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  • 251.
    Ahl, Gustav
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Gränsöverskridande förlustutjämning: Är Sveriges nya förhållningssätt förenligt med EG-rätten?2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Magisteruppsatsen belