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  • 301.
    Brundin, Ethel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Patzelt, Holger
    Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena, Germany .
    Sheperd, Dean A.
    Kelley School of Business, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States .
    Managers' Emotional Displays and Employees' Willingness to Act Entrepreneurially2016In: Decision Making in Entrepreneurship: Selected Joint Papers of Dean A. Shepherd / [ed] Dean A. Shepherd, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, p. 119-141Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we draw on the literature of emotions and entrepreneurial motivation to analyze how and why emotional displays of managers influence the willingness of employees to act entrepreneurially. Using an experimental design and 2912 assessments nested within 91 employees from 31 small entrepreneurially oriented firms, we find that managers' displays of confidence and satisfaction about entrepreneurial projects enhance employees' willingness to act entrepreneurially, whereas displays of frustration, worry, and bewilderment diminish employees' willingness. Moreover, we find that displays of satisfaction, frustration, worry, and bewilderment moderate the effect of managers' displayed confidence on employees' willingness to act entrepreneurially. Our findings have implications for the emotions and entrepreneurial motivation literature. 

  • 302.
    Brunk, Katja
    et al.
    ESMT Berlin, Germany.
    Hartmann, Benjamin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Locals as Immigrants in German Unification and Acculturation: How Nostalgia Enchants the Former East2013In: Advances in Consumer Research 2013, Chicago, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 303.
    Brunninge, Olof
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Börsen bra. Hemma bäst: MSAB köps ut från börsen. Att familjebolag avnoteras har sina förklaringar.2017In: Affärsvärlden, ISSN 0345-3766, no 47, p. 4p. 28-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The main owners of the Swedish famly firm Melker Schörling AB (MSAB) have made an offer to the minority owners to repurchase their shares. The intention is to delist MSAB from the stock exchange. It is not uncommon that owning families choose to delist their firms from the stock exchange. One reaseon to do so is that being listed may have negative implications for the socioemotional wealth (SEW) of the owners. Family owners need to consider both financial wealth and socioemotional wealth in their corporate governance decisions. 

  • 304.
    Brunninge, Olof
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Connecting and disconnecting historical epochs through heritage brands.: The case of the Latvian confectionary brand Laima.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper addresses how heritage brands can survive and develop in highly changing political and economic contexts. Examining the case of the Latvian Confectionary Brand Laima, I discuss how the brand relates back to two periods of Latvian independence and two periods of Russian/Soviet/German occupation from 1870-2016.

  • 305.
    Brunninge, Olof
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Family heritage in corporate heritage branding: opportunities and risks2017In: Foundations of Corporate Heritage, Oxford: Routledge, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter explores the opportunities and risks associated with addressing family heritage in the context of corporate heritage branding. Family businesses are particularly interesting for the communication of corporate heritage , as the heritage of the company and that of the owner family are usually closely connected. Firms communicating their corporate heritage often aim at assuring stakeholders that central traits of the company will endure even in the future. Such trait constancy can become embodied, reinforced, and extended by the inclusion fo family heritage. However family heritage can become a liability when stakeholders discover negative traits in the family's past.

  • 306.
    Brunninge, Olof
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Fridriksson, Helgi-Valur
    Malmö University.
    ”We have always been responsible”: A social memory approach to responsibility in supply chains2017In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 372-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Drawing on the social memory literature, we discuss what implications referencing to the past can have for how firms manage their supply chains and communicate about them.

    Design/Methodology/Approach: In a conceptual manner, we connect the field of responsible supply chain management to the growing literature on corporate heritage and social memory in organizations.

    Findings: We develop seven propositions related to the communication of the past and its connection to responsible supply chain management.

    Research limitations/implications: A social memory perspective can inform supply chain management research, by helping to better understand how and with what consequences the past can be used in communication about supply chains. Our paper is conceptual in nature and empirical investigations would be needed to support and/or modify our literature-based findings.

    Practical implications: Managers should be aware that both opportunities and risks are associated withcommunicating the past in connection to responsible supply chain management. Deployed in the right way, such communication can be valuable both in marketing and in internal management processes.

    Originality/value: This article introduces the social memory perspective to the supply chain management field and shows what implications it can have for research on responsibility in supply chains. 

  • 307.
    Brunninge, Olof
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Hartmann, Benjamin J.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Inventing a past: Corporate heritage as dialectical relationships of past and present2019In: Marketing Theory, ISSN 1470-5931, E-ISSN 1741-301X, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 229-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this commentary, we focus on invented corporate heritage, where organizations present falsified accounts of a corporate past. The extant corporate heritage literature has highlighted how the time frames of the past, present and future (omni temporality) are merged in those organizations where there is trait constancy. Focusing on invented corporate heritage, we argue that this represents an extreme case of these dialectics, where present and future precede “the past”, or more appropriately “invented past”. Although lacking in authenticity, an invented corporate heritage may still be attractive to consumers since it can construct an aura of authenticity by delivering an enchanting experience to consumers, irrespective of its substantive genuineness. However, such inventions carry considerable risk since they represent a fabrication of the past.

  • 308.
    Brunninge, Olof
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Melander, Anders
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Family firm longevity and resource management: Financial and social-emotional wealth rationalities2015In: New ways of studying emotions in organizations / [ed] Charmine E. J. Härtel , Wilfred J. Zerbe , Neal M. Ashkanasy, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015, p. 173-213Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we explore the impact of socioemotional and financial wealth on the resource management of family firms. We use MoDo, a Swedish pulp and paper firm, covering three generations of owner-managers from 1873 to 1991, to grasp the shifting emphases on socioemotional and financial wealth in the management of the company. Identifying four strategic issues of decisive importance for the development of MoDo, we analyze the organizational values that guided the management of these issues. We propose that financial and socioemotional wealth stand for two different rationalities that infuse organizational values. The MoDo case illustrates how these rationalities go hand in hand for extended periods of time, safeguarding both financial success and socioemotional endowments. However, in a situation where the rationalities are no longer in line with the development of the industry context, the conflict arising between the two rationalities may have fatal consequences for the firm in question.

  • 309.
    Brunninge, Olof
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Melander, Anders
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Family-Firm Identity Across Generations: The Swedish Pulp and Paper Firms MoDo (1872-1990) and Korsnäs (1855-2011)2013In: History by Generations: Generational Dynamics in Modern History / [ed] Hartmut Berghoff, Uffa Jensen, Christina Lubinski, Bernd Weisbrod, Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter builds on a longitudinal study of two family-owned Swedish pulp and paper firms: MoDo and Korsnäs. Drawing on the concept of "family firm identity" we investigate how the character of the two firms as family businesses has been sustained over generations and through changes in the firms' startegies and business contexts. We conclude that the concept of family firm identity needs to be applied in a differentiated manner in order to capture the reality of family busineeses. Based on our cases we identify three dimensions along which family firm identity differs: 1) explicit vs. implicit family firm identity, 2) owbership vs. management oriented family firm identity and 3) general vs. specific family firm identity.

