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  • 251.
    Su, Biwei
    et al.
    Korea University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Development and Sources of Labor Productivity in Chinese Provinces2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As China exhibited unprecedented rapid economic growth ever since its reform and openness, the development and sources of labor productivity has gradually come to the forefront. This paper studies the development and the source of labor productivity in 31 Chinese provinces during the period of 2000-2009. The labor productivity is investigated through an examination at both the levels and the growth rate. Particularly, we first look at the production function relationship, to see the contribution of labor and other production factors to the gross domestic product. Then, a number of possible determinants are defined. They are regressed on the level and the growth rate of labor productivity to shed light on their relationships. Controlled for unobserved time-specific and province-specific effects, the fixed effects model with heteroskedasticity robust adjustments have been used for the estimation of three functions. Regional breakdown shows severe disparity in the economy where three municipal cities have the highest labor productivity among other regions. Subsequently, we summarize the different sources and their contributions to labor productivity and provide several policy suggestions.

  • 252.
    Su, Biwei
    et al.
    Korea University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Development and Sources of Labor Productivity in Chinese Provinces2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 253.
    Sun, Peng
    et al.
    Liaoning Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau (LNCIQ).
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    International Trade and its Effects on Economic Growth in China2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    International trade, as a major factor of openness, has made an increasingly significant contribution to economic growth. Chinese international trade has experienced rapid expansion together with its dramatic economic growth which has made the country to target the world as its market. This research discusses the role of international trade in China’s economic growth. It starts with a review of conceptions as well as the evolution of China’s international trade regime and the policy that China has taken in favor of trade sectors. In addition, China’s international trade performance is analyzed extensively. This research then evaluates the effects of international trade on China’s economic growth through examining improvement in productivity. Both econometric and non-parametric approaches are applied based on a 6-year balanced panel data of 31 provinces of China from 2002 to 2007. For the econometric approach, a stochastic frontier production function is estimated and province specific determinants of inefficiency in trade identified. For the non-parametric approach, the Divisia index of each province/region is calculated to be used as the benchmark. The study demonstrates that increasing participation in the global trade helps China reap the static and dynamic benefits, stimulating rapid national economic growth. Both international trade volume and trade structure towards high-tech exports result in positive effects on China’s regional productivity. The eastern region of China has been developing most rapidly while the central and western provinces have been lagging behind in terms of both economic growth and participation in international trade. Policy implications are drawn from the empirical results accordingly.

  • 254.
    Taehyun, Lee
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, Sogang University, South Korea.
    The role of education for the development of environmental protection: a case for Korea2019In: Sociology International Journal, E-ISSN 2576-4470, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 244-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying societal and economic factors that have an influence on sustainability courses is of great importance for grappling environmentally challenging issues. Education has long been seen as an effective method to efficaciously diffuse knowledge, values, and behaviors that help to better protect the environment, as well as promote ecological awareness. In order to promote environmental education, establishing environmental courses is paramount. This paper presents significant findings that showcase the discrepancy between the total number of environmental classes offered at the top 20 universities and the rest of the non-top-tier universities located throughout South Korea. Within the groups, there are subgroups organized by Seoul-based areas and non-Seoul-based ones. The purpose of the groups is to estimate heterogeneous coefficients of total sustainability classes at Seoul-based top universities and non-Seoul-based-top ones, respectively. A comparison by locations shows that Seoul-based-top universities and non-Seoul-based-top universities bear a striking distinction in total sustainability classes per semester. Immense discrepancies are also found between the number of environmental classes offered at prestigious and lesser prestigious universities exist particularly in non-Seoul areas. Result from a comparison by different ownerships indicates evidence of heterogeneity across types of ownership.

  • 255.
    Tatahi, Motasam
    et al.
    EBS Business School.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    The Financial and Operating Performance of Privatized Firms in Sweden2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the change in operating and financial performance of Swedish firms that were either partly or fully privatized during the period of 1989-2007. Two different methods are used to empirically investigate the performance of privatized firms. First, accounting data prior to and after the privatization are employed to measure the operating performance of privatized firms. We have found no significant difference in performances under state and private ownerships. Second, a return-based event study is found useful to measure the financial performance of privatized firms, since all the firms in the sample that were privatized have used an initial public offering (IPO). This approach allows comparison to the rest of the IPOs that were launched in the same period. It is found that the cumulative returns for the privatized firms are significantly different to private counterparts. Overall results, however, show that the privatization in Sweden was not as successful as it might have been expected and in comparison with those in other countries.

