Change search
Refine search result
45678910 301 - 350 of 468
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 301.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Centre for Oral Health.
    Norderyd, O.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    What is oral health-related quality of life and is it related to loneliness in older persons?2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 302.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Centre for Oral Health.
    Skott, Pia
    Stenberg, Inger
    Wårdh, Inger
    Gerodonti: äldretandvård i teori och praktik2019Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 303.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Centre for Oral Health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Stenström, Ulf
    Växjö Universitet.
    Wärnberg Gerdin, Elisabet
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Hugoson, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Centre for Oral Health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    The distribution of 'sense of coherence' among Swedish adults: A quantitative cross-sectional population study2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Antonovsky’s concept of ‘‘sense of coherence’’ (SOC) has been shown to be related to health. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of SOC scores and their components in an adult Swedish population aged 20–80 years.

    Methods:

    A random sample of 910 individuals from Jönköping, Sweden, aged 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 years, of which589 agreed to participate in an oral health examination. The participants answered Antonovsky’s 13-item version of ‘‘the lifeorientation questionnaire scale’’. The response to the items and the distribution of the three components ofcomprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness were analyzed for different age groups and genders using meanvalues and standard deviations, Student’s t-test and ANOVA.

    Results:

    A total of 526 individuals, 263 men and 263 women,answered all 13 questions and constituted the final material for the study (response rate 89%). The individual SOC scoreincreased with age. The 20 year olds had a statistically significantly lower SOC score compared with the other age groups and55% of them had a low SOC (≤66 points) compared with 17% of the 80 year olds. Men in the 60 and 70 year age groups hada statistically significantly higher SOC score compared with women of the same age.

    Conclusions:

    The individualdistribution of SOC varied with age and gender. Twenty year olds had a significantly lower SOC score comparedwith elderly age groups. Elderly men had a statistically significantly higher SOC score compared with women ofthe same age.

  • 304.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Wagman, Petra
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Wåhlin, Charlotte
    Intervention and Implementation Research Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rolander, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Futurum, Academy for Health and Care, Jönköping County Council, Jöonköping, Sweden.
    Workplace health in dental care – a salutogenic approach2018In: International Journal of Dental Hygiene, ISSN 1601-5029, E-ISSN 1601-5037, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 103-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The purpose was to explore self-reported psychosocial health and work environments among different dental occupations and workplaces from a salutogenic perspective. A further purpose was to analyse possible associations between three salutogenic measurements: The Sense of Coherence questionnaire (SOC), the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS) and the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS).

    Methods

    Employees in the Public Dental Service in a Swedish county council (n = 486) were invited to respond to a self-reported web survey including demographics, work-related factors, the SOC, the SHIS and the WEMS.

    Results

    This study showed positive associations between employee characteristics and self-reported overall psychosocial health as well as experienced work environment. Autonomy was reported more among men than women (P < 0.000) and to a higher degree by dentists and dental hygienists than dental nurses (P < 0.000). Meaningfulness, happiness, job satisfaction, autonomy and positive to reorganization were reported by personnels aged less than 40 years (P ≤ 0.047). Clinical coordinators reported significant better health (SOC, SHIS) and experienced more autonomy, better management and more positive to reorganization than other dental professions. Dental hygienists and nurses experienced less time pressure than dentists (P ≤ 0.007). Better health and positive work experiences were also seen in smaller clinics (P ≤ 0.29).

    Conclusion

    Dental professionals reported a high degree of overall psychosocial health as well as a positive work experience. Some variations could be seen between employee characteristics such as gender, years in dental care, professionals, managing position and workplace size. Identify resources and processes at each workplace are important and should be included in the employee's/employers dialogue.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Fulltext
  • 305.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Wärnberg Gerdin, Elisabeth
    Centrum för folkhälsovetenskap, Linköping.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Avdelning för odontologi, Umeå universtitet.
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Avdelning för folkhälsovetenskap och klinisk medicin, Umeå universitet.
    Sense of Coherence and Food Selection in Adults2004In: Oral health and prevention during the different stages of life: Conference of International Federation of Dental hygienists 2004; Madrid, 2004, p. 1-Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  “Sense of coherence” (SOC) influences the individual´s capacity to handle events associated with health (Antonovsky, 1987). Peoples selection of eating habits may be regarded as a “life choice” (Johansson et al, 2001; Lännernäs et al, 1997; Palojoki, 1997) as it is made against the knowledge that dietary habits influence endemic diseases (Falkenberg, 2001; Wolfram, 2003).

    Aim: The aim of the study was to examine if SOC is associated with food selection.

    Method: The study population were 3,072 woman and 2,920 men, from the 1999 year WHO MONICA project in northern Sweden. Data were collected by the Antonovsky short SOC questionnaire (13 items)(Antonovsky,1987), and a semi-quantitative food questionnaire (84 items) (Johansson et al, 2001).

    Results: Both men and woman with the lowest SOC scores consumed less healthy food like vegetables and fruits but more fat and sucrose containing products than individuals with high SOC scores (t-test, ANOVA, post hoc-test).

    Conclusion: It is concluded that individuals with a low SOC score have less favorable dietary habits.

  • 306.
    Lindsten, R
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Larsson, Erik
    Pacifier-sucking and breast-feeding: a comparison between the 1960 s and the 1990 s.2009In: Journal of dentistry for children (Chicago, Ill.), ISSN 1551-8949, Vol. 76, no 3, p. 199-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Pacifiers and their forerunners have been condemned in past centuries, probably beginning in the 17(th) and 18(th) centuries when alcohol and opiates were incorporated as fillings in sucking rags in Great Britain. Nowadays, the modern pacifier is criticized for reducing breast-feeding time and encouraging weaning. The purpose of this study was to analyze if pacifier-sucking has been detrimental to breast-feeding in the past few decades.

    METHODS: In the present study, 2 groups of young children born 30 years apart (1967 and 1995 to 1997) in the same geographic area were analyzed in the first 6 months of age regarding their sucking and feeding habits, including initial and prolonged pacifier-sucking and breast-feeding.

    RESULTS: Findings do not support the commonly held opinion that pacifier-sucking reduces breast-feeding time. In the 30 years that separate the 2 groups, the pacifier-sucking habit increased by 32% and prolonged use of a pacifier increased. At the same time, breast-feeding at 6 months old has increased 20-fold in the contemporary group (born between 1995 and 1997) as compared with the 1967 group.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that mothers might be unable to satisfy their child's sucking urge through breast-feeding alone, and that they use the pacifier as a supplement. Pacifier use does not negatively affect the prevalence of breast-feeding.

  • 307.
    Lindsten, Rune
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Centre for Oral Health.
    Early orthodontic treatment and interceptive treatment strategies2013In: European Journal of Orthodontics, ISSN 0141-5387, E-ISSN 1460-2210, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 190-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Orthodontics as health care is sometimes at odds with modern marketing with its strong focus on aesthetics. In this commentary, I highlight how important it is that research of orthodontic treatment as a value for the entire community is performed and published.

