent.

  • 4004.
    Björklund, Anita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Svensson, Tommy
    Read, Sanna
    Holistic and biomedical concepts of health: A study of health notions among Swedish occupational therapists and a suggestion for developing an instrument for comparative studies.2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 141-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study were to inquire into notions of health among a group of 439 Swedish occupational therapists and to test a model derived from a qualitative study by Björklund and Svensson in a representative sample of occupational therapists in Sweden. The data were collected through a questionnaire and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, cluster analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The means and ranking of the health notions showed that the Swedish occupational therapists most frequently hold holistic notions of health, and to a smaller extent biostatistical ones. Most Swedish occupational therapists indicate that being clearly conscious of one’s health notions is important both to themselves and to their profession. The test of the model provides a step towards developing an instrument for measuring notions of health that clearly distinguishes between holistic and biomedical ones and that could possibly be used for comparative studies.

  • 4005.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    Miljöstrategisk analys - fms, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Miljöstrategisk analys - fms, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Dreborg, Karl-Henrik
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, Stockholm.
    Johansson, Jessica
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, Stockholm.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Industriell miljöteknik, IKP, Linköpings Universitet.
    Stenlund, Jenny
    Industriell miljöteknik, IKP, Linköpings Universitet.
    Viklund, Per
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Political Science.
    Wiklund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Political Science.
    Energiplanering med strategisk miljöbedömning i Finspång2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4006. Björklund, C.
    et al.
    Kullberg, A.
    Runesson Kempe, Ulla
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Mathematics Education Research.
    Venkat, H.
    Critical ways of using fingers in arithmetic problem solving – a study of Swedish 5-yearolds2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4007.
    Björklund, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Alkhede, Maria
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kullberg, Angelika
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reis, Maria
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Marton, Ference
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekdahl, Anna-Lena
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Mathematics Education Research.
    Runesson Kempe, Ulla
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Mathematics Education Research.
    Teaching finger patterns for arithmetic development to preschoolers2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe the empirical and theoretical meaning behind how finger patterns are taught to facilitate the development of preschool children’s perception of the first ten natural numbers. An intervention programme, informed by Variation theory of learning, included 65 five-year-olds and teachers at seven preschool departments in Sweden. The programme aimed at developing teaching activities and artefacts to promote children discerning necessary aspects of the first ten numbers. The design of the programme is significant to describe and evaluate as basis for forthcoming analyses of the learning outcomes, as a pedagogical approach that stands in contrast to common preschool teaching practice in Sweden is adopted.

  • 4008.
    Björklund, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Education, Communication and Learning, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kullberg, Angelika
    Department of Pedagogical, Curricular and Professional studies, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Runesson Kempe, Ulla
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Mathematics Education Research. Wits School of Education, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Structuring versus counting: critical ways of using fingers in subtraction2019In: ZDM - the International Journal on Mathematics Education, ISSN 1863-9690, E-ISSN 1863-9704, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 13-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of using fingers as a key component in arithmetic development has received a great deal of support, much of which is based on neuroscientific evidence. However, this body of work pays limited attention to how fingers are used and possible different outcomes in arithmetic problem solving. The aim of our paper, based on an analysis of 126 observations of 4–5-year-olds solving a simple subtraction task, is to discuss different ways of using fingers, with some of the ways appearing more, and others less, powerful. The analysis suggests there is much more complexity to children’s finger-related strategies than prior research has indicated. Empirical findings in our study point to the decisive effects of different ways of using fingers, and in particular for either keeping track of counted units or for presenting a structured awareness of number. Three ways of using fingers emerge in the analysis, which are discussed in relation to their rate of success in solving the subtraction task and with attention to why the differences matter for the success rate. Through this discussion we suggest that the complexity of how fingers are used must be considered. 

  • 4009.
    Björklund Carlstedt, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Bridge employment - ett fortsatt arbetsliv2018In: Äldre i centrum, ISSN 1653-3585, no 2, p. 44-47Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4010.
    Björklund Carlstedt, Anita
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Brushammar, Gunilla
    Jönköping University, The University Library.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Nilsson, Gunilla
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    A scoping review of the incentives for a prolonged work life after pensionable age and the importance of “bridge employment”2018In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 175-189Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With a growing share of older people in almost every population, discussions are being held worldwide about how to guarantee welfare in the immediate future. Different solutions are suggested, but in this article the focus is on the need to keep older employees active in the labor market for a prolonged time.

    Objective: The aim was to find out and describe the incentives at three system levels for older people 1) wanting, 2) being able, and 3) being allowed to work.

    Material: The literature search embraced articles from the databases Scopus, PsycInfo, Cinahl, AgeLine and Business Source Premier, from May 2004 until May 2016. After the removal of 507 duplicates, the selection and analysis started with the 1331 articles that met the search criteria. Of these, 58 articles corresponded with the research questions.

    Method: The design was a ‘scoping review’ of the research area bridge employment and prolonged work life.

    Results: The results show that most investigations are conducted on individual-level predictors, research on organizational-level predictors is more scattered, and societal-level predictor information is scarce.

    Conclusions: Attitudes and behavior according to a prolonged work life could be summarized as dependent on good health, a financial gain in combination with flexible alternative working conditions.

  • 4011.
    Björklund, Elin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Balkefors, Hanna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Carlquist, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Co-Existence of Strategic Renewal and Strategic Inertia: A Case Study of an Innovative Firm2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: Today’s rapid globalization along with technological improvements force organizations to adapt its strategy to external changes. Companies may undertake strategic renewal in order to cope with these changes (Agarwal & Helfat, 2009). However, there are forces that somehow interrupt a firm’s ability to adapt, which are called strategic inertia (Mallette & Hopkins, 2013). The forces of strategic renewal and strategic inertia do not exist independently from one another rather they coexist and vary in its influence on the company (Melin, 1998). The previous research exploring Strategic Renewal and Strategic Inertia as two co-existing forces appears to be limited, which creates an incentive to explore the phenomena in an innovative company setting.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to explore the existence of the phenomena of strategic renewal and strategic inertia in an innovative firm.

    Method: In order to fulfill the aim of this research, a qualitative case study was undertaken. The primary data was gathered through interviews with managers from different departments at the company Fagerhult Lighting AB.

    Conclusion: This research contributes to the academic field of strategy as it proposes six circumstances that foster strategic renewal and strategic inertia in an innovative firm. The circumstances are clarified in the following six propositions, where (1) the encouragement of new ideas, (2) employees that are open to change, and (3) the acquiring of people with different perspectives and backgrounds, are presented as drivers for strategic renewal, while (4) prioritization of resources, (5) differences in interests and attitudes and (6) insufficient understanding and engagement, are sources for strategic inertia. The conclusion of this research is that strategic renewal and strategic inertia can co-exist within an innovative firm.

  • 4012.
    Björklund, Gabriella Veronica
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Wallier, Anna
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Investering i automation: Väsentliga aspekter att ta hänsyn till ur en kontraktstillverkares kontext2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to highlight trade-offs that contract manufacturer's need to make when deciding on investments in automation. To achieve the aim of the study, three research questions have been formulated:

    1. What factors do a contract manufacturer need to take into account when investing in automation?

    2. What are the driving forces for a contract manufacturer to invest in automation?

    3. What can an increased integration prompt for effects on a contract manufacturer’s business?

    Method: In order to understand the study’s problem area in its specific context more generally, a preliminary investigation was conducted on the chosen case company within electronic components manufacturers industry. In order to then be able to answer the formulated questions, a qualitative one-case-study was conducted with an inductive nature. A literature research was conducted to fulfil support and understanding in theories in the main areas of contract manufacturing, relations, investments and automation and was then presented in the theoretical framework. Parallel with the literature process the data collection was performed, which consisted of semi-structured and -standardized interviews, observations and documents studies. The choice of several methods indicates that triangulation could be performed and increase validity accordingly.

    Findings: The study showed that factors that a contract manufacturer needed to take into account when investing in automation in some cases could be offset or completely neutralised by the contract manufacturer’s motivations for why the investment should be implemented from the beginning. Despite contract manufacturers justification on why the investment needed to be implemented, it was seen that the repayment always came to be crucial to whether the investment would take place. Furthermore, the study showed that an increased integration could increase the entire supply chain’s profitability, and an integration with several customers increased the contract manufacturer’s opportunity and willingness to invest in automation.

