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  • 301. Argyrou, Argyris
    Auditing journal entries using self-organizing map2012In: 18th Americas Conference on Information Systems 2012, AMCIS 2012, 2012, p. 986-995Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A considerable body of regulatory pronouncements attests to the significance of auditing journal entries for ensuring that financial statements are free of material misstatements; however, existing empirical studies have paid insufficient attention to the audit of journal entries. To explore this issue further, this paper proposes a model based on self-organizing map as well as validates this model by performing experiments on a dataset containing journal entries. Empirical results suggest that the proposed model can detect "suspicious" and legitimate transactions with a high degree of accuracy. Further investigations reveal that the performance of the model is robust to varying prior probabilities of "suspicious" journal entries occurring in the population. The findings indicate that the model can assist auditors in detecting "suspicious" journal entries.

  • 302.
    Argyrou, Argyris
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Clustering hierarchical data using self-organizing map: A graph-theoretical approach2009In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer, 2009, Vol. 5629, p. 19-27Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of Self-Organizing Map (SOM) to hierarchical data remains an open issue, because such data lack inherent quantitative information. Past studies have suggested binary encoding and Generalizing SOM as techniques that transform hierarchical data into numerical attributes. Based on graph theory, this paper puts forward a novel approach that processes hierarchical data into a numerical representation for SOM-based clustering. The paper validates the proposed graph-theoretical approach via complexity theory and experiments on real-life data. The results suggest that the graph-theoretical approach has lower algorithmic complexity than Generalizing SOM, and can yield SOM having significantly higher cluster validity than binary encoding does. Thus, the graph-theoretical approach can form a data-preprocessing step that extends SOM to the domain of hierarchical data.

  • 303. Argyrou, Argyris
    Investigating financial distress: The case of macroeconomic uncertainty2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 304.
    Argyrou, Argyris
    et al.
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Andreev, Andriy
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    A semi-supervised tool for clustering accounting databases with applications to internal controls2011In: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 38, no 9, p. 11176-11181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A considerable body of literature attests to the significance of internal controls; however, little is known on how the clustering of accounting databases can function as an internal control procedure. To explore this issue further, this paper puts forward a semi-supervised tool that is based on self-organizing map and the IASB XBRL Taxonomy. The paper validates the proposed tool via a series of experiments on an accounting database provided by a shipping company. Empirical results suggest the tool can cluster accounting databases in homogeneous and well-separated clusters that can be interpreted within an accounting context. Further investigations reveal that the tool can compress a large number of similar transactions, and also provide information comparable to that of financial statements. The findings demonstrate that the tool can be applied to verify the processing of accounting transactions as well as to assess the accuracy of financial statements, and thus supplement internal controls.

  • 305.
    Arheden, Julia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Eliasson, Timmy
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Alfredsson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Generation E-commerce: Motivation to write positive and negative online reviews2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to further explore customer’s motivation to write online reviews by understanding what factors motivate customers to write positive and negative online reviews.

     

    Problem: Because of the shift in technology and the introduction of the Internet the way we communicate, search for information and the way we purchase products have significantly changed. This has opened up for a new marketing channel within e-Commerce, Electronic Word-Of-Mouth (eWOM) and more specifically the sub category Online Reviews. With regards to the novelty of this field of research, previous literature has primarily emphasized the effects of online reviews but not what motivational factors that result in positive and negative reviews. This is where the gap in the literature is found and the problem this thesis strives to understand.

     

    Method: An exploratory strategy and deductive research approach has been applied in the attempt to fill this literature gap. Ten motivational factors for contributing with eWOM were identified in the previous literature, they were tested and challenged through a quantitative approach. Further, the quantitative approach used was based on an online survey targeted Swedish online consumers between the age of 18-34 years. The collected data was analyzed in SPSS with a primary focus on descriptive statistics and the exploratory approach allowed for further insights through a factor analysis.

     

    Findings and Conclusion: The analyzed empirical findings presented that there is a small but not significant difference between the motivational factors behind why people write positive or negative online reviews. However, the findings did present which motivational factors that Swedish online consumers between 18-34 years old found to be the most important for writing both positive and negative online reviews. The findings of this paper further strengthens the previous literature arguing for the importance and influence online reviews have on customers’ purchase intentions in an online setting. With the findings in mind, the authors recommend a qualitative further study within this field of research that could bring new insights and add more depth to the literature.

  • 306.
    Arkannia, Seyamak
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Lundgren, Gabriella
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Stenberg, Åsa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Stay tuned!: TV-commercial avoidance in a multitasking environment2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    The purpose of the thesis is to, through an ethnographic case study, understand 20-25 year olds‘ multitasking habits when watching TV and to create a framework of the distractions identified for media consumption.

    Background:

    The changes in technology and the new possibilities of consuming media creates a need to understand how people in the ages of 20-25 consume media. Advertising on TV is, in Swe-den, the marketing channel that companies spend the largest amount of money on. Most of the statistics regarding viewing rates are collected in a way that might not give totally accu-rate picture of the actual TV viewing of the consumers. Therefore, it is necessary to do an in-depth study of the media consumption habits of this group.

    Method:

    The study will be conducted, through an ethnographic case study where the researchers ob-serve a sample of four people in the target group during 10 sessions. Each session will be two hours long, and during, the researchers will observe the group‘s media consumption habits when watching TV. The observers will also look at the multitasking habits of the group, what media and distractions are combined while watching TV.

    Conclusions:

    The researchers conclude that multitasking is a common occurrence in the target groups media consumption. The authors have identified four categories that distracts the viewer‘s focus from TV commercials. The first three are distractions being, social, media and non-media distractions. The fourth category is technical avoidance, where people tend to switch channels or mute the sound in order to avoid commercials. Further, an important factor af-fecting the level of multitasking was whether the TV viewing was planned or unplanned. It was observed that this had an effect on the level of commercial avoidance when watching TV. Finally, four different models have been created as a framework to help marketers un-derstand the consumers behavior.

  • 307.
    Arman, Rebecka
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Wikström, Ewa
    School of Business, Economics and Law, Gothenburg University.
    Tengelin, Ellinor
    University of Gothenburg.
    Dellve, Lotta
    University of Gothenburg.
    Work activities and stress among managers in health care2012In: The work of managers: Towards a practice theory of management, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, p. 105-130Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter reports on the work activities, time-use patterns, and stress patterns of ten health care managers in Sweden. The qualitative and quantitative evidence reveals the fragmentation in their nine-hour working days where each activity, on average, lasts only ten minutes. The time-use patterns vary individually though some patterns are related to position and unit type. Activities deal with the coexisting and competing logics of employeeship, administration, and strategy and risk handling. None of the managers’ approaches for handling the multiple legitimation processes and delimiting their workload boundaries really challenges the complexity of the coexistence of the multiple logics or the boundlessness of their working hours. Using biophysical measures, the research finds that stress reported by the managers is caused by (a) interruptions during challenging tasks and (b) personal situations such as private dilemmas and conflict-loaded or ineffective meetings. It is important to acknowledge managers’ fragmented working situation and to recognize that management should be seen as collective process, or as part of an administrative system.

  • 308.
    Armanto, Elina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Cassel, Maja
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Institutional Pressure & Industrial Wisdom: How industrial wisdom in the Swedish car dealer industry has been affected by the 1400/2002 motor vehicle block exemption2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of a new motor vehicle block exemption began in 2002, and affected the car dealer industry in Sweden. Before this new regulation, a general agent distributing cars to dealers had the ability to restrict car dealers’ behavior much more. Nowadays, dealers have the right to sell different brands from the same showroom, even if there are strict rules about how the different brands should be presented. The new block exemption have also given car dealers possibilities to establish in other places within EU were selective distribution is applied.

    As the environment changed (by the block exemption), dealers faced new information that required interpretation. In this thesis we have focused on industrial wisdom; a reasonable and consistent, yet subjective, sense-making of reality in an industry. This sense-making is a way to understand and justify company behavior; resulting assumptions are considered so basic that they remain unquestioned by industry participants. However, interpretations depend on who makes them; different persons interpret things in different ways.

    In the light of the car dealer industry and the motor vehicle block exemption 1400/2002, this thesis investigated if change due to institutional pressure can affect industrial wisdom. Further, what does this process look like.

    To fulfill our purpose we conducted a qualitative research by interviewing 19 Chief Executive Officers from the car dealer industry in Sweden. The sample was designed by a maximum variation sampling technique, in which we as researchers used our own judgment to pick cases that were extra informative. Before we conducted the interviews, we reviewed literature to gain a general understanding of the industry and relevant issues.