  • 308.
    Lindsten, Rune
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    The effect of maceration on the dental arches and the transverse cranial dimensions: a study on the pig2002In: European Journal of Orthodontics, ISSN 0141-5387, E-ISSN 1460-2210, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 667-676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dimensional change of the dental arches and the transverse cranial dimensions were studied in the pig to gain information on cranial post mortem changes and thus improve the possibilities of comparison between modern and skeletal samples. Dental arch dimensions were registered in 17 pigs within 30 minutes after they had been killed. The following day, the skulls were registered on lateral and axial radiographs. The animals were prepared, and storage and preparation included freezing and treatment in hot water. The water temperature did not exceed 65 degrees C. After this process, the skulls were again registered on lateral and axial radiographs. The skulls were then allowed to dry for 2 weeks and the direct measurements were repeated. The dimensions showed shrinkage of between 0 and 3.3 per cent. The mandible showed a greater change transversally in the posterior region than the cranium, which may have been due to its shape. The more deviant values for dimensional change were probably due to technical errors and the shrinkage may be expected to vary from 0.3 to 1.7 per cent, with greater values occurring in the posterior transverse parts of the mandible. A differential shrinkage in the maxilla could not be excluded and the values varied between 0.3 and 1.9 per cent. The results indicate that the crania in skeletal samples can be expected to be 0.3-1.7 per cent smaller than in vivo.

  • 309.
    Lindsten, Rune
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Kurol, Jüri
    Orthodontic appliances in relation to nickel hypersensitivity: A review1997In: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, ISSN 1434-5293, E-ISSN 1615-6714, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 100-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nickel hypersensitivity is an increasing problem in adolescents, especially in girls, with a prevalence of up to 30%. The presence of nickel in orthodontic appliances and the possibility of causing nickel hypersensitivity has been discussed in case reports. A review of the literature concerning nickel hypersensitivity in relation to orthodontic appliances has shown that the risk is very low for patients who are not nickel hypersensitive at the start of the treatment. A patient who is already nickel hypersensitive at the start of orthodontic treatment may in rare cases show adverse reactions induced by the appliance. The slow long-term release of nickel from orthodontic appliances may induce tolerance to nickel in individuals who are not hypersensitive at the start of orthodontic treatment.

  • 310.
    Lindsten, Rune
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Øgaard, Bjørn
    Larsson, Erik
    Effect of food consistency on temporomandibular joint morphology: An experimental study in pigs2004In: Journal of Orofacial Pain, ISSN 1064-6655, E-ISSN 1945-3396, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 56-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate whether there are any correlations between increased masticatory loading, degree of tooth wear, and the size, form, and macroscopic surface of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs).

    Methods: The degree of tooth wear and different TMJ variables were compared in 2 groups of domestic pigs. One group of 8 pigs had been raised indoors (ID group), and the other group of 9 pigs had been raised outdoors (OD group). The pigs in the ID group were fed a soft diet and were not provided any straw in their pens. The OD group was fed a solid diet and could also grub in the soil, resulting in an exposure to more abrasive components and to greater chewing demands. All pigs were sacrificed at the age of 22 months.

    Results: The pigs in the OD group exhibited significantly more tooth wear compared to the ID group. No difference in mediolateral size of the condyles could be found between the 2 groups. Form and surface changes of the TMJs varied substantially between individuals, but not between the 2 groups. No correlation could be found between the degree of tooth wear and any of the TMJ variables.

    Conclusion: Exposure to a tougher diet containing more abrasive substances has a significant impact on the degree of tooth wear but seems to have no consequences either for the size of the TMJ condyles or for form or surface changes of the TMJs.

  • 311.
    Lindsten, Rune
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Øgaard, Bjørn
    Larsson, Erik
    Anterior space relations and lower incisor alignment in 9-year-old children born in the 1960s and 1980s2001In: Angle orthodontist, ISSN 0003-3219, E-ISSN 1945-7103, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 36-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anterior arch spaces and the effect of early loss of deciduous canines have been studied in 2 different cohorts of 9-year-old children. One group of 119 children was from Norway and consisted of 56 girls and 63 boys, and 1 group of 133 children was from Sweden and consisted of 72 girls and 61 boys. Within these cohorts, half of the children were born in the 1960s and half in the 1980s. The 1960s group has been compared with the 1980s group to look for anterior arch changes occurring during this period of time. The children who had lost a lost deciduous canine at the age of 9 years were also compared with the children with all deciduous canines remaining. Groups were compared with analysis of variance. It was found that children with a lost deciduous canine at the age of 9 years belong to a group with less available arch space and are a crowded group when compared with an earlier study. For the girls, this was also associated with larger teeth. Anterior arch space did not differ between the 1960s and the 1980s groups except for the Swedish boys, where there was less available mandibular arch space in the 1980s group. The irregularity index for the 4 mandibular incisors was increased in the 1980s group compared with the 1960s group. This could indicate a secular trend toward an increased prevalence of malocclusion in the present population.

  • 312.
    Lindsten, Rune
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Øgaard, Bjørn
    Larsson, Erik
    Dental arch space and permanent tooth size in the mixed dentition of a skeletal sample from the 14th to the 19th centuries and 3 contemporary samples2002In: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, ISSN 0889-5406, E-ISSN 1097-6752, Vol. 122, no 1, p. 48-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental arch space and permanent tooth size in the mixed dentition were studied in 4 cohorts: (1) 48 skulls from the 14th to the 19th centuries from The Schreiner Collection in the Department of Anatomy, University of Oslo; (2) 39 boys and 34 girls of Sami origin born in the 1980s living in northern Norway; (3) 31 boys and 30 girls born in the 1960s living in southern Norway; and (4) 32 boys and 26 girls born in the 1980s living in the same part of southern Norway as the previous group. The sexes were unknown in the skeletal sample, and the groups were analyzed with the sexes pooled. The crown sizes of the permanent teeth in the mixed dentition of the Norwegian children who had lived between the 14th and the 19th centuries were smaller than those of contemporary children living in the same country. Probable reasons for this increase in tooth size include improved nutrition and reduced morbidity, because this study ruled out attrition as a major cause of the discrepancy in tooth size. The relative space (arch perimeter minus tooth size) in the group born in the 1960s deviated from that in the other 3 groups, indicating a greater degree of crowding in this group. The relative space in the skulls did not differ significantly from that in the groups born in the 1980s. This means that the improved caries situation during the last decades has changed the dental arch space in these populations. The irregularity index of the 4 mandibular permanent incisors was larger in the skulls than in the modern samples.