  • 310.
    Brunninge, Olof
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Melander, Anders
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    The dynamics of path dependence on the individual, organizational and the field levels: MoDo, the Kempe family and the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1873–19902016In: Management & Organizational History, ISSN 1744-9359, E-ISSN 1744-9367, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 189-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Path dependence is a promising and increasingly popular perspectivefor analysing long-term historical developments in firms, industriesor referring to other units of analysis. A central assumption is thatpaths can narrow down as a result of self-reinforcing processesthat eventually result in a lock-in that is difficult, if at all possible, toreverse. Typically, path dependence is investigated relating to onepath on a specific unit of analysis, e.g. an organization. The presentarticle explores how different paths on different levels of analysis caninfluence each other. Empirically, we use the long-term developmentof the Swedish pulp and paper company MoDo as the focal level ofanalysis. The organizational level paths are then related to paths onthe field level of the Swedish pulp and paper industry and to pathsrepresented by individual owner-managers’ ways of thinking. Weconceptualize the dynamic interplay between paths by elaboratingon processes of path-spreading, path-breaking, path-convergenceand path-divergence.

  • 311.
    Brunninge, Olof
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Melin, Leif
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership.
    Continuity in Change: Path Dependence and Transformation in Two Swedish Multinationals2009In: The Hidden Dynamics of Path Dependence: Institutions and Organizations / [ed] Georg Screyögg & Jörg Sydow, Houndmills: Palgrave , 2009, 1, p. 94-109Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 312.
    Brunninge, Olof
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Swedish School of Textiles, Borås.
    Wramsby, Gunnar
    Swedish School of Textiles, Borås.
    Avoiding to get stuck in a successful business model.: Business Model Adaptation at a high technology textile company2013In: RENT XXVII. Research in Entrepreneurship and Small Business: Entrepreneurship, Institutions and Competitiveness, European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management (EIASM) , 2013, p. 36-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM

     

    The development of successful business models has become recognized as an important element of entrepreneurial processes (George & Bock, 2011). Business models are depicted as loci of innovation shaping the mechanisms that derive value from business opportunities (Amit & Zott, 2001; Chesbrough & Rosenbloom, 2002). Yet, a major challenge even for entrepreneurial firms with successful business models is to avoid getting stuck in their business model in situations where environmental changes call for business model alignment or where an established business model might be an obstacle to pursuing new opportunities. While firms need to adapt and change their business models, we know that organizations tend to get stuck in their early strategies and structures (Hannan & Freeman, 1977) and that firms may get locked into previously successful paths (Sydow; Schreyögg & Koch, 2009). Hence, Johnson et al. (1996) propose that new business models are most likely to emerge with new organizations. The present paper aims at exploring how innovative firms can avoid getting stuck in their business models. As a theoretical lens we are going to use the literature on path dependence that allows analyzing why firms get locked-in on specific patterns, but also how such lock-ins can be avoided. 

     

    CONTRIBUTION

     

    Being a buzzword during the time of the dot.com bubble (Magretta 2002), the ‘business model’ concept has become widely used among practitioners and in normatively oriented publications (Casadesus-Masanell & Ricart 2011; Johnson et al. 2008; Magretta 2002). So far, research on business models suffers from a lack of consensus as to what business models actually refer to (Morris et al. 2005), leading to a fragmented body of knowledge (George & Bock 2011) that is sometimes characterized by conceptual obscurity (Hedman & Kalling 2003).

     

    There have been attempts to bring more clarity and coherence to the use of the business model concept, most notably George & Bock’s (2011) recent article where they both review the existing business model literature and make an attempt to investigate how practitioners actually use the concept. Their literature review identifies six major themes, focusing on product and service design, the deployment of resources, narrative accounts of business models, innovation frameworks, transaction structures, and the enactment of opportunities. The findings relating to practitioners’ business model conceptions are no less diverse, yet they identify an emphasis on the pursuit of opportunities. George & Bock (2011), warn that if the business model concept comprises too many aspects, it may be difficult to distinguish business models from other management concepts such as strategy. Their solution is to propose a business model definition related to the enactment of opportunities. On the other hand, a primarily opportunity-based definition leads to the question, if such phenomena are not yet sufficiently addressed in classical conceptions of entrepreneurship (e.g. Stevenson 1995). Morris, Schindehutte & Allen (2005), thus choose to emphasize the logic of profit generation in their conception of business models. While the enactment of a business opportunity is important for any business model, it is only the inclusion of the profit generation logic that clearly distinguishes the business model from other concepts.    

     

    It is undisputed that in a changing environment. Business models have to be changed or even replaced in order to sustain the success of the firm in the long run (Brunninge & Achtenhagen 2011, Doz & Kosonen 2009; Johnson, Christensen & Kagerman 1996). Still, we have rather little knowledge relating to the question how such dynamic adaptation of business models is created in practice. Johnson et al. (1996) distinguish between reactive and opportunity driven business model changes. In general, they see severe obstacles to change in established organizations. Hence, they have relatively little to say about how business model change can be accomplished in established firms. Their description of inertia comes close to the phenomenon of organizational path dependence (Sydow, et al. 2009). The literature on path dependence goes back to the work of (Arthur 1989; David 1985) departing from the assumption that increasing returns, i.e. a positive feedback process that eventually results in a lock-in where changes of the selected solution become hard, if not impossible, to bring about (Sydow, Schreyögg & Koch 2009). It is thus essentially initial success that leads to inertia, making an effective business model a potential trap preventing future change. A key element of path dependent processes is a narrowing down of options that result from the increasing returns generated by a specific solution.

     

    Method

     

    As indicated initially, our emphasis in this paper lies on the change of business models. Despite some contributions on this issue (Brunninge & Achtenhagen 2011, Doz & Kosonen 2009; Johnson, Christensen & Kagerman 1996), surprisingly little has yet been done to understand what makes business models changeable and how business model change can be accomplished. In order help filling this gap we have conducted a longitudinal single case study of an entrepreneurial firm. Case studies are particularly suited for research on change processes, as they capture longitudinal developments in context (Pettigrew 1990, 1997). As they allow for empirically-based exploration, they are particularly suited for relatively novel research topics (Eisenhardt 1989) such as business models.

     

    Our case company Oxeon, was founded in 2003 by a team of three entrepreneurs and is based in Borås/Sweden. It has so far been focusing on developing, producing and marketing a specific type of carbon-fiber based composite textiles. Two members of the entrepreneurial team were students to one of the authors of this paper, who has been able to follow the development of Oxeon since the time before the company’s formal start-up. Over time, the entrepreneurs have documented the development of their firm and in particular its business model. We have had access to this written documentation. In addition we conducted semi-structured interviews with all three entrepreneurs. Based on the data, we constructed a case study covering the development of the firm over a period of 10 years.