    From our research we know that industrial wisdom can change due to a shift in institutional pressure and we observed that the car dealer industrial wisdom was changing. There are some new perceptions and aspects of wisdom, which suggest that the industry has moved away from previous equilibrium. Nevertheless, perceptions are diverse in a number of areas and thoughts have not been translated into action, which leaves much potential for further change. Naturally, this is a slow and difficult process since cognitive maps are embedded in a mindset that relies on previous experience and automatic interpretations. If wisdom changes more depends a great deal on if/how dealers (continue to) act.

    This thesis resulted in a model (The Loop of Wisdom) that explains how a change in institutional pressure affects industrial wisdom. New information enters the company, gets interpreted, acted upon and feeds back out to the environment, which affect other companies and the industry as a whole.

  • 309.
    Arn Lundberg, Robert
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Adam, Nilsson
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Share-Based Payments: Utilization of share-based payments and the affects of the IFRS 2 on the Swedish A-list companies’2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of incitement programs and share-based programs in particular has increased since the 1980`s. These share-based programs are used to encourage the employees to actively participate in increasing the company’s result. The payment in these share-based compen-sations either is; call options, subscription options, synthetic options or convertibles.

    From January 1 2005, the new accounting regulation IFRS 2 regarding share-based pay-ments are implemented. The IFRS 2 demands all companies noted on a stock exchange in the European Union to account for the share-based payments and expense these in the in-come statement. Before this implementation, these payments only had to be described in a disclosed form. However for the year 2004, the effects due to the IFRS 2 have to be taken into consideration in the income statement. The reason for this is that potential investors must have the possibility to compare the financial statements between different time peri-ods.

    The purpose with thesis is to cover what effects the companies’ on the Swedish A-list should have had if the IFRS 2 were implemented already the year 2004. Secondly, the aim is to cover and describe the utilization of share-based programs among these companies and to explain how they are affected.

    The thesis is conducted through a quantitative approach and based on secondary data from annual reports of the companies’. Our selection is the total population on the Swedish A-list.

    The conclusions made in our thesis are that the majority of the A-listed companies’ use some kind of share-based programs. The most frequently used option type is the subscrip-tion option. On average, the decrease in result was 0,89 percent due to IFRS 2. On average the dilution effect due to the use of share-based programs decreased the result per share by 0,54 percent. The companies on the A-list use the Black & Scholes formula to valuate the share-based payments. Our study also indicates that the companies using call options should have experienced the greatest result decrease due to the IFRS 2. Another interesting conclusion is that the larger companies in our study are most likely to involve all the em-ployees’ in the share-based programs while the smaller companies prefer to only involve executives and other leading personnel.

  • 310.
    Arnaud, Alexandre
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Kollman, Alexandra
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Berndt, Adele
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Marketing and Logistics.
    Generation Y: The Development and Use of Shopping Lists2015In: Advances in Social Sciences Research, ISSN 2055-0286, Vol. 2, no 9, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grocery shopping is one of the most basic elements of consumer behaviour and is a part of everyday life. For consumers to achieve their goals and make their grocery shopping trip efficient, many plan their shopping trip, as seen in the development and use of a shopping list. Previous studies have taken a general view of consumers and not investigated any one specific cohort. Generation Y is regarded as an important and knowledge cohort, with greater access to information and resources yet the development and use of shopping lists among this cohort is largely unknown. The purpose of this study is thus to understand the development and usage of shopping lists by Generation Y consumers.

    Use was made of a qualitative method to understand the development, usage and outcomes associated with list usage among this cohort. In total, 29 personal semi-structured interviews were conducted with interviews in supermarkets, the university or at the participants’ house.

    The findings show that the majority of Generation Y consumers develop and use shopping lists, and use both paper and electronic lists. The purpose for their development is for reminding, planning and saving money. The respondents believe that lists help reduce unplanned purchases, as well as reducing the time spent and cost in store.

  • 311.
    Arnaud, Alexandre
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Kollman, Alexandra
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Berndt, Adele
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Marketing and Logistics.
    The use of shopping lists by Generation Y consumers in grocery shopping2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grocery shopping is one of the most an important part of daily life. According to a Market Brief by the Swedish Chambers, in 2009 Swedish consumers spent about 20% of their household budget on food and beverages (Swedish Chambers, 2011). Not only does grocery shopping require financial resources, it also takes time and effort. To assist consumers to achieve their goals and make their grocery shopping trip efficient, they plan their shopping trip prior to undertaking it. Part of planning may result in creating a shopping list that helps to direct the actual grocery purchase. Previous research has been conducted into the use of shopping lists in New Zealand (Thomas & Garland, 2004; Thomas & Garland, 1996; Thomas & Garland, 1993) and the USA (Block & Morwitz, 1999; Spiggle, 1987) and Denmark (Schmidt, 2012) but despite the importance of planning and shopping lists there is

    Previous research has been conducted into the use of shopping lists in New Zealand (Thomas & Garland, 2004; Thomas & Garland, 1996; Thomas & Garland, 1993) and the USA (Block & Morwitz, 1999; Spiggle, 1987) and Denmark (Schmidt, 2012) but despite the importance of planning and shopping lists there is little published research into their use. Their use among Generation Y consumers is also largely unknown and has not been researched. Generation Y’s members are driven by different values than the other generations (Noble, Haytko & Phillips, 2009). Generation Y is considered to be highly active in the marketplace as they are the current and future consumers (Noble et al. 2009). Generation Y frequently shops for groceries. A U.S. national survey of 1,251 Gen

    Generation Y’s members are driven by different values than the other generations (Noble, Haytko & Phillips, 2009). Generation Y is considered to be highly active in the marketplace as they are the current and future consumers (Noble et al. 2009). Generation Y frequently shops for groceries. A U.S. national survey of 1,251 Gen Y’ers showed that 6 percent makes daily grocery purchases, 25 percent goes twice a week to the grocery store and 40 percent goes at least weekly (Lachman & Brett, 2013). The weekly shopping trip for Generation Y is a mix of trips to farmers’ markets and specialty food stores where they buy their groceries at mass retailers, drug stores and, increasingly, online retailers (Orsini, 2012). Hoffman (2012) explains that Generation Y prefers to purchase cheaper food but at the same time Generation Y is also more willing to pay for fresh and healthy food. Shopping lists can serve a number of purposes. They can act as a script so as to make efficient use of the time in the store (Thomas & Garland, 1996; Iyer & Ahlawat, 1987). They can also serve as memory aids, specifically an external memory aid to remind the consumer to purchase items (Thomas & Garland, 2004; Block & Morwitz, 1999). A shopping list is also an indication of pre-shopping planning (Thomas & Garland, 2004; Thomas & Garland, 1996; Polegato & Zaichkowsky, 1994). It has been suggested that consumers use a shopping list to control their expenditure and to make sure that they do not buy more items than planned, and in so doing, do not exceed their budget (Thomas & Garland, 2004; Block & Morwitz, 1999). For families, a shopping list can be a way for the family to function efficiently, making it a management tool (Polegato & Zaichkowsky, 1994). It also serves as a simplification strategy for grocery

    Shopping lists can serve a number of purposes. They can act as a script so as to make efficient use of the time in the store (Thomas & Garland, 1996; Iyer & Ahlawat, 1987). They can also serve as memory aids, specifically an external memory aid to remind the consumer to purchase items (Thomas & Garland, 2004; Block & Morwitz, 1999). A shopping list is also an indication of pre-shopping planning (Thomas & Garland, 2004; Thomas & Garland, 1996; Polegato & Zaichkowsky, 1994). It has been suggested that consumers use a shopping list to control their expenditure and to make sure that they do not buy more items than planned, and in so doing, do not exceed their budget (Thomas & Garland, 2004; Block & Morwitz, 1999). For families, a shopping list can be a way for the family to function efficiently, making it a management tool (Polegato & Zaichkowsky, 1994). It also serves as a simplification strategy for grocery purchasers, giving shopping activities an order (Arnould et al., 2000, cited in Thomas & Garland, 2004). Finally, a list can also assist consumers to stay within their shopping plans, and not be distracted by anything that could interfere, giving the list a goal achievement purpose (Inman, Winer & Ferraro, 2009). The purpose of this study is to understand and explain the reasons behind the usage of shopping lists by Generation Y consumers and the

    The purpose of this study is to understand and explain the reasons behind the usage of shopping lists by Generation Y consumers and the affect it has on Generation Y consumers in store. Use was made of a qualitative approach in this research which enabled the researchers to find insight information with regard to the shopping behaviours of Generation Y. In total, the authors conducted 29 personal semi-structured interviews with Generation Y consumers. The interviews were held at the supermarkets, university or at the participants’ house. The findings show that Generation Y consumers use shopping lists to remind, plan and save money. While Generation Y consumers are

    Use was made of a qualitative approach in this research which enabled the researchers to find insight information with regard to the shopping behaviours of Generation Y. In total, the authors conducted 29 personal semi-structured interviews with Generation Y consumers. The interviews were held at the supermarkets, university or at the participants’ house. The findings show that Generation Y consumers use shopping lists to remind, plan and save money. While Generation Y consumers are

    The findings show that Generation Y consumers use shopping lists to remind, plan and save money. While Generation Y consumers are technologically-savvy it enhances the ease of using shopping lists through mobile applications, yet the majority continue to use paper-based shopping lists. The shopping list enables Generation Y consumers to reduce unplanned purchase, time and cost in store. They use the list as a map to structure their shopping trip and therefore do not waste time going back and forth to the same section of the store; while some others use it only to pick up the items they need and not losing time thinking of what to purchase in the store. The outcome of shopping list usage is similar to shoppers who were the focus of previous studies, which leads the authors to conclude that Generation Y consumers are similar to any other shoppers. This research can affect the way in which retailers encourage Generation Y shoppers to formulate their lists (through brochures and mobile applications) as well as the way in which the lists are used in the store (through the use of in-store cues) to encourage Generation Y consumers to spend more time in store.

