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  • 251.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Malmqvist, Johan
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Faculty of Education and Society, Malmö University, Malmö.
    Local school ideologies and inclusion: the case of Swedish independent schools2013In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 49-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the development of a framework for the classification of local school ideologies in relation to inclusion that provides a tool for classifying the general educational direction as well as work with pupils in need of special support of individual schools. The framework defines different aspects of local school ideology in terms of values related to the societal level, school level, and individual level of the education system. The paper also reports on a study exploring variations among Swedish independent schools, concerning local school ideology using the framework as a theoretical tool. In this qualitative analysis, eight schools were selected from results of a questionnaire to all Swedish independent schools (return rate 79.5%) for further analysis based on interviews with different categories of school personnel, parents, and pupils. Five different patterns of local school ideologies were found more or less in line with values of inclusion, e.g. the holistic – inclusive and the market oriented – exclusive. Results are discussed in relation to the multiple and sometimes competing objectives that every school has to deal with and make priorities between. Implications for pupils in need of special support in a school system rapidly undergoing marketisation are finally discussed. 

  • 252. Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Other School Based Research. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Inclusive education in Sweden?: Ideas, policies and pracitices2009In: La nouvelle revue de l'adaptation et de la scolarisation, ISSN 1957-0341, no 5, p. 83-98Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 253. Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Other School Based Research.
    Om smygrepresentativitet i pedagogiska avhandlingar2009In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 136-142Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 254.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    Linköpings universitet.
    Inclusive education in Sweden? A critical analysis2011In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 541-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When it comes to pupils in need of special support and pupils with disabilities, Sweden's compulsory school system is sometimes considered a one-track system. This article analyses and critically discusses current policy and practices at various levels of Sweden's compulsory school system for these pupils. The analysis traces three themes at the national and municipal levels: (1) values and goals; (2) organisation and placement of pupils; and (3) importance of categories in obtaining support. A rather complex picture emerges from this analysis. Several conclusions are made: (1) state policies leave a lot of room for interpretation at the municipal and school levels, and this results in an extensive variation; (2) Swedish state policy is not as inclusive as is often stated; (3) celebration of difference seems to be hard to achieve; (4) learning goals can be a double-edged sword with regard to inclusion; and (5) most pupils appear to enjoy participation in school, and in an international perspective, Swedish classrooms seem to be largely democratic.

  • 255.
    Hatfield, Megan
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Factors related to successful transition planning for adolescents on the autism spectrum2018In: Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, ISSN 1471-3802, E-ISSN 1471-3802, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescents on the autism spectrum often have difficulties with the transition from high school to post-school activities. Despite this, little is known about the transition planning processes for this group. This study explored predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors related to the transition planning processes for adolescents on the autism spectrum in Australia. The PRECEDE model guided a needs assessment, in which descriptive data about transition planning processes were collected via an online questionnaire from adolescents on the autism spectrum, their parents and professionals (N = 162). Predisposing factors included: an individualised and strengths-focused approach, and adolescent motivation, anxiety and insight. Reinforcing factors included: support and guidance, skill development and real-life experiences. Enabling factors were: having a clear plan with a coordinated approach, scheduled meetings and clear formal documentation. Whilst some factors aligned with recommendations for transition planning for adolescents with disabilities in general, there were some autism-specific factors. For example: anxiety, motivation and insight were important predisposing factors, and providing choice and flexibility was an enabling factor.

  • 256.
    Hatfield, Megan
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Effectiveness of the BOOST-A online transition planning program for adolescents on the autism spectrum: A quasi-randomized controlled trial2017In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The majority of existing transition planning programs are focused on people with a disability in general and may not meet the specific need of adolescents on the autism spectrum. In addition, these interventions focus on specific skills (e.g. job readiness or self-determination) rather than the overall transition planning process and there are methodological limitations to many of the studies determining their effectiveness. The Better OutcOmes & Successful Transitions for Autism (BOOST-A (TM)) is an online program that supports adolescents on the autism spectrum to prepare for leaving school. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the BOOST-A T in enhancing self-determination. 

    Methods: A quasi-randomized controlled trial was conducted with adolescents on the autism spectrum enrolled in years 8 to 11 in Australian schools (N = 94). Participants had to have basic computer skills and the ability to write at a year 5 reading level. Participants were allocated to a control (n = 45) or intervention (n = 49) group and participants were blinded to the trial hypothesis. The intervention group used the BOOST-A T for 12 months, while the control group participated in regular practice. Outcomes included self-determination, career planning and exploration, quality of life, environmental support and domain specific self-determination. Data were collected from parents and adolescents. 

    Results: There were no significant differences in overall self-determination between groups. Results indicated significant differences in favor of the intervention group in three areas: opportunity for self-determination at home as reported by parents; career exploration as reported by parents and adolescents; and transition-specific self-determination as reported by parents. 

    Conclusions: Results provide preliminary evidence that the BOOST-A T can enhance some career-readiness outcomes. Lack of significant outcomes related to self-determination at school and career planning may be due to the lack of face-to-face training and parents being the primary contacts in the study. Further research is needed to determine effectiveness of the BOOST-A T related to post-secondary education and employment.

  • 257.
    Hatfield, Megan
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Evaluation of the effectiveness of an online transition planning program for adolescents on the autism spectrum: Trial protocol2016In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 10, no 48, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The transition from high school to post-secondary education and work is difficult for adolescents on the autism spectrum. Transition planning can be an effective way of supporting adolescents on the autism spectrum to prepare for leaving school and to succeed in obtaining employment; however, there is a need for an autism-specific transition planning program with proven effectiveness. This paper describes a trial protocol for evaluating the Better OutcOmes & Successful Transitions for Autism (BOOST-A™); an online interactive program that empowers adolescents on the autism spectrum to plan their transition from school to further study, training, or employment.

    METHODS: The trial will involve adolescents on the autism spectrum in high school and their parents, who will be alternately assigned to a control group (regular practice) or an intervention group (using the BOOST-A™). The BOOST-A™ was developed using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model, and is based on the self-determination model, and the strengths- and technology-based approaches. It involves participants completing a series of online modules. The primary outcome will be self-determination, because high self-determination has been linked to successful transition to employment among adolescents on the autism spectrum. Secondary outcomes will include domain-specific self-determination, career planning and exploration, quality of life, and environmental support. Data will be obtained from questionnaires completed by the adolescent on the autism spectrum and their parent/s. Data collection will take place at baseline (Time point 1) and 12 months later (Time point 2).

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This trial will provide evidence of the effectiveness of the BOOST-A™ to assist adolescents on the autism spectrum to successfully transition from school. 

  • 258.
    Hatfield, Megan
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Australia.
    "Leaps of faith": Parents' and professionals' viewpoints on preparing adolescents on the autism spectrum for leaving school2017In: Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, ISSN 1471-3802, E-ISSN 1471-3802, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescents on the autism spectrum experience difficulty transitioning from secondary school to post-school activities, often due to transition planning processes that do not meet their unique needs. This study identified parents' and professionals' viewpoints on transition planning for adolescents on the autism spectrum. Interviews were completed with nine parents of adolescents on the autism spectrum and four professionals who worked with adolescents on the autism spectrum. A constant comparison approach was used to analyse the transcripts. Four themes were identified, reflecting parents' and professionals' viewpoints on how to meet the transition planning needs of adolescents on the autism spectrum. Supporting adolescents to grasp the big picture can enhance motivation to participate in transition planning. Autism can be an ‘invisible disability’; therefore, encouraging adolescents to be active participants and to be seen in transition planning ensures their individual needs are met. Encouraging adolescents to have high aspirationsin transition planning develops their self-determination. Finally, to be prepared for the transition from school may reduce the adolescent's' anxiety. Adolescents on the autism spectrum face unique challenges in transition planning. The themes identified in this study provide insight into how parents and professionals might support adolescents with these challenges.

  • 259.
    Hatfield, Megan
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Process evaluation of the BOOST-A™ Transition Planning Program for Adolescents on the autism spectrum: A strengths-based approach2018In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 377-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A process evaluation was conducted to determine the effectiveness, usability, and barriers and facilitators related to the Better OutcOmes & Successful Transitions for Autism (BOOST-A (TM)), an online transition planning program. Adolescents on the autism spectrum (n = 33) and their parents (n = 39) provided feedback via an online questionnaire. Of these, 13 participants were interviewed to gain in-depth information about their experiences. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Four themes were identified: (i) taking action to overcome inertia, (ii) new insights that led to clear plans for the future, (iii) adolescent empowerment through strengths focus, and (iv) having a champion to guide the way. The process evaluation revealed why BOOST-A (TM) was beneficial to some participants more than others. 

  • 260.
    Hatfield, Megan
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work Curtin University Bentley, Western Australia.
    Murray, Nina
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work Curtin University Bentley, Western Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work Curtin University Bentley, Western Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work Curtin University Bentley, Western Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work Curtin University Bentley, Western Australia.
    Pilot of the BOOST-A™: An online transition planning program for adolescents with autism2017In: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, ISSN 0045-0766, E-ISSN 1440-1630, Vol. 64, no 6, p. 448-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many adolescents with autism face difficulties with the transition from high school into post-school activities. The Better OutcOmes & Successful Transitions for Autism (BOOST-A™) is an online transition planning program which supports adolescents on the autism spectrum to prepare for leaving school. This study describes the development of the BOOST-A™ and aimed to determine the feasibility and viability of the program.

    Methods: Two pilot studies were conducted. In Pilot A, the BOOST-A™ was trialled by six adolescents on the autism spectrum, their parents, and the professionals who worked with them, to determine its feasibility. In Pilot B, 88 allied health professionals (occupational therapists, speech pathologists, and psychologists) reviewed the BOOST-A™ to determine its viability.

    Results: Participants rated the BOOST-A™ as a feasible tool for transition planning. The majority of allied health professionals agreed that it was a viable program. Based on participant feedback, the BOOST-A™ was modified to improve usability and feasibility.

    Conclusion: The BOOST-A™ is a viable and feasible program that has the potential to assist adolescents with autism in preparing for transitioning out of high school. Future research will determine the effectiveness of the BOOST-A™ with adolescents across Australia. 

  • 261.
    Hill, Leah
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy for the study of attention in children with atypical development: A systematic literature review from 2009-20172018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although attention has been a topic in cognitive and developmental psychology since the mid- 20th century, much is still unknown with respect to the underlying neural differences in developmental attentional trajectories, including the link between differences observed at behavioural and neurophysiological levels. One relatively new emerging method of measuring atypical attention in children is functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Previously, reviews of NIRS in child development have included a wide range of developmental functions, from language acquisition to facial processing and joint attention. However, no such review has focused on the use of NIRS solely for measuring attention. The purpose of this systematic review was to provide an up-to-date synthesis of the findings.  It investigated the evidence for functional differences in attention with a specific focus on the overlap between behavioural and NIRS measures, as well as the corresponding theoretical basis and behavioural implications. A search for peer-reviewed articles was carried out in multiple databases, with thirteen studies included in the analysis. Generally, NIRS shows preliminary evidence for differences in attention for certain attentional dimensions such as response inhibition, but more research is needed to confirm differences in other dimensions such as working memory or attentional control. Behavioural measures are not always reported and only occasionally mapped on to NIRS results. Few studies include a theoretical basis of attention or the behavioural implications of the findings. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.

  • 262.
    Ho, Pei-Chi
    et al.
    Department of Pediatric Orthopedics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.
    Chang, Chia-Hsieh
    Department of Pediatric Orthopedics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Hwang, Ai-Wen
    Graduate Institute of Early Intervention, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.
    The relationships between capacity and performance in youths with cerebral palsy differ for GMFCS levels2017In: Pediatric Physical Therapy, ISSN 0898-5669, E-ISSN 1538-005X, Vol. 29, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To examine change in, and longitudinal relationships between motor capacity and activity performanceacross the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS).

    Methods: Ninety-two youths withcerebral palsy were examined at 2 time points, 1 year apart, using the Gross Motor Function Measure–66(GMFM-66) for motor capacity, and the Chinese version of the Activities Scale for Kids-Performance Version(ASKp-C) for activity performance. The score changes and capacity-to-performance/performance-to-capacitypathways were explored across GMFCS levels.