  • 256.
    Tausch, A.
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, University Austria, Austria.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Soran University, Iraq, and Department of Food and Resources Economics, Korea University, Seoul, 136-713, South Korea .
    Migration, openness and the global preconditions of ’smart development’2012In: Bogazici Journal, ISSN 1300-9583, Vol. 26, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a first empirical reflection on smart development,’ its measurement, possible drivers and bottlenecks.’ We first provide cross-national data on how much ecological footprint is used in the nations of the world system to deliver a given amount of democracy, economic growth, gender equality, human development, research and development, and social cohesion. To this end, we first developed UNDP-type performance indicators on these six main dimensions of development and on their combined performance. We then show the non-linear regression trade-offs between ecological footprints per capita on these six dimensions of development and their combined performance index. The residuals from these regressions are our new measures of smart development (a country experiences smart development, if it achieves a maximum development with a minimum of ecological footprint). We then look at the cross-national drivers and bottlenecks of this smart development and compare their predictive power using stepwise regression procedures. Apart from important variables and indicators, derived from sociological dependency and world systems theories, we also test the predictive power of several other predictors as well. Our estimates underline the enormous importance of the transfer of resources from the center to the periphery, brought about by migration, with huge statistical observed positive effects of received worker remittances on smart human development, Happy Life Years, smart gender justice, smart R&D, and both formulations of the smart development index.

  • 257.
    Tausch, A.
    et al.
    Corvinus University, Budapest, Hungary.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, East Building, #217, Seoul 136-713, South Korea.
    The effects of multinational corporation (MNC) penetration on the global political economy. A re-analysis of a recur-rent sociological proposition with contemporary data2012In: Sociológia (Bratislava), ISSN 0049-1225, E-ISSN 1336-8613, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 314-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay we reconsider the effects of direct foreign investments on the host countries around the globe. A number of sociological analyses (Bandelji 2009; Mahutga - Bandelji 2008), already applied such a question to Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Is the growing penetration of host countries of multinational investment heralding the promised gains of stable economic growth and social cohesion, or is social polarization around the corner instead? In our re-analysis with contemporary data of one of the most influential essays ever published in international sociology (Bornschier - Chase-Dunn - Rubinson 1978), which predicted that direct foreign investment would increase economic inequality and that it would have a short-term dynamic, but a long-term stagnation effect on the economic growth of the host countries (Bornschier - Chase-Dunn - Rubinson 1978: 651), we re-confirm the main thrust of the sceptical hypotheses on multinational corporation (MNC) penetration. We also show that on the global level and in the 183 countries analysed there is indeed a very strong connection between foreign capital penetration in the mid-1990s on the one hand and rising inequality, deficient life expectancy, rising unemployment, and a deficient under five mortality rate in the first decade of the new Millennium on the other. Economic growth in the contemporary period (2010) is also being determined negatively by the long-term effects of multinational corporation penetration in the mid-1990s, while in the period between 1990 and 2005 the effect was positive. We thus confirm that the approach, established by Bandelji 2009 and Mahutga and Bandelji 2008, is a valid one, and can be generalized on a global level.

  • 258.
    Tausch, A.
    et al.
    Corvinus University Budapest, Honorary Adjunct Department of Economics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University, Department of Food and Resource Economics, Seoul, South Korea.
    Worker remittances and the global preconditions of ’smart development’2013In: Society and Economy, ISSN 1588-9726, E-ISSN 1588-970X, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 25-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing environmental crisis affecting our globe, ideas to weigh economic or social progress by the ’energy input’ necessary to achieve it are increasingly gaining acceptance. This question is intriguing and is being dealt with by a growing number of studies, focusing on the environmental price of human progress. Even more intriguing, however, is the question of which factors of social organization contribute to a responsible use of the resources of our planet to achieve a given social result (’smart development’). In this essay, we present the first systematic study on how migration-or rather, more concretely, received worker remittances per GDP-helps the nations of our globe to enjoy social and economic progress at a relatively small environmental price. We look at the effects of migration on the balance sheets of societal accounting, based on the ’ecological price’ of the combined performance of democracy, economic growth, gender equality, human development, research and development, and social cohesion. Feminism in power, economic freedom, population density, the UNDP education index as well as the receipt of worker remittances all significantly contribute towards a ’smart overall development’, while high military expenditures and a high world economic openness are a bottleneck for ’smart overall development’.