     

    Results & Implications

     

    Our paper provides in-depth insight into the development process of an entrepreneurial firm’s business model. The Oxeon case reveals that any change in a business model enables and constrains the pursuit of future business opportunities. Choices entrepreneurs are making along the way result in the business model taking shape. While choices, such as Oxeon’s opting for carbon fibre created opportunities, but at the same time it also implied that potential opportunities associated with other materials were foregone. What is interesting about Oxeon’s choice however, is that the choice of carbon fibre left relatively many application opportunities open as opposed to the alternative options the company had. Likewise, choices to engage in raw material manufacturing, machine production as well as the combination of producing carbon fibre as well as licensing the process to customers avoided the typical narrowing down of options that tends to be typical of path dependent processes. In relatively short time, Oxeon pursued various business opportunities in manufacturing, machine development and raw material manufacturing. Likewise different revenue generating mechanisms, i.e. sales and licensing were applied simultaneously. The entrepreneurs themselves emphasize that that they consciously strive for leaving many options for the future development of their business model open. They just consciously seek to avoid the risk of lock-in to a path dependent development.

     

    While the path-dependence literature has recently been pointing at the fact that paths can actually be unlocked Ericson & Lundin (2013), the option of avoiding lock ins in the first place seems far more attractive to entrepreneurs that want to retain the strategic flexibility of being able to adapt and change their business model. Even though the Oxeon case does not mean that firms can retain an unlimited range of options for business model change, the conscious choice to pursue paths that allow for many future options creates a lot of possibilities for pursuing new business opportunities and for aligning the business model with environmental changes.

     

    Entrepreneurs who are aware of this, can adapt their business model in a way that always keeps a wide range of business opportunities open. So far the business model literature included few in-depth longitudinal studies exploring the dynamic adaptation of business model and the role of individual entrepreneurs in such processes. With our paper we show how the development of a business model evolves over time and how entrepreneurs can maintain a high flexibility in their business model by keeping options for a wide spectrum of future choices open.

  • 313.
    Brunninge, Olof
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Swedish School of Textiles, Borås.
    Wramsby, Gunnar
    Swedish School of Textiles, Borås.
    Avoiding to get stuck in a successful business model: Dynamic business model adaptation from a path dependence perspective2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 314.
    Bruns, Volker
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Who receives bank loans? A study of lending officers' assessments of loans to growing small and medium-sized enterprises2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores factors that influence lending officers' assessments of credit requests from growing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Building on asymmetric information theory, factors identified in previous research are grouped into the theoretical categories of risk-assessment, risk-alignment, and risk-shifting. Hypotheses are developed as to what influences lending officers' credit assessments. In addition, it is hypothesized that risk-taking proclivity interacts with other variables. A conjoint experiment involving 114 lending officers is used to test the hypotheses, which are, by and large, supported by the data.

    Furthermore, the study investigates how individual differences in experience among lending officers affect the credit assessments, e.g., more experienced lending officers use more sophisticated decision policies involving interactions. When the results from the experiments were compared with the lending officers' self-perceived assessments, it was discovered that lending officers have limited insight into their own credit assessments.

    The findings of this study have implications for SMEs, lending officers, and lending organizations. The results can assist SMEs to better tailor loan applications. Banks can use the results to make comparisons with their existing credit guidelines, which could assist them in improving their decision-making.

    The three theoretical categories identified provide a foundation for future research on bank lending to SMEs. The developed model can facilitate empirical research on bank lending under asymmetric information by providing a structure and categorizing previous research into relevant categories.

  • 315.
    Brunsson, Karin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Effektivitet för vem?2014In: Kunden, ISSN 1401-6885, no 2, p. 54-54Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 316.
    Brunsson, Karin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Effektivitet ger inte alltid önskad effekt2013In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 9/3-2013Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 317.
    Brunsson, Karin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Uppsala universitet.
    Is the process organization an oxymoron?2015In: Advances in Business Management. Towards Systemic Approach: Book of Abstracts: 3rd Business Systems Laboratory International Symposium Perugia 2015 / [ed] Gandolfo Dominici, Federica Evangelista, CreateSpace , 2015, p. 80-84Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 318.
    Brunsson, Karin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Metodlitteraturen begränsar studenternas självständighet2014In: Universitetsläraren, no 8, p. 26-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 319.
    Brunsson, Karin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Uppsala universitet.
    The teachings of management: Perceptions in a society or organizations2017 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book provides a brief overview of the fundamental presumptions underlying the idea of management. It is argued that managers and others must endorse these presumptions – the teachings of management – even though they are well aware that their applicability to managerial practice is limited. The author analyzes how the teachings of management are similar to political or religious beliefs and why, unlike such doctrines, they cannot be easily dismissed as outdated or irrelevant. Instead, these assumptions help to construct the idea of the organization, and thus constitute a vital factor in a contemporary society of organizations.

  • 320.
    Brunsson, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Brunsson, Nils
    Uppsala universitet.
    Beslut2014Book (Other academic)
  • 321. Brush, C.
    et al.
    De Bruin, A.
    Welter, Friederike
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    A Gender-Aware Framework for Women's Entrepreneurship2009In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 8-24Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 322.
    Brännhult, Danny
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Kapanen, Gustaf
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Value of Information Sharing in a 3PL-relationship2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the business environment of today is characterized to be dynamic and service-driven, corporations are looking for solutions how to cut costs and still keep their competitive advantage in the market, and also how to decrease lead-time and flexibility. In this environment are 3PL-providers operating with an incentive to always please the customer. This study will investigate a 3PL-provider´s information sharing with its customer and how value can be extracted from this type of sharing.

    The purpose of this thesis is to understand and investigate the value of information sharing between the 3PL-provider and its customer. Two research questions have been dictated; R1: How do the respondents at the 3PL-provider perceive the relationship with their customer? R2: How are information requirements met?

    For the frame of reference have theories in the area of third-party logistics, information, relation, and value been studied. The carrying out of the study has been performed with a bounded ethnography approach since this study has essences from both the scientific and ethnographic approaches. The research reasoning is mainly inductive but with deductive elements. The research strategy is of qualitative character, where the data collection has been carried out through interviews/discussions within multiple case studies. There were several interviews launched within the target 3PL-relationships. The analysis of the empirical findings has been done through the existing theories in the frame of reference.

    The investigation showed that improvements of the information requirements and utilization of the communication methods improves the quality of the information sharing, and the conclusion drawn is that the information requirements and communication methods are big contributors for the information sharing as a whole. Since the information sharing is considered a big contributor to the customer value one can use the customer value as reference for how to value the information sharing. A main conclusion is therefore that the value of information sharing is dependent on its contribution for the customer value.

  • 323.
    Budianschi, Corina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Ekeroth, Farrah Blair
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Milanova, Marija
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Eco-friendly Flights?: A Consumer's Perspective2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:             

    The environmental impacts of tourism have recently become a high-profile topic due to the increasing amount of attention devoted to issues such as climate change. The harmful effects of aviation, in particular, have led airline companies to adopt proactive sustainability agendas. In light of this, this study seeks to explore the extent of environmental awareness amongst consumers as well as the effects that corporate sustainability measures have on the decision-making process of air travelers.