    Implications: The case study has contributed to the development of previous individual research areas, such as investment, automation and relation, and inserted it into a contract manufacturer’s context. Based on this, a new model has subsequently been developed. Furthermore, the study also generates a sales argument for the case company to make customers understand the importance of how integration can increase profitability.

    Limitations: Since the study is designed as a one-case-study and largely only analysed the final assembly of one customer, the generalizability and result are limited against other contract manufacturers. This is since they do not necessary operate in the same way. The study is also limited in such a way that it does not affect any calculations nor further immersions in personnel resources. The study’s results will not be tested hypothetically test to see whether the results obtained are correct or not.

  • 4013.
    Björklund, Margereth
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    A health promotion perspective of living with head and neck cancer2012In: Head and neck cancer / [ed] Mark Agulnik, INTECH , 2012, p. 393-428Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4014.
    Björklund, Margereth
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Health promotion and everyday living with head and neck cancer: a qualitative study2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In society there is a growing awareness that a vital factor for patients with chronic diseases is how well they are able to function in their everyday lives. The aim was to reach a deeper understanding of living with head and neck cancer (HNC). Interviews were performed and critical incident technique, thematic and latent content, and interpretative descriptive analysis were used. Everyday living was expressed as living in captivity, in the sense that patients’ sometimes life-threatening symptoms were constant reminders of the disease. Patients struggled to find power and control from inner strength and other health resources, e.g. social networks, nature, hobbies, activity, and health professionals. Some patients were more vulnerable and felt lost and abandoned by health services, especially before and after treatment. A mutual working relationship during dialoguing and sensed co-operation and equality in encounters with competent health professionals could promote health and well-being. The findings highlight psychosocial rehabilitation in a patient-centred organisation when health professionals support patients’ inner strength and health resources.

  • 4015.
    Björklund, Margereth
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Living with head and neck cancer: a health promotion perspective - a qualitative study2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: In society there is a growing awareness that a vital factor for patientswith chronic diseases, such as head and neck cancer (HNC), is how well they are able to function in their every day lives – a common, but often overlooked, public health issue. The overall aim of this thesis is to reach a deeper understanding of living with HNC and to identify the experiences that patients felt promoted their health and well-being. It also explores the patients' experiences of contact and care from health professionals and whether these encounters could increase their feelings of health and well-being; salutogenic approach.

    Methods: This thesis engages a qualitative data design. On three occasions, 35 purposivelyselected patients were interviewed (31 from Sweden and one from Denmark, Finland, Island, and Norway). The first study was conducted in the Nordic counties (I), and the remainingstudies were conducted in Sweden (II, III, IV). Interviews were performed on a single basis(I, II, III) and then repeated (IV). The individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews usedopen-ended questions (n=53). Three different forms of analyses were used: critical incident technique (I), thematic content analysis (II), latent content analysis (III), and interpretativedescriptive analysis (paper IV).

    Findings: Living with head and neck cancer was expressed as living in captivity, in the sensethat patients' sometimes life-threatening symptoms were constant reminders of the disease. The patients experienced a threat against identity and existence. Patients struggled to find power and control over everyday life, and if successful this appeared to offer them better health and well-being along with spiritual growth. The general understanding was that these patients had strong beliefs in the future despite living on a virtual rollercoaster. The patients went through a process of interplay of internal and external enabling that helped them acquire strength and feelings of better health and well-being. Consequently, they found power and control from inner strength and other health resources, e.g. social networks, nature, hobbies, activity, and health professionals. However, the findings also revealed the opposite; that some patients were more vulnerable and felt powerless and faced everyday life with emotional and existential loneliness. They were dependent on next of kin and health professionals. Having good interpersonal relationships and emotional support 24 hours a day from next of kin were crucial, as were health promoting contacts and care from health professionals. This health promoting contact and care built on working relationships with competent health professionals that were available, engaged, respectful, validating, and, above all experienced in the treatment phase. But many patients experienced not health promoting contact and care – and a sense of not being respected, or even believed. Added were the patients' experiences of inadequate coordination between phases of their lengthy illness trajectory. They felt lost and abandoned by health services, especially before and after treatment.

    Conclusions: Inner strength, good relationships with next of kin, nature, hobbies, andactivities could create strength and a sense of better health and well-being. Patients experienced a mutual working relationship during dialoguing and sensed co-operation and equality in encounters with competent health professionals. This could lead to enhanced power and control i.e. empowerment in a patient's everyday life. The findings highlight psychosocial rehabilitation in a patient-centred organisation when health professionals supportpatients' inner strength and health resources , and also offer long-term support to next of kin.Finally, this research suggests that if health professionals could gain a deeper understanding of the psychosocial, existential, social, and economic questions on patients' minds, they could better sense how patients feel and would be better equipped not only to offer greater support, but to raise their voices to improve health policy and health care for these patients. 

  • 4016.
    Björklund, Margereth
    et al.
    Centre for Health Promotion Research, Halmstad University.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Centre for Health Promotion Research, Halmstad University.
    Cancer patients' experiences of nurses' behaviour and health promotion activities: a critical incident analysis1999In: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 204-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with head and neck cancer report several disease- and health-related problems before, during and a long time after completed treatment. Nurses have an important role in educating/supporting these patients about/through the disease and treatment so that they can attain well-being. This study describes the cancer patients' experiences of nurses' behaviour in terms of critical incidents after nurses had given them care to promote health. The study had a qualitative, descriptive design and the method used was the critical incident technique. Twenty-one informants from the Nordic countries diagnosed with head and neck cancer were strategically selected. It was explained to the informants what a critical incident implies before the interviews took place; this was defined as a major event of great importance, an incident, which the informants still remember, due to its great importance for the outcome of their health and well-being. The nurses' behaviour was examined, and critical incidents were involved in 208 cases-150 positive and 58 negative ones-the number of incidents varying between three and 20 per informant. The nurses' health promotion activities or lack of such activities based on the patients' disease, treatment and symptoms, consisted of informing and instructing the patients as well as enabling their participation. Personal consideration and the nurses' cognisance, knowledge, competence, solicitude, demeanour and statements of understanding were found to be important. Continuous health promotion nursing interventions were of considerable value for the majority of this group of cancer patients. Oncology nurses could reconfirm and update the care of head and neck cancer patients by including health promotion activities in individual care plans. By more frequent use of health promotion models, such as the empowerment model, the nurses could identify and focus on those individuals who needed to alter their life-style as well as tailor their approach towards these patient by setting goals for well-being and a healthy life-style.

  • 4017.
    Björklund, Margereth
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Sarvimäki, Anneli
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Berg, Agneta
    Kristianstad University College, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Health promoting contacts as encountered by individuals with head and neck cancer2009In: Journal of Nursing and Healthcare of Chronic Illness, ISSN 1752-9816, E-ISSN 1752-9824, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 261-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim.  To describe the characteristics of health promoting contacts with health professionals as encountered by individuals with head and neck cancer.

    Background.  Head and neck cancer has a profound and chronic impact on the individual’s everyday life, e.g. physical problems that hinder speaking, breathing, eating and drinking. Furthermore, fear and uncertainty can lead to long-term psychological and psychosocial problems. The National Institute of Public Health in Sweden advocates that all care contacts should improve the quality of the individual’s health.

    Design.  A qualitative descriptive and explorative design was used. Eight participants were interviewed in the year 2005 and a qualitative thematic content analysis of the data was performed.

    Findings.  Health promoting contacts were defined as contacts where health care professionals contribute positively to the well-being of individual patients. Characteristics include being available, engaged, respectful and validating. Three themes were identified: being believed in one’s illness story; having a working relationship with health professionals and receiving individualised, tailored care.

    Conclusions.  Health promoting contacts were experienced mainly during the treatment phase, when patients had daily contact with specific, qualified health professionals. Although the interview questions focused on health promoting contacts, nearly half of the contacts were experienced as not health promoting. Feelings of abandonment were particularly manifested before and after treatment. The starting point for achieving health promoting contact lies in understanding the patient’s lifeworld in relation to health, illness and suffering and focusing on the individual’s personal strengths and health resources.

    Relevance to clinical practice.  The findings highlighted the importance of ensuring that patient interests and concerns are core considerations in health care. The participants viewed continuing individualised, tailored care and access to ear, nose and throat healthcare professionals as highly important.

  • 4018.
    Björklund, Margereth
    et al.
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Sarvimäki, Anneli
    Nordiska ministerrådet, Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Berg, Agneta
    Kristianstad University College, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Health promotion and empowerment from the perspective of individuals living with head and neck cancer2008In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 26-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to shed light on health promotion from the perspective of individuals living with head and neck cancer. Eight informants were interviewed and latent content analysis was used. Individuals living with head and neck cancer experienced many problems that had a negative impact on their health. One overarching main theme was demonstrated; the ability to regain control and empower oneself. Three themes emerged: (1) Being enabled by dialogue with one's inner self, including three sub-themes: transformed and improved self-esteem, recognising and embracing existentiality, and increased self-determination. (2) Being enabled by means of contact with a social network, including two sub-themes: emotional support and practical support. (3) Being enabled by means of contact with and a passion for the environment, including two sub-themes: nature, hobbies and activities. Empowerment, the goal of health promotion, was understood as an ongoing process, and the ability to promote health varied and was dependent on internal and external enabling of acting and doing. The interpretation of this ongoing process demonstrates interplay assisted by a dialogue with one's inner self, contact with a social network and a passion for the environment. Altogether, these findings may inspire nurses and other health care professionals to support the individual's empowerment process and pose non-pathology-oriented questions such as "what improves your health?" or "what makes you feel good?"

  • 4019.
    Björklund, Margereth
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Sarvimäki, Anneli
    The Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg.
    Berg, Agneta
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap.
    Living with head and neck cancer: a profile of captivity2010In: Journal of Nursing and Healthcare of Chronic Illness, ISSN 1752-9816, E-ISSN 1752-9824, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 22-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. To illuminate what it means to live with head and neck cancer.

    Background. Patients could experience head and neck cancer as more emotionally traumatic than other cancers because of visible disfigurement and its life-threatening impact on vital functions. This long-term illness often leads to lifestyle changes such as to physical function, work and everyday tasks, interpersonal relationships and social functioning.

    Design. This study used a qualitative and explorative longitudinal and prospective design with semi-structured interviews and open-ended questions. Twenty-one interviews were conducted with six participants with newly diagnosed or newly recurrent head and neck cancer. The analysis was descriptive and interpretive.

    Findings. The participants were living 'in captivity' in the sense that their symptoms were constant reminders of the disease. Our findings also revealed existential loneliness and spiritual growth, as interpreted within six themes: altered sense of affiliation; hostage of health care; locked up in a broken body, but with a free spirit; confined in a rogue body, forced dependency on others, and caught up in a permanent illness trajectory.

    Conclusions. Living with head and neck cancer involves emotional and existential vulnerability. The participants and their next of kin experienced insufficient support from health services and inadequate coordination between phases of their lengthy illness trajectory. These findings call for changes in oncological rehabilitation and management. Patient care must take a holistic view of everyone involved, centring on the individual and the promotion of health. A care coordinator could navigate between the individual patient needs and appropriate health services, hopefully with results that lessen the individual's emotional and existential confinement.

  • 4020.
    Björklund, Patrik
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Dahlgren, Tobias
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Wilhelmson, Marcus
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    .Net-baserat konsulthanteringssystem2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The students have been assigned a task from Consid, were they are supposed to develop a web based platform for handling the company’s consult CV:s. The key features of the system are to simplify the administration part at mission procurements towards customers and to match qualified consultants to certain missions.Consid is an international it-consult company and have about 1000 consults working for them. When Consid makes mission procurements towards a customer they have to manually match the best consult against a certain mission, this is both time consuming and complicated.The students started the project with big visions and thoughts about how the work would be performed and how the system would be developed. After the initial meetings and the closer it came to the beginning of programming it became clear that the expectations were too big. This is the biggest lesson learned during the project and something that has come to influence the rest of the development.The students have been compelled to learn a totally new way of structuring the code by the three tier architecture. They have also been able to get a deeper understanding of how system development is performed by companies.Before the project begun the students and the company made a requirement specification for the system. The goals for the system and early limitations were made. Along the project those goals and limitations have been changed.The report handles the work with the development and read up on problems and solutions. It ends with a discussion and is summarized so the reader gets a better picture of the system and the work around it.

  • 4021.
    Björklund, Thomas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Wahlund, Christer
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    GIS-IMPLEMENTATION AV BING MAPS TILL WINDOWS 8 OCH WINDOWS PHONE 82013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been performed at consulting firm Sweco Position in Jönköping. The thesis is divided into two main sections: theoretical and practical. The theoretical section contains an investigation into the possibilities of implementing a geographical information system (GIS) for administrations of wells with the integration of Bing Maps for Windows 8 and Windows Phone 8. The practical work comprises the development of a prototype for Windows 8 and Windows Phone 8.

    The students review the Model-View-ViewModel-pattern on a theoretical basis, compares the differences between Windows 8 Pro and Windows RT. The thesis also contains and investigation into the pros and cons of a web based application compared to a native one.

    The result of the thesis will be comprised of a GIS-service developed in C# in co-operation with XAML with the options of saving data locally and a WMS-based service layer for Windows 8 and Windows Phone 8.

  • 4022.
    Björklöf, Angelica
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Davidsson, Ida
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Vägledande belysning på stationsområden: Särskilt utformed för personer med synnedsättning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a field study of how the platforms are seen during the dark hours by people with and without visual impairment cataract. The field study was carried out with both qualitative and quantitative data as a basis.

    The qualitative data was collected through a visual assessment of the platforms in four out of five station classes that Swedish Transport Administration has. The observations were made with and without simulated visual impairment to provide a comprehensive picture about the orientation and visual comfort for all travelers. Photometric data were collected with an illuminance meter to see how the platform met the requirements for its associated lighting class and whether there was any connection between the illuminance on the surface, and the experience of the environment visually.

     

    The questions answered in this report, if five lighting classes are necessary and how the platforms are experienced by travelers with and without visual impairment. Earlier research on the guidance route and contrasts confirmed the results of the study in which observations of platforms shows that orientation in environments without contrasts between surface colors will be difficult to get around in for people with visual impairment. There is little difference in visual comfort and orientation of the various station classes. The results show that the most important thing for a person with cataract is a uniform illumination and clear guidance route. Without loss of vision it seems that the quality of light and how well maintained the facility is perceived to be affecting the sense of security more than surface colors and light contrasts.

  • 4023.
    Björkman, Adam
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Rodriguez, Oscar Andres
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Migration in the European Union: Determinants and Effects of Enlargement2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the determinants of migration in the European Union with a focus on how enlargements and labour market restrictions affect migration flows. As of 2017, there are five potential candidates that can be part of the next enlargement. Therefore, it is important to analyse if the migration patterns changed with the expansion of the European Union in 2004 and 2007. In the analysis, we estimate the bilateral migration flows from ten origin countries to eleven destination countries in the period 1997-2014 by means of panel least squares. As a theoretical framework, we use the gravity model of migration to analyse the flows while assuming that individuals migrate based on a cost-benefit analysis. The results from the analysis indicate that the migration flows increased significantly in the years that the labour market restrictions were removed. Furthermore, the results from the EU enlargement show a positive effect on migration, although they are not significant across all specifications.

  • 4024.
    Björkman, Annie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Sjöberg, Sofia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Implementering av IAS 40: En studie av effekterna av IAS-standarden på onoterade fastighetskoncerner2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Problem: Dagens höga frekvens av gränsöverskridande handel kräver homogena regelverk inom många olika områden, även inom redovisning. I arbetet med att försöka harmonisera medlemsländernas redovisningsprinciper beslutade Europarådet att alla börsnoterade företag inom Europeiska Unionen från den 1 januari 2005 skall följa IASB: s regelverk, IAS/IFRS, vid upprättandet av koncernredovisningen. Motiven bakom beslutet var att för-söka erhålla en ökad transparens av information och att öka jämförbarheten mellan företag inom unionen, vilket i sig skulle underlätta för investerare och verka för en välfungerande kapitalmarknad. En av skillnaderna med att tillämpa IAS/IFRS istället för de svenska reglerna som blir väldigt tydlig för fastighetsbolagen är att förvaltningsfastigheter ska värderas antingen till verkligt värde enligt IAS 40 alternativt anskaffningsvärde minus komponentav-skrivningar. I det svenska regelverket ska redovisning ske till anskaffningsvärde minus ackumulerade avskrivningar enligt RR 24. Detta kan få stora effekter i företagens koncernredovisningar och påverka hur olika intressenter värderar koncernen.

    Syfte: Studiens syfte är att belysa de effekter en implementering av IAS/IFRS-reglerna för med sig vid värdering av förvaltningsfastigheter i mindre svenska onoterade fastighetskoncerner. Hänsyn ska även tas till de effekter en förändrad redovisning har för revisorer, banker och investerare.

    Avgränsning: Noterade företag kommer inte att behandlas, då det skulle strida mot studiens syfte. Vidare kommer ej internationella företag redogöras för. Företag som inte är fastighetsbolag kommer heller ej att behandlas.

    Metod:Metoden som används är kvalitativ och studien kommer i första hand baseras på primärdata där sådan är möjlig. Studiens ansats är induktiv, då slutsatser kommer att dras från empirin.

    Teoretisk referensram: Studiens referensram är baserad på värderingsteorier samt svenska och internationella redovisningsregler, som behandlar förvaltningsfastigheter och materiella anläggningstillgångar.

    Slutsats: EU:s grundtanke med ett harmoniserat regelverket är god, men leder till oönskade effekter. Studien kommer fram till att ett byte från det svenska regelverket till det internationella skulle innebära en ökad arbetsmängd för företagen och därmed öka kostnaderna. Det blir inte alltid enklare att jämföra företag som värderar enligt verkligt värde, då värderingarna är subjektiva och inte alltid speglar det sanna värdet. IAS 40 erbjuder även andra möjligheter att redovisa, som till exempel anskaffningsvärde. Företagen kommer därför genom att den föregående metoden finns kvar troligtvis ej redovisa till verkligt värde. Därmed faller argumentet att detta regelverk skulle öka jämförbarheten.

     

  • 4025.
    Björkman, Annie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Stuart, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Sakrättsliga anspråk och obligationsrättsliga invändningar i kontraktskedjor: Vindikation och retention2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förmögenhetsrättens allmänna del består av två delar, sakrätten och obligationsrätten. Denna allmänna del hanterar problem som är gemensamma för olika typer av avtal. Problemen som uppstår berör ofta både krav på betalning och krav på egendom varför det är av vikt att se till både obligationsrätten och sakrätten.

    Den typ av avtal som utreds i uppsatsen är depositionsavtal, vilka är föga reglerade i lagtext. Handelsbalken, där deponering delvis är reglerat, kan upplevas som svårförståelig för gemene man eftersom texten inte förändrats sedan sjuttonhundratalet. Deponering av gods förekom dock redan på den tiden och på grund av det är lagtexten fortfarande fullt tillämpningsbar. I en deponeringssituation deponerar deponenten godset hos depositarien, som har till uppgift att förvara och vårda godset enligt avtal parterna emellan. Deponenten är fortfarande ägare av godset och kan därmed när som helst tillämpa sin vindikationsrätt, det vill säga hämta ut godset. Enligt lag har dock depositarien retentionsrätt i godset, vilket innebär en rätt att hålla inne godset till dess att betalning erhållits för depositariens nödvändiga kostnader.

    Lämnar depositarien godset vidare till tredje man uppstår en kontraktskedja i vilken parterna har olika anspråk och skyldigheter mot varandra. Lämnar depositarien ifrån sig godset utan deponentens vetskap föreligger det ett kontraktsbrott. Tredje man besitter då deponentens gods trots att det inte föreligger något avtal parterna emellan. Deponenten har en möjlighet att tillämpa vindikationsrätten direkt mot tredje man. Tredje man har dock haft utlägg för nödiga kostnader och har därmed en fordran på depositarien. Fordran leder till att tredje man har retentionsrätt i godset. Retentionsrätten, en obligationsrättslig rättighet, är i scenariot starkare än den sakrättsliga vindikationsrätten. Följden blir att deponenten inte kan få ut godset förrän tredje man ersatts för nödvändiga kostnader.

     

     

     

    Problematiken har utökats då lagen avtalas bort och standardavtal istället tillämpas. I standardavtalet NSAB 2000 regleras det att tredje man har panträtt istället för retentionsrätt i godset. Panträtt är en mycket starkare säkerhetsrätt än retentionsrätt eftersom panträtt ger realisationsrätt. Rätt att hålla inne annans gods har därmed övergått till en rätt att sälja annans gods.

    Problem som uppstår i kontraktskedjor, där rättigheter ställs mot varandra och det föreligger anspråk och skyldigheter mot olika parter, behöver utredas. Ett annat problem är att handelsbalken, vilken reglerar området, är ålderdomlig och svår att tillämpa. Handelsbalken har fått en sekundär betydelse då den avtalas bort och området istället regleras genom standardavtal.

  • 4026.
    Björkman, Berit
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Children in the Radiology Department: a study of anxiety, pain, distress and verbal interaction2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation focuses on children’s experiences of going through an acute radiographic examination due to a suspected fracture. The findings from interviews with children aged 3-15 years showed anxiety, pain and distress to be a concern in conjunction with an examination (Paper I). These initial findings entailed empirical studies being undertaken in order to further study children’s pain and distress in conjunction with an examination (Paper II) as well as children’s anxiety, pain and distress related to the perception of care in the periradiographic process (Paper III). Finally, the verbal interaction between the child and radiographer during the examination was studied (Paper IV).

    The research was conducted through qualitative, quantitative and mixed method studies. The data collection methods comprised interviews (Paper I), children’s self-reports (Papers II and III), drawings (Paper III), questionnaire (Paper III) and video recordings (Papers I, II and IV). Altogether, 142 children (3-15 years) and 20 female radiographers participated in the studies.

    Children aged 5-15 years were observed and they completed selfreports on pain and distress. The children were also provided with an opportunity to express their perceptions of the peri-radiographic process and to make a drawing that was analysed with regard to their level of anxiety. Finally, the verbal interaction between the child and radiographer during the examination was analysed.

    Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the interviews and the written comments in the questionnaire (Papers I and III). The Child Drawing: Hospital Manual (CD:H) was used when analysing the children’s drawings (Paper III), and the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS) was used when analysing the verbal interaction derived from the video recordings (Paper IV). Non-parametric statistics were applied when analysing the quantitative data (Papers II, III and IV). The findings showed that children aged 5-15 years reported pain on the Coloured Analogue Scale (CAS) and distress on the Facial Affective Scale (FAS) above levels at which treatment or further intervention is recommended. These findings corresponded to the observed pain behaviour measured on the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability Scale (FLACC) and anxiety expressed through drawings (CD:H). The children’s perception of the care being provided in the peri-radiographic process, was not related to the experience of anxiety, pain and distress however. The children were confident in the radiographers, who they perceived to be skilled in the task and sensitive to their needs. These findings are supported by the analysis of the verbal interaction (RIAS), which showed that the radiographer adjusted the communication when balancing the task-focused and socio-emotional interaction according to the child’s age.

    The findings point to the conclusion that children going through an acute radiographic examination should be assessed regarding the anxiety, pain and distress they experience. This is a prerequisite for the radiographer to provide care according to the child’s ability and preferences when interacting with children in the peri-radiographic process.

  • 4027.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Mälardalens Universitet.
    Sigstedt, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Children's experience of going through an acute radiographic examination.2012In: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 84-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children’s experience of radiographic examinations remains largely unexplored, although most radiog- raphers examine children on a daily basis. In order to provide the high quality care that meets the needs of patients it was considered important to undertake research focused upon the patients’ experience of radiographic practice.

    The aim of the study was to investigate children’s experiences undergoing a radiographic examination for a suspected fracture.

    Inclusion criteria were Swedish-speaking children between 3 and 15 years of age who were submitted for a radiographic examination with an acute condition of the upper or lower extremity. Patients were informed of the study and together with the escorting parent or relative asked for consent to participate.

    During the examination the child was videotaped and immediately after, the child was interviewed in a nearby facility. The interview contained open-ended questions and was conducted while watching the videotape together with the child and their parent or relative and the researcher.

    Qualitative content analysis was used in analyzing the collected data. The analysis resulted in two categories e “feeling uncomfortable” and “feeling confident”. The subcategories contained in these categories were “pain in relation to injury and examination”, “the waiting time is strenuous”, “worries for the future and consequences of the injury”, “confidence in parental presence”, “confidence in radio- graphic staff and examination procedure”, and finally “recognition entails familiarity”.

    The results revealed that for the younger children, the experience of undergoing an acute radiographic examination was associated with pain and anxiety, but for the older children, the anxiety was more connected to whether the injury had caused a fracture and any anticipated future consequences or complications.

  • 4028.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Bendroth, R.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, B. T.
    Dep Health Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Swedish radiographer’s experiences of their work-performance when possessing increased knowledge in reporting2017In: Acta Radiologica, ISSN 0284-1851, E-ISSN 1600-0455, Vol. 58, no 1 Suppl., p. 24-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Radiographers are today facing various challenges as the technical equipment is getting more advanced and the examinations encounter patients with complex medical records. Furthermore, in the Swedish context, radiology departments are struggling with shortage of both radiologists and radiographers. Following, this has led to a work-situation where radiologists are not always in place during emergency duty, and radiographers’are taking on additional responsibility. Hence, there is a need for further and deeper knowledge within areas that previously was undertaken solely by radiologists. One such area is reporting; and a 7.5 ECTS course was designed and offered to registered radiographers. The aim was to investigate radiographer’s experience of their work-performance and contribution to the clinic after attending this particular course in reporting.

    Methods: The study had a qualitative design based on individual and semi-structured interviews with 34 radiographers who attended the course in reporting the fall of 2013, 2014 and 2015. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The analysis resulted in a comprehensive theme: Width and depth in the professional practice. This theme embraced three categories: Increased knowledge, Professional recognition, Work satisfaction.

    Conclusions: Increased knowledge in reporting is necessary to meet the demands from the diagnostic departments. A course in reporting on advanced level is a tool for deeper understanding of the medical image. However, there will still be challenges and constraints during the path to be a fully specialized radiographer in reporting. There is a need for more courses in this area on the second and third level.

  • 4029.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. The Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
    Children's and parents' perceptions of care during the peri-radiographic process when the child is seen for a suspected fracture2016In: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Visiting a Radiology department may elicit both positive and negative feelings for children and parents alike. This study investigated children's and parents' perceptions of care during the peri-radiographic process and whether these perceptions correlated with the child's perceptions of pain and distress.

    Methods

    This study utilized a quantitative descriptive design. Its data was collected in five Radiology departments, two where examinations are performed exclusively on children and three that treat both children and adults. Data collection contained questionnaires from children (n = 110) and their parent (n = 110) as well as children's self-reports of pain and distress.

    Results

    The findings illustrated that the children and their parent were satisfied with the care provided throughout the peri-radiographic process, unrelated to the child's self-reported levels of pain and distress or examination setting (i.e. children's department or general department). The highest scores of satisfaction were ascribed to “the radiographer's kindness and ability to help in a sufficient way,” whereas “available time to ask questions and to meet the child's emotional needs” received the lowest scores.

    Conclusions

    Parents and children alike perceived the radiographers as skilled and sensitive throughout the examination, while radiographers' time allocated to interacting with the child was not perceived be sufficiently covered.

  • 4030.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Fridell, Kent
    Karolinska Institutet, Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tavakol Olofsson, Parvin
    Vårdförbundet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Plausible scenarios for the radiography profession in Sweden in 20252017In: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 314-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Radiography is a healthcare speciality with many technical challenges. Advances in engineering and information technology applications may continue to drive and be driven by radiographers. The world of diagnostic imaging is changing rapidly and radiographers must be proactive in order to survive. To ensure sustainable development, organisations have to identify future opportunities and threats in a timely manner and incorporate them into their strategic planning. Hence, the aim of this study was to analyse and describe plausible scenarios for the radiography profession in 2025.

    Method: The study has a qualitative design with an inductive approach based on focus group interviews. The interviews were inspired by the Scenario-Planning method.

    Results: Of the seven trends identified in a previous study, the radiographers considered two as the most uncertain scenarios that would have the greatest impact on the profession should they occur. These trends, labelled "Access to career advancement" and "A sufficient number of radiographers", were inserted into the scenario cross. The resulting four plausible future scenarios were: The happy radiographer, the specialist radiographer, the dying profession and the assembly line.

    Conclusion: It is suggested that "The dying profession" scenario could probably be turned in the opposite direction by facilitating career development opportunities for radiographers within the profession. Changing the direction would probably lead to a profession composed of "happy radiographers" who are specialists, proud of their profession and competent to carry out advanced tasks, in contrast to being solely occupied by "the assembly line".

  • 4031.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Gimbler Berglund, Ingalill
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Faresjö, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform. Division of Medical Diagnostics, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Peri-radiographic guidelines for children with autism spectrum disorder: a nationwide survey in Sweden2017In: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 31-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of guidelines and routines used nationwide when children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are taken care of and examined in a radiology department during a peri-radiographic process.

    METHOD: A nationwide survey was compiled and distributed to 94 radiology departments throughout Sweden, i.e. those performing more than 100 000 radiographic examinations annually. The survey was designed as a web questionnaire with seven questions on possible guidelines and/or routines for the departments when preparing and taking care of children with ASD in conjunction with a radiographic procedure. The data were scrutinized, using descriptive statistics.

    RESULTS: In total, 86 radiology departments responded to the survey (response rate 92%). Of those departments, 40 did not examine children with ASD. None of the departments included in the study had existing guidelines underpinning the routines when preparing and performing radiographic examinations for children diagnosed with ASD. A few departments (n = 8) would set aside more time for the procedure if it were known in advance that the child to be examined had been diagnosed with ASD. Also, some departments (n = 7) had radiographers who were more experienced in the care of children who would be appointed to perform examinations for children with ASD.

    CONCLUSION: It is suggested that guidelines should be developed in order to increase interaction in a supportive way and decrease anxiety during the peri-radiographic process with children with ASD.

  • 4032.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Gimbler Berglund, Ingalill
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Faresjö, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Are radiographers prepared to meet children with special needs, when seen for an examination?2017In: Acta Radiologica, ISSN 0284-1851, E-ISSN 1600-0455, Vol. 58, no 1 Suppl., p. 16-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Anxiety is often experienced by children undergoing health care procedures, and children with autism spectrum disorders (ADS) experience more anxiety than typically developed children. A prerequisite for obtaining an optimum procedure is firstly based on the health care provider’s knowledge about children with ASD, but may also depend on the use of guidelines. Two previous national surveys showed, that none radiology or paediatric departments and a minority of anaesthesiology departments throughout Sweden use specific guidelines when seeing children with ASD. Following, the purpose was to develop guidelines to use when caring for and preparing children with ASD in those settings.

    Methods: A modified Delphi method was used, including19 experts identified from the two afore mentioned surveys. The questions considered in the process, proceeded from previous research and the results from the surveys. The experts’ responses regarding the importance of each item, were analysed and scrutinized between each round.

    Results: The Delphi process resulted in guidelines consisting of 15 items and a checklist with 16 aspects. The items cover the areas: planning and involving parents, features in the environment, use of time, communication, thehealth care professionals. The checklist covers the child’spattern of communication, anxiety, sensory stimuli, special interests and likes/dislikes.

    Conclusions: To obtain an optimum caring encounter when a child with ASD is seen in the preoperative and radiology setting, a meticulous planning is important and the environment should be adjusted for the needs of the child. To accomplish this, guidelines need to be in place and be followed.