  • 259.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Corvinus University in Budapest, Hungary, and Innsbruck University, Austria.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Globalization, the human condition and sustainable development in the twenty-first century: cross-national perspectives and European implications2012Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An examination of how the pro-globalist policies of the European Union have precipitated the current European crisis, especially in areas of development.

  • 260.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Innsbruck University, Austria.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Korea.
    Islamism and gender relations in the Muslim world as reflected in recent World Values Survey data2016In: Society and Economy, ISSN 1588-9726, E-ISSN 1588-970X, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 427-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since Goldin (1995) proposed the idea that there is a U-shaped female labor force participation rate function in economic development, empirical research is stunned by the question why the countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are characterized by such low rates of female labor force participation. This gap in labor economics research is all the more perplexing since gender equality, particularly in education and employment, signifi cantly contributes to economic growth. The research strategy of this paper is within a relatively new tradition in labor market research, initiated by Besamusca et al. (2015), which does not exclude the “religious factor” and what the authors call “gender ideology”. Our analysis of the “gender ideology” of Islamism and gender values is based on an empirical analysis of World Values Survey data. In recent economic theory, Carvalho (2013) maintained that Muslim veiling is a strategy for integration, enabling women to take up outside economic opportunities while preserving their reputation within the community. The empirical data clearly support a pessimistic view. We show that Muslim Feminism, which according to our analysis implies the rejection of Islamism and the veil, and the democracy movement in the Muslim world, are closely interrelated. Thus, it is imperative that Western Feminism develops solidarity with Muslim Feminism, and that labor economics stop excluding the religious factor from the analytical frameworks explaining low female labor force participation rates.

  • 261.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Innsbruck University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Labour migration and ‘Smart Public Health’2014In: History & Mathematics: Trends and Cycles / [ed] Leonid Grinin, Andrey Korotayev, Volgograd: ‘Uchitel’ Publishing House , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Public health research debates for two decades the effects of inequality on public health. More recent research also considered the additional effects of international trade and world economic openness. These investigations analyse public health outcomes in such terms as infant mortality rates, life expectancies, etc. But with the growing environmental crisis, ideas to weigh economic or social or public health progress by the ‘environmental input’ necessary to achieve it are increasingly gaining acceptance. We might call such a weighting of infant mortality rates, or life expectancies by the ‘environmental input’ necessary to achieve them ‘smart public health’. Which factors of social organization now contribute then to a responsible use of the resources of our planet Earth to achieve ‘smart public health’?

    We use standard OLS non-linear regressions of ecological footprints per capita and their square on combined public health performances. The residuals from this regression are our new measure of ‘smart public health’.

    Our research results suggest that not inequality, but migration is a very important determinant of ‘smart public health’. Migration sending countries find it relatively easy to enjoy combined good public health performances at a relatively small environmental price. Other drivers of ‘smart public health’ are the share of a country's population in world population, and the UNDP education index. The main bottleneck of ‘smart public health’ is constituted by the crowding-out effect of public education expenditures on smart health performance.

    In contrast to earlier research, we come to the conclusion that migration sending countries reap substantial benefits from receiving worker remittances, while inequality and globalization indicators hardly affect the smart public health performance of the sample countries (all countries with available data).