  • 312.
    Arnesson, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Hökfelt, Daniel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Yavus Iskander, Madelene
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Recruitment in Problematic Market Conditions: An Empirical Study: Recession vs. Demographic Change2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    ‟Recession‟ and ‟Layoff‟ were the buzz words of late 2008. Economic slowdown and recession have hit the economy hard. At the same time people in society are getting older and the demographic profile of the population is getting increasingly top heavy, with the retirements of the 1940‟s baby boomers expected to peak in 2010. The implications of an increased proportion of old people in society have been debated for some time, but the issue has not become a pressing concern for firms until recently.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate „How does the economic slowdown and the demographic change affect the recruitment behavior of the firms in the region?, the region being defined as the County of Jönköping and County of Östergötland in southern Sweden.

    The study is based on an exploratory survey polling respondents about their willingness to employ, the effects that the economic slowdown and demographic change exert on them. The survey was conducted during November 2008.

    The descriptive and inferential quantitative statistical analysis of the empirical findings and sec-ondary sources draw on contemporary research in the areas of demographic change, economic theory and human resource management.

    Demographic change is of less importance with regards to firms' willingness to employ than ex-pected and is overshadowed by the lack of skilled and experienced labour, which makes finding a suitable employment not so difficult, even in these recessionary times, if you have the right education, qualification and/or experience.

    It is hard to give a definitive answer as to how large the effect of the economic slowdown on recruitment is, but it does indeed affect the firms' willingness to employ, and it has generally negative consequences for the overall size of the workforce. Nevertheless, there remains a need for employees fed by the inextinguishable calls for competence and experience.

    With regards to the general recruitment behaviour, the firms face a dilemma. The weak economic climate commands cost savings. But the widespread call for and concurrent lack of skilled and experienced labour, both in the firms and in the labour market, command resources to be committed to the search for applicants. Furthermore, coping with the challenges of an agediverse workforce will be one of the most important commissions for anyone dealing with human resource management issues in the future.

     

  • 313.
    Aronsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Sittkoff, Robin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    IFRS: Hur har de svenska företagen redovisat övergången?2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The last few years a globalization of the capital market has occurred. This have led to that it is more important for the companies that their financial information can be compared with other companies in order to compete on same grounds. In order to fa-cilitate for the companies within EU to compete with other companies and in order to strive for an internal market EU decided that IFRS should be used by all listed companies within the union.

    Problem: In 2006 the first financial reports according to IFRS will be published, and then it will be interesting to investigate how the companies have chosen to communicate the transition to its stakeholders. According to IFRS some information is compulsive but the companies have chosen to disclose voluntary information to a different degree.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe to what extent the Swedish listed com-panies have reported the transition to IFRS in their consolidated financial statements.

    Method: In this essay a quantitative method have been chosen in order to find general re-lations. The data collection is done with help of an evaluation model that have been devel-oped for this study. The data have been collected from the chosen companies’ annual re-ports.

    Conclusion: The study shows that the amounts of information about the transition to IFRS within the company’s annual reports vary a lot. The result of the transition is also varying. The study shows a connection between the companies’ net sales and how much in-formation the companies publish in their annual reports. The study found no relation be-tween how the transition to IFRS affected the companies equity or the result and how much voluntary information that was disclosed.

  • 314.
    Aronsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Axelsson, Carolina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Rosberg, Linnea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Factors influencing a purchase of child insurance: An empirical study in a Swedish cultural context2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Insurances are complex financial services which can be hard for consumers to understand. There are several types of insurance services, which demand various levels of involvement from the consumer. Child insurances are an example of an insurance requiring high level of involvement, since it is supposed to protect the most precious parents have. A decision of purchase can be influenced by both the Service marketing mix and the Environmental factors.

    Problem: Child insurances are a restitution service, which means that the involvement from customers are higher, and the information search process will be more extensive. Moreover, customers tend to be more emotionally driven and influenced by a variety of factors.

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to understand and simplify the underlying factors that influence individuals to choose a certain insurance company when selecting a child insurance. Additionally, an analysis between different demographic groups has been investigated.

    Method: The theoretical framework were verified through a survey distributed online among parents and parents to be. The survey was designed based on the Service marketing mix and Environmental factors, and consisted of 15 factors the respondents could choose between. The result of the survey was later analysed with cross tables and Pearson chi-square test to test the statistical significance.

    Findings: There were five main factors which was found to be of great importance among the majority of respondents, which were insurance comprehensiveness, the insurance was relevant for their situation, uncomplicated and effortless handling, good customer service, and insurance companies provided clear information. Moreover, the results also found that there were very few dissimilarities between the different demographic groups. 

  • 315.
    Aronsson, Robert
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    Högberg, Martin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    IAS 40: The effects of the implementation of IAS 40 for listed investment property companies within the European Union2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The increased globalization and trade over domestic borders within the European Union (EU) has lead to the implementation of new international accounting standards. This is necessary to create an effective capital market, where comparisons between companies located in different countries can be made, due to a more harmonized accounting. Obstacles to overcome when establish a more harmonized accounting in the EU is for example different accounting backgrounds and valuation methods.

    Purpose: The purpose of the thesis is to as far possible study whether the establishment of IAS 40 contributes to an increased harmonization and more comparable accounting of investment property for listed companies within the EU.

    Method: This thesis involves both a quantitative –and a qualitative research method. We have used primary data in forms of interviews, and secondary data in forms of annual reports, regulations, literature and articles in the thesis. Using both primary –and secondary data results in a higher reliability and validity.

    Frame of reference: There are two alternative valuations methods according to IAS 40, the cost –and the fair value model. The cost model means a valuation to historical cost minus depreciation. Valuation in compliance to the fair value model on the other hand means that the investment property shall be valuated to market value. When using the cost model a note of the fair value shall be included in the financial statement. A company has according to IAS 40 the possibility to choose between internal –or external valuation when estimating the fair value.

    Empirical results and analysis: Our empirical result is presented mainly through annual reports from listed investment property companies in Sweden, England and Germany. We found that the fair value model was used by all the analysed companies in Sweden and England in 2005, the year of the implementation of IAS 40 in the EU. By analysing the annul reports from the investment property companies we found indications that the fair value model also tends to become the generally excepted valuation model in Germany. Furthermore, our empirical result shows that a majority of the Swedish investment property companies regularly used internal valuation, but there is a pattern of external valuation as a complement to the internal valuation. In England and Germany all investment property companies used external valuation and there was no use of internal valuation even as a complement to the external valuation.

    Conclusions: Based on our empirical results we draw the conclusion that the accounting for listed investment property companies within the EU is more harmonized and comparable today than before the implementation of IAS 40 in 2005. However, IAS 40 gives the companies the possibility to decide weather to use the cost –or the fair value model and the use of external valuation is optional. This can be viewed as obstacles to achieve a total harmonization of the accounting within the EU for listed investment property companies. From our empirical findings we draw the conclusion that the fair value model tends to become the generally excepted valuation model within the EU. Also, we do not perceive the use of the cost model as a barrier to the harmonization process because the fair value still has to be left in a not in the financial statement. However, we believe that in order to achieve a more harmonized and more comparable accounting for listed investment property companies within in the EU a directive about a minimum of external valuation must be included in IAS 40. This in order to avoid companies to use only internal valuation of the properties as this may effect the result.

  • 316.
    Arrhenius, Annie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Antonsson, Emelie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Evaluation of banking internationalization: -a case study on Nordea in Poland and SEB in Germany2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to gain a deeper understanding in the internationalization process that Swedish banks go through. This will be achieved by evaluating Nordea and SEB and their internationalization to Poland and Germany.