  • 313.
    Lindsten, Rune
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Øgaard, Bjørn
    Larsson, Erik
    Difference in dental lateral arch length between 9-year-olds born in the 1960s and the 1980s2000In: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, ISSN 0889-5406, E-ISSN 1097-6752, Vol. 117, no 6, p. 663-668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was carried out in two cohorts of 9-year-olds, born in the 1960s and the 1980s in Sweden and Norway, to test the hypothesis that there has been a change in the lateral arch space conditions of the dentition during the last decades. In Norway, 61 children born in 1963 and 58 children born in 1983 were examined. In Sweden, 66 children born in 1961 and 67 children born in 1984 were examined. Children with a prolonged sucking habit, major dentofacial anomalies, history of orthodontic treatment, and ancestors of foreign origin were excluded to avoid influence of these factors on the development of the dentition. Linear measurements were performed between the mesial surface of the first permanent molars and the distal surface of the permanent lateral incisors in the maxillary and mandibular dental arches with use of a sliding caliper. The results showed that the children born in the 1980s had significantly larger lateral arch spaces in the maxillary dental arch (P <.05) and in the mandibular dental arch (P <.01) than did the children born in the 1960s. The amount of tissue loss in the second deciduous molars (the teeth having caries lesions or having been extracted) was greater in the 1960s groups than in the 1980s groups (P <.001). Thus, the hypothesis, that there has been a change in the lateral arch space conditions during the last decades, was confirmed. The most obvious reason is the decline in caries prevalence that has occurred in the same period; thus, there has been less loss of proximal tooth material of posterior teeth.

  • 314.
    Lindsten, Rune
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Øgaard, Bjørn
    Larsson, Erik
    Transversal dental arch dimensions in 9-year-old children born in the 1960s and the 1980s2001In: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, ISSN 0889-5406, E-ISSN 1097-6752, Vol. 120, no 6, p. 576-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transversal arch dimension has been studied in 2 different cohorts of 9-year-old children, a group of 119 (56 girls and 63 boys) from Norway and a group of 133 (72 girls and 61 boys) from Sweden. Half of the children in each group were born in the 1960s and half in the 1980s. The maxillary and mandibular transversal dimensions did not differ between the 1960s groups and the 1980s groups when the maxilla and the mandible were studied separately. When the intermaxillary relationship was assessed, a significant reduction in the intermaxillary difference was found in the boys born in the 1980s compared with the boys born in the 1960s. This was confirmed with different measurement points. In the girls, the mesial drift of the first permanent molars, because of a greater prevalence of caries in the 1960s groups, masked this effect. When the mesial drift of the first permanent molars in the girls born in the 1960s was considered, the transversal intermaxillary difference showed the same secular pattern as in the boys. When the mesial drift of the first permanent molars was considered, the intermaxillary difference in the 1960s groups resembled that found in an American sample of northwest European ancestry born in the 1940s to a greater extent compared with the children born in the 1980s.

  • 315.
    Lindsten, Rune
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Øgaard, Bjørn
    Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Larsson, Erik
    Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Bjerklin, Krister
    Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Transverse dental and dental arch depth dimensions in the mixed dentition in a skeletal sample from the 14th to the 19th century and Norwegian children and Norwegian Sami children of today2002In: Angle orthodontist, ISSN 0003-3219, E-ISSN 1945-7103, Vol. 72, no 5, p. 439-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Secular changes in transverse dental arch dimensions and dental arch depth were studied. Four cohorts with mixed dentitions were selected. The skull group comprised 48 skulls dating from the 14th to the 19th century and belonging to The Schreiner Collection at the Department of Anatomy, University of Oslo. The 1980s Sami group was comprised of 39 boys and 34 girls born in 1987 and living in the northern part of Norway. The 1960s Oslo group was comprised of 31 boys and 30 girls born in 1963 and living in the southern part of Norway. The 1980s Oslo group was comprised of 32 boys and 26 girls born in 1983 and living in the same area in southern Norway as the previous Oslo group. Sex was unknown in the skeletal sample, and the groups were analyzed with the sexes pooled; separate descriptive values are presented for the modern groups. The mandibular intercanine distance was smaller in the skulls compared with the modern groups. The transverse intermaxillary difference between the molars was larger in the skull group than in the 1980s Oslo group. The difference between the maxillary and mandibular intercanine distances was larger in the skulls compared with the modern groups, although the small number of measurements in the skull group impeded further analysis. The arch depth was smaller in the skull group compared with the modern groups; the 1960s Oslo group deviated because of a higher prevalence of caries in the second deciduous molars. The overjet was smaller among the skulls. The arch form measured as the angle between the left and right molar tooth rows was more acute in the skulls than in the modern groups. It was concluded that smaller arch depths are found in skeletal samples at early ages and that attrition does not explain the more upright incisors found in skeletal samples. A secular trend was found in the intermaxillary relation, which indicated that children in the 1980s Oslo group were at greater risk of developing a posterior cross-bite than children born in the 14th to 19th centuries.

  • 316.
    Lundberg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Gard, Fanny
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Förekomst av karies och plack hos vuxna personer med funktionsnedsättning på ett vårdhem i Ga-Rankuwa, Sydafrika: En tvärsnittsstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:The oral health differs in South Africa and people with disabilities are a group that have an increased risk of oral diseases. Deficient oral hygiene causes dental plaque which can lead to oral diseases such as caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. Aim:The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of caries and plaque in people with disabilities in a care facility in Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa. Method:The study was a quantitative cross-sectional study based on clinical dental examinations of manifest caries and plaque. Result:The participants was 50 persons (18–46 years), which had 92 % caries. The men had more caries than the women (statistic significant). When comparing different ages, there were no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of caries and plaque. The mean value of plaque was 1,8, meaning that the majority had more than ⅓of plaque on the tooth surface but not more than ⅔. No difference was found when comparing genders. Conclusion:The prevalence of caries and plaque is high among persons with disabilities in the care facility in Ga-Rankuwa. Further and more extensive studies in a larger population are needed to increase knowledge of this group and their oral health.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 317. Lundgren, D
    et al.
    Kurol, J
    Thorstensson, B
    Hugoson, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Periodontal conditions around tipped and upright molars in adults: An intra-individual retrospective study.1992In: European Journal of Orthodontics, ISSN 0141-5387, E-ISSN 1460-2210, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 449-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 69 individuals from a randomized epidemiological material comprising 450 adults, an intra-individual comparison of the periodontal condition of 73 mesially tipped molars (30 degrees or more to a line perpendicular to the occlusal plane) and contralateral upright molars was made. The alveolar bone level mesially and distally of each tooth was registered in periapical radiographs. The occurrence of plaque, gingivitis and probeable pocket depths of 4 mm or more mesially and distally of each tooth was registered. No significant differences between tipped and upright molars could be found, regardless of the variable tested. The clinical implications of the findings are discussed from an orthodontic as well as a periodontal and prosthetic point of view.