  • 4033.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Golsäter, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Children's Anxiety, Pain, and Distress Related to the Perception of Care While Undergoing an Acute Radiographic Examination2014In: Journal of Radiology Nursing, ISSN 1546-0843, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 69-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visiting the hospital is likely a frightening experience for a child, and going through a radiographic examination has been reported as both distressing and painful. More knowledge from the children's perspective is needed on this subject, however, and thus, the aim of this study was to investigate children's anxiety, pain, and distress in conjunction with an acute radiographic procedure and whether these factors can be related to the perception of care. A mixed method design was used to analyze data from 110 participants between 5 and 15 years of age, who were examined in a Swedish radiology department. The quantitative findings showed anxiety, pain, and distress to be a concern during a radiographic examination. Significant correlations were obtained between anxiety and pain as well as between anxiety and distress. In addition, also the qualitative findings showed pain and the waiting time to be concerns. Regardless of the quantitative findings, however, children of all ages were satisfied with the care performed in the periradiographic process, perceiving the examination as supportive and geared to their needs. Robust assessment of anxiety, pain, and distress is imperative when interacting with children in acute examination situations to avoid both negative short-term and long-term consequences.

  • 4034.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Golsäter, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Simeonson, Rune J.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Will it Hurt? Verbal Interaction between Child and Radiographer during Radiographic Examination2013In: Journal of Pediatric Nursing, ISSN 0882-5963, Vol. 28, no 6, p. e10-e18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the nature of verbal interactions between child, parent and radiographer and theextent to which it varied as a function of the child's age. The participants were 20 female radiographersand 32 children (3–15 years) examined for acute injuries. The verbal interactions during theexamination were video recorded and analyzed using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS).Results indicated that 80% of the verbal interaction was accounted for by the radiographer, 17% by thechild and 3% by the parent. The distribution of utterances varied with regard to children's age.

  • 4035.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Sigstedt, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Children’s pain and distress while undergoing an acute radiographic examination2012In: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 191-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pain has been highlighted as a main concern for children in conjunction with an acute radiographic examination. The aim of this study was to further investigate children’s pain and distress while undergoing an acute radiographic examination.

    The study comprised 29 participants with an age range of 5–15 years who were injured and submitted to an acute radiographic examination of the upper or lower extremity when the question at issue was fracture. The Coloured Analogue Scale (CAS) and the Facial Affective Scale (FAS) were used as self-reporting scales to measure the children’s pain and distress. The Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability Behavioural scale (FLACC) was used as an observation tool to assess behaviours associated with pain in children.

    Descriptive statistics were used when analysing the scores, and the results showed that children experience pain and distress in conjunction with a radiographic examination after an injury. Spearman’s correlation was used to compare variables, and significant correlations were obtained between the self-reported pain and the observed pain behaviour. Fischer’s Exact test was used to compare groups, and when using the cut-off 3.0 on the self-reporting scale no significant correlation was found concerning the pain reported by children diagnosed with and without a fracture. No significant correlations were found concerning the self-reported distress and pain either, regardless of whether it was a first-time visit and whether a parent was near during the examination.

  • 4036.
    Björkman, Britt
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Fahlgren, Hanna
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Produktutveckling av låscylinderadapter2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbetet har utförts i samarbete med företaget BXB Industrial Fittings och med handledning från Jönköpings Tekniska Högskola.

    Uppdraget ändrades under projektets gång, därför beskrivs genomgörandet i rapporten i två delar då vissa moment gjordes två gånger. Från början bestod uppdraget i att utveckla ett lås för maskinskyddsgaller, men ändrades till att istället utveckla adaptrar för oval- och PZ-cylindrar så att de enkelt kan monteras i det tidigare nämnda låshuset.

    Ovalcylindern är den låscylinder som är vanligast i Skandinavien, medan PZ-cylindern är den cylinder som är vanligast i övriga Europa. Problemet med dessa två låscylindrar är att de har olika dimensioner vilket gör att de inte kan monteras i samma låshus. Eftersom BXB:s lås säljs över hela Europa och kunder efterfrågar lås med samma funktion, men med olika låscylindrar anses en adapter som en bra lösning på detta problem.

    Då författarna inte tidigare hade någon erfarenhet av konstruktion av lås gjordes en grundlig patent- och marknadsundersökning för att skapa en bra grund för fortsatt arbete. Efter undersökningen startade författarna idégenereringsprocessen som resulterade i ett stort antal skisser på olika lösningsförslag. Efter idégenereringen gjordes en sållning för att få fram det slutliga förslaget, detta förslag måttsattes och justerades sedan i CAD.

    Arbetet resulterade i två adaptrar med samma utvändigt mått som utvinner en identisk rörelse och kraft. Adaptrarna underlättar vid konstruktionen av lås eftersom de medgör att både PZ-cylindern och ovalcylindern kan monteras i samma låshus. Adaptrarna har konstruerats på ett användarvänligt sätt genom att hänsyn har tagits till de personer som kommer i kontakt med dem. Antalet komponenter har minimerats och enkla mekanismer har använts, vilket gör adaptrarna enklare att montera under tillverkningen. Detta leder i sin tur till att tillverkningskostnaderna minimeras och att adaptrarna både genom sitt pris och sin användarvänlighet anses vara konkurrenskraftiga på dagens marknad. Adaptrarnas konstruktion och inre mekanik beskrivs i rapporen utifrån CAD-bilder.

  • 4037.
    Björkman, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Matti, Joseph
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Automatiserad Konstruktion av Varmkanalsystem2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis has been carried out in cooperation with Master Flow AB, Västervik owned by the EWEBE Group. The company produces and sells hot runner systems that are tailor made for the customers.

    The problem that MasterFlow AB has encountered is in the construction of complex hot runner systems in SolidWorks. With several different lengths, fronts and endcaps that builds the nozzles of the hot runner systems, is affecting the problems for MasterFlow AB. The purpose of this work is to automate the design of hot runner systems so it does not overload the CAD-system SolidWorks.

    To gain an understanding of the problem, there have been several studies and observations at the company, where the focus has been on how the work is done with the design of hot runner systems. By using help from the corporate management, enough information has been collected to find a solution to these problems.

    The implementation of design automation has been based on a flowchart that was created. It describes how MasterFlow AB approaches when they choose nozzles to its hot runner systems. Programming was done in Visual Studio, in the language Visual Basic. Furthermore, the program Howtomation was used to tie the programming together.

    An application called “Bushing Generator” has been created where automation of the design of nozzle is fully possible. The program Bushing Generator selects the options that is specific for the selected nozzle and creates one or more nozzles which is mounted to the assembly of the manifold.

    Master Flow AB is considered to have high potential for further automation of the hot runner system. Automation that includes the manifold and the creation of drawings is considered possible.

  • 4038.
    Björkman, Lucas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Erixon, Jimmy
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Produktkonfigurator2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten presenterar skapandet av en produktkonfigurator och flera förslag på hur den kan förbättras. Uppdraget gavs av System Andersson till två studenter på Jönköpings Tekniska Högskola som genomförde detta som sitt examensarbete.

    Rapporten diskuterar möjliga lösningar på en produktkonfigurator och visar ett resultat som utgår från dessa lösningar. Produktkonfiguratorn i rapporten består av två delar.

    Dels konfigurationsdelen som hjälper användaren att skapa nya produkter utifrån valda artiklar. Artiklarna sorteras automatiskt av produktkonfiguratorn så att endast kompatibla artiklar kan sättas ihop. Detta sker med ett ”drag and drop” gränssnitt.

    Dessutom innehåller produktkonfiguratorn en kompatibilitetsdel, vars uppgift är att underlätta vid definierandet av kompatibilitet mellan artiklar. Detta kan göras löpande under tiden en produkt konfigureras om så önskas. Användaren kan välja på två eller flera artiklar som ska vara kompatibla med varandra, eller hela kategorier.

    Sist i rapporten diskuteras de val som gjorts under arbetets gång och möjliga förbättringar som kan göras på produktkonfiguratorn.

  • 4039.
    Björkqvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Johannesson, Erik
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Jorikson, Linn
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Companies on Facebook: How many of the 100  largest Swedish Companies have a Facebook page, and how do they use it?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    The purpose of  this thesis is to see if the 100 largest Swedish companies are present on  Facebook, and if they are, how they use their business pages. Further the  customers’ perception of companies’ use of Facebook will be included. To  investigate this, three research questions were created.

    Background:

    As Web 2.0 and  its application has changed, the use of Internet, both for companies and  customers, there has been change in how information is delivered and how  people take in information. One application of Web 2.0 is Facebook, and in  this investigation the authors will look at the use of the application in  companies marketing strategy.  Many researchers  and marketers (Constantinides & Fountain, 2008; Carlsson, 2009; Yang et  al., 2009) recognizes the importance for companies to take advantage of this  new media and sees a value generating process for both company and customer,  but how this value generates profits is harder to identify. Further the  market and possibility to reach customers is every day increasing as Facebook  has gone from 100 million in 2008 to approximately 600 million members in 2011. Today in  Sweden, over four million people have a Facebook account. 

    Method:

    To gather empirical data the use of a coding sheet  has been developed through content analysis when investigating the selected  companies’ business pages. The companies were found from a list over the 100  largest Swedish companies ranked after turnover. Further to collect the customers’  perception of companies on Facebook a focus group were conducted. In the  focus group a semi-structured interview approach was chosen to create an open  discussion within the group but still maintaining on the subject in hand. To  analyze the empirical findings theories about social media, customer loyalty  and communication were used. 

    Conclusion:

    The authors of this thesis have determined three  different appearance areas by companies on Facebook; support forum,  advertising channel and just exist on the social media. Two main ways for  companies to use Facebook is as a customer support page or as an advertising/promotion/publicity  channel. In customers support pages the communication between the company and  customer is more substantial and different types of communication are to be  found such as B2C, C2B and C2C. By using  Facebook as advertising /promotion /publicity page the companies communicate  more through pictures and videos that is pushed out  by the company. The customers interact through viewing and commenting the  uploaded material.

    The result from the focus group  showed that the customer appreciated the advertising/promotion/publicity page  as this corresponds with their perception of companies on Facebook. The  participant saw the customer support page on Facebook as unserious and not a  suitable way of communicating with a company.  

  • 4040.
    Björkström, Gun
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Hellström, Anna-Lena
    Andersson, S
    Electro-acupuncture in the treatment of children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, E-ISSN 1651-2065, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 21-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4041.
    Björksved, Margitha
    et al.
    Department of Orthodontics, Public Dental Health Service, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Arnrup, Kristina
    Dental Research Department, Public Dental Service, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lindsten, Rune
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health. Department of Orthodontics, The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Anders
    Department of Orthodontics, The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Sundell, Anna Lena
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health. Department of Paediatric Dentistry, The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Annika
    Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Postgraduate Dental Education Center, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bazargani, Farhan
    Department of Orthodontics, Postgraduate Dental Education Center, Örebro, Sweden.
    Closed vs open surgical exposure of palatally displaced canines: surgery time, postoperative complications, and patients' perceptions2018In: European Journal of Orthodontics, ISSN 0141-5387, E-ISSN 1460-2210, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 626-635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Closed and open surgical techniques are two different main approaches to surgical exposure of palatally displaced canines (PDCs). Because there is insufficient evidence to support one technique over the other, there is a need for randomized controlled trials.

    Objectives: To compare surgery time, complications and patients' perceptions between closed and open surgical techniques in PDCs.

    Trial design: The trial was a multicentre, randomized, controlled trial with two parallel groups randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio.

    Material and methods: Study participants were 119 consecutive patients from 3 orthodontic centres, with PDCs planned for surgical exposure, randomly allocated according to a computer-generated randomization list, using concealed allocation. Full-thickness mucoperiosteal flap was raised, and bone covering the canine was removed in both interventions. In closed exposure, an attachment with a chain was bonded to the canine and the flap was sutured back with the chain penetrating the mucosa. In open exposure, a window of tissue around the tooth was removed and glass ionomer cement placed on the canine crown, to prevent gingival overgrowth during spontaneous eruption. Patient perceptions were assessed with two questionnaires, for the evening on the day of operation and 7 days post-surgery.

    Blinding: It was not possible to blind either patients or care providers to the interventions. The outcome assessors were blinded and were unaware of patients' intervention group.

    Results: Seventy-five girls and 44 boys, mean age 13.4 years (SD 1.46) participated in the study and got either of the interventions (closed exposure, n = 60; open exposure, n = 59). Surgery time did not differ significantly between the interventions. Complications though were more severe in bilateral cases and the patients experienced more pain and impairment in the open group.

    Conclusion: There were no statistically significant differences regarding surgery time between the groups. Postoperative complications were similar between the groups in unilateral PDCs, but more common in the open group in bilateral cases. More patients in the open group experienced pain and impairment compared to the closed group.

    Trial registration: Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02186548 and Researchweb.org, ID: 127201.

  • 4042.
    Björkén Nilsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Hansson, Jennifer
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    En jämförelse av två arbetsmetoder för framtagning av rumsbeskrivningar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: BIM have been criticised as a standalone framework and the believe is that the next step in BIM development is cloud computing. The technology simplify planning of a sustainable construction and hasten the building process through a collaborative friendly information management among different project actors. The implementation of the technology hasn’t been that noticeable since companies are struggling to understanding the technologies contribution. The goal of this research is therefore to investigate the potential of using cloud technology in architects daily work with room finish schedule.

    Method: To answer the goal of the study, interviews about room finish schedules have been made with five architect companies to collect empirical data. The company's internal documents of room finish schedule have been analysed and the research also makes a literature study and an observation of the cloud service BIMeye.

    Findings: The study shows that the main differences between an analogue and digital approach are: the link to the model, input of information and management of revisions. The companies have generally a positive attitude towards the technology, but there are doubts about changing their way of working. The cloud service BIMeye meets the companies needs and has great potential to make several tasks, that are considered time consuming in today´s work, more efficient, such as lay-up of rooms, input of information, review of conflicting documents and management of revisions. This mainly through the database's connection to the model and the database's way of managing information more automated.

    Implications: The conclusion that can be made is that great potential is seen with cloud services as a working method for producing room finish schedules. The transition process to cloud services implies a change of working method but not in the final result. Where cloud services entail additional work in the model to enable a connection to the description, but at the same time contributes to an automatic input of information about rooms. Another change in working method is the ability of cloud services to create parameters that differs from the otherwise analogue paper-work. Revisions in the database get a break through throughout the whole description, in contrast to individual adjustments in the document. Recommendations as a result of the study is to inform companies about the possibilities and impact the technology has on their work. In order to achieve an overall perspective in the industry, new solutions are required so that companies see internal profits with the implementation.

    Limitations: The result is considered to be applicable to other architect firms since it has appeared from interviews and document analyses that the companies work in similar ways. However, whether the result of the test of BIMeye can be applied to other cloud services is uncertain. The research’s limitation to disregard investment cost has restrict the study as it is a significant factor when implementing new technology.

  • 4043.
    Björling, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Fransson, Daniel
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Ett utvecklande och kunskapsdelnde förättringsarbete i prefabindustrin: med stöd av Lean och Knowledge management2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The industry is still struggling with reoccurring deficits regarding quality and has therefore began to pay attention what benefits that comes with an industrial building process. With industrial building processes the companies using it can let the workers be in charge of their work processes that they find themselves in and thus help to improve and standardise them. A concept that fits these conditions very well is The Toyota production system (TPS), also known as Lean production. In the year 2016 several studies were made that showed that among Lean working construction companies it was the reach for higher quality and standardised working processes that was prioritized. Lean production and its processes contains a lot of information- and knowledge transfers and may be hard to practice in a company. Therefore further studies on how to implement these principles and tools properly are recommended.

    The aim with this study is to analyse how companies in the precast industry who works with Lean can evolve their continuous improvement process in the production process.  

    Method: This report is a qualitative case study accomplished at Ulricehamns Betong AB. The chosen methods on how to collect data are literature studies, participating observations, semi-structured interviews and document analysis.

    Findings: From the analysis of this study some problems in the improvement process could be identified, but also how they could be improved and how they could be more knowledge sharing. It was shown that the will to participate in the improvement process did varied a lot among the co-workers. A common attitude for the importance of the improvement process is needed for the continuous development, something that can be more encouraged by the organisation. Through the implementation of a mentor the company can ensure that the production process is more standardised.

    Implications: The number one thing that is most important for an evolving and knowledge sharing improvement process is that the co-workers stay motivated to participate. To motivate them, the status of individual knowledge should be raised and heard. Furthermore they should have access to continuous improvement meetings or other forums where they can exchange experiences and ideas.