    The concept of internationalization is constantly being explored, leading to different forms of results and theories within this area of research. Nordea is one of the largest providers of financial services in the Nordic and Baltic Sea region. Nordea has a strong focus on expanding their internationalization. SEB’s biggest markets are the Nordic countries, the Baltic’s and Germany. SEB has diverse strategies and structures in the different countries that the bank operates in. The methodology for this thesis is of a deductive approach performed with qualitative and quantitative data. A case study on Nordea and SEB is performed. To complement the case study results, a CAMEL rating is conducted on Nordea and SEB to assess the risk and earnings performance on each bank and and their specific internationalization locations.

    Evidence from this thesis confirms that the amount of knowledge and experience put in by the bank to the location is essential for the success of internationalization. This research found Nordea’s incentives towards Poland were the higher potential in growth in emerging markets. For SEB the incentive was mainly to follow customers which confirm that SEB has a strong commitment to the home market which leads the bank to new activities. The authors found the CAMEL rating to be a valuable tool for evaluating foreign operations. The authors believe an external CAMEL rating should be assigned each parent company along with their internationalization locations. Both banks obtained very low ratings according to these measures which indicates good and solid performance with little need for supervision. Nordea and SEB are both stable banks in Sweden as well as abroad. The international operations assess a slightly higher CAMEL rating for both banks which shows that the banks have a more stable business in the domestic countries. The CAMEL rating showed that Nordea and SEB’s parent companies are well prepared for the new Basel regulations which will be implemented in 2013 while the acquisitions in Poland and Germany must make adoptions to the new set of requirements.

  • 317.
    Arsenovic, Jasenko
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Big Data: A Toll for all Strategic Decisions: A Study of Three Large Food and Beverage Processing Organizations2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I will look at what impact big data have had on the managerial strategic decisions in the food and beverage industry. This in order to understand the complexity and theory of organizational strategic management, an effort to define the contemporary strategic theory into a holistic conceptual model is done through a literature review on organizational strategy. This literature explicitly proposes four distinctly different types of strategies that management need to consider in the organizational context. Namely, long-term strategy, internal business strategy, external corporate strategy, and competitive strategy.

    The study analyzed the food and beverage industry over a decade (2005-2014), where the three of the largest actors in the industry were selected, Nestlé S.A, PepsiCo Inc, and Unilever. The choice of method was content analysis, where three structured categorization matrixes were developed which each analyzed parts of the annual reports.

    The study propose the role of big data as a strategic tool for managerial decision from a theoretical standpoint. The content analysis show that hypothesis 1, could be confirmed, big data have an impact on all the proposed four managerial strategic decisions. Second hypothesis could not be confirmed, since decentralization does only occur for one of the organizations, but increased external environment turbulence could be concluded for the industry in general. The third hypothesis could be confirmed, which show that there is an increase in individualization due to increased customer involvement and demand.

    The analysis discovered three distinct time periods during the last decade, namely pre- economic instability period (2005-2007), economic instability period (2008-2011) and finally the post-paradigm period (2012-2014). Where the year 2011 was the most turbulent in terms of economy and technology for the industry. The study clearly show that customers are now involved in the production process, customers are co-creators of the products. There is now a two-way communication and increased social responsibility awareness. This study shows that the old traditional approach of looking at markets in order to position yourself to stay competitive are obsolete as this study predicted. customers demand to be a part of the organizational culture. This conclude that big data is an important tool for all strategic managerial decisions. 

  • 318.
    Arvidsson, Dennis
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Svensson, Anton
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Islamic Banking in the Swedish Market?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Islamic banking sector has increased significantly during the last decades around the globe. From being a banking alternative only present in countries where Islam is the major religion, it has in recent years spread to a number of countries in the Western world. The Muslim population has been growing steadily in Sweden and there is yet to be an Islamic banking alternative.

    This thesis is based on qualitative methods and aims to give an understanding of the basic differences between Islamic banking and conventional banking. It also investigates and evaluates the challenges and opportunities that an Islamic bank would have to face if it entered the Swedish market with analysis based on Porter’s five forces. The method used is to interview people with knowledge within our subject together with an analysis of previous research.

    According to the analysis of the differences between Islamic banks and Conventional banks, it showed that there is a difference in theory but less difference in practice. Given the analysis of Porter’s five forces we draw the conclusion that three major challenges being Supply Power, Threat of Substitution and Threat of new Entry. The opportunities lies within Buyer Power and competitive Rivalry. 

  • 319.
    Arvidsson, Evelina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Kling, Vera
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Factors influencing the intention to perform in-store recycling: A qualitative study applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour to the Swedish fashion industry2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to the fashion industry being one of the most polluting industries in the world with more clothing than ever being thrown away, attention has been brought to the need for more sustainable clothing behaviours. Therefore, the in-store recycling boxes have been introduced as an alternative for recycling. Previous literature has focused mainly on companies’ perspectives or consumers purchasing behaviours, hence there is a gap for literature on consumers’ disposal and recycling behaviours.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine what factors influence consumers’ intentions to use in-store recycling boxes. This will be done by applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour by Ajzen (1991).

    Method: A qualitative approach in terms of two focus groups and two individual interviews was applied. The study was made on the consumers’ perspectives, and therefore the participants were 11 Swedish female students.

    Conclusion: The empirical findings and analysis toward previous literature and theoretical framework revealed that the main factors influencing consumers’ intentions to use in-store recycling boxes are lack of information about the recycling process, the possibility to drop off damaged clothing, and the developing possibility to make new clothing out of recycled materials. The lack of information had the greatest impact, which was unfavourable toward the intention to perform the behaviour and hence obstructed the participants from using in-store recycling boxes.

  • 320.
    Arvidsson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management (CeLS).
    Kojic, Daniel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management (CeLS).
    Critical Success Factors in ERP Implementation: The Perspective of the Procurement System User2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 321.
    Arvidsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Fransson, Lena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Lundgren, Carin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Communication of Values: A Qualitative Study at Stena Metall2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate Stena Metall’s values and how they are communicated within the organization.

    Background: In the Fall of 2008, the world was shocked by the worst financial crisis in decades. The crisis had deep effects on the Swedish economy, and many companies suffered heavily. The recycling and environmental service company Stena Metall experienced their first negative result in 30 years, and 900 employees had to leave the company. An action program, including an altered culture was established with the purpose to adapt the operations to the new business environmental conditions. Values, which are a part of the organizational culture, were decided to be an important part of the change. To implement these in the entire organization a well-structured communication process is needed. Within these subjects; values and communication, a qualitative study at Stena Metall has been conducted.

    Method: To fulfill the purpose, a qualitative method has been used. Thirteen interviews were conducted to collect data from different levels of the organization. The interviews were designed differently based on the employee’s level of responsibility in the organization. The theoretical framework used when analyzing the empirical material includes earlier research in the areas of culture, with emphasis on values, and communication.

    Conclusion: Two set of values have been identified, core values and aspiration values. The findings indicate a gap in the communicational process at Stena Metall. Part of the new information communicated about Stena Metall´s values is lost on its way from the management to the lower levels in the organization. The perception of what the values mean, both core and aspiration values, differs depending on level in the organization.

  • 322. Arvidsson, Ulrica
    et al.
    Ljungbergh, Ebba
    Socially Responsible Investments: Are investors paying a price for investing ethically?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the difference in performance and management fees between ethical and conventional mutual funds registered in Sweden. Our dataset consists of 49 ethical and 254 conventional funds, estimated on a 10-year period of time between January 2005 to January 2015. Jensen’s alpha is used as a measure for risk-adjusted performance and estimated through CAPM single-index model as well as by Carhart’s four-factor model. By adding back the management fees to the net returns and then estimate Jensen’s alpha by Carhart’s four-factor model once again, evidence of any differences in the impact on return between ethical and conventional funds is found. The results obtained from the study show that there is no difference in neither the risk-adjusted returns nor management fees between ethical and conventional funds. It is concluded that Swedish mutual fund investors are not paying a specific price in terms of reduced returns or higher management fees for putting social and ethical values into their financial investment decision.

  • 323.
    Arzhilovskiy, Maxim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Priyatel, Kirill
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Factors influencing attendance of ice hockey games in Sweden2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Commercialization of sport has been growing since 80s and club owners tend to pay more and more attention not just to cups and titles but to commercial success as well. Nevertheless, fans are still the key source of revenues. Besides direct spending while attending games popular clubs and crowded stadiums grab attention of generous advertisers. That is why the problem of sports attendance becomes more and more important though ice hockey attendance is still not the most popular topic among sports marketing researchers. The majority of them cover Canada and the United States while European leagues suffer from the lack of studies as much bigger attention is paid to sport number one – soccer. In the same time, Sweden is one of the few countries in the world where ice hockey might be as popular as soccer. Swedish ice hockey league is one of the strongest in the world but still many clubs fail to sell out their arenas at every game. So the main purpose of this research is to identify factors that influence attendance of ice hockey games in Sweden and reveal their impact on attendance.