    Results: The GMFM-66 scores declined over time in GMFCSlevels IV-V while ASKp-C scores increased in GMFCS level I. The correlations for both pathways in GMFCSlevels I, III, and IV-V were significant with a higher correlation for performance-to-capacity pathway inGMFCS levels IV-V.

    Conclusions: Longitudinal changes in and relationships between capacity and performancediffer between GMFCS levels. The opportunities to perform activities need to be emphasized in GMFCS levelsIV-V.

  • 263.
    Hoppe, Margarete
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Perceived Social Support of Children with Severe Chronic Physical Health Conditions: A Systematic Literature Review2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 264.
    Horlin, Chiara
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Albrecht, Matthew A.
    School of Psychology & Speech Pathology, CHIRI, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Leung, Denise
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Ordqvist, Anna
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University & Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden.
    Tan, Tele
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Lee, Wee Lih
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Visual search strategies of children with and without autism spectrum disorders during an embedded figures task2014In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 463-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with ASD often demonstrate superior performance on embedded figures tasks (EFTs). We investigated visual scanning behaviour in children with ASD during an EFT in an attempt replicating a previous study examining differences in visual search behaviour. Twenty-three children with, and 31 children without an ASD were shown 16 items from the Figure-Ground subtest of the TVPS-3 while wearing an eye tracker. Children with ASD exhibited fewer fixations, and less time per fixation, on the target figure. Accuracy was similar between the two groups. There were no other noteworthy differences between children with and without ASD. Differences in visual scanning patterns in the presence of typical behavioural performance suggest that any purported differences in processing style may not be detrimental to cognitive performance and further refinement of the current methodology may lead to support for a purported advantageous cognitive style.

  • 265.
    Horlin, Chiara
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Black, Melissa
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Proficiency of individuals with autism spectrum disorder at disembedding figures: A systematic review2016In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 54-63Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This systematic review examines the proficiency and visual search strategies of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) while disembedding figures and whether they differ from typical controls and other comparative samples.

    Methods: Five databases, including Proquest, Psychinfo, Medline, CINAHL and Science Direct were used to identify published studies meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria.

    Results: Twenty articles were included in the review, the majority of which matched participants by mental age. Outcomes discussed were time taken to identify targets, the number correctly identified, and fixation frequency and duration.

    Conclusions: Individuals with ASD perform at the same speed or faster than controls and other clinical samples. However, there appear to be no differences between individuals with ASD and controls for number of correctly identified targets. Only one study examined visual search strategies and suggests that individuals with ASD exhibit shorter first and final fixations to targets compared with controls.

  • 266.
    Horlin, Chiara
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Fitzgerald, Patrick
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Ordqvist, Anna
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University & Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    The influence of static versus naturalistic stimuli on face processing in children with and without Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism2013In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 1617-1624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions regarding the use of static or dynamic facial stimuli in experimental studies investigating facial processing of individuals with AS/HFA raises issues of both ecological validity and the applicability of experimental findings to clinical or everyday practice. Children with and without AS/HFA (n = 38) were fitted with a head-mounted eye-tracker and exposed to either static or interactive dynamic facial stimuli. Average fixation duration, the proportion of fixations in areas of interest and a comparative index that was independent of differences in presentation length between stimuli types were calculated. Visual scanning patterns of individuals with AS/HFA were not affected by stimuli type. However, control participants exhibited different scanning patterns between dynamic and static stimuli for certain regions of the face. Visual scanning patterns in children with AS/HFA are consistent regardless of the stimuli being a static photo or dynamic in the form of a real face. Hence, information from experimental studies with static photos of faces provide information that is valid and can be generalised to “real world” interactions.

  • 267.
    Horlin, Chiara
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Albrecht, Matthew A.
    School of Psychology, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    The cost of autism spectrum disorders2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, article id e106552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    A diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorders is usually associated with substantial lifetime costs to an individual, their family and the community. However, there remains an elusive factor in any cost-benefit analysis of ASD diagnosis, namely the cost of not obtaining a diagnosis. Given the infeasibility of estimating the costs of a population that, by its nature, is inaccessible, the current study compares expenses between families whose children received a formal ASD diagnosis immediately upon suspecting developmental atypicality and seeking advice, with families that experienced a delay between first suspicion and formal diagnosis.

    Design

    A register based questionnaire study covering all families with a child with ASD in Western Australia.

    Participants

    Families with one or more children diagnosed with an ASD, totalling 521 children diagnosed with an ASD; 317 records were able to be included in the final analysis.

    Results

    The median family cost of ASD was estimated to be AUD $34,900 per annum with almost 90% of the sum ($29,200) due to loss of income from employment. For each additional symptom reported, approximately $1,400 cost for the family per annum was added. While there was little direct influence on costs associated with a delay in the diagnosis, the delay was associated with a modest increase in the number of ASD symptoms, indirectly impacting the cost of ASD.

    Conclusions

    A delay in diagnosis was associated with an indirect increased financial burden to families. Early and appropriate access to early intervention is known to improve a child's long-term outcomes and reduce lifetime costs to the individual, family and society. Consequently, a per symptom dollar value may assist in allocation of individualised funding amounts for interventions rather than a nominal amount allocated to all children below a certain age, regardless of symptom presentation, as is the case in Western Australia.

  • 268.
    Huus, Karina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Bornman, J.
    Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Lygnegård, Frida
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Human rights of children with intellectual disabilities: comparing self-ratings and proxy ratings2015In: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 1010-1017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    A child rights-based approach to research articulates well with Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and highlights the importance and value of including children's own views about aspects that concern them. The aim of this study is to compare children with intellectual disability's own ratings (as self-raters) to those of their primary caregivers (as proxy raters) regarding human rights of children. The study also aims to establish whether there is an inter-rater agreement between the self-raters and proxy raters concerning Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

    Method

    This study is nested in a larger study examining the human rights of children with intellectual disability in South Africa. In total, 162 children with intellectual disability from 11 schools across three provinces and their primary caregivers participated by answering parts of a Children'sRightsQuestionnaire (CRQ) developed by the researchers based on the United Nation's CRC. We compared the answers for six questions in the questionnaire that were addressed to self-raters (children) and proxy raters (primary caregivers) in the same way.