  • 318. Löfquist, L
    et al.
    Bergendal, B
    Hugoson, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Fixed prosthodontics in adults in Jönköping, Sweden in 1983 and 1993: An epidemiological study of prevalence and choice of material.2000In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 93-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of fixed prostheses, i.e. single crowns and fixed partial dentures, in adults 20-80 years old in two cross-sectional studies carried out in 1983 and 1993 and to analyse whether the choice of material for fixed prostheses had changed during this time period. The material comprised 586 and 593 individuals. A descriptive analysis of number of individuals with fixed prostheses was made concerning the number of crowns and pontics, the distribution in the jaws, and the materials used. The prevalence of individuals with fixed prostheses was shown to increase with age both in 1983 and 1993. In 1993 the number of individuals with fixed prostheses was slightly lower than in 1983 (44 and 48 percent respectively). There was no difference according to gender. The proportion of individuals with fixed prostheses was lower or almost unchanged in the 20-, 30-, 40-, 50-, 60-, and 80-year-olds in 1993 compared to 1983. In the 70-year-olds, however, the proportion of individuals with fixed prostheses was considerably higher in 1993 compared to 1983. Most individuals with fixed prostheses had a small number of crowned teeth, and about half of the individuals had not more than four crowned teeth. Likewise most individuals with pontics had a small number of pontics. The distributions of crowned teeth and pontics in the jaws were similar in 1983 and 1993. Pontics and crowns were more frequent in the upper than in the lower jaw. Crowns made of porcelain or metal ceramic had increased by 1993 in the 30-80 year age groups, and the study thus confirms general clinical experience that porcelain and metal ceramic are more often the materials of choice in fixed prosthodontics in adults today.

  • 319.
    Madsen, Randi
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Unga vuxnas upplevelse av oral hälsorelaterad livskvalitet: En enkätundersökning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 320. Magnusson, C
    et al.
    Nilsson, M
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Centre for Oral Health.
    Degenerative changes in human temporomandibular joints in relation to occlusal support.2010In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 68, p. 305-311Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 321. Magnusson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Ernberg, Malin
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    A description of a contemporary human skull material in respect of age, gender, temporomandibular joint changes, and some dental variables2008In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 69-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controversy exists concerning the etiological factors behind degenerative changes in the temporomandibularjoints (TMJs). Occlusal factors, ageing, gender and genetics are some factors that have been discussed.The aim of the present study was to examine a contemporary human skull material in respect of gender, age, occlusal variables and form and surface changes in the temporomandibular joints.The material consisted of 259 human skulls, 170 males and 89 females, with an age range of 18-100 years.The over all dental status was poor, and 22% were edentulous. Both medio-lateral and antero-posterior dimensions as well as anterior and superior shape of the condyles were in good agreement with previous results. Form and surface changes of both the condyles and the temporal components were, however, more common in the present material compared to most previous studies. Men had on average more degenerative changes in the TMJs compared to women. In agreement with many previous studies, there was an increase of such changes with increasing age. Severe tooth attrition was a common finding, especially in men, but no correlation was found between this variable and the severity of degenerative changes in the TMJs. Abfractions were found in only 3 cases. Considering the common finding of severe tooth attrition,the rare occurrence of abfractions does not lend support to the hypothesis that abfractions are mainly caused by occlusal loading. In conclusion: Condylar dimensions and shape of the condyles were in good agreement with previously presented results. Severe tooth attrition and pronounced degenerative changes in the TMJs were common findings but no statistically significant association was found between these two variables.

  • 322. Magnusson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Size and form of the human temporomandibular joint in African-Americans and Caucasians2012In: Cranio, ISSN 0886-9634, E-ISSN 2151-0903, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 110-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine contemporary human skull material for possible differences between Caucasians and African-Americans in respect to size and form of the temporomandibular condyles. The material consisted of a total of 129 Caucasian skulls (94 males and 35 females) and 76 African-American skulls (40 males and 36 females). Their mean age at death was 46 years for the Caucasians (range: 19-89 years) and 37 years for the African-Americans (range: 18-70 years). The mediolateral and anteroposterior dimensions of the 410 condyles were measured, and the condylar form was estimated using both anterior and superior views. No statistically significant differences could be found between Caucasians and African-Americans for any of the recorded variables. In conclusion, the present results lend no support for the existence of ethnic differences between the two groups examined in respect of temporomandibular joint size and form. It is likely that other factors such as evolution, overall cranial size, dietary differences, and genetic factors, irrespective of ethnicity, can explain the differences found in different skull samples.

  • 323. Magnusson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Degenerative changes in the human temporomandibular joints in relationt to occlusal support2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download (pdf)
    FULLTEXT02
  • 324.
    Magnusson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Public Dental Health, Jönköping County Council, Jönköping , Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Futurum, The Academy for Health and Care, Jönköping County, Jönköping , Sweden.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Degenerative changes of the temporomandibular joint. Relationship to ethnicity, sex and occlusal supporting zones based on a skull material2012In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 207-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The first aim of this study was to examine a contemporary human skull material for possible ethnic differences in respect of degenerative changes in the temporomandibular joints (TMJs). A second aim was to see if there was any correlation between such changes and occlusal support in any of the two groups and, if so, if this correlation was sex-related. Materials and methods: The material consisted of 129 Caucasian skulls and 76 skulls from Afro-Americans. Ninety-four of the Caucasian skulls came from males (73%) and the corresponding figure for the Afro-Americans was 40 (53%). Their mean age at death was 46 years (range: 19–89 years) and 37 years (range: 18–70 years), respectively. Results. Dental status was in general poor and 13% of the Afro-Americans and 26% of the Caucasians were edentulous. Form and surface changes of the TMJs were more common in the present material compared to most previous studies. No differences could be found between the two ethnic groups in respect of degenerative joint changes in the TMJs. In men, no correlation of clinical relevance could be found between severity of joint changes and occlusal support. However, in both Caucasian and Afro-American women, such a correlation was obvious, especially in higher age. Conclusions. The present findings give no evidence for any differences in the prevalence of degenerative changes in the TMJs in Caucasians and Afro-Americans. The strong correlation found between such changes and occlusal support in women but not in men might be explained by hormonal differences.

  • 325.
    Magnusson, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Centre for Oral Health.
    Pankeviciute, Viktorija
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Centre for Oral Health.
    Gastroesofagael Reflux (Gerd) Och Oral Hälsa: En allmän litteraturstudie2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate how the oral health is affected regarding patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with the focus on the following questions: Does oral diseases and/or clinical signs occur in patients with GERD? and How is oral health related quality of life effected in patients with GERD? Method: In this literature study the searching of articles was performed in three databases: Dentistry & Oral Sciences Source (DOSS), MEDLINE and CINAHL. The included articles were published between 2011–2022 and were relevant to the aim of the study. In total there were 17 relevant articles selected for the study’s results. Results: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can adversely affect the oral health and reduce the individual's quality of life in different ways, as it can lead to an increased risk of different oral diseases and conditions such as caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis. GERD can also lead to tooth surface loss, especially due to dental erosions. A higher prevalence of mouth mucosa changes, reduced saliva secretion, oral halitosis and tooth sensitivity were seen in people with GERD disease. Conclusion: There is a connection between GERD and a negative impact on the oral health, well-being, and oral quality of life. More research on how GERD affects oral health is required, in order to create health-promoting and preventive measures that reduce the consequences of GERD on oral health.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 326.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Bruxism och tandslitage2004In: Tandläkartidningen, ISSN 0039-6982, Vol. 96, no 11, p. 52-56Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 327.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Interocclusal appliances1996In: Function and Dysfunction of the Stomatognathic System, Byron Dorukas , 1996, p. 337-356Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 328.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Klinisk bettfysiologi2013Book (Other academic)
  • 329.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    O Controle das Desordens Temporomandibulares2012In: Dor Orofacial entre Amigos: Uma discussão Cientifica / [ed] Antônio Sérgio Guimarães, Rio de Janeiro: Quintessence , 2012, p. 241-274Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 330.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Ortodontia si afectiunile temporomandibulare2010In: Ortodontie. Tehhnica Arcului Drepg., Tehnopress , 2010, p. 147-155Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 331.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Subjective Symptoms of TMD1996In: Function and Dysfunction of the Stomatognatic System. / [ed] Byron Droukas, 1996, p. 139-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 332.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Tandslitage och bruxism2004In: Odontologiska samfunder i Filnads Årsbok, Odontologiska samfundet , 2004, p. 9-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 333.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Adiels, Anne-Marie
    Nilsson, Håkan L
    Helkimo, Martti
    Treatment effect on signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders: comparison between stabilisation splint and a new type of splint (NTI). A pilot study.2004In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 334.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Carlsson, Gunnar E
    Management of children with temporomandibular disorders2002In: World Journal of Orthodontics, ISSN 1530-5678, E-ISSN 1941-6741, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 334-341Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 335.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Guimaraes, Antonio Sérgio
    University of Porto City, Porto City.
    Is orthodontic treatment a risk factor for temporomandibular disorders?2012In: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics, ISSN 2176-9451, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 97-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The possibility that orthodontic treatment in childhood might be a risk factor for the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) later in life has been an issue of great controversy in dental literature.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine a possible negative or positive correlation between orthodontic treatment and TMD by presenting the results and conclusions from a number of key-papers dealing with this subject.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: According to current knowledge, there is no scientific evidence to support that orthodontic treatment is a risk factor for the development of TMD. On the other hand, there is some evidence to support that a proper orthodontic treatment performed in childhood might have a positive effect upon the functional status of the masticatory system later in life.

  • 336.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Helkimo, M
    Temporomandibular disorders in children and adolescnets2009In: Pediatric Dentistry - a clinical approach, Munksgaard , 2009, p. 411-420Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 337.
    Mashayamombe, M.
    et al.
    Department of Vascular Surgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, 5000, SA, Australia.
    Carda-Diéguez, M.
    Department of Health and Genomics, Center for Advanced Research in Public Health, FISABIO Institute, Valencia, 46020, Spain.
    Mira, Alex
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Centre for Oral Health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dept. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Department of Health and Genomics, Center for Advanced Research in Public Health, FISABIO Institute, Valencia, 46020, Spain.
    Fitridge, R.
    Department of Vascular Surgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, 5000, SA, Australia.
    Zilm, P. S.
    Adelaide Dental School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, 5000, SA, Australia.
    Kidd, S. P.
    Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, 5005, SA, Australia.
    Subpopulations in Strains of Staphylococcus aureus Provide Antibiotic Tolerance2023In: Antibiotics, ISSN 0066-4774, E-ISSN 2079-6382, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to colonise different niches across the human body is linked to an adaptable metabolic capability, as well as its ability to persist within specific tissues despite adverse conditions. In many cases, as S. aureus proliferates within an anatomical niche, there is an associated pathology. The immune response, together with medical interventions such as antibiotics, often removes the S. aureus cells that are causing this disease. However, a common issue in S. aureus infections is a relapse of disease. Within infected tissue, S. aureus exists as a population of cells, and it adopts a diversity of cell types. In evolutionary biology, the concept of “bet-hedging” has established that even in positive conditions, there are members that arise within a population that would be present as non-beneficial, but if those conditions change, these traits could allow survival. For S. aureus, some of these cells within an infection have a reduced fitness, are not rapidly proliferating or are the cause of an active host response and disease, but these do remain even after the disease seems to have been cleared. This is true for persistence against immune responses but also as a continual presence in spite of antibiotic treatment. We propose that the constant arousal of suboptimal populations at any timepoint is a key strategy for S. aureus long-term infection and survival. Thus, understanding the molecular basis for this feature could be instrumental to combat persistent infections.

  • 338.
    Moberg Sköld, Ulla
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborg.
    Hesselmar, Bill
    Drottning Silvias barnsjukhus, Göteborg.
    Stensson, Malin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Odontology and Oral Health Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Centre for Oral Health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Birkhed, Dowen
    Professor emeritus, Malmö.
    Astma hos barn och ungdomar: preventionsstrategier för karies och dental erosion2023In: Tandläkartidningen, ISSN 0039-6982, no 5, p. 48-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Astma och karies är två vanligt förekommande sjukdomar hos barn och ungdomar, och det finns samband mellan sjukdomarna och även mellan astma och dental erosion. En fungerande samverkan mellan barnhälsovården och tandvården är därför viktig så att tandvården tidigt kan sätta in adekvata preventionsstrategier, och vid behov ställa diagnos och behandla eventuell karies och dental erosion.

  • 339.
    Muller, Jasmin
    et al.
    University of Skövde.
    Ekström, Anette
    University of Skövde.
    Harlén, Mikael
    University of Skövde.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Handlin, Linda
    University of Skövde.
    Mechanical massage and mental training programs effect employees’ heart rate, blood pressure and fingertip temperature: An exploratory pilot study2016In: European Journal of Integrative Medicine, ISSN 1876-3820, E-ISSN 1876-3839, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 762-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Inability to relax and recover is suggested to be a key factor for stress-related health problems. This study aimed to investigate possible effects of mechanical massage and mental training, used either separately or in combination during working hours.

    Methods: Employees were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: i) Mechanical massage combined with mental training (n = 19), ii) Mechanical massage (n = 19), iii) Mental training (n = 19), iv) Pause (n = 19), v) Control (n = 17). The study lasted for eight weeks. Heart rate, blood pressure and fingertip temperature were measured at start, after four and after eight weeks.

    Results: Between-group analysis showed that heart rate differed significantly between the groups after 4 weeks (p = 0.020) and tended to differ after eight weeks (p = 0.072), with lowest levels displayed in the massage group and the control group. Blood pressure and fingertip temperature did not differ between the groups. Within-group analysis showed that mechanical massage decreased heart rate (p = 0.038) and blood pressure (systolic p = 0.019, diastolic p = 0.026) and increased fingertip temperature (p = 0.035). Mental training programs reduced heart rate (p = 0.036). Combining the two methods increased diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.028) and decreased fingertip temperature (p = 0.031). The control group had a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure during the first four weeks of the study (p = 0.038)

    Conclusion: Receiving mechanical massage and listening to mentaltraining programs, either separately or in combination, during working hours had some positive effects on the employees’ heart rate, blood pressure and fingertip temperature. The effects were especially strong for employees who received mechanical massage only

    Download full text (pdf)
    Fulltext
  • 340.
    Muller, Jasmin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Handlin, Linda
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Harlén, Mikael
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    The value of armchairs in providing mechanical massage and mental relaxation programmes is not established for workplace health promotion2016In: Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies, ISSN 1465-3753, E-ISSN 2042-7166, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 44-45Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 341.
    Muller, Jasmin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. School of Health and Education, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Handlin, Linda
    School of Health and Education, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Harlén, Mikael
    School of Health and Education, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Clinical Diagnostics. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Centre for Oral Health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Ekström, Anette
    School of Health and Education, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Mechanical massage and mental training programmes affect employees’ anxiety, stress susceptibility and detachment–a randomised explorative pilot study2015In: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, E-ISSN 1472-6882, Vol. 15, p. 1-8, article id 302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Working people’s reduced ability to recover has been proposed as a key factor behind the increase in stress-related health problems. One not yet evidence-based preventive method designed to help employees keep healthy and be less stressed is an armchair with built-in mechanical massage and mental training programmes, This study aimed to evaluate possible effects on employees’ experience of levels of “Anxiety”, “Stress Susceptibility”, “Detachment” and “Social Desirability” when using mechanical massage and mental training programmes, both separately and in combination, during working hours.

    Methods

    Employees from four different workplaces were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: i) Massage and mental training (sitting in the armchair and receiving mechanical massage while listening to the mental training programmes, n = 19), ii) Massage (sitting in the armchair and receiving mechanical massage only, n = 19), iii) Mental training (sitting in the armchair and listening to the mental training programmes only, n = 19), iv) Pause (sitting in the armchair but not receiving mechanical massage or listening to the mental training programmes, n = 19), v) Control (not sitting in the armchair at all, n = 17). In order to discover how the employees felt about their own health they were asked to respond to statements from the ”Swedish Scale of Personality” (SSP), immediately before the randomisation, after four weeks and after eight weeks (end-of-study).

    Results

    There were no significant differences between the five study groups for any of the traits studied (“Somatic Trait Anxiety”, “Psychic Trait Anxiety”, “Stress Susceptibility”, “Detachment” and “Social Desirability”) at any of the occasions. However, the massage group showed a significant decrease in the subscale “Somatic Trait Anxiety” (p = 0.032), during the entire study period. Significant decreases in the same subscale were also observed in the pause group between start and week eight (p = 0.040) as well as between week four and week eight (p = 0.049) and also in the control group between the second and third data collection (p = 0.014). The massage and mental training group showed a significant decrease in “Stress Susceptibility” between week four and week eight (p = 0.022). The pause group showed a significant increase in the subscale “Detachment” (p = 0.044).

    Conclusions

    There were no significant differences between the five study groups for any of the traits studied. However, when looking at each individual group separately, positive effects in their levels of “Anxiety”, “Stress Susceptibility” and “Detachment” could be seen. Although the results from this pilot study indicate some positive effects, mechanical chair massage and mental training programmes used in order to increase employee’s ability to recover, needs to be evaluated further as tools to increase the employees ability to recover.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 342.
    Møller Christensen, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Nilsson, S.
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, University of Gothenburg Centre for Person-Centred Care, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stensson, Malin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Centre for Oral Health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Developing communication support for interaction with children during acute radiographic procedures2020In: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 96-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The Convention on the Rights of the Child will be absorbed into Swedish law by 2020, which highlights the need to promote equality in communication between health care professionals and communicatively vulnerable children. In this regard, participation and person-centredness is important in the interaction with each child to provide adequate information on the peri-radiographic process in a way that the child can understand. Hence, the aim was to develop communication support for interaction with children during acute radiographic procedures.

    Method: The study has a qualitative design adapting a multiphase structure. A participatory design was used which included four phases conducted in succession to each other. Interviews were conducted with children from Elementary School and Special School. Questionnaires were collected from their parents and from radiographers in four different Radiology Departments.

    Results: The analysis of the data highlighted the need for information in the peri-radiographic process. Parents and children wanted material that is easy to use and could be adapted in a person-centred way.

    Conclusion: A prototype of the ICIR (interactive communication support in radiology settings), with illustrations and accompanying text was developed that can be useful as information sharing in interaction between children, parents and health care professionals in the radiographic context.

    Implications for practice: The ICIR can be a usable tool for information sharing in the interaction between children, parents and health care professionals during radiographic procedures. 

  • 343.
    Møller Christensen, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Stensson, Malin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Centre for Oral Health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Interaktivt Kommunikationsstöd I Röntgenkontext (IKIR) - ett sätt att involvera barn i en röntgenundersökning2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 344.
    Nguyen, Thi Thu Huong
    et al.
    Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery Department, Hanoi Medical University, Vietnam.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. ADULT. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Bengtson, Ann
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Knowledge of child nutrition when breastfeeding – a study of mothers living outside Hanoi2013In: Health, ISSN 1949-4998, E-ISSN 1949-5005, Vol. 5, no 11, p. 1853-1860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of nutrition among mothers of children less than two years of age and changes in theoretical knowledge after a nutrition course. Method: A pilot study with a pre-post-test design. Thirty mothers of children who were less than two years of age from outside Hanoi participated in the study. The mothers’ knowledge of breastfeeding, supplementary food and diet when the child was suffering from diarrhea was collected using 19 self-reported questions. A one-day nutrition course at which the mothers answered the same questions before and after the course was run. Results: All the invited mothers were included in the study. There was a lack of knowledge about breastfeeding and nutrition at baseline, but it improved after the nutrition course. The greatest improvement in knowledge related to breastfeeding less than 30 minutes after delivery, not giving milk or fruit juice instead of breast milk, increasing the frequency of breastfeeding in the event of a smaller amount of milk and knowledge about giving supplementary food after six months. Moreover, the results revealed that the mothers reported better knowledge of the consumption and frequency of more healthy food supplements. Conclusion: There was a lack of knowledge about nutrition among the mothers with children less than two years of age. The course demonstrated effectiveness in every aspect of nutritional knowledge, tested in the post-test. The findings in this study could provide important information for authorities in the health sector to improve the nutritional state of children in the community.

  • 345.
    Nguyen, Vivian
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health. -.
    Dinler, Ilona
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health. -.
    Barns kunskaper kring parodontala sjukdomar och dess sjukdomsförlopp: En enkätstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Gingivitis and periodontitis, termed as periodontal diseases, are foremost initiated by bacteria, frequently by the association of dental plaque. The development of periodontitis could most likely be as a result of an untreated gingivitis. Periodontitis appears in different conditions of severity, such as aggressive or chronic, and could occur on young individuals. There are few studies about the occurrence of periodontitis on young individuals and their knowledge of periodontal diseases. The aim was to investigate children’s knowledge on periodontal diseases and its progression. Method: A cross- sectional study and a questionnaire was performed. The sample of this study included children aged between 12 to 14 years old from Norrköping, Sweden. Collected data was analyzed by the statistical programme SPSS. Results: A total of 73 children participated in this study. The majority of children had knowledge about the definition of gingivitis (67,1 %) and how it develops (57,5 %). The results about gingivitis and its progression showed a statistically significant difference between gender. However, there were only a few participants (5,5 %) that had proper knowledge about periodontitis. There was no significant difference between the age-groups and sex in terms of knowledge of the disease. Conclusion: The children had a certain knowledge about the periodontal diseases and its progression, with a certain variation. The results should be considered with some deliberation, further research is needed for preventive measures.