    The analysis is conducted using quantitative methods, where econometrical and statistical approaches are primary tools. In order to test factors influencing attendance a multiple regression model was set up. The dataset was compiled using secondary data and consisted of 1317 regular season ice hockey matches played during 4 seasons (from 2008/2009 to 2011/2012) of the top Swedish ice hockey league called Elitserien. The main sources for compiling the dataset were game reports provided by Swedish Ice Hockey Association and Elitserien.

    The present study has shown that several factors have strongly positive effect on attendance. Scheduling (games on Friday, Saturday and during Christmas holidays) and rivalry are the most important factors that bring crowds to arenas. Moreover, it can be concluded that higher prices do not affect attendance negatively and clubs can slightly increase ticket prices to improve match day revenues. Finally, on-ice violence attracts Swedish fans while opposite trend exists in North America. 

  • 324.
    Arévalo, Erika
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Barranquilla’s carnival: the place where identity meets societal entrepreneurship2017In: Contextualizing Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies and Developing Countries / [ed] Marcela Ramirez-Pasillas, Ethel Brundin & Magdalena Markowska, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017, p. 250-261Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 325.
    Arévalo, Erika
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Marketing and Logistics.
    ¡Dime qué marcas usas y te diré quién eres!: Cosificación de los tweens por el marketing de marca2011Book (Other academic)
  • 326.
    Askenberg, Amanda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Isaksson, Frida
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Is Tax Avoidance Affected by Firm Size?: A study of the relationship between effective tax rates and firm sizes of Swedish listed firms2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tax avoidance is a commonly discussed issue. Previous studies have investigated different factors and their relation to tax avoidance by measuring effective tax rates. One interesting factor, due to its inconsistent results in previous studies, is the relationship between effective tax rates and firm size. There are studies that state that larger firms tax avoid more compared to smaller firms in line with the political power theory. Also, there are studies that indicate the opposite, that larger firms tax avoids less, in line with the political cost theory. To our knowledge, previous research of the relationship between firm size and effective tax rates in Sweden, is limited and is therefore an interesting research direction.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to see if Swedish listed firms tax avoids more if they are larger compared to smaller firms.

    Method: The financial information required to calculate and define the variables used for this study is collected for the Swedish listed firms that fulfill the selected criteria. The final sample of firm observations included in the study is 132 for the years 2014-2016. A regression analysis is performed with two measures of effective tax rates as the dependent variable, in relation to firm size measured in three different ways as the independent variables, and selected factors as control variables.

    Conclusion: The result shows that larger firms are more likely to tax avoid compared to smaller firms, for some measures of firm size. A positive relationship between effective tax rates and firm size measured by revenue is concluded, in line with the political cost theory. The relationship between effective tax rates and firm size measured by total assets and market capitalization is negative, hence the results are in line with the political power theory. Further, we conclude that other factors than firm size can have an impact on the effective tax rate of a firm.

  • 327.
    Asmah, Gilbert Yaw
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Baruwa, Adebola Abdulrafiu
    Managing IT Security In Organizations: A look at Physical and Administrative Controls2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Information technology security or computing system security is one of the most impor-tant issues that businesses all over the world strive to deal with. However, the world has now changed and in essential ways. The desk-top computer and workstation have appeared and proliferated widely. The net effect of all this has been to expose the computer-based information system, i.e. its hardware, its software, its software processes, its databases, its communications to an environment over which no one—not end user, not network admin-istrator or system owner, not even government—has control.

    Purpose

    Since IT security has a very broad spectrum and encompasses a lot of issues, we want to focus our research by taking a critical look at how business organizations manage IT secu-rity with specific emphasis on administrative and physical controls.

    Methods

    When the authors of this paper approached the topic to be studied it soon became evident that the most relevant and interesting task was not merely to investigate how business and non business organizations manage their IT security, but in fact try to understand what lies behind them. The purpose of this paper demands a deeper insight of how organizations address the issue of computer security; the authors wanted to gain a deeper understanding of how security issues have been addressed or being tackled by the organizations. Thus, the qualitative method was most suitable for this study.

    Conclusion

    Based on the chosen approach, the result of this study has shown that both business and non-business organizations located in Jönköping recognize the importance of IT security, and are willing to protect their systems from threats such as unauthorized access, theft, fire, power outage and other threats to ensure the smooth running of their systems at all times.

  • 328.
    Aspegren, David
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Jacobsson, Karl
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Bech-Jakobsson, Martin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Attracting capital: The business plan from the investors' perspective2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For entrepreneurs it can be difficult to attract investors. The business plan is a well-known document for that purpose, and is used widely by entrepreneurs and companies. With this in mind, several questions arise. What information in a business plan is important? Do the criteria for information in a business plan differ between banks, venture capital companies, and business angels? What is the perception of a business plan to these investors? These are questions future entrepreneurs have to deal with before taking action and start searching for investors. This thesis investigates the investors’ perspective on the issue of entrepreneurship and business planning.The purpose of this thesis is to broaden the understanding of the business plan as a mean to attract capital for new ventures. It further aims to investigate the relevance of the business plan and the optimal composition of information, according to the investors. A qualitative method has been used in this thesis. Empirical findings have been captured from interviews with relevant actors in the investing market, and thereafter been analyzed with existing theories. The overall conclusion in this thesis is that there is a very broad view of the business plan as a concept. There are different aspects of the business plans roles as a formal mean to attract capital. Obvious differences between how the three different investors evaluate a business plan have been found as well as that the investors find other things than the business plan to be important in a decision. The investors do not look solely on the business plan and then make the decision whether to invest or not. The third conclusion is that all three investors enter a company with different roles, affecting the business’ activities in different ways. Finally, the business plan as a document is never as formal as the theory states. It is surprisingly different from the theory which claims that formality is an important issue in this kind of documents.

  • 329.
    Asplund, Erik
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Björefeldt, Philip
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Rådberg, Pontus
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Sharing Economy: Funding and Motivational Factors across Industries2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the motivational factors for participation in collaborative consumption across industries and if specific factors attracts funding. This will be done as an attempt to extend current research within sharing economy regarding what factors to consider when attracting funding.

    Method and Methodology - Utilizing a deductive approach, the research questions connect motivational factors for participation with funding of industries within the sharing economy. Secondary data containing 776 funding rounds were analysed through univariate and bivariate analyses and linked to 40 935 observations of motivational factors for participation.

    Findings - The findings entail how some motivational factors for participation in the sharing economy can be applicable to all investigated industries, while others are industry specific. The study thus suggest that the sharing economy cannot be viewed as one coherent industry and motivational factors should not be cross-sector generalized.

    Contribution - The study contributes with a theoretical implication in the way it bridges the existing gap by dividing the sharing economy into different industries and connect the specific motivational factors underlying the possibility to attract funding. Furthermore, a practical implication suggests that companies can use these findings as a guideline to attract consumers and ultimately funding.

  • 330.
    Assamie, Saber
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Ahmed, Darwan
    Jönköping University.
    ICT Adoption by SMEs in Sweden: The influence of owners / senior managers’ experience and attitudes on successful adoption of ICT in SMEs2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 331.
    Assarsson, Sara
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Björnhammer, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Oren revisionsberättelse: Byte av revisor och liknande egenskaper hos företag med oren revisionsberättelse2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att företag erhåller en oren revisionsberättelse är idag relativt vanligt. Revisorer är skyldiga att göra en anmärkning i revisionsberättelse om de anser att företaget har avvikit från god redovisningssed eller misskött företagets verksamhet på något sätt.

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka om företag tenderar att byta revisor efter att de har erhållit en oren revisionsberättelse. Vidare är syftet att undersöka om de företag som erhåller en oren revisionsberättelse besitter liknande egenskaper.

    En kvantitativ metod har använts i uppsatsen, där alla aktiebolag i Jönköpings län är totalpopulationen och sex procent av dessa utgör urvalet. För att undersöka om företagen med oren revisionsberättelse har bytt revisor har författarna först fastställt antalet orena revisionsberättelser i Jönköpings län. Alla företag med oren revisionsberättelse har sedan studerats ytterligare för att dels se vilka som bytte revisor från år 2002 till år 2003 och dels för att undersöka om det föreligger gemensamma egenskaper hos dessa företag. Ett fåtal företag har dessutom intervjuats i syfte att undersöka om bytet, eller frånvaron av bytet, av revisor hade något samband med den orena revisionsberättelsen de har erhållit.

    De egenskaper vi har undersökt som vi tror kan visa på skillnader mellan företag med ren och oren revisionsberättelse är soliditeten, lönsamheten, företagsstorlek, ägarbild, bransch, verksamhetens livslängd och revisionsbyrå.

    Resultaten visar att det är 31 stycken företag utav 384 stycken som erhöll en oren revisionsberättelse i Jönköpings län år 2002, av dessa var det bara tre stycken företag som bytte revisor till år 2003. Inget av de tre företagen bytte revisor på grund av den orena revisionsberättelsen och därmed tenderar företag i Jönköpings län inte att byta revisor efter att de har erhållit en oren revisionsberättelse.

    Bland de gemensamma egenskaper vi undersökte var det bara inom företagens lönsamhet och revisionsbyråernas benägenhet att avge en oren revisionsberättelse som vi kunde finna en markant skillnad mellan företag med oren- och ren revisionsberättelse. Det tenderade att föreligga en skillnad inom faktorn soliditet också, men inget vi kan fastställa med säkerhet. Inom företagsstorlek, ägarbild, bransch, verksamhetens livslängd och revisionsbyrå kunde vi inte fastställa att skillnader förelåg mellan företag med oren- och ren revisionsberättelse.

  • 332.
    Atkacuna, Ilze
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management.
    Furlan, Karolina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management.
    Value-Added Services in Third-Party Logistics: A study from the TPL providers’ perspective about value-added service development, driving forces and barriers2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Competition in the logistics service industry has constantly increased over the last decades which has lead to the traditional services offered by third-party logistics (TPL) providers becoming commodities and no longer offering attractive profit margins. When the company’s core product becomes a commodity, the company’s performance of supplementary services becomes vital for competitive advantage. The term “value-added service” is defined as a service adding extra feature, form or functions to the basic service and stands for all types of activities which are not directly based on services traditionally offered by TPL providers, i.e., transportation and warehousing. The term value-added service is mainly used in the logistics literature while supplementary service is used in the service management literature. Although value-added services can offer obvious advantages in form of customer lock-in and improved competitive advantage, such services are still offered at a low level and there is much space for development.

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse how TPL firms develop value-added services and to investigate what the driving forces and barriers for developing and providing such services are. In the frame of reference, literature within service management, outsourcing, third-party logistics, value-added services, innovation and learning have been used.

    In the thesis, an inductive research approach is used and qualitative study has been carried out by applying multiple case studies as a research strategy. The empirical material is gathered from three TPL providers: Bring Logistics Solutions, Aditro Logistics and Schenker Logistics. Data was collected through several interviews conducted at the three target companies and the findings have been analysed using the existing theory stated in the frame of reference.

    The main conclusions from analysing the development process of value-added services are that this process in most cases is initiated by customer request and that development of value-added service can occur both in the beginning or during an ongoing relationship, though a lack of information about a customer’s business in the beginning of the relationship can hinder the TPL provider to develop value-added services. Apart from the TPL provider and the customer, firms such as IT companies, transport suppliers and other companies can be involved in the development process. No formal innovation process is applied for developing value-added services. The main driving force behind value-added services is meeting customer demands. Lack of proactiveness from the TPL provider’s side can be a barrier for developing value-added services, as well as problems with achieving successful organizational learning. The difficulty for the TPL firm to coordinate offering so many different services can be also seen as a barrier.

  • 333. Atterwall, Hanna
    et al.
    Engqvist, Angelica
    To Cope with Role Conflict and Work Stress. A middle managerial perspective2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 334.
    Augurell, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Olsson, Pontus
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Change of the Auditor's Report: How Key Audit Matters can enhance the informative value2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 335.
    Augustsson, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Boldt, Simon
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Leveransledtidsreduktionens påverkan på finansiell prestanda: - En studie i tidens tecken2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The study aimed to investigate how a delivery lead-time reduction impacts returnon-investment (ROI), and through the study create a decision support that quantitatively demonstrates the impact of the delivery lead-time reduction on manufacturing companies' ROI. To fulfill the purpose of the study two research questions were created:

    1. How is ROI affected by a delivery lead-time reduction?
    2. How can the impact of the delivery lead-time reduction on ROI be quantified?

    Method: A literature review was conducted to explain how a delivery lead-time reduction affects the ROI components. The literature review formed the theoretical framework, from which a proposition was created. With the proposition as a basis, a case study of one-case-design was carried out. The data for the first research question was collected through interviews with respondents from the focal company's market and production departments. The collected data was then pattern matched against the proposition, to develop the proposition. The answer from the first research question was then used as a basis for the quantification of the impact of the delivery lead-time reduction on ROI. During the empirical collection, there were limitations in data availability, therefore fictitious data was estimated to carry out the quantification and fulfill the second research question.

    Results: The study shows that there are many ways in which ROI can be affected by a delivery lead-time reduction, depending on the context, the starting point, and the approach in which the reduction is implemented. Therefore, an 8-scenario typology was created for how a delivery lead reduction can be implemented based on the six strategic lead times (SLT). Research question 1 shows, based on the data and the proposition, how delivery lead-time reduction impacts ROI in the typology’s scenario 7. Scenario 7 means a reduction in delivery lead-time, along with a reduction of the supply lead-time by reducing the external lead-time. The quantification of fictitious data, which answered the second research question, showed that it is possible to quantify the effect of the delivery lead-time reduction on ROI. Based on the approach of quantification, a decision support for investment in delivery lead-time reduction was created.

    Implications: The study contributes to the opportunity for practitioners to evaluate investment in delivery lead-time reduction, against other investment candidates, to strengthen the company's competitiveness. Theoretically, the study contributes with the typology for how a delivery lead-time reduction can be implemented. Also, a contribution through the proposition which shows how a delivery lead-time reduction generally affects ROI, versus the developed proposition that shows the influence based on scenario 7.

    Limitations: The quantification was based on fictitious data, which gave a limited result. Although it’s not the result of itself that is of interest, it is the logic of quantification, since the purpose is to develop a decision support. Also, the study is of one-case-design, whereupon the developed proposition cannot be applied on other companies without scrutiny and compared with their specific contexts.

  • 336.
    Augustsson, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Boldt, Simon
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Tiedemann, Fredrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Leveransledtidsreduktionens påverkan på räntabilitet2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det sägs ofta att ’tid är pengar’, men hur mycket är tid egentligen värt? I denna studie undersöktes leveransledtidens påverkan på tillverkande företags räntabilitet. Studie utgår från en konceptuell modell utvecklad av Wikner (2015), där strategiska ledtider definieras samt sätts i förbindelse med de tre absoluta mätetalen intäkt, kostnad och investering. I studien utvecklas en proposition som beskriver hur en leveransledtidsreduktion påverkar ett tillverkande företags räntabiliteten? Propositionen diskuteras sedan med respondenter från ett fallföretag innan den revideras. Den reviderade propositionen ligger sedermera till grund för beräkningen av leveransledtidsreduktionens påverkan på tillverkande företags räntabilitet. Studien resulterar i ett beslutsstöd som kvantitativt påvisar en leveransledtidsreduktions påverkan på tillverkande företags räntabilitet.

  • 337.
    Awan, Ziyad
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management.
    Rahman, Ziaur
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Supply chain designs for Humanitarian Relief2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the unpredictable nature of sudden onset disasters the humans are often caught with surprise so are the humanitarian relief organizations. In order to quickly react to the emergencies, supply chain networks are built instantly by the actors of the relief management. Parallel to this process, need assessment is started with the help of local experts which also confirm that the response cannot be lingered on due a delay in need assessment. After wards the supply chain structure needs to be changed once the right information is gathered by the passage of time. This is not all, actually the situation of the disaster prone area and people also changes by that time which always brings a challenging scenario for humanitarian relief actors to develop the supply chain design with flexibility.Primary focus of this paper is to define right supply chain designs for disaster response and post disaster phases in humanitarian relief.