    Limitations: The case study has been accomplished at a company that are using the Lean concept. The study limits to only study the improvement process in the production process of precast concrete elements. Furthermore the study is focused on how one specific company uses their improvement process and not how other companies uses theirs.

  • 4044.
    Björn, Emma
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Stenström, Lovisa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Family Council: A commucation forum in the family business2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 4045.
    Björn, Emma
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Stenström, Lovisa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Altoray, Erich
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Small and Medium Sized Food Producers - how are they affected by the trading blocs and the distributors’ own brands?: A case study of three SME in the food industry2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Swedish food industry has changed dramatically during the last decades and to become and remain as a player has become a demanding task for several of the small and medium sized enterprises (SME). The trading blocs have increased the development of their own brand (DOB) and this has given the SME new competition but also the possibility to produce these products for the trading blocs. In addition to this the trading blocs have be-come more and more centralized and to strengthen their position in nego-tiations and other aspects which are important for the trading blocs.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to increase the understanding of how the trad-ing blocs, with their development of their own brand, affect the Swedish small and medium sized producers in the food industry. It is also to look into what kinds of strategies that are used by the SME in order to tackle the competition from the distributors own brands.

    Method: To fulfill our purpose a qualitative approach has been used for this thesis. Seven different interviews have been done, either by phone or face to face, with the three largest trading blocs and with four the SME in Sweden, three producing and one distributing company.

    Conclusion: The focus on low prices and the trading blocs’ stronger, central position on the market have made the competition more intense. To be or remain as a player on the market it is important for the SME to be a supplier to the trading blocs. However, since there are many players striving to become a supplier it is a tough situation and the price becomes an important factor. The trading blocs want low prices and keep pushing the suppliers to keep them low, or even lower them. This price focus is a major issue for the SME, and the DOB have become an important mean for the trading blocs to keep prices low. Due to scenarios like this it is very important for the SME to have strategies in place and the most common and most efficient is the bypass and flanking attack strategies. These two strategies are intense and keep the SME alert when it comes to product development and new innovations.

  • 4046.
    Björn, Jonathan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Simulation of a Clinch Unit by using Cosmos and Abaqus2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following report contains an evaluation of the use of mathematical simulation programs at the company Isaberg Rapid AB. The work includes booth FE and motion simulations where the results are compared with real life test data.

    The goal of the report is to evaluate the accuracy of simulations which can be performed by engineers as a part of the design process. By using mathematical simulation tools it is possible to find a good design solution early in the development phase and thereby shorten lead time and reduce costs.

  • 4047.
    Björn, Josefine
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Skugge, Elsa
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    You´re a wet dream!: Juryns kritik till manliga och kvinnliga deltagare i Idol Sverige 2018: en kritisk diskursanalys2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this qualitative study is to investigate the criticism female and male Idol participants receive from the Idol jury in the program Swedish Idol 2018, from a gender perspective. The study also investigates possible differences in the type criticism, depending on the Idol participants' sex. Using critical discourse analysis (CDA) as both theory and method, underlying messages in the Idol jury's criticism are revealed. The selection consisted of eight Idol participants: four female, two from Stockholm and two from Gothenburg and four male, two from Stockholm and two from Gothenburg. The jury´s criticism that the Idol participants received was analyzed based on the concepts stereotypes, sexualisation and naming.

     

    The result shows that both male and female Idol participants are being sexualised and stereotyped in the Idol jury's criticism. However, the female Idol participants are expected to maintain a stereotypical feminine role, while the male Idol participants do not have to maintain a stereotypical masculine role. The Idol jury's namings show that female Idol participants are being categorised more than the male Idol participants. The Idol jury's criticism to the female participants has a great focus on the body as an object and sexual satisfaction, while the criticism to the male participants focuses more on detailed bodily characteristics.

  • 4048. Björn, Marianne
    et al.
    Gillberg, Claudia
    Democracy and Diversity in Swedish Higher Education2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2001, a new national policy document was issued by the Swedish government, mainly dealing with questions on how to increase diversity of the student body with regard to social background, ethnicity, gender and disability. To varying degrees, methods such as validation of informally acquired competencies were introduced to boost heterogeneity in higher education (HE), as this would reflect a genuinely democratic society. In the latest policy document (2004/05:162), internationalisation is focused, yet a number of critical questions regarding democracy and diversity in HE remain to be discussed. In this paper we intend to address some of them, such as diversity and accessibility concerning postgraduate studies. Our key question is: How do students perceive their possibility to pursue an academic career by means of applying for entrance to PhD studies? Findings from interviews conducted with one female PhD student and another woman who had applied for entrance to a PhD programme but was not accepted, and students with reading/writing disabilities in undergraduate courses show that these students are highly motivated to study but are uncertain about their possibility to pursue an academic career. However, the picture is far more complicated than that as we would like to illustrate in this paper.

  • 4049.
    Björnberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Börjesson, Ann
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    The Ownership Effect on Motivation: A comparison between public and independent schools in Jönköping2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Problem: One of the questions of debate before to the election of the Swedish parliament in 2006 was whether independent schools should be prioritized or not. The right wing of the Swedish parliament was more positive to the topic than the left wing. This subject has many aspects, one of them considers motivation; motivation both among students and teachers. This thesis is focusing on the latter and the research questions treated are: “How does the ownership affect the motivation of the employees within the organization?” and “Are the employees in a private organisation more motivated than the employees of a public organisation?”

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to show which factors that affect the motivation among the teachers within two types of schools; independent and publicly owned. Moreover the aim is to recognize whether there are any differences in motivation among the teachers within these types of schools.

    Frame of reference: The empirical part of the thesis is built on different theories concerning motivation. Amongst others are theories concerning extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, fairness and the meaning of goals treated.

    Empirical Findings: The result shows no clear difference between all motivation variables measured when the two types of schools was compared. The teachers in the public schools were according to the theories more motivated when it came to goal setting; they participated more when the goals was set and the goals was anticipated more clearly than in the independent schools. These teachers did also feel that their salaries were set according to the result of their work to a greater extent. The teachers in the independent schools did on the other hand feel that the communication with the closest manager work better, that they reach the preset goals and they value interesting work tasks to a greater extent. The other tested variables showed no significant difference between the means.

    Analysis and Conclusion: The goal setting process seems to work better within the public schools in general compared to the independent schools, which might be explained by the relative ages of the schools. The other side of the coin when it comes to clear goals could be that the way of doing things in the public school has been the same for a long time. This might explain why more teachers within independent schools found exciting working tasks important when choosing place of work. The aggregated result of this study did not show that the teachers in independent schools are more motivated than those in public schools; the study does therefore not support the arguments from the right wing of the parliament.

  • 4050.
    Björnberg, Nana
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Hansen, Jonna
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    "Humankind before the flood": En kvalitativ studie om användningen av retorik i en dokumentärfilm av och med Leonardo DiCaprio2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Following study examined Before the Flood, a documentary film by and with Leonardo DiCaprio, from a rhetorical perspective. The purpose of the study was to see if and in what ways Leonardo DiCaprio, experts and the creators of the documentary film applied rhetorical strategies to strengthen the message of Before the Flood and how to seem convincing to the audience. The study applied a qualitative text analysis as a method and the three appeal forms, visual rhetoric and argumentation were the analysis tools of the study.

    The result showed nine different analysis units, three for each analysis tool. Focus was put on ethos, logos and pathos as the rhetoric’s three different appeal forms. It also focused on visual images, body language and camera angles. Furthermore, the analysis focused on three different kinds of argumentation: images, threats and authorities. The study discussed the use of influential people as an argument to convince viewers to change in certain behaviour. Further, the study discussed how the use of rhetoric could play a major role in the strengthening of the message. The result showed that rhetorical strategies are used in Before the Flood. Both DiCaprio and the experts are using the rhetoric appeal forms and different kinds of arguments to seem convincing to the audience. The study demonstrated that there is an interaction between the rhetorical appeal forms and the argumentation, and the interaction is important to strengthen the emotions and the credibility of the documentary film. Lastly, the creators of Before the Flood have also applied visual tools to strengthen the emotions and argumentation, which resulted in a more reinforcing message.

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