    Download full text (pdf)
    examensarbete
  • 346. Norderyd, O
    et al.
    Hugoson, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Risk of severe periodontal disease in a Swedish adult population: A cross-sectional study1998In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 1022-1028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, potential risk factors for severe periodontal disease were identified in a cross-sectional sample from the county of Jonkoping, Sweden. 547 adults 20-70 years of age were categorised clinically and radiographically by level of periodontal disease experience. These levels were used to divide the sample into groups--individuals without any reduction in periodontal bone level (60%) and those with severe periodontal bone loss (13%)--which were then used in univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses as dependent variable. Demographic, socio-economic, general health, smoking habits, clinical, and dental care variables were used in the different regression analyses. In the univariate model, age (20-70 years) was found to be correlated with more severe periodontal disease experience (odds ratio: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.10-1.17). The association with periodontal disease was more pronounced for the older age groups (50, 60, and 70 years). A negative financial situation was also related to severe periodontal bone loss when regressed univariately (odds ratio 2.20 [95%: 1.04-4.68]). Moderate-heavy smoking (> or =10 cigarettes/day) appeared to be associated with severe periodontal destruction with an odds ratio of 9.78 (95% CI: 3.62-36.42). Of the clinical variables in the univariate model, higher mean levels of supragingival dental plaque and the presence of subgingival calculus were related to more severe periodontal disease with odds ratios of 1.02 (95%: 1.01-1.03) and 2.96 (95%: 1.50-5.88), respectively. When the same variables were regressed multivariately, age (continuous) (odds ratio 1.17 [95% CI: 1.12-1.22]), moderate-heavy smoking (odds ratio 11.84 [95% CI: 4.19-33.50]), and higher mean levels of plaque (odds ratio 1.02 [95% CI: 1.00-1.03]) remained significant. Light smoking (1-9 cigarettes/day) was not significantly associated with severe periodontal disease in the 2 regression models. The present study demonstrated that smoking, greater age, and higher mean levels of plaque are potential risk factors for severe periodontal disease in this specific population.

  • 347. Norderyd, O
    et al.
    Hugoson, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Tooth loss and periodontal bone level in individuals of Jönköping County: A comparison between two adult populations living in the city and in the surrounding area1998In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 165-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were performed in the community (in this paper changed to city) of Jönköping, Sweden, over a period of 20 years to follow changes in oral health and oral health behaviour. To widen our knowledge about dental health and dental care among the adult population, we expanded the study in 1993 to cover the whole county. The specific aim of the present study was to describe tooth loss (excluding third molars) and periodontal bone level in adult residents of Jönköping County and to compare these two parameters in adults living in the city of Jönköping with the same in adults living in the rest of the county. Random samples of individuals 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 years old were selected. A total of 484 persons from the city and 1219 subjects from the rest of the county were examined. A total of 32 (7%) and 27 (2%) persons were completely edentulous in the examined populations from the city and from the rest of the county, respectively. A majority belonged to the older age groups, 60 and 70 years, with 17% of the subjects in the city being edentulous compared with 13% in the rest of the county. The mean number of missing teeth in subjects in the city versus subjects in the rest of the county was 0.75/0.95, 1.37/1.60, 3.34/2.43, 6.34/7.40, and 9.95/10.26 in 30-, 40-, 50-, 60-, and 70-year-olds, respectively. Of all the different tooth types, the average number of molars per person decreased the most with increasing age from an average of 7.79/7.83 (city/county) to 3.06/3.09 (city/county) for 30- and 70-year-olds, respectively. The proportion of subjects without molars was higher in the older age groups in both the city and the rest of the county with 4.8/10.7% and 15.6/22.0% of the 60- and 70-year-olds, respectively, lacking molars. In both populations, the mean periodontal bone level decreased with age. It was concluded that no important differences in tooth loss and periodontal health could be seen between the two populations. When organising dental care, dental health administrators could apply the findings from the population in the city to the entire county.

  • 348. Norderyd, O
    et al.
    Hugoson, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Grusovin, G
    Risk of severe periodontal disease in a Swedish adult population: A longitudinal study1999In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 608-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for severe periodontal disease progression in a Swedish adult population between the years 1973 and 1988-91. In 1973, a random sample of 474 dentate adults living in Jönköping County was examined clinically and radiographically. A questionnaire on demographic and socio-economic status, general health, and dental care habits was also used. During the years 1988-1991, 361 of the individuals examined in 1973 were re-examined. A total of 506 (6%) teeth or in average 1.4 teeth per subject were lost between the 2 examinations. 4 subjects had become completely edentulous. The mean loss of teeth in the different age groups 20-60 years was 0.2, 0.9, 1.4, 2.3, and 2.6, respectively. The periodontal bone level decreased by age both in 1973 and in 1988 91. The mean annual progression rate was 0.06 mm for all 357 individuals and varied between 0.04 and 0.07 mm per subject in the different age groups. The presence of periodontal disease progression was defined as bone loss of >20% at a proximal site between the 2 examinations. The most prevalent tooth types with bone loss of >20% at proximal sites were the maxillary and mandibular 2nd molars and the 1st maxillary molar, representing a % of 18.0, 12.8, and 13.5, respectively. The degree of association between severe periodontal disease progression and explanatory variables was investigated using logistic regression models. The dependent variable was no progression of periodontal disease or severe periodontal disease progression, i.e., subjects with periodontal bone loss >20% at > or =6 sites. Age was found to be correlated with severe periodontal disease progression by an odds ratio of 1.05 (CI: 1.02-1.07). The frequency of females in the group with severe bone loss was 58% and higher than in the non-progressing group, 50%. Only 9% in the group with no bone loss smoked as compared to 38% in the group of individuals with severe periodontal bone loss. % supragingival plaque, gingival inflammation, and deepened periodontal pockets (> or =4 mm) at baseline were related to severe periodontal disease progression by odds ratios of 1.03 (CI: 1.02-1.05), 1.01 (1.00-1.03), and 1.03 (1.00-1.05), respectively. In the multivariate logistic regression model, age (odds ratio 1.13 (CI: 1.06-1.19)), smoking (odds ratio 20.25 (5.07-80.83)), and % pockets > or =4 mm (odds ratio 1.15 (1.04-1.27)) remained significantly associated with severe disease progression. Furthermore, female gender and differences in income level appeared in the multivariate analysis to be related with severe bone loss, with odds ratios of 3.19 (CI: 1.02-9.97) and 8.46 (CI: 1.97-36.37), respectively.