    Results

    Questions regarding basic needs, such as access to clean water or whether the child had food to eat at home, were answered similarly by self-raters and proxy raters. Larger differences were found when self-raters and proxy raters were asked about whether the child had things or friends to play with at home. Socio-economic variables seemed to affect whether self-raters and proxy raters answered similarly.

    Conclusion

    The results underscore the importance of promoting children's rights to express themselves by considering the opinions of both the children as self-raters and their primary caregivers as proxy raters – not only the latter. The results indicate that it is especially important to include children's own voices when more complex needs are surveyed. Agreement between self- and proxy ratings could be affected by socio-economic circumstances.

  • 269.
    Huus, Karina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Olsson, Lena M.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Kristianstad University.
    Perceived needs among parents of children with a mild intellectual disability in Sweden2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 307-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parents of children with a mild intellectual disability experience more distress and require more support than other parents. The aim was to investigate the perceived family needs of parents of children with an MID and to investigate the relationship between parents’ perceived self-efficacy in their parental role and in collaborating with professionals as well as with their perceived needs for support. Interviews were based on questionnaires to the parents of 38 children. The results revealed that parents perceived need for information, respite, and venues in which to meet other parents in similar situations. The informational needs were related to parental self-efficacy and obtaining support. A lower need for information was related to higher perceived control over services. In conclusion, it appears that professionals need to work to strengthen parents’ ability to ask for support and to express the needs. Well-informed parents will develop stronger parental self-efficacy and perceived control over services.

  • 270.
    Hvit, Sara
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Barns läspraktik i förskola och förskoleklass2010Report (Other academic)
  • 271.
    Hvit, Sara
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Små förskolebarns berättande med stöd av den interaktiva tavlan2010In: Specialpedagogisk tidskrift : att undervisa, ISSN 2000-429X, no 2, p. 24-25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 272.
    Hvit, Sara
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Toddlers at preschool use an interactive board to make narratives2010Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation originates from the research project “Preschool as children’s language environment” and the aim with this presentation is to explore how toddlers at preschool use an interactive board to make narratives. This is an example on how physical environment and materials in preschool promote language in a way that is new and innovative. Toddlers are digital citizens from the day of birth and a further aim is to discuss the didactical challenges followed of the toddler body turns the digitalized world of expression. We need more expansive theories in preschool practice about toddlers ways of use and make languages if it should be possible to arrange a preschool were it is possible for them to create meaning together.

     

  • 273.
    Hvit, Sara
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Toddlers make and use of language in their world of language: Preschool as childrens language environment2010Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to discuss how toddlers make and use language in preschool. This will be presented in three themes regarding Doing something together, make meaning of ideas and the expressive toddlerbody. The theoretical points of departure is based on Maurice Merleau Ponty´s mainwork Phenomenology of perception (1962), Gunvor Lökkens empirical toddler peer studies and Gunther Kress theories about paths to literacy. A further aim is to discuss the didactial challenges followed of the toddler turns to the digitalized world of expression. We need more expansive theories in preschool practice about toddlers ways of use and make language if it should be possible to them to create meaning together.

  • 274.
    Hwang, Ai-Wen
    et al.
    Graduate Institute of Early Intervention, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.
    Liao, Hua-Fang
    The School and Graduate Institute of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Simeonsson, Rune J.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.
    Kang, Lin-Ju
    Graduate Institute of Early Intervention, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.
    Pan, Yi-Ling
    Division of Physical Therapy, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Linkage of ICF-CY codes with environmental factors in studies of developmental outcomes of infants and toddlers with or at risk for motor delays2014In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 89-104Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Environmental variables have been explored in studies of the development of young children with motor delays. Linking environmental variables to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health – Children and Youth (ICF-CY), environmental factors (EFs) categories can provide a common language for documenting their contribution to developmental outcomes. This review of studies aimed to (1) link EFs for developmental outcomes in infants with or at risk for motor delays to ICF-CY categories and (2) synthesize the influences of EFs (with ICF-CY linkage) on developmental outcomes.

    Method: A systematic literature search was performed of multiple databases. After applying selection criteria, environmental variables in 28 articles were linked to ICF-CY categories and underwent qualitative synthesis.

    Results: Results indicated that physical environmental variables could be linked successfully to ICF-CY EFs categories, but not social environmental variables. Multiple environmental variables were associated with motor and other developmental outcomes.

    Conclusion: Difficulties in linking social factors to ICF-CY categories indicate that additional EFs codes may need to be considered in the ICF-CY revision processes. The review provides empirical data on relationships between EFs and developmental outcomes in children with or at risk for motor delay.

  • 275.
    Hwang, Ai-Wen
    et al.
    Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.
    Yen, Chia-Feng
    Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.
    Liou, Tsan-Hon
    Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Bedell, Gary
    Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Teng, Sue-Wen
    Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Chang, Kwang-Hwa
    Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Chi, Wen-Chou
    Chungshan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Liao, Hua-Fang
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Development and validation of the ICF-CY-Based Functioning Scale of the Disability Evaluation System – Child version in Taiwan2015In: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, ISSN 0929-6646, E-ISSN 1876-0821, Vol. 114, no 12, p. 1170-1180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Purpose: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health-Children and Youth version (ICF-CY) depicts human functioning [body functions (b), structures (s), and activities and participation (d) components] as the product of the interaction between health conditions and contextual factors [environmental factors (e) and personal factors]. In Taiwan, testers use the Functioning Scale of the Disability Evaluation System-Child version (FUNDES-Child) to collect information related to b, d, and e for children aged 6.0-17.9 years in the Disability Eligibility System (DES). The purpose of this study was to examine the content and construct validity of the FUNDES-Child.

    Methods: We developed the FUNDES-Child through translating the existing questionnaires, cross-cultural adaptation, expert consensus, and field tests. Consensus meetings were conducted to link items from the FUNDES-Child to ICF-CY codes. To investigate construct validity, we examined associations among scores from the FUNDES-Child that reflected ICF-CY chapter-linked components.

    Results: The FUNDES-Child items were successfully linked to all nine d-, five b-, and four e-chapters of the ICF-CY. Moderate correlations were found between scores that were expected to be related to specific chapters in the b, d, and e components. The scores of the b-chapters had stronger relationships with the d independence scores, while attitudes of others (e4) had stronger relationships with the d participation frequency scores.

    Conclusion: The FUNDES-Child had acceptable content validity and construct validity in the DES. The associations found among the ICF-CY chapter scores provided a model for investigating the impact of body functions and environmental factors on children's activities and participation.

  • 276. Hwang, A-W
    et al.
    Liao, H-F
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Evaluation and intervention for participation in preschoolres with developmental delay.2013In: Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 416-420Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 277.
    Hördesjö, Ellen
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Preschool Education Research.
    Eriksson, Alma
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Preschool Education Research.
    ”Målstyrda processer sker i alla sammanhang där en lärare tar ett djupt andetag och tänker: Vad vill jag nu?”: En intervjustudie med förskollärare om vad undervisning kan innebära i förskolan utifrån skollagens definition.2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att bidra till kunskapandet om vad undervisning i förskolan kan innebära utifrån skollagens definition av undervisning som målstyrda och lärarledda processer. Frågeställningarna handlar om vad som kan känneteckna målstyrda processer och förskollärares sätt att leda dessa. Studiens teoretiska utgångspunkter är relationell pedagogik samt målrationell och målrelationell undervisningspraktik. Vi har genomfört sex kvalitativa och semistrukturerade intervjuer med verksamma och utbildade förskollärare. Det empiriska materialet har genomgått en tematisk analys med studiens syfte och frågeställningar som vägledning.

    Resultatet visar att undervisning sker pågående i förskolan och sammanflätas med komponenter som omsorg och lek. Undervisning i förskolan kan vara både planerad och spontan, vilka också kan övergå i varandra. Resultatet visar även att undervisning är ett nytt begrepp för förskolan. Det innebär dock inte någon förändring för verksamheten eller förskollärares arbetssätt men har potential att utveckla verksamheten vidare. I studien framkommer också att läroplanen för förskolan har betydelse för förskollärares ledning av undervisning i förskolan, den tillämpas dock med olika ingångar. Ytterligare visar resultatet på betydelsen av relationell kompetens i ledningen av undervisning, då goda relationer ses som avgörande för att möjliggöra utveckling och lärande. Kollegial samverkan mellan förskollärare framträder också som en central innebörd för vad undervisning kan innebära i förskolan. Resultatet visar vidare på vikten av att barn ges möjlighet att bidra i undervisningen. Studiens huvudsakliga bidrag är således att undervisning i förskolan är en kollektiv aktivitet som innefattar förskollärare och barn men också samverkan mellan förskollärare. 

  • 278. Ibragimova, N
    et al.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    WHO’s ICF in evaluation of a staff-focused intervention2006In: Proceedings from the 12th Isaac research conference, Düsseldorf, August, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 279.
    Ibragimova, Nina
    et al.
    Department for Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, Västeras, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Björck-Åkesson, Eva
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Field trial of the ICF version for children and youth (ICF-CY) in Sweden: Logical coherence, developmental issues and clinical use2009In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 3-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: For ICF-CY to be used in clinical practice several issues have to be resolved concerning the logical coherence in the model, developmental and functional issues as well as clinical feasibility. Purpose: The aim is to investigate feasibility of ICF-CY as expressed by ICF-CY questionnaires in assessment prior to intervention. Methods: One hundred and thirty-nine professionals working with intervention for children with disabilities used ICF-CY questionnaires in assessment. The professionals rated and commented on the feasibility of ICF-CY and ICF-CY questionnaire. Logical coherence, developmental issues and clinical use were investigated. Results: The logical coherence on component level was good (KMO = 0.126, p < 0.005). To investigate developmental and functional issues in the model children, four age groups were compared with the help of one-way ANOVA. Significant differences were found between children younger than 3 and children 3-6 and 7-12 in four chapters in the component Activities/Participation. Professionals consider that ICF-CY is feasible in intervention but experience difficulties when using the components and qualifiers in the ICF-CY and suggest changes. Discussion: ICF-CY as expressed in ICF-CY questionnaires is a feasible tool in assessment and intervention. However, several issues can be developed and discussed to facilitate implementation of ICF-CY in clinical practice.

  • 280.
    Ibragimova, Nina
    et al.
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Pless, Nina
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    The utility of ICF for describing interaction in non-speaking children with disabilities: Caregiver ratings and perceptions2007In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 29, no 22, p. 1689-1700Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 281.
    Imms, Christine
    et al.
    School of Allied Health and Centre for Disability and Development Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Vic., Australia.
    Adair, Brooke Adair
    School of Allied Health and Centre for Disability and Development Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Vic., Australia.
    Keen, Deb
    Autism Centre of Excellence, Griffith University, Mt Gravatt, Qld, Australia.
    Ullenhag, Anna
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rosenbaum, Peter
    School of Allied Health and Centre for Disability and Development Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Vic., Australia.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    ‘Participation’: a systematic review of language, definitions, and constructs used in intervention research with children with disabilities2016In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 29-38Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    Improving participation of children with disabilities is a priority; however, the participation construct lacks clarity. This systematic review investigated how researchers defined ‘participation’ and the language used in participation intervention research.

    Method

    Nine health and education databases were searched for intervention studies of children with disabilities that included a participation outcome. Quantitative data were extracted using a customized form, and participation text data were extracted verbatim. Themes were derived using a thematic coding approach. These participation themes were applied to the outcome measures used in the included studies to compare participation language with the methods used to quantify participation changes.

    Results

    Of the 2257 articles retrieved, 25 were included in this review. Five participation themes and nine subthemes were developed. Two themes, attendance and involvement, were directly related to the participation construct. Three additional themes described related concepts: preferences, activity competence, and sense of self.

    Interpretation

    Attendance and involvement seem to describe the essence of the participation concept. The related themes may provide important avenues to enhance participation outcomes. This review highlighted the need for researchers to define the construct under investigation clearly and select measures carefully, as measurement choice is the mechanism through which the concept is operationalized in research.

  • 282.
    Imms, Christine
    et al.
    Australian Catholic University, Australia.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Participation: Are we there yet...2014In: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, ISSN 0045-0766, E-ISSN 1440-1630, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 291-292Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 283.
    Imms, Christine
    et al.
    Centre for Disability and Development Research (CeDDR), Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Wilson, Peter H.
    Centre for Disability and Development Research (CeDDR), Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Steenbergen, Bert
    Centre for Disability and Development Research (CeDDR), Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Rosenbaum, Peter L.
    Centre for Disability and Development Research (CeDDR), Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Gordon, Andrew M.
    Cerebral Palsy Research Centre, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
    Participation, both a means and an end: a conceptual analysis of processes and outcomes in childhood disability2017In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 16-25Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review outlines a conceptual approach to inform research and practice aimed at supporting children whose lives are complicated by impairment and/or chronic medical conditions, and their families. ‘Participation’ in meaningful life activities should be an essential intervention goal, to meet the challenges of healthy growth and development, and to provide opportunities to help ensure that young people with impairments reach their full potential across their lifespan. Intervention activities and research can focus on participation as either an independent or dependent variable. The proposed framework and associated hypotheses are applicable to children and young people with a wide variety of conditions, and to their families. In taking a fresh ‘non-categorical’ perspective to health for children and young people, asking new questions, and exploring issues in innovative ways, we expect to learn lessons and to develop creative solutions that will ultimately benefit children with a wide variety of impairments and challenges, and their families, everywhere.

  • 284.
    Ioannou, Evangelia
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS FOR STUDENTS WITH ASD IN INCLUSIVE CLASSROOMS: A Systematic Literature Review2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has increased and more and more children with ASD are educated in inclusive classrooms. Although their inclusion can have several benefits, teachers face some challenges. The main reason is these students’ problem behavior or lack of a desirable behavior. The aim of this systematic literature review was to analyze interventions for behavior management of students with ASD, since the ratification of Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action (UNESCO, 1994), in inclusive preschool and primary school classrooms. The aim was also to examine the outcomes of these interventions. Four databases were searched and nine articles were included for data extraction. Results indicated the implementation of different interventions such as function-based interventions, peer support, visual cue cards, structured teaching with graduated guidance, social stories and social scripts. The target behavior was principally assessed through Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) or it was not assessed at all. Some interventions were provided by the researcher or the teacher only, some were provided by different people in different phases and some were provided by two or more people together. Interventions’ goals were to decrease problem behavior, to increase desirable behavior and both to decrease problem behavior and to increase desirable behavior. It was observed that all interventions reached their goals, even though at a low level in some cases. In conclusion, this literature review provided a summary of interventions and their outcomes for behavior management of students with ASD in inclusive classrooms with a further purpose to help the teachers identify the strategies most useful for their classroom.

  • 285.
    Ishaq, Muhammad
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Teaching Hidden Curriculum to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Scoping Review2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 286.
    Israelsson, Kathrin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Söderström, Susanne
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Fyra förskollärares uppfattning om hur TV och film påverkar barns samspel.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur fyra förskollärare upplever att tre- till femåriga förskolebarns samspel påverkas av deras TV- och filmupplevelser. Frågeställningarna berör på vilket sätt förskollärarna upplever att TV och film påverkar barns samspel positivt och/eller negativt. Fyra förskollärare vales med hjälp av idealtypiskt urval och intervjuades med hjälp av öppna frågeställningar vilka förväntades ge oss möjlighet att fördjupa oss i vad informanterna sett och upplever när det gäller förskolebarnens TV- och filminspirerade samspel. Det teoretiska ramverk som använts i analysen av intervjuerna är Sociala aktiviteter, Medierade aktiviteter samt Kreativa aktiviteter. Dessa bygger på Strandbergs tolkning av Vygotskij och den Sociokulturella teorins tankar kring utveckling och lärande. Resultaten visar på att förskollärarna upplever att TV och film bidrar med delad kunskap, artefakter, karaktärer samt regler vilka blir verktyg som hjälper barnen att hitta vägar in i samspel. Brist på delad kunskap kring TV och film, samt okreativa förhållningssätt till regler och karaktärer hämtade från TV och film blir hinder för barnen i deras samspel.

  • 287.
    Jacob, Andrew
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Scott, Melissa
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    The costs and benefits of employing an adult with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 10, p. 1-15, article id e0139896Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Despite an ambition from adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to be employed, there are limited opportunities for competitive employment for this group. Employment is not only an entitlement enjoyed by others in society, but employing adults with ASD also has economic benefits by decreasing lost productivity and resource costs for this group. Few studies have explored the cost-benefit ratio for employing adults with ASD and even fewer have taken the viewpoint of the employer, particularly applying this situation to ASD. Until such study occurs, employers may continue to be reluctant to employ adults from this group.

    Objective

    This review aimed to examine the costs, benefits and the cost-benefit ratio of employing adults with ASD, from a societal perspective and from the perspective of employers.

    Methods

    Eight databases were searched for scientific studies within defined inclusion criteria. These databases included CINAHL Plus, Cochrane Library, Emerald, Ovid Medline, ProQuest, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science.

    Results and Conclusion

    Enhancing the opportunities for adults with ASD to join the workforce is beneficial from a societal perspective, not only from an inclusiveness viewpoint, but also from a strict economic standpoint. Providing supported employment services for adults with ASD does not only cut the cost compared with providing standard care, it also results in better outcomes for adults with ASD. Despite the fact that ASD was the most expensive group to provide vocational rehabilitation services for, adults with ASD have a strong chance of becoming employed once appropriate measures are in place. Hence, rehabilitation services could be considered as a worthwhile investment. The current systematic review uncovered the fact that very few studies have examined the benefits, the costs and the cost-benefit ratio of employing an adult with ASD from the perspective of employers indicating a need for this topic to be further explored.

  • 288.
    Janeslätt, Gunnel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Kottorp, Anders
    Patterns of time processing ability in children with and without developmental disabilities2010In: JARID: Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, ISSN 1360-2322, E-ISSN 1468-3148, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 250-262Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 289. Janeslätt, Gunnel
    et al.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Kottorp, A
    Development of a new assessment of time processing ability in children using Rasch analysis2008In: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 771-780Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 290.
    Janeslätt, Gunnel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Kottorp, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Children with and without developmental disabilities: Assessment of daily time management and time processing ability2011In: Time management / [ed] Varga, Anna P., New York: Nova Science Publishers , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 291.
    Janeslätt, Gunnel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Kottorp, Anders
    Measurement of time processing ability and daily time management in children with disabilities2009In: Disability and Health Journal, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 15-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 292.
    Janeslätt, Gunnel
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Disability and Habilitation, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kottorp, Anders
    Department NVS, Division of Occupational Therapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden and Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Occupational Therapy.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Evaluating intervention using time aids in children with disabilities2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 181-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate complex intervention using time aids for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities who exhibit limitations in daily time management.

    Methods: Participating children (n = 47) (F17/M30) were aged 6–11 with ADHD, autism spectrum disorders, mild or moderate intellectual disability, spina bifida, and cerebral palsy. This study used a Randomized Block and Waiting List control group design, with 25 children allocated to control and 22 to intervention group. In total 10 children (21.3%), five from each group, dropped out, leaving 37 children in the data analysis.

    Results: Children in both groups gained significantly in time-processing ability between the first and second data collection, but the children in the intervention group improved time-processing ability significantly more than controls. The control group also displayed significant changes after receiving intervention between the second and third data collection. The intervention had a large effect (ES Cohen's d = 0.81) on time-processing ability and a medium effect (ES Cohen's d = 0.68) on managing one's time.

    Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence that time-processing ability and managing one's time can be improved by intervention using time aids in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities, supporting the need to consider time aids in intervention in these children.

  • 293.
    Janeslätt, Gunnel
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Disability and Habilitation, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wallin, Sara W.
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Intervention in time-processing ability, daily time management and autonomy in children with intellectual disabilities aged 10–17 years – A cluster randomised trial2019In: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, ISSN 0045-0766, E-ISSN 1440-1630, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 110-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/aim

    Difficulties with management of time are frequently observed in children and youth with intellectual disabilities (IDs). The aim of this study was to evaluate a new intervention programme ‘My Time’ to improve time‐processing ability (TPA) in children with IDs aged 10–17 years (n = 61).

    Methods

    Cluster randomised and waiting‐list control group design was used. Data collection included the Kit for assessment of TPA, the Time‐Parent scale and a self‐rating of autonomy to assess occupational performance in daily life. The method was implemented over an 8‐week period. Effect size (ES) was calculated and an analysis of covariance on the individual level and a two‐stage process on the cluster level.

    Results

    The estimated mean improvement in the KaTid‐Child score from baseline (t1) to t2 was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to the waiting‐list group, ES Cohen's d = 0.64.

    Conclusion

    The results present first evidence of the effectiveness of a new occupational therapy intervention programme (‘My Time’) to facilitate TPA in children with mild to moderate IDs. Children with IDs aged 10–17 years could improve their TPA at a measurable pace when given intervention. The method could complement interventions using time‐assistive devices. Children with IDs should be identified to guide intervention. Further research is necessary to establish whether using the intervention programme can facilitate the development of TPA in younger children.

  • 294.
    Jansson, Mikael
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and communication science.
    Lund, Victor
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and communication science.
    Mot en ny (kr)istid?: En studie om hur svenska förvaltningsmyndigheter arbetar för att utveckla en proaktiv krishantering2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is no longer a question of whether an organization will suffer from a crisis; it is rather the question of when. It has been a shift in the discourse of the crisis communication area. Focus now lies in how to prevent and prepare for these extraordinary events instead of reacting when the crisis already has occured.

    This study aims to expand the crisis management area in a Swedish context by examining Swedish authorities and their capabilities to be proactive in the case of crisis management. Based of Mi- troffs framework for Crisis Leadership, the authorities capabilities have been analyzed through a quantitative and qualitative survey. From the 70 authorities that were contacted, 42 surveys were returned, resulting in an acceptable 60% response rate.

    The results from the survey show that the Swedish authorities do not fulfil the ideal for develop- ing a proactive crisis management. The four factors, crisis types, crisis mechanisms, crisis system and crisis stakeholder, are indicators for a proactive stance. These were not represented in the data that was gathered, except the third factor which were having a proactive organizational culture along with preparedness activities such as having a crisis plan and a crisis leadership team.

    The conclusion is that Swedish authorities needs to develop a more proactive approach to their crisis management regarding good relationships with their stakeholders, having a crisis portfolio that covers different crisis families, implement more signal detectors and strategies to prevent cri- sis, for example corporate social responsibilities program. 

  • 295.
    Jiremyr, Erika
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Magnfält, Sanja
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Djurens roll i förskolan: En fallstudie om två förskolor med djurinriktning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att, genom observationer, undersöka djurens roll i förskolans verksamhet. Syftet är således att skildra de pedagogiska lärprocesser som förekommer i förskolor som involverar djur i sin dagliga verksamhet, bidra med kunskaper om hur djur kan påverka förskolans verksamhet och hur djurhållning kan tillämpas i den traditionella förskolan. Vårt teoretiska ramverk utgår ifrån sociokulturellt perspektiv med inriktning mot Vygotskijs och Leontyevs ”Aktivitetstrianglar” som Engeström sedan utformade grafiskt. Ramverket möjliggör användningen av begrepp som till exempel artefakter, mediering, objekt och subjekt vilket skapar en röd tråd genom hela studien. Metoden som valts är en kvalitativ fallstudie och genom denna metod kan fördjupning göras av hur två specifika förskolor med djur i verksamheten fungerar. Studiens frågeställningar bygger på ett kunskaps intresse och har fungerat som en vägledning genom studien. Frågeställningarna är: hur är djur involverade i lärandeaktiviteterna på lantbruksförskolan och hur är djur involverade i lärandeaktiviteterna på djurparksförskolan. Observationerna skedde på två olika förskolor och för att komplettera data genomfördes också samtal med förskollärarna i verksamheten. Observationerna och samtalen analyserades utifrån en tematisk analysmetod som kompletterades med en narrativ analysmetod för att ge ett djupare resultat. Resultatet visade på att det fanns både skillnader och likheter mellan förskolorna som observerades. Baserat på resultatet fördes en diskussion kring hur skillnaderna och likheterna på förskolorna med djurinriktning kunde appliceras på en traditionell förskola. Slutsatsen visar att det är möjligt att använda djur i en traditionell förskola men att tillämpningen beror på den enskilda förskolans förutsättningar.

  • 296.
    Johnson, Ensa
    et al.
    Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    CHILD, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Margareta
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Eina! Ouch! Eish! Professionals’ perceptions of how children with cerebral palsy communicate about pain in South African school settings: Implications for the use of AAC2015In: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC, ISSN 0743-4618, E-ISSN 1477-3848, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 325-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most children with severe cerebral palsy experience daily pain that affects their school performance. School professionals need to assess pain in these children, who may also have communication difficulties, in order to pay attention to the pain and support the children’s continued participation in school. In this study, South African school professionals’ perceptions of how they observed pain in children with cerebral palsy, how they questioned them about it and how the children communicated their pain back to them were investigated. Thirty-eight school professionals participated in five focus groups. Their statements were categorized using qualitative content analysis. From the results it became clear that professionals observed children’s pain communication through their bodily expressions, behavioral changes, and verbal and non-verbal messages. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) methods were rarely used. The necessity of considering pain-related vocabulary in a multilingual South African context, and of advocating for the use of AAC strategies to enable children with cerebral palsy to communicate their pain was highlighted in this study.

  • 297.
    Joosten, Annette
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Albrecht, Matthew A.
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Horlin, Chiara
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Leung, Denise
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Ordqvist, Anna
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University & Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Fleischer, Håkan
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Gaze and visual search strategies of children with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism viewing a magic trick2016In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 95-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine visual search patterns and strategies used by children with and without Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism (AS/HFA) while watching a magic trick. Limited responsivity to gaze cues is hypothesised to contribute to social deficits in children with AS/HFA.

    Methods: Twenty-one children with AS/HFA and 31 matched peers viewed a video of a gaze-cued magic trick twice. Between the viewings, they were informed about how the trick was performed. Participants’ eye movements were recorded using a head-mounted eye-tracker.

    Results: Children with AS/HFA looked less frequently and had shorter fixation on the magician’s direct and averted gazes during both viewings and more frequently at not gaze-cued objects and on areas outside the magician’s face. After being informed of how the trick was conducted, both groups made fewer fixations on gaze-cued objects and direct gaze.

    Conclusions: Information may enhance effective visual strategies in children with and without AS/HFA.

  • 298.
    Karlsson, Maria
    et al.
    School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Björck-Åkesson, Eva
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Changing services to children with disabilities and their families through in-service training: is the organisation affected?2008In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 207-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Professional development in family‐centred services was given to professionals supporting children with disabilities and their families with the purpose to influence ways to perform working tasks. Is it possible to change ways of working through in‐service training? In order to find answers to that question perceptions of in‐service training at different organisational levels were collected by interviews. Ways to perform working tasks were investigated by self‐reported ratings on questionnaires. What kind of change the teams experienced was analysed through written assignments at the end of professional development. The study builds on a longitudinal design. Watzlawick and co‐workers identified orders of change to analyse perceptions of, and changes following, professional development. The findings reveal that participants at different levels of the organisation have similar perceptions of the in‐service training. They are described more in depth by participants within the organisation, rather than the ones outside (parents and managers), who describe the consequences of the professional development rather than the professional development process. After professional development, the family approach has been adopted among most professionals; for example, are assessment tools and model for habilitation plans which were presented in the professional development used afterwards in everyday work? This implies a second‐order change. However, some professionals do claim that the family‐centred way of working is nothing new to them, which corresponds to a first‐order change. Professional development in conjunction with resources for implementing change after professional development are therefore seen as factors that facilitate second‐order change.

  • 299.
    Klang Ibragimova, Nina
    et al.
    School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen university.
    Pless, Mia
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Adolfsson, Margareta
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Björck-Åkesson, Eva
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Using content analysis to link texts on assessment and intervention to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - version for Children and Youth (ICF-CY)2011In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 43, no 8, p. 728-733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To explore how content analysis can be used together with linking rules to link texts on assessment and intervention to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health – version for children and youth (ICF-CY).

    Methods: Individual habilitation plans containing texts on assessment and intervention for children with disabilities and their families were linked to the ICF-CY using content analysis. Texts were first divided into meaning units in order to extract meaningful concepts. Meaningful concepts that were difficult to link to ICF-CY codes were grouped, and coding schemes with critical attributes were developed. Meaningful concepts that could not be linked to the ICF-CY were assigned to the categories “not-definable” and “not-covered”, using coding schemes with mutually exclusive categories.

    Results: The size of the meaning units selected resulted in different numbers and contents of meaningful concepts. Coding schemes with critical attributes of ICF-CY codes facilitated the linking of meaningful concepts to the most appropriate ICF-CY codes. Coding schemes with mutually exclusive categories facilitated the classification of meaningful concepts that could or could not be linked to the ICF-CY.

    Conclusion: Content analysis techniques can be applied togetherwith linking rules in order to link texts on assessmentand intervention to the ICF-CY.

  • 300.
    Klang, Nina
    et al.
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rowland, Charity
    Institute on Development and Disability, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA.
    Fried-Oken, Melanie
    Institute on Development and Disability, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA.
    Steiner, Sandra
    Institute on Development and Disability, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Adolfsson, Margareta
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    The content of goals in individual educational programs for students with complex communication needs2016In: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC, ISSN 0743-4618, E-ISSN 1477-3848, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explore the contents of communication-related goals in individualized education programs (IEPs) for students with complex communication needs. Goals in 43 IEPs were linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children and Youth version (ICFCY).

    The results show that the communication-related IEP goals contain information on multiple domains of functioning in the ICF-CY. However, judging by the amount of codes linked to ICF-CY chapters, the IEPs contain a relatively small proportion of goals that focus on interaction with others, or participation in classroom and leisure activities. Special education teachers and speech-language pathologists working with students with complex communication needs may need support to formulate communicationrelated IEP goals with a focus on interaction and participation in school activities.

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