  • 338.
    Awe, Patricia Olufunmilayo
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    A Comparison of Swedish and Non-Swedish Customers’ Perception of Grocery In-store Self-Scanner: A Study of Personal Shopping Solution2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The advancement in digital products and digital services is a mixed feeling in the retailing markets. Emerging technologies are disrupting the mode of operation in a grocery store and one of this technology is self-scanner, an efficient tool of self-service. Self-scanner is a technology-based self-service alternative decision where the customer scan their goods and pay for their shopping without grocery attendant support. It is used progressively by retailer especially the big supermarket to deliver superior customers value and service to minimize the check-out period. The study found that older men and women likely to use self-scanner than the younger people (Lee et al., 2010). This study found that customer experienced several problems during service encounter with the self-scan check out (Lee et al., 2010). Among the problem is, customers technological skills and ability, level of technology, lack of system reliability and poor design of self-scanner technology. For the retailer, there is a problem of theft rockets and customer aggressive behaviour. Purpose: The study intends to examine how digitalization (e.g. self-scanner) affects consumers in-store shopping behaviour. To ensure that the purpose of this study is achieved, and test the relationship between Swedish and non-Swedish customers’ behaviour and perceived service quality, the theories of buyer behaviour (e.g. TAM and diffusion of innovation) are used as the fundamental theoretical model. Method: The study employs a survey as a tool for examining the factors affecting the use of grocery self-scanners between the Swedish and Non-Swedish customers. The questions were organised by themes and carefully designed to provide answers to the research questions as well as the constructs derived from TAM and Innovation Diffusion Theory. The survey questions focus on consumer’s self-scanner experience using the 5-Likert scale questions to measure the perception of self-scanner usefulness, ease-of-use, complexity and relative advantage. Also, the demographic information of the respondents was obtained through a series of demographic questions which were formulated and included in the questionnaire. The survey question was answered by 74 respondents through a paper-based questionnaire and Google online survey link distributed to the respondents via email address, Facebook messenger and WhatsApp platforms. All the respondents of the online survey were the people living in Sweden only. To analyse the data collected through the survey, Partial Least Squares (PLS) technique of structural equation modelling was applied using SmartPLS 3.0 statistics software student version. The study checks the reliability of the data by running a reliability test for Cronbach Alpha and compare the result with the rule of thumb. Further, variance Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) were conducted based on the independent and dependent variables for structural relationship. Conclusion: The result implies that non-Swedish users tend to use self-scanners at the grocery stores more than their Swedish counterparts if they perceived the device as ease to use. It could be observed from the results that perceived relative advantage has a greater influence on self-scanning experience of non-Swedish users than their Swedish counterparts. To reduce the rejection rates of using the self-scanning devices at the grocery store by the customers, the study suggests that the device and the process of usage should be made simple and convenient for the users.

  • 339.
    Ax, Åsa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Jebrail, Jessica
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Swedish SMEs Established in China: - How to finance business and financial obstacles encountered2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Small- and medium size enterprises are well known for being the backbone of the economy. They are the key factors of the economic growth as well as for innovating and developing products and services. Financial obstacles often occur for Swedish SMEs when they are searching for ways of financing the business. The lack of necessary financing to help SMEs’ businesses grow has been brought up in many institutions supportive of Swedish SMEs.

    This study is conducted to examine and give an understanding of how Swedish SMEs established in China are financing their businesses since strong internal financing results in a decrease for a need for external financing. Furthermore, the study is looking at what type of financial obstacles SMEs may encounter.

    For this purpose the relevant arguments are presented and discussed. This is done through a qualitative approach as well as hermeneutic phenomenology for a more in depth analysis on how certain Swedish SMEs are financing their business in China. The writers have chosen to interview Swedish SMEs who in some way are in the business of manufacturing and production and who are established in China.  Interviews were also conducted with representatives from financial institutions in order to gather information on how Swedish SMEs can access external financing. All of the interviews were performed in a semi-structured manner. When the information was gathered some of the Swedish SMEs requested the answers to be anonymous, therefore the writers is keeping all answers from the responding SMEs anonymous in the result and analysis part of the thesis. The answers from the financial representatives are however clearly stated which respondent answered what. Additionally, the writers found that most of the existing research on financing can explain the SMEs financial decisions, yet there was some adaption needed in regards to the theories in order for them to fit into the context of the Swedish SMEs and financiers.

    Moreover, the authors found that there is no large financing gap or demand to require additional credit from traditional banks or other financiers. Hence, the participating Swedish SMEs established in China mainly obtain financing from shareholder equity or other internal sources to finance their business.

  • 340.
    Axelsson, Anton
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Yousef, Charles
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Presence of Alcohol in Swedish Lifestyle Blogs: An exploratory study on if and how the presence of alcoholic beverages on Swedish blogs may affect young females’ intention to pursue alcohol consumption.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alcohol has become ubiquitous in Swedish lifestyle blogs, as alcohol can be present in one third or one fifth of blog posts in some of Sweden’s biggest lifestyle blogs. Research suggests that exposure to media and commercial communications on alcohol increases consumption and that users and user-generated content related to alcohol and drinking may intensify social norms around alcohol consumption. This means Swedish lifestyle bloggers may be exposing alcohol and creating social normative influence that can affect blog readers’ intention to consume alcohol.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis was to explore if and how the presence of alcoholic beverages on Swedish blogs may affect young females’ intention to pursue alcohol consumption. Firstly, the study looks at to what extent and how alcoholic beverages and alcohol-related activities appear on Swedish lifestyle blogs. Secondly, the study explores if the presence of alcohol in blogs is recognised by blog readers and if they perceive this to affect their own and others' intention to consume alcohol.

    Method: This thesis has two different data collections to fulfil the purpose of the study. First a web content analysis is conducted on eight Swedish blogs to explore the presence of alcohol. Thereafter semi-structured interviews are conducted with nine respondents. The findings are compared to previous findings and analysed from theories on behavioural change.

    Conclusion: Alcohol and alcohol-related activities are depicted frequently in some of Sweden’s biggest lifestyle blogs when variation between blogs and monthly variance per blog are considered. Alcohol is put in a favourable setting through a positive or a commercial context. Blog readers perceive blog posts to contain positive alcohol content, and claim others may be affected to consume alcohol by these as bloggers have influence empowered by their social status. A majority of respondents claim they themselves are not affected by blog posts with alcohol. It is suggested this is because subjective attitude towards alcohol and a belief of personal control has stronger impact on intention to pursue alcohol-related activities. Another suggestion is that more salient and ready accessible referents such as parents, family and friends are deemed more important in affecting norms around alcohol through individuals’ perceived view of these referents’ desires and actions.

  • 341.
    Axelsson, Björn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Larsson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Developing Purchasing and Supply Management Skills in SMEs: An innovative concept for transfer and development of urgently needed knowledge2002In: Proceedings from the 11th International IPSERA conference, Twente, 2002, p. 42-53Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Competence development is an important feature of supplier development projects. To make knowledge about new practices known and adopted by 3rd, 4- and 5th tier suppliers, normally SMEs, have however shown to be difficult. This is not only a problem of adequate concepts and resources, but also of didactics, on pedagogical methods. The paper describes and analyses one innovative methodology to spread knowledge and raise competence, namely the KrAft-program. We have followed one supplier development project that was run according to this concept, the Norrgavel case. To illustrate the methodology a case study of the KrAft-group Norrgavel has been carried out. It  is a supplier development project.

  • 342.
    Axelsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Nordberg, Henrik
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Role of PR: In the Introduction Stage of a New Brand2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The reality of today is that companies are spending more and more money on commercial spots. The “highlight” of the year is Super Bowl, where a 30-second ad costs more than $2 million to run. Advertising agencies are using their role as communicators by competing with each other with no interest in the product. The marketing guru Al Ries released a controversial book called “The Fall of Advertising and the Rise of PR” (2002) together with his daughter Laura Ries. In this book they are at-tacking the traditional advertising industry and claim that it has lost its credibility and above all, public relations is a more effective tool in brand building. The Rieses also favors PR in the in-troduction phase of a new brand.

    The purpose of the thesis is to investigate agencies’ view of public relations role relative to traditional advertising in the intro-duction phase of a new brand.

    The authors have used a qualitative study where the purpose will be achieved by performing in-depth face to face interviews with three respondents, which has a deep knowledge within the PR and the traditional advertising industry.

    Whether PR as a promotional tool is viewed as more effective relative to traditional advertising in the introduction of a new brand one has to consider different variables. PR is more effec-tive when it comes to credibility, cost, and clutter. However, a major drawback is the control. Also, one has to consider the at-tributes of the brand since there are brands that are more PR “friendly” than others.

  • 343.
    Axelsson, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Wallqvist, Erik
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Development of the Swedish Corporate Bond Market: A sustainable market with a potential of high future growth?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The financial crisis in 2008 has led to a number of consequences for the financial sector. For banks, new stricter regulations with the Basel III accord will be implemented from 2013. The adaption to the new conditions has resulted in stricter lending policies, which means that is tougher for companies to get traditional bank loans. Companies have started to look for other funding alternatives and the corporate bond market has gained more attention and a clear trend of growth for this market has been seen during the last couple of years

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to examine the development of the corporate bond market in Sweden and analyze how this will impact the market participants and how they can adapt and utilize from it.

    Method: The research method used, in order to meet the purpose of this thesis, is mainly qualitative. The study it is based on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with different market participants that have great knowledge regarding their specific field of expertise. To back this up and, in more detail, understand more exactly the pace of the growth, the interview have been complemented with statistics of the current market situation.

    Conclusion: The Swedish corporate bond market has experienced a significant growth during the last couple of years and this has affected a lot of actors on the financial markets that have adapted their business to the new prevailing conditions. All market participants agree that this development will continue and they highlight the importance for the development to be qualitative in order to get a sustainable market. 

  • 344.
    Axén Wrigfors, Caroline
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Eliasson, Karin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Strategic Management: A combination of the internal and external perspective2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic management has long been viewed as the concept and process that link an organization

    and its environment together (Leibold, Probst & Gibbert, 2002). It consists of the

    analysis, decisions and actions an organization undertakes in order to create and sustain

    competitive advantages (Dess, Lumpkin & Taylor, 2005).