    Purpose:                    

    The purpose of this thesis is to determine whether or not consumers value environmental responsibility within the airline industry and to determine the factors that influence the consumer decision-making process.

    Method:                     

    This thesis utilizes a mixed-method approach, with both quantitative and qualitative methods employed. Quantitative data was collected through a survey distributed online and to travelers at Göteborg Landvetter airport, with a total of 95 respondents. Additionally, an in-depth interview was conducted with Stefan Gössling, a prominent researcher within the field of tourism.

    Findings:                   

    The results of this thesis reveal relatively low awareness amongst consumers with regard to the environmental actions of airlines. Although consumers appear to have a general knowledge of the negative impacts of air travel, they are reluctant to alter their own flying behavior. Additionally, the results of the survey reveal that consumers are not yet familiar with the concept of eco-friendly flights or the sustainable options that are available to them when purchasing flight tickets.  Ultimately, when buying from airline companies, consumers place greater emphasis on other factors such as costs, services and the availability of desired routes.

  • 324.
    Budnik, Jennifer
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Wenzel, Inga
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The impact of corporate crisis on stock performance: Evidence of an event study exemplified by the Volkswagen diesel engine crisis2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The diesel engine scandal of the carmaker Volkswagen let the company’s stock collapse, losing almost a quarter of its market value within a few days. The United States Environmental Protection Agency issued a ‘Violation of Notice’ of the ‘Clean Air Act’ to the German car manufacturer, accusing the corporation to have cheated on American exhaust standards by the use of a defeat device. Crises such as the underlying case cause big reputational and thus financial damage to a company, which can be measured by event studies. First, we analyze the impact of the damaging event on Volkswagen, second we investigate potential spillover effects on benchmarks. Third, we focus on the investigation of sub-events to capture full effects of the scandal during the post-crisis period. We are interested in analyzing sub-events to understand their impact on the stock price recovery. In general, we test the hypothesis of a damaging event having no impact on the stock performance against the alternative hypothesis. We find that global benchmarks are little or not affected, while we find significant impact on Volkswagen, the Volkswagen Group and the European automobile industry. Negative follow up announcements tend to have no significant impact in the long but in the short-run, while positive follow up news show significant impact on the stock price at any time during the considered post-crisis period. Conventional event studies deal with samples, while we examine a single time series. We adapt the methodology accordingly, thus we present a new approach that solves the issue of moving event windows and overlapping event windows.

  • 325.
    Busatlija, Emina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Land, Mia-Berentje
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Mathieu, Anne Nathalie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    How could cosmetic companies use social media in times of crisis?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose This thesis aims to provide guidelines for cosmetic companies on how to use social media in times of crisis.

    Background In today’s society, cosmetic companies can face crises that can vary according to their level of impact and their level of controllability. These crises can go viral and reach a huge amount of stakeholders since social media can take on many different forms such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. It is important to know how to manage these different com-   munication tools and it is even more crucial in times of crisis. However, social media and the cosmetic industry have not been combined in previous studies. Therefore, it is beneficial for cosmetic companies to have guidelines on how to use social media in times of crisis.

    Method The method is based on an inductive approach. Benchmarking case studies reflect crises that occurred in industries other than the cosmetic industry. The findings from the case studies are then complemented with a chosen company representative from the cosmetic industry. Finally, a semi-structured interview has been conducted to balance the research and add new valuable information to the investigation.

    Conclusion Based on the results of the analysis, the authors of the thesis have been able to provide guidelines to cosmetic companies on how to use social media in times of crisis. These guidelines are divided into two parts: the first part advises guidelines to follow while the second part recommends factors to avoid on social media.

  • 326.
    Buvari, Rebecca
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Dosé, Tiffany
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Vonstad, Brita
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    A Channel Approach to Fashion2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background – Previous research has evaluated different distribution systems and chan-nels that companies operate through. However, research primarily has focused on the richness of online channels rather than the value of physical stores. The following report will examine the reasons and implications underlying the choice of channel strategy.

    Purpose – The purpose of this thesis is to examine the reason why companies within the fashion and apparel industry, operating in Sweden, choose to operate through a certain market channel strategy. The thesis aims to evaluate four types of market channel strat-egies with the help of case companies.

    Method – A qualitative approach to the research has been chosen which consists of a case study including four companies representing different channel strategies. Data col-lection for the analysis where conducted through interviews with persons having vital positions within one of the four companies.

    Results and Discussion – The case companies ASOS, Bubbleroom, Cubus and Dressmann each represent one of the chosen market channels. The interviews presented in the results section implied that the companies chosen channel was more appropriate for the market they operated in as well as the target group they were aiming to reach.

    Conclusion – Even though research states that today’s society is moving away from the physical store market channel, this study proved that one single strategy is not appropri-ate for all businesses. A company will have to research their target market before ap-propriately selecting a channel strategy.

  • 327.
    Byberg, Andreas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Hansen, Jesper
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Basic, Mario
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Celebrity Endorsement's Impact on Brand Image and Sales: A Case Study on Volvo Cars Sweden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 328.
    Bäck, Linda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Sittkoff, Robin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Westerberg, Lisa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Hälsobokslut: En studie av tre landsting2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Health account is a rather new concept that originates from several different schools of accounting. Due to the high number of sick leaves in Sweden, the government has developed a document with the purpose of reducing the sick leave and the health account is a part of this plan. The purpose of the health account is to make companies and organisations more aware of issues concerning health in the workplace. From this point it is possible to take steps against illness.

    The purpose is first to describe two different health account models and then compare them to three completed health accounts. The purpose is also to examine the implementation process and to find out if the health accounts have lead to any effects in the county councils.

    To create an understanding for the expression health account, and to be able to answer the purpose of our thesis, we have used a qualitative method. Both the comparison of the models and the health accounts were realised through studies of literature and reviews of the health acounts. To be able to accomplish the clarification that was given in the purpose, we have conducted interviews with the selected county councils.

    Those health accounts that we have studied shows that they differ very little from the models. When it comes to the comparison between the health accounts, the main similarities are that they all require cooperation and they are dependent of well working personal administration systems. The main difference between the health accounts is to what extent they have been implemented in the organisation. The difficulties concerning the implementation have varied between the three county councils. The difficulties concern both technical problems and to handle large amounts of information. The health accounts had positive effects on sick leave and has also increased the interest in questions concerning the employees.

  • 329.
    Bäck, Malte
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Svenson, Adam
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Hemmingsson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. hemmingsson.johan@gmail.com.
    Value Co-Creation in E-commerce: A Case Study of a Swedish E-Retailer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to examine if and how Value Co-Creation works online, and what interactions the customers believe to be of importance to continue a relationship with a company.

    The problem of the thesis is how to create value in order to establish long-term relationships with customers in an online environment where the element of face to face interactions is absent, and switching costs facing the customers are non-existent. There is little research made about Value Co-Creation in an online setting, further how Co-Creation of Value affects the ability to establish and maintain Customer Relationships.

    This paper utilized a qualitative research approach and was executed through a case study built up by a thorough analysis of a marketing plan and the value creating activities of Company X, and semi-structured interviews with twelve customers of Company X to investigate how these activities are perceived.

    The conclusion of the research in this paper is that Company X performs activities that allows Co-Creation of Value. Further, it was concluded that the services provided by Company X contributes with important factors when trying to establish and maintain relationships with their customers.

  • 330.
    Bäcknäs, Pierre
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Storck, Carl Philip
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Bolagsstyrning: Förväntade effekter för externrevisionen2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Senare års skandaler inom näringslivet har allvarligt skadat allmänhetens förtroende för bolagsstyrningen. Som ett svar på detta togs i USA en detaljerad lagstiftning fram, i form av SOX. I Sverige, har som en av de sista länderna i Europa istället arbetats fram en svensk kod för bolagsstyrning. I och med detta har bolagsstyrning och intern kontroll fått ett ökat fokus och tanken är att den finansiella informationen från bolagen skall bli mer tillförlitliga.

    Syftet med denna rapport är att identifiera förväntade effekter av hur de nya kraven på bolagsstyrning kommer att påverka de externa revisorernas arbete. Speciellt var det gäller samarbetet med internrevisionen och säkerställandet av den finansiella rapporteringen.

    Vi har valt en kvalitativ metod, med djupintervjuer av semistrukturerad art. Respondenterna i undersökningen är både extern och internrevisorer med gedigen erfarenhet, samt FARs ordförande. Dessa valdes för att få en djupare förståelse för våra frågeställningar om förväntade effekter.

    De slutsatser som vi gjort är att samarbetet mellan intern- och externrevisionen förväntas öka genom samplanering och minimering av dubbelarbete, speciellt inom intern kontroll. När det gäller externrevisionens arbete så kommer revisionsinsatsen att öka genom en ökad testning av intern kontroll och dokumentation av dessa tester. Organisationsförändringar med revisionsutskott/kommitté förväntas också höja oberoendet för externrevisionen som får ett bättre samarbete med styrelsen istället för bolagsledningen.

  • 331.
    Caccamo, Marta
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Pittino, Daniel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Tecnológico de Monterrey, EGADE Business School, San Pedro Garza García, Mexico.
    Family firm density and likelihood of failure: An ecological perspective2019In: The Palgrave handbook of heterogeneity among family firms / [ed] S. Memili & C. Dibrell, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 821-846Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter aims at establishing a link between family business research and regional science. Drawing from the density dependence model from organizational ecology and embeddedness theory, we develop four testable propositions to inquire about the effect of the emergence of family firms’ agglomerations in the territory on firms’ survival.

    We theorize that increased family firm density reduces the likelihood of firm failure and this effect is (a) higher for family firms than for non-family firms, (b) lower in urban than in rural areas, and (c) higher in fine-grained variable environments than in stable environments. Contributions and future research implications are detailed in the concluding section.

  • 332.
    Cano Olmos, Luis Mohamed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Cabrera Rojas, Luis Isaias Jesus
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Health Records in the Mexican Health System2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis address one of the most important topics for the human being; health. Specifically, the research is about the deficiencies of the health system in Mexico. This paper shows the importance, how the system works and its current situation in the country. The purpose of this research is, based on the Pareto principle (20% vs 80%), to find how to solve most problems with the least possible investment.

     

    It was found that the common denominator in the problems was the process and flow of information of the patients; specifically, the health records. The researchers address the issue at first explaining in a deep way the health records to highlight their importance in the health care system. In order to corroborate this finding in the literature; The researchers designed an interview, which was applied to physicians from the two main health institutions in Mexico in order to collect the necessary information to develop the thesis.

     

    Since the design of the research is qualitative; the necessary social context is given to be able to understand the analysis and the results; likewise, the authors explain in detail the methodology used.

     

    In spite of other important factors that were found such as the lack of results despite the investment and deficiencies in the infrastructure; It was concluded that, in fact, most of the problems were derived from the problems of health records. These results are important because it gives a parameter of what must be corrected first in order to have the expected results and a better health system.

  • 333.
    Carlberg, Oliver
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Kjellberg, Oscar
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Branding in the automotive industry: The role of product experience in the buying process of the premium segment in Sweden.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze and obtain a deeper understanding regarding the role of prior and present product experience and its impact on the buying process of an automobile within the premium segment in Sweden.

     

    Problem: A research gap has been identified regarding the connection between a product experience and its actual role in the buying process of a premium automobile. It is argued that great measures of a consumer’s perceptions of a product are formed by gathered product experience whilst no previous research conclude to what extent it actually makes an impact. Additionally, no previous research has identified if negative product experiences of automobiles deem a brand to be undesired to an individual in comparison to brand where no product experience is to be found.

     

    Design/Method: This paper has utilized a qualitative research approach that includes the conduction of semi-structured interviews, which worked towards investigating the perceptions of interviewees with regards to the subject of product experience and to what extent it impacts individuals. Moreover, an abductive research approach is utilized within this paper as the approach combines all forms of known information in order to form a conclusion based upon discovered observations whilst also collecting data that enables a more thorough insight.

     

    Findings: This research proves that product experience plays a vital role in subsequent buying decision processes. Previously attached meanings and values, elicited emotions and perceptions towards a specific brand are through our findings confirmed to have a direct impact on purchases of automobiles as well as feelings associated with an automotive premium brand. The conducted research also found that bad product experiences, although damaging brand perceptions, most commonly surpasses no experience at all.

  • 334.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Lyrbäck, Linnéa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Dark Side of Emotional Intelligence within a Company Context: A multiple case study exploring the dark side of emotional intelligence within Swedish companies2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:The society of the 21st century is shaped by a highly competitive environment and a vast amount of uncertainties. To stay competitive and up to date, people must manage other people and their emotions with excellence. Emotional intelligence (EI) has been described as a key function in managing people successfully within companies of today's society. Existing research within the field of the phenomenon has mostly been focusing on the fruitfulness as follows by EI taking place within a company context. However, some researchers argue for the other side of the coin, where the usage of EI may harm people. This area is introduced as the dark side of EI which takes form through emotional manipulation. As emotional manipulation is argued to be present within a company context, it becomes important to investigate how the dark side of EI manifests and affects people within a company context.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore how the dark side of EI manifests and affects people within a company context.

    Method: To fulfil the purpose of this study being of exploratory nature, a qualitative research methodology was employed. The empirical data was collected through semi- structured interviews held with people of various positions within four large Swedish companies. The data has been analysed and interpreted using a general inductive research approach incorporating thematic analysis.

    Conclusion:This study shows that the dark side of EI exists within a company context. Findings imply the manifestation to start within the top management followed by a hierarchical domino effect throughout the hierarchical levels within the company and is highly dependent on leadership influence. The dark side of EI does not solely manifests in the non-prosocial side of EI, it also appears to manifest within an intermediate zone between prosocial and non-prosocial. The manifestation takes form through gamification techniques being identified as social-, tactic-, and run one over games. People got affected by the manifestation in terms of emotional distance and decreased motivation. Importantly, the degree in which people got affected varied depending on individual concentrations of EI competencies, self- confidence, assertiveness, and familiarity with the individual or the group as explained in the Spectrum Framework from EI to the Dark side of EI created within this research. 

  • 335.
    Carlsson, Christian
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Duraku, Besmir
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Motivation within a Family Business: Why are non-family managers motivated to work within a family business?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Problem:

    Family business is the most common type of enterprise in the world and an elaborative subject to perform research in. However, the linkage between motivation and family business is not common to study, especially form the non-family managers’ perspective. Therefore, this thesis aims to fulfill the missing gap in research concerning motivational factors for non-family managers within a family business. Motivational factors are crucial for individuals in order to perform, although the motivational factors for a non-family manager within a family business is a complex phenomena. Several parameters must be taken into consideration, such as the family businesses characteristics and sources to motivation.

    Purpose:

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate and to reach an understanding for why non-family managers are motivated to work within a family business.  

    Method:

    The method used in this thesis is a qualitative research with an abductive reasoning, based on ten interviews with eight different family businesses. The interviews include a variation of family businesses, as well as a variation of respondents, in order to receive a wide overview of how motivation is applied in different type of areas. However, the selection of this thesis interviews is based on that all the organizations are medium to large sized family businesses that have both family members and non-family members within their management team. In addition, all the respondents are non-family members, with a management position, within a family business.

    Results:

    The result of this thesis argues that the main reasons for why non-family managers are motivated to work within a family business are: The opportunity to be part of the decision making process and the possibility to influence the future culture within a family business.

  • 336.
    Carlsson, Christopher
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Svensson, Christoffer
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The effect of blockchain related corporate name changes on stock prices: An investigation into the creation of cumulative abnormal returns following a blockchain related corporate name change2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Investments in cryptocurrencies have generated extraordinary returns and the interest in cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology from the public, companies, investors, and news media has increased substantially in the past years. This has led certain corporations to change the strategic direction towards blockchain technology, as well as changing the corporate name to reflect an association and these name changes has created substantial increases in the price of that stock. Existing literature of corporate name changes has touched upon several aspects of the subject. However, no specific research connected to blockchain and cryptocurrencies has been conducted. The purpose of this research is therefore to investigate the effect of corporate name changes related to the terms blockchain or cryptocurrency on the price of stocks. A standard event study methodology was applied to determine if the name change creates abnormal returns. The method used has a quantitative approach to the research and relies on statistical testing of numerical data to reach a conclusion. An investigation of 11 firms was conducted to examine this topic. However, there were no firms that had included the term cryptocurrency in the corporate name. The findings from this research reveal positive and significant cumulative abnormal returns on the announcement date of a blockchain related corporate name change. Furthermore, over the full event window, a significant and positive cumulative abnormal return was observed. Thus, it can be concluded that name changes related to blockchain has a positive effect on the stock price and today's investors seem to perceive a corporate name change within the context of blockchain as positive. 

  • 337.
    Carlsson, Gustav
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Ericsson, Robin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Layered Basket Option Hedging: Currency risk management for multinational corporations2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In an increasingly globalized environment, corporations perform transactions across borders on a day-to-day basis. As multinational corporations expand their businesses the number of currencies in their operations increases. The consequence of operating with several currencies is the risk associated with currency fluctuations. Sandvik AB is a worldwide corporation where activities are conducted through representation in more than 130 countries. Currency exposures are controlled through risk management where financial derivatives are applied to protect the corporation from potential losses caused by fluctuations. Sandvik AB recently implemented a hedging strategy entitled Layered Basket Option hedging. The strategy is a combination of a layered- and a basket option approach to maximize the effect of the hedge. There is a limited amount of previous research regarding Layered Basket Option hedging and Sandvik AB is the first corporation to actively practice this strategy.

    Purpose: The purpose is to investigate and provide information about how currency risk most effectively is hedged for the multinational corporation Sandvik AB. Furthermore, we want to evaluate if Sandvik’s recently implemented hedging strategy, Layered Basket Option hedging, is the best-suited strategy for them and if there are any improvements to be made. This thesis will further investigate the importance of currency hedging for multinational corporations, which are dependent on reporting to their stakeholders. Hopefully, this thesis will also facilitate the communication of Sandvik’s currency strategies throughout the organization and make it more comprehensible.

    Method: Exchange rates on daily basis for the period 2002-2012 were collected from Bank of Canada and Reuters database. The collected data was thereafter used as a basis to perform calculations to determine if Layered Basket Option hedging is the optimal solution for Sandvik AB.

    Conclusion: The results of this study highlight the benefits from applying a Layered Basket Option hedging strategy and the strategy succeeds to reduce the volatility caused by currency fluctuation. The results indicate that the combination of a layered- and a basket option approach successfully creates a suitable strategy for Sandvik AB.

    Furthermore, this thesis has recognized that there exists room for improvement by actively allocating currencies according to their weights and correlations to fully exploit the effects from the strategy.

  • 338.
    Carlsson, Hillevi
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Sandwall, Adam
    Relationships in a B2B context: When the buyer becomes the marketerIndependent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 339.
    Carlsson, Lisa J.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Chehimi, Sara
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Multimedia and Purchase Intentions: Web Design for Fashion E-Tailers2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, many high-end fashion designers have established their own e-commerce site. However, due to the difficulties of replicating the brick and mortar environment and the increase of competition, it has become more difficult to convert visitors into buyers. In order to attract buyers, some retailers add a lot of multimedia content.

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate attitude towards multimedia and whether it influences one’s online purchasing intentions for high-end fashion.

  • 340.
    Carlström, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Karlström, Rikard
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Sellgren, Jakob
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Value Vs Growth: A study of portfolio returns on the Stockholm Stock Exchange2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research Questions:

    • Will a portfolio based on value stocks, on a risk-adjusted basis, outperform a portfolio based on growth stocks on the Stockholm Stock Exchange?

    • Is the superior strategy able to generate abnormal risk adjusted returns by beating the OMXS in-dex?

    Purpose:

    The purpose is to investigate if an investor by purchasing a portfolio based on value stocks will outperform a portfolio based on growth stocks. Furthermore the authors aim to examine if the superior portfolio can beat the OMXS index and create abnormal returns on the Stockholm Stock Exchange.

    Method:

    The quantitative research method is used when gathering information. To deter-mine which stocks to include each year between 1993 to 2005 the price-to-book ratio (P/B) is used. Based on this multiple the sample is divided into two extreme groups of low and high P/B companies. These two groups are further divided according to their price-to-earning ratios (P/E). This creates four portfolios, which symbolizes value and growth stocks. Each portfolio’s return is recorded annually during the 12 year period. The returns are risk-adjusted in order to find the superior portfolio. This portfolio is then compared with the OMXS index for the same period to find out whether it has created an abnormal return.