  • 262.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Corvinus Universit y, Budapest, and Innsbruck University, Austria.
    Heshmati, Almas
    College of Engineering, TE MEP, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shilim-dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul, 151-742 Seoul, South Korea.
    Learning from Dependency and World System Theory: Explaining Europe’s Failure in the ‘Lisbon Process’2010In: Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, ISSN 1303-5525, E-ISSN 1303-5525, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 3-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current paper investigates the cross-national relevance of Latin American ‘dependencia theory’ for five dimensions of development (democracy and human rights, environment, human development and basic human needs satisfaction, gender justice, redistribution, growth and employment) on a global scale and tries to confront the very basic pro-globalist assumptions of the ‘Lisbon process’, the predecessor of the ongoing EU-2020 strategy, which was the policy target of the European leaders since the EU’s Lisbon Council meeting in March 2000 to make Europe the leading knowledge-based economy in the world with a ‘Latin American perspective’. A realistic and politically useful analysis of the ‘Lisbon process’ has to be a ‘Schumpeterian’ approach. First, we analyze the ‘Lisbon performance’ of the world economy by multivariate, quantitative means, looking into the possible contradictions that might exists between the dependent insertion into the global economy and other goals of the ‘Lisbon process’. Dependency from the large, transnational corporations, as correctly predicted by Latin American social science of the 1960s and 1970s, emerges as one of the most serious development blockades, confronting Europe. Secondly, we analyze European regional performance since the 1990s in order to know whether growth and development in Europe spread evenly among the different regions of the continent. It emerges that dependency from the large transnational corporations is incompatible with a balanced, regional development. Finally, we discuss cross-national and historical lessons learned from the views of dependency and Schumpeterian perspectives for current policy-making in Europe, and opt for an industrial policy approach in the tradition of former EU-Commission President (1985-1995) Jacques Delors.

  • 263.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Innsbruck University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    Learning from Latin America’s Experience: Europe’s Failure in the “Lisbon Process”2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current paper investigates the cross-national relevance of Latin American “dependencia theory” for five dimensions of development (democracy and human rights, environment, human development and basic human needs satisfaction, gender justice, redistribution, growth and employment) on a global scale. It tries to confront the very basic pro-globalist assumptions of the “Lisbon process”, the policy target of the European leaders since the EU’s Lisbon Council meeting in March 2000 to make Europe the leading knowledge-based economy in the world with a “Latin American perspective”. A realistic and politically useful analysis of the “Lisbon process” has to be a “Schumpeterian” approach. First, we analyze the “Lisbon performance” of the world economy by multivariate, quantitative means, looking into the possible contradictions that might exists between the dependent insertion into the global economy and other goals of the “Lisbon process”. Dependency from the large, transnational corporations, as correctly predicted by Latin American social science of the 1960s and 1970s, emerges as one of the most serious development blockades, confronting Europe. Secondly, we analyze European regional performance since the 1990s in order to know whether growth and development in Europe spread evenly among the different regions of the continent. It emerges that dependency from the large transnational corporations is incompatible with a balanced, regional development. Finally, we discuss cross-national and historical lessons learned from the views of dependency and Schumpeterian perspectives for current policy-making in Europe, and opt for an industrial policy approach in the tradition of former EU-Commission President (1985-1995) Jacques Delors.

  • 264.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Corvinus University Budapest and Innsbruck University .
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Migration, Openness and the Global Preconditions of ‘Smart Development’2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we present a first empirical reflection on ‘smart development’, its measurement, possible ‘drivers’ and ‘bottlenecks’. We first provide cross-national data on how much ecological footprint is used in the nations of the world system to ‘deliver’ a given amount of democracy, economic growth, gender equality, human development, research and development, and social cohesion. To this end, we first developed UNDP-type performance indicators on these six main dimensions of development and on their combined performance. We then show the non-linear regression trade-offs between ecological footprints per capita on these six dimensions of development and their combined performance index. The residuals from these regressions are our new measures of smart development: a country experiences smart development, if it achieves a maximum of development with a minimum of ecological footprint. We then look at the cross-national drivers and bottlenecks of this ‘smart development’ and compare their predictive power using stepwise regression procedures. Apart from important variables and indicators, derived from sociological dependency and world systems theories, we also test the predictive power of several other predictors as well. Our estimates underline the enormous importance of the transfer of resources from the center to the periphery, brought about by migration, with huge statistical observed positive effects of received worker remittances on smart human development, Happy Life Years, smart gender justice, smart R&D, and both formulations of the smart development index.

  • 265.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Innsbruck University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    Re-Orient? MNC Penetration and Contemporary Shifts in the Global Political Economy2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses IMF estimates of economic growth in 180 countries (IMF, 2009),and links the results to the ¡°Re-orient¡± approach, put forward by Frank, 1998. With global economic gravitation shifting to the Indian Ocean/Pacific region, the article also analyses the role of MNC (foreign capital) penetration as the key variable of past quantitative dependency studies for contemporary economic growth and social performance. In a Schumpeterian fashion, MNC penetration reflects the power, which transnational oligopolies wield over local economies. Today, social polarization and stagnation increase as a consequence of the development model, based on high MNC penetration.

  • 266.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Innsbruck University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Re-Orient? Understanding Contemporary Shifts in the Global Political Economy2011In: Journal of Globalization Studies, ISSN 2075-8103, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 89-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the logic of the current global economic crisis by using the IMF estimates of economic growth in 180 countries (IMF 2009), and links the results to the ‘Re-Orient’ approach, put forward by Frank (1998). With global economic gravitation shifting to the Indian Ocean / Pacific region, the article also analyses the role of MNC (foreign capital) penetration as the key variable of past quantitative dependency studies for contemporary economic growth and social performance. In a Schumpeterian fashion, MNC penetration reflects the power, which transnational oligopolies wield over local economies. Today, social polarization and stagnation increase as a consequence of the development model, based on high MNC penetration.

  • 267. Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Social polarization in the age of globalization: the continued relevance of the quantitative dependency (Bornschier) model2011In: Globalizacja, europejska integracja a kryzys gospodarczy = Globalization, European integration and economic crisis / [ed] Jarosław Kundera, Wrocław: Instytut Nauk Ekonomicznych Wydziału Prawa, Administracji i Ekonomii Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego , 2011, p. 53-98Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 268.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Innsbruck University and Corvinus University of Budapest.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Testing an EU-Candidate’s Place on the Maps of Global Economic, Political and Social Values: The Case of Turkey2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the attempt by Alesina and Guiliano (2013) to measure global culture and to project these measurements onto real choropleth geographical world maps, we utilize the data from the World Values Survey (WVS) to arrive at robust measurement scales of global economic, political and social values and to assess Turkey’s place on them. Our study, which is based on 92,289 representative individuals with complete data in 68 countries, representing 56.89% of the global population, looks at hard-core economic values in the countries. From our new nine dimensions for the determination of the geography of human values, based on a promax factor analysis of the available data, we use six factor analytical scores to calculate a new Global Value Development Index, which combines: avoiding economic permissiveness; avoiding racism; avoiding distrust of the army and the press; avoiding the authoritarian character; tolerance and respect; and avoiding the rejection of the market economy and democracy. Our results show that the five best ranked countries are all western democracies. Our global value development index ranks Morocco twelfth - just behind the USA. Turkey is ranked 25, ahead of several EU member countries. But there are still considerable deficits concerning the liberal values components, which are very important for effective democracy, and there are very large regional differences, confirming the dictum by Huntington (1996) about Turkey as a torn country. The deficits suggest that the Turkish state, Turkish civil society and European decision makers would be well advised to continue to support civil society and secular democracy in Turkey.

  • 269.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Corvinus University of Budapest, Budapest, Hungary.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea.
    The effects of globalization on the environment2018In: UKH Journal of Social Sciences, ISSN 2520-7806, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 25-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In multiple standard OLS regression models, we test the effects of 26 standard predictor variables, including the ‘four freedoms’ of goods, capital, labour and services, on the following indicators of sustainable development: avoiding net trade of ecological footprint gha per person, Carbon emissions per million US dollars GDP, CO2 per capita, Environmental Performance Index (EPI), Global footprint per capita, Happy Life Years, Happy Planet Index, and ln (number of people per mill inhabitants 1980-2000 killed by natural disasters per year+1). Our research shows that the apprehensions of quantitative globalization critical research are fully vindicated by the significant negative environmental effects of the foreign savings rate. High foreign savings are indeed a driver of global footprint, and are a blockade against a satisfactory Happy Planet Index performance. The New International Division of Labour (NIDL)-model (Froebel et al., 1980) is one of the prime drivers of high CO2 per capita emissions. MNC penetration, the master variable of most quantitative dependency theories, blocks environmental performance (EPI-Index) and several other socially important processes. Worker remittances have a significant positive effect on the Happy Planet Index, and Happy Life Years.

  • 270.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Innsbruck University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Bajalan, Chemen S. J.
    University of Kurdistan Hawler, Queens University Belfast and HIEPR.
    On the Multivariate Analysis of the "Lisbon Process"2010In: History & Mathematics: Processes and Models of Global Dynamics / [ed] Leonid Grinin, Peter Herrmann, Andrey Korotayev, Arno Tausch, Volgograd: ‘Uchitel’ Publishing House , 2010, p. 92-137Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting from Professor Kornai's assertion about the necessity to focus on the long-term perspectives of the transformation process, we analyze in this paper the Lisbon performance of the countries of the European Union from such a long-term, structural perspective. We present in a simple form the mathematical methods used in this essay. Then, we analyze Lisbon indicator performance by factor analytical means. We conclude that only a Schumpeterian vision of capitalism as a process of "creative destruction" – or rather – "destructive creation" can explain these contradictions, which we empirically reveal in this analysis, and which beset the "Lisbon process" from the very beginning. Our factor analysis tells us that a majority of the kernel Lisbon indicators go indeed hand in hand with high comparative price levels; high freight transport; high greenhouse gas emissions; low business investment rates; and low youth educational attainment rates. We conclude that in reality we are facing four underlying and contradictory processes including a Lisbon productivity factor; high eco-social exclusion; the employment performance; and the neo-liberal European model.

  • 271.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Université d'Innsbruck, Autriche.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Anam­dong, Seungbuk­gu, East building #217, Korea University, Seoul 136­713, Korea.
    Jourdon, Philippe
    Université de Montpellier.
    Karoui, Hichem
    Université de Paris La Sorbonne.
    En sommes-nous encore à la période de la capitulation tranquille?: Are We Still In The Age Of Silent Surrender?2013In: Entelequia. Revista interdisciplinar, ISSN 1885-6985, E-ISSN 1885-6985, no 15, p. 125-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although French sociology debated at length the issue of globalization, it is surprising to find that up to this day, for all purposes, it neglected the most consistent international attempt to quantitatively measure and study the effects of transnational capital penetration on the economic and social development of the host countries, put forward by the Swiss sociologist Volker Bornschier, from the 1980s onwards. Our article analyses IMF estimates of current economic growth in 180 countries (IMF, 2009), and nine other key indicators of current social global development and shows the relevance of this MNC/FMN penetration approach by Bornschier, 1976, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 2002, Bornschier/Ballmer-Cao, 1979, Bornschier/Chase-Dunn, 1985, and Bornschier/Chase-Dunn/Rubinson, 1978. Our paper shows the significant effects of MNC/FMN penetration or the increases of MNC/FMN penetration for the gross enrollment rate in higher education, unemployment, economic growth in 2010 (IMF), inequality and social security spending as a percentage of GDP, the rule of law, infant mortality, and survival rates of women at age 65. As correctly predicted Bornschier, MNC/FMN penetration reflects the power that transnational oligopolies wield over local economies, having a negative impact on the social performance of countries hosting the penetration of transnational capital, while positively affecting economic growth in the previous 1990-2005 economic cycle. Today, social polarization and stagnation increase as a consequence of the development model, based on high MNC/FMN penetration.

  • 272.
    Tran-Quy, Nam
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    Measurements and Determinants of Pay Inequality and its Impacts on Firms Performance in Vietnam2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is an empirical investigation of causal factors of pay inequality and its relationship with firm performance using firm level data in Vietnam. Both nonparametric and parametric approaches are used for the purpose. The Gini coefficient and Theil-T index are employed to measure pay inequality. Linear and quadratic models are specified to identify determinants of pay inequality and to investigate the relationship between pay inequality and firm performance. The empirical results, based on a large sample of Vietnamese firms, suggest that capital-intensive sectors pay more equal wages than labour-intensive sectors while regions with a higher urbanization rate and economic development pay their employees quite unequally. The determinant factors contributing to pay inequality are firm size, volume of assets, share of temporary workers, debt ratio, provincial competitiveness and the market size. We also find a positive relationship between firm performance and pay inequality, which gives support to the "tournament" theory.

  • 273.
    Uwitonze, Eric
    et al.
    Ministry of Gender and Family Promotion (MIGEPROF), MIGEPROF, Single Project Implementation Unit, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Determinants of service sector firms’ growth in Rwanda2017In: Studies on economic development and growth in selected African countries / [ed] Almas Heshmati, Singapore: Springer, 2017, p. 331-368Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The service sector is an avenue for economic transformation as not all countries have a competitive edge in manufacturing. Findings from a micro-level research on the service sector confirm that ICT integration, firm’s age, the education of the owner, the boss’ attitude, family business, networks, new processes, major improvements, market share, on the job training and know-how significantly, and positively increase the probability of a firm’s growth. Even though the growth rate of services is currently impressive in the Rwandan economy, no investigations have been done on the determinants of the growth of the firms in the service sector. This paper studies the development of services over the years in Rwanda’s economy in detail and empirically estimates its determinants by using an econometric methodology. The empirical results are based on micro-data collected by the Rwanda Enterprise Survey (2011) and the 2014 Establishment Census. The survey has data on 241 firms and establishments. Linear and limited dependent variable techniques are employed to investigate the factors behind the development of service firms. Models are specified and estimated to assess the factors contributing to sales growth, innovations, and turnovers of service firms. The results show that the key factors driving the development of service firms in Rwanda include access to credit, application of ICT, availability of skilled labor, employee development and acquisition of fixed assets. The results suggest that the government should uphold the use of ICT in all service firms, promote access to finance to new service firms and promote on-work training in service firms to speed up Rwanda’s shift from a low income to a middle-income state.

  • 274.
    Wang, S.
    et al.
    State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, State Council of China, China.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    The relationship between efficiency and ownership structure: The case of China’s listed ICT companies2011In: Information and communication technologies policies and practices / [ed] Almas Heshmati and Sun Peng, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. 119-144Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If we take an overview of enterprise reform in China during the last 30 years, we willfind that this process has always been accompanied by the debate of ownership identityand ownership structure. Numerous pieces of research on the relationship between theefficiency and ownership structure in China have been undertaken, but the conclusionsvary and even contradict each other. This dissertation will explore the uniquecharacteristics of the ownership structure of Chinese companies, and illustrate the effectsof ownership structure on the efficiency of companies and finally discuss how to adjustthe ownership structure to improve their efficiency. Unbalance panel data for listed ICTcompanies from 2003 to 2007 are collected to conduct an empirical analysis of therelationship between performance and the ownership structure of firms. A two-stepprocedure is used. In the first step, data envelopment analysis (DEA) Window model isapplied to measure the efficiencies of these companies. In the second step, the Tobitregression model is used to establish the relationship between efficiency and theownership structure, to identify the determinants of efficiency and to estimate theirimpacts. A sensitivity analysis with respect to model specification is conducted. Inaddition, this dissertation attempts to provide an explanation for the conclusions drawn,and provides policy guidelines for future adjustments in the ownership structure. Inconclusion, the results suggest that the proportions of state-owned and private corporateshares do not affect the efficiency of companies significantly. However, the ownershipconcentration exhibits a positive impact on the efficiency level of the sample ICT firms. ©2010 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 275.
    Wortley, David
    et al.
    European Chapter of the International Society of Digital Medicine, Alderton, United Kingdom.
    An, Ji-Young
    Office of Public Health Studies, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, United States.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea.
    Tackling the challenge of the aging society: Detecting and preventing cognitive and physical decline through games and consumer technologies2017In: Healthcare Informatics Research, ISSN 2093-3681, E-ISSN 2093-369X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 87-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study seeks to review some of the approaches employed to address health and well-being issues in the elderly population.

    Methods: This article reviews and analyses a range of projects and approaches designed for the elderly population and aimed at preserving and/or enhancing physical and cognitive capabilities in later life.

    Results: Various intervention measures have been developed across the globe to preserve and/or enhance physical and cognitive capabilities of the elderly population. A selection of these measures is described in this article.

    Conclusions: Approaches which combine games psychology and mechanics with enabling technologies designed to engage, influence and motivate elderly people can encourage healthy active aging lifestyles. Healthy active aging helps to realise a double dividend of reduced healthcare costs and an improved quality of life for the elder citizen. 

  • 276.
    Yeo, M.
    et al.
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Healthy Residential Environments for the Elderly2014In: Journal of Housing for the Elderly, ISSN 0276-3893, E-ISSN 1540-353X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to analyze the environmental elements of residential facilities for elderly people by using Antonovsky’s salutogenic concept. The relationship between the environment and health is clearly identified. This information facilitates the presentation and development of residential facilities with healthy living conditions for elderly people in South Korea. The concept includes providing a residential environment that is safe from a variety of dangers by applying a barrier-free concept to address the physical changes of elderly people. It also provides an environment equipped with a continuous protection system that considers both the physical and sociopsychological aspects of this particular treatment environment. ©2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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