    Within the history of strategic management research there has been an unbalance between

    the internal and the external perspective. During the 1980s Michael Porter, one of the most

    prominent strategic management researchers, and his Five Forces model focused strictly on

    the external competitive environment (Mintzberg, Ahlstrand & Lampel, 1998). Further, in

    the 1990s the focus shifted from external to internal along with Jay Barney’s development

    of the resource based theory in 1991 (Barney, 1991). The issue of excluding one or the

    other perspective has now started to be acknowledged and researchers today are striving

    for developing models integrating both perspectives. However, theoretical models existing

    today that combine the two perspectives are complex and hard to apply in practice for

    managers within the business world.

    In order to address the complexity of the strategic management concept we have chosen to

    develop a model with the purpose to connect and relate the external and internal perspectives

    by conducting an in-depth analysis of a chosen company. The model also strives to be

    easily communicated, applicable and understandable for managers and employees on different

    levels within the organization. This leads us to the purpose of this thesis: “to develop

    a simplified model that combines the external and internal perspective of strategic management

    and apply this to a chosen company”.

    The research was conducted through a case study based on the authors’ participation in a

    PBM (Project Based Module) - project. The model was tested on the company in question

    by analyzing the company’s internal and external environment with the means of analysis

    tools such as PEST-analysis, strategic group analysis, threshold analysis and the SWOTanalysis.

    To conclude it is important to balance an organization’s internal efforts with the external

    market conditions and avoid excluding one or the other from the strategic management

    process. Combining the two perspectives results in identifying the current capabilities and

    competences and the direction of how to use these in order to meet market demands and

    gain competitive advantage.

  • 345.
    Aygören, Huriye
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Bridging the gap between resistance and power through agency: An empirical analysis of struggle by immigrant women entrepreneurs2017In: Critical Perspectives on Entrepreneurship: Challenging Dominant Discourses / [ed] Caroline Essers, Pascal Dey, Deirdre Tedmanson, Karen Verduyn, New York: Routledge, 2017, p. 206-222Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 346. Aygören, Huriye
    Bridging the gap between resistance and power through agency: An empirical study of immigrant woman entrepreneurs’ ‘struggle’2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I discuss the intertwined relations between power and resistance based on the concept of struggle. Drawing on life story narratives of seventeen Turkish origin immigrant woman entrepreneurs venturing in Sweden, I demonstrate the results of my research on how entrepreneurs respond to intersecting forces of gender, ethnicity and class through two main forms of agency: agency of power and agency of intentions. I show that the entrepreneurs used certain tactics creatively to empower themselves to bring value and meaning to their lives.

  • 347.
    Aygören, Huriye
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Entrepreneurial capital development processes within gender, ethnicity and class relations: A practice-based perspective2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, I discuss the ways in which a diverse body of entrepreneurs, especially those who are historically disadvantaged and have scarce legitimate resources, strategize and negotiate being the ‘right sort of entrepreneur’ as a party in culturally constituted social class relations. To that end, I approach cultural and symbolic capital acquisition and conversion processes as inherent elements of entrepreneurs’ everyday coping practices, as experienced by seventeen immigrant women entrepreneurs in Sweden. I offer a class analysis by paying attention to the intersectionality of ethnicity and gender in relational terms to better articulate the interdependence between the material and cultural and symbolic configurations of power relations and the ways entrepreneurs rework them.

  • 348.
    Aygören, Huriye
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Entrepreneurial identity formation-in-practice: Immigrant women entrepreneurs' lived practices and experiences within gender, ethnicity and class relations2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation, comprising four appended papers, examines what entrepreneurs actually do in order to manage the intrinsic social complexity pertaining to relations of power and culture involved in entrepreneurial undertakings. The studies share the common interest in probing into the ways inwhich fundamental social divisions and conflicts, namely gender, ethnicity and class are inscribed into the entrepreneurs through the organization of difference (Ashcraft, 2012) and how these shape and are shaped by the identity construction processes of individual entrepreneurs. The thesis provides an empirical account of entrepreneurial identity formation and its implications on shaping differential degree and the forms of entrepreneurial agency exerted by entrepreneurs by drawing on two sets of empirical materials generated through life story narratives of seventeen immigrant women entrepreneurs and some particular family business members with Turkish origin, in their involvement with entrepreneurial practices in Sweden. In overall, the thesis approximates to the notion of the individual entrepreneur in identity terms. Three major theoretical approaches, including practice theory, identity work and the feminist intersectionality framework, lay the groundwork for thinking about the relational and contextual foundation of the individual and associated identity construction processes intraversing the contexts at different temporal and spatial scales, namely individual, organizational, familial and societal.

    The thesis responds to the call for relational analysis examining the entanglement of material and symbolic resources and practices to draw a more rounded picture of entrepreneurship (Tatli, Vassilopoulou, Özbilgin, Forson, & Slutskaya, 2014). It adds to this debate by highlighting the identification processes of entrepreneurs, especially of those who have been historically and relatively marginalized in their societies. This thesis connects with studies emphasizing the socio-culturally constructed, relational and contextual nature of entrepreneurship and contributes to bridging the gap between two bifurcated streams of research in entrepreneurship-constructionist approaches, e.g., discursive/ narrative accounts with practice based perspectives. I emphasize the importance of considering both complex identification processes for the benefit of practice-based analysis and material practices and resources to the greater advantage of constructionist accounts. Throughout my thesis, I suggest that the discursive and material aspects of agency and structures are inseparable. In entrepreneurship, it is imperative to transcend symbolic and material boundaries. This way, the thesis provides complementary insights to cultural studies of entrepreneurship which emphasize access either to material or cultural representations.

    My first contribution concerns the generation of rich empirical accounts ofimmigrant women entrepreneurs in the particular context of migration encompassing the two cultural scenes of Turkey, where the immigrants came from, and Sweden, where they live and enterprise. The studies in the thesis demonstrate that immigrant women entrepreneurs and immigrant family members have used creative agency to sustain their struggles of entrepreneurial identity formation and capital accumulation and have effected social change indifferent terms. By combining two streams of inquiries, which have usually been undertaken separately, studying cultural representations and what an entrepreneur would do with these representations with a focus on identity formations, the thesis contributes to the reflexive entrepreneurship scholarship by examining the entrepreneurs’ own responses to hegemonic discourses where a complex set of negotiations and diverse forms of entrepreneurship could be drawn. This forms my second contribution. Finally, the analysis also leads to a discussion of processual issues, which amount to the relative advantage (privilege) and disadvantage (marginalization) in the field of entrepreneurship. My studies suggest that inequalities do not have a static and spatial position but are a dynamic and accumulated process that defines access, mobility and investment across different fields of activities made possible by the diverse histories and practices of entrepreneurs and relevant constituents.

  • 349.
    Aygören, Huriye
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership).
    The Quest towards Finding Social in Social Entrepreneurship:: Analyzing Contradictory Institutional Logics at Contexts of Social Entrepreneurship2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social entrepreneurship is a heterogeneous organizational field which on the one hand builds upon highly established institutions/organizational forms and on the other continuously bears new emergent combinations. Responding to this empirical opportunity, this study aims to explore the institutional context of social entrepreneurship. First the repertoires of organizing modes and manifested tensions among those are examined. Following, strategies taken by the actors and dimensions of agency are briefly analyzed. Finally, it is suggested that social entrepreneurship might be seen as an ‘institutional field under construction’ where institutional work is going on at multiple sites and where different conceptions of agency take more visible charge at some works/sites.

  • 350.
    Aygören, Huriye
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership).
    Wilinska, Monika
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work.
    "People Like Us": experiencing difference in the working life of immigrant women2013In: Equality, Diversity and Inclusion, ISSN 2040-7149, E-ISSN 2040-7157, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 575-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The main aim of this article is to research the lived experience of difference. In this article, we are interested in the field of working life in the context of entrepreneurship among Turkish women in Sweden.

    Design/methodology/approach - The article is based on the stories of two immigrant women entrepreneurs who reflect upon their experience of working life in the context of migration to Sweden. These two stories provide a ground for a discussion regarding the responding to and re-making of difference by individual subjects. Our analysis is grounded in discursive approaches to narratives, particularly in the positioning analysis.

    Findings - In our discussion, we focus on the field of work to discuss the changing conditions that affect and are affected by particular constructions of difference in a migration context. In this, we present how difference is experienced and put into use differently by the individuals, even under very similar descriptive categories of difference.

    Originality/value - This article contributes with an experiential account of difference. It favors the notion of lived experiences within the intersecting structures in the analysis of complex interactions between structures, agents, times and spaces. It demonstrates the importance of attending to spatial, temporal, structural and subjective dimensions of difference.

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