    Conclusion:

    The superior and most extreme value portfolio, consisting of stocks with low P/B and low P/E ratios generated a cumulative risk-adjusted return of 1908% between 1993-2005 and beat the most extreme growth portfolio consisting of high P/Bs and high P/Es which generated a negative cumulative return. The superior portfolio was also able to beat the OMXS index during the years of 1993-2005, generating an abnormal risk-adjusted return of 7.77 times that of the OMXS index.

  • 341.
    Carnes, Christina
    et al.
    University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.
    Hitt, Michael A.
    Texas A&M University and TCU, USA.
    Sirmon, David
    University of Washington, USA.
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Wook Huh, Dong
    Frostburg State University, USA.
    The Contingent Effect of Synchronization on Leveraging Resources for Innovation2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leveraging resources to exploit opportunities in external markets is at the heart of innovation. However, research suggests that leveraging resources is complicated and fraught with challenges. Building on work in resource orchestration by integrating behavioral logic relating to search behaviors and use of slack resources, we argue synchronization of internal activities enhances the innovation gains of a firm’s leveraging strategy (resource advantage, market opportunity, and entrepreneurial). We further suggest that this impact of synchronization on leveraging strategy and innovation is dependent on firms’ performance relative to social aspirations, elucidating boundary conditions of resource orchestration. Our findings offer theoretical and practical implications for understanding the influence of synchronization, leveraging strategies, and firm performance on innovation.

  • 342. Carnes, Christina M.
    et al.
    Hitt, Michael A.
    Huh, Dong Wook
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Sirmon, David
    The Influence of Synchronization and Performance on Strategic Choice and Innovation2013In: Academy of Management Proceedings: Vol. 2013, No. 1, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leveraging resources to exploit opportunities in external markets is at the heart of innovation. However, theory suggests that leveraging resources is a complicated affair, fraught with potential challenges. Building on work in resource orchestration, we argue that firms achieve superior innovation when their strategy used to leverage resources is synchronized with several resource orchestration processes – namely structuring and bundling. However, such synchronization is not easily achieved. Using prospect theory, we argue and find that prior performance and accompanying managerial biases influence which strategies are chosen to drive innovation and that these same influences are affected by the level of synchronization. Thus, working to leverage firm resources to achieve innovation requires the synchronization of several processes to produce the greatest outcomes.

  • 343.
    Carnes, Christina Matz
    et al.
    University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Hitt, Michael A.
    Texas A&M University.
    Huh, Dong Wook
    Frostburg State University.
    Pisano, Vincenzo
    University of Catania.
    Resource Orchestration for Innovation: Structuring and Bundling Resources in Growth- and Maturity-Stage Firms2016In: Long range planning, ISSN 0024-6301, E-ISSN 1873-1872, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 472-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is an important outcome for firms across all life-cycle stages, though challenges to this goal vary by a firm's stage of development. In this study, we integrate resource orchestration with contingency theory to theorize how managers differentially orchestrate their firm's resource portfolio and capabilities to develop innovation based on the firm's life-cycle stage. Empirical tests using primary data collected from 189 managers of U.S. and Italian firms based on the policy capturing method provide support for our hypotheses. Overall, this research contributes to our understanding of how firms manage their resources to create innovation over the firm's life-cycle.

  • 344.
    Carnestedt, Per
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Ericson, Dennis
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Jonsson, Niclas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Franchising: Focusing on Franchisees' Perspective in the Swedish Retailing Industry2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Franchising is an important global business phenomenon, yet most research in the field is allocated to the American market. In addition, the majority of conducted research on the topic of franchising is considering the franchisor perspective, even though a franchising establishment is a relationship between two parties; the franchisor and the franchisee. Recent trends in franchising research is to further extend the body of literature by considering the franchisee perspective as well as markets other than the U.S.

    This qualitative thesis considers Sweden, a market with great potential for further franchising development. This potential arises from the fact that Sweden is the country in Europe with the lowest percentage of households having problems making ends meet (6.8%), leaving consumers with large disposable incomes and hence, making it an interesting market to engage in. 

    Despite these obvious opportunities in the Swedish market, research focused on the Swedish franchise industry is limited to a few reports where the majority of research conducted merely considers franchising to a small extent.

    Aiming to be the next step to a greater understanding of franchising in a Swedish context, this thesis considers franchising in the Swedish retailing industry, represented by franchisees from the Swedish sports retailing industry. The thesis comprises in-depth interviews with a multidimensional interviewee-group of five interviewees, both current as well as former franchisees in the Swedish sports retailing industry.

    The study resulted in indications on franchisee satisfaction in Sweden in terms of control methods (i.e. behavior or outcome control) as well as propensity to central decision rights (i.e. allocation towards centralized or decentralized). Potential underlying factors to the abovementioned indications are also analyzed and explained. In addition, the study proposes numerous indications as to what further research is to focus on in order to extend the knowledge of the Swedish franchising industry to a more holistic view.

  • 345.
    Casasola, Kitzia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Olsson, Linn
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Solberg, Marie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    "Add as Friend": A Case Study on Facebook and its Effects on Social Capital in the Workplace2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to, through a case study on a consumer electronics retailer in Jönköping, provide an empirical analysis of the link between the use of Facebook and social capital within the workplace.

    Background: The existing research on how employees’ Facebook usage affects social capital in the work place is far from extensive. Moreover, previous research focuses on large international organizations with their own internal social network site, and how this usage affects the organization’s social capital as an entity. Therefore, the authors of this thesis identified a need to examine only a single unit’s social capital within an organization and its link to the employees’ Facebook usage.

    Method: In order to answer the purpose of this thesis, a case study was performed on a consumer electronics retailer in Jönköping, Sweden. A mixed method, sequential explanatory design was applied in this thesis by; quantitative data collection in the form of questionnaires and then qualitative data collection in the form of semi-structured interviews. The questionnaires provided an overall insight to the situation at Electronicum, but also a guideline on where to focus when collecting the qualitative data. Eight employees were interviewed.

    Conclusion: The results indicate that Facebook affected the social capital mainly through its ability to quickly spread information and attitudes, but also to a large extent by its ability to extend social interaction, both offline and online. Trust was affected through Facebook’s ability to create bridging and bonding activities between employees. Moreover, the social capital components of shared norms and citizenship were influenced by Facebook. However, the most distinct link was between Facebook and knowledge sharing. There was a link between the use of Facebook and the increase in off-work activities which indirectly influenced the social capital at the work premises.

  • 346. Caspersz, D.
    et al.
    Edwards, Mark G.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Brundin, Ethel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    The Body Corporate: An Integrative Framework For Embodied Emotion In Family Business Life2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 347.
    Cestino, Joaquín
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Business model innovation dynamics in legacy newspapers: Strategizing at critical junctures2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relevance of the research

    A doomed atmosphere has dominated the traditional newspapers environment in the last years. However, legacy newspapers’ economics have experienced similar situations in the past (Conboy, 2010; Nerone, 2013), having succeeded before in managing significant changes in their business models (BMs). Paradoxically, legacy newspapers are perceived today as locked-in in an obsolete dominant BM.

    Business literature has described the questions posed by the Internet technology revolution to current newspapers’ economics but has failed to provide relevant cues for the development of new BMs. In this paper I analyze previous BM changes in the industry to (1) better understand the current situation that newspaper companies are in and (2) suggest potential lines of action to manage their business challenges today.

    Theoretical grounding and rationale for selection

    In an ever changing environment, companies which manage to create value over extended periods of time successfully adapt and renew their BMs (Achtenhagen, Melin, & Naldi, 2013). A BM describes the rationale of how an organization creates, delivers, and captures value (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2010). The paper defines BM innovation as a modification in the logic of profit generation (Magretta, 2002) and is operationalized as changes in the variables taking part in the profit formula (Johnson, Christensen & Kagermann, 2008).

    Path dependency has been referred as a plausible theoretical explanation to the currently locked-in dominant BM in legacy newspapers (Koch, 2008, 2011; Ryfe & Kemmelmeier, 2011; Djerf-Pierre & Weibull, 2011; Rothman & Koch, 2013; Rothman, Wenzel & Wagner, 2014). Often, organizations and inter-organizational networks and industries are immersed in “dynamics that seem to run by and large beyond the control of agents”, usually in a change resistant manner resulting of a self-reinforcing process. A path dependence perspective helps to explain how this process takes place and eventually consolidates and locks organizations and markets into a path of quasi-deterministic character. Path dependent processes have been described in relation to technology, cognitive, normative or resource-based constraints (Sydow, Schreyögg & Koch, 2009).

    Newspapers’ practices interact with cognitive and cultural processes on multiple levels, resulting in complexly embedded practices, attitudes and assumptions (Ohlsson, 2012). Zukin and DiMaggio (1990) identify four kinds of embeddedness of economic action: cognitive, cultural, structural, and political embeddedness. The notion of embeddedness may offer the right lenses to understand how path dependent dynamics could result in normative practices and affect business strategies in legacy newspapers.

    Research design, Method and Data

    The selected case study, for a longitudinal history, is the Cumbria News Group Ltd. The firm traces its origins to 1815 and holds an extensive archive. During its existence, the firm has gone through various periods when existing BMs have been challenged. The study includes the context of changes at different levels of analysis. The case particularly focuses on supposedly historical critical junctures in the history of newspapers; (1)1830s: origins of the penny press and the modern conception of news, (2) 1960s: big pipes and normatization of objective-investigative-enterprise journalism; and (3) the current period of digital news and defimiliarization of journalism.

    The available sources in their archives are brought into dialogue trying to reverse the stages by which the series of narratives have accumulated. In-depth interviews are also used in the analysis of the current period of digital news.

    The case provides a thick and careful description at the different levels of contexts, appearances and defining practices as a combination of discourse and materiality, and attempts to unearth the underlying logics in the process of change (Pettigrew, 1992).

    Summary of main results

    Whatever their public claims, legacy newspapers have seldom experienced in the past radical and fast transformations in their BMs. Incremental change is a better description of their business historic evolution, mainly as a result of a gradual incorporation of new technologies, new revenue streams and new business practices in an interwoven fashion.

    Contributions to the field’s knowledge base

    The paper contributes with a better understanding of:

    - The role of cognitive and cultural embeddedness in business strategies of newspapers,

    - The contributions and limitations of path dependence as a theoretical framework to interpret BM dynamics in legacy newspapers,

    - How -in a BM analytical mode- legacy newspapers have effectively developed and evolved in different contexts in the past.

    Practical implications

    Managers in the newspaper industry can use the past as a valid reference to interpret and manage the business challenges in the industry today. Key learnings include:

    - Since BMs of legacy newspapers have been revised through incremental processes in which new practices do not immediately replace old ones, managers should challenge the current BM without jeopardizing current capabilities,

    - Since new practices spread from successful innovative newspapers to other players in the industry by a replication process, managers should scan the industry for success stories of new practices,

    - Managers would benefit from understanding that some normative practices in legacy newspapers are relatively accidental and new to the industry (e.g. quality journalism, readership maximization…)

  • 348.
    Cestino, Joaquín
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Berndt, Adele
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    From Servitization To A Service Dominant Logic?: A Marketing Perspective On The Innovation Efforts In Newspapers2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 349.
    Cestino, Joaquín
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Berndt, Adele
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC). Gordon Institute of Business Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Institutional limits to service dominant logic and servitisation in innovation efforts in newspapers2017In: Journal of Media Business Studies, ISSN 1652-2354, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 188-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the implementation of service-orientated strategies within newspapers using SDL and servitisation as theoretical departure points. This perspective helps to interpret the advancements and barriers in the current marketing innovation activities in the industry. Based on the exemplary case of the award-winning Svenska Dagbladet, we show that use is made of servitisation and SDL to the extent allowed by some strategic determinants of institutional nature. While some components of SDL have been implemented successfully others–customisation, resource development and coordination, and dialogue-based marketing communication–present managerial opportunities to increase value co-creation. But for this to happen the industry may need to consider changes in some of the institutional components of qualitative news that today act as institutional limits to innovation.

  • 350.
    Cetin, Hülya
    et al.
    Jönköping University. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Zachee, Valerie
    Jönköping University. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Value Creation Process in the Retail Grocery Chain2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The retail market in the 21st century will be determined on how quickly and efficiently the retailer can respond to shifts in consumer demands. Due to the physical environment of the store (store value) and the interaction with the consumer (shopping trip value), the local retail store has the advantage of generating this tangible and intangible information. It is then of importance that this information will be transferred towards the retailer, who has the opportunity to use this information and generate it into outputs that can be used as negoitables; this value creation process is an unique success indicator for creating a value network within retail supply chain.

    Purpose: The aim of this research is to present an understanding on the value creation process in the grocery retail chain.

    Methodology: Having an inductive nature, this thesis tried to bring a new understanding on value creation in grocery retail business, by using hermeneutics as a methodology approach. For empirical study, the qualitative approach was used. Data was collected through open-ended interviews with representatives in grocery retail chains.

    Conclusion: The main players in the value network were determined in a grocery retail chain as retailer, local retail store and other stores in the chain; and the suppliers. An intensive value exchange between the retail store and the retailer was found and following that, it was concluded that the retailer converts the value input from the local retail store into tangible and intangible value outputs towards suppliers. Combining the conclusions, the research defines that a value network is existing, but on a very low level. But more to the point, the study shows the importance of value creation by the retail chain, and that creating the possibility to share information about products, in-store experience, consumer knowledge, and consumer requirements is one of the biggest advantage the grocery retail chain has to develop this value network further.

     

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