  • 349.
    Norderyd, Ola
    et al.
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden;Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö, Sweden.
    Koch, Göran
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Papias, Apostolos
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Anastassaki Köhler, Alkisti
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Nydell Helkimo, Anna
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Brahm, Carl-Otto
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Clinical Diagnostics. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Centre for Oral Health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Lindfors, Ninita
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Anna
    Public Dental Health Service, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Rolander, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Social Work. Futurum, Academy for Health and Care, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ullbro, Christer
    UiT. The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway.
    Wärnberg Gerdin, Elisabeth
    Dental Research Department, Public Dental Service, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Frisk, Fredrik
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Oral health of individuals aged 3-80 years in Jönköping, Sweden, during 40 years (1973-2013): I. Review of findings on oral care habits and knowledge of oral health2015In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 57-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the this study was to present data on oral care habits and knowledge of oral health in 2013, and to compare these data with results from a series of four previous cross-sectional epidemiological studies. All these studies were carried out in the city of Jönköping, Sweden, in 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003, and 2013. The 1973 study constituted a random sample of 1,000 individuals evenly distributed in the age groups 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 years. The same age groups with addition of a group of 80-year-olds were included in the 1983, 1993, 2003, and 2013 studies, which comprised 1,104; 1,078; 987; and 1,010 individuals, respectively.

    A questionnaire about dental care habits and knowledge of oral health was used. The questionnaire contained the same questions in all the five studies, although some had to be slightly modernised during the 40-year period.

    During the period 1973–2013, a continous increase of individuals in the age group 20–60 years were treated by the Public Dental Service amounting to about 50%. Almost 70% of the 70- and 80-year-olds were treated by private practitioners. In 2013, 10–20% of the individuals in the age groups 30–40 years did not regularly visit neither Public Dental Service nor a private practitioner. The corresponding figures for the individuals 50–80 years old were 4–7%. Similar number of avoidance was reported in the previous studies.

    In the survey 2013, about 20–30% of the individuals in the age groups 20–50 felt frightened, sick, or ill at ease at the prospect of an appointment with the dentist. These findings were in agreement with the results from the surveys 1973–2003. Among the younger age groups, 10–15 years, a reduction in self-reported "ill at ease" was found in the surveys 2003 and 2013 compared to the previous surveys in this series.

    In 2013, the knowledge of the etiology of caries was known by about 60% of the individuals which was similar to that reported 1973–2003. Twenty per cent of the individuals stated that they did not know which etiological factors that causes caries. This percentage was equivalent during the period 1973–2013. About 85% of the individuals in all age groups brushed their teeth with fluoride tooth paste at least two times a day. These frequencies have gradually increased during the 40-year period.

    Around 40% in the age groups 50–80 years used toothpicks regularly in 2013. This is a about 1/3–1/2 less compared to 2003. In the age groups 20–40 years 3–14% used toothpicks for proximal cleaning in 2013.

    In 2013, about 35% of the individuals never consumed soft drinks, in comparison with 20% in 2003. In the age groups 3–20 years about 20% were consuming soft drinks every day or several times a week, which is a reduction by half compared to 2013

  • 350.
    Norderyd, Ola
    et al.
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden;Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö, Sweden.
    Koch, Göran
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Papias, Apostolos
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Anastassaki Köhler, Alkisti
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Nydell Helkimo, Anna
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Brahm, Carl-Otto
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Clinical Diagnostics. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Centre for Oral Health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Lindfors, Ninita
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Anna
    Public Dental Health Service, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Rolander, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Department of Social Work. Futurum, Academy for Health and Care, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ullbro, Christer
    UiT. The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway.
    Wärnberg Gerdin, Elisabeth
    Dental Research Department, Public Dental Service, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Frisk, Fredrik
    The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Oral health of individuals aged 3-80 years in Jönköping, Sweden during 40 years (1973-2013): II. Review of clinical and radiographic findings2015In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 69-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this epidemiological study performed in 2013 was to analyze various clinical and radiographic data on oral health and compare the results to those of four cross-sectional studies carried out 1973–2003. In 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003, and 2013 random samples of 1,000; 1,104; 1,078; 987; and 1,010 individuals, respectively, were studied. The individuals were evenly distributed in the age groups 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 years. Eighty-year-olds were not included in 1973. All subjects were inhabitants of the city of Jönköping, Sweden.

    The clinical and radiographic examination assessed edentulousness, removable dentures, implants, number of teeth, caries, restorations, oral hygiene, calculus, periodontal status, and endodontic treatment.

    The frequency of edentulous individuals aged 40–70 years was 16, 12, 8, 1, and 0.3% in 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003, and 2013, respectively. No complete denture wearer younger than 80-years old was found in 2013. During the 40-year period, the mean number of teeth in the age groups 30–80 years increased. In 2013, the 60-year-olds had nearly complete dentitions. Implants were found in all age groups from 30 years of age. The total number of individuals with implants was 36 in 2013. This was higher than earlier surveys, 4 in 1993, and 18 in 2003.

    The percentage of children and adults without caries and restorations increased during the 40-year period. It was found that the percentage of caries-free 3- and 5-year-olds were 79% and 69%, respectively, of the individuals in 2013. In the age groups 10–20 years, the percentage of caries-free individuals increased between 2003 and 2013. In 2013, 43% of the 15-year-olds were completely free from caries and restorations compared to 20% in 2003. In all age groups 5–60 years, DFS was lower in 2013 compared to the earlier examinations. There was no major change in DFS between 2003 and 2013 in the age groups 70 and 80 years. The most obvious change was the decrease in number of FS over the 40- year period of time. Regarding crowned teeth the most clear changes between 1973 to 2013 were the decrease in percentage of crowned teeth in the age goups 40 and 50-year-olds. The percentage of endodontically treated teeth decreased between 1973 and 2013 in all age groups.

    In age groups 10–30-year-olds a major reduction from about 30% to 15% in mean plaque score was seen between 1973–2003. Only a minor change in plaque score was seen during the last decade. For the age groups 40 years and older, a decrease in the percentage of surfaces with plaque was observed between 2003–2013. The percentage of tooth sites with gingivitis was for 20 years and older about 40% in 1973. In 2013, the percentage was about 15%. The frequency of sites with gingivitis was generally lower in 2013 compared with the other years, 1973–1993.

    The percentage of individuals with probing pocket depths >4mm increased with age. Between 2003–2013 a clear reduction was seen in all age groups in frequency of individuals with probing pocket depth >4mm. Over the 40-year period an increase in the number of individuals with no marginal bone loss and a decrease in the number of subjects with moderate alveolar bone loss were seen.

    The continuous improvement in oral health and the reduced need of restorative treatment will seriously affect the provision of dental helath care and dental delivery system in the near future.

45678910 301 - 350 of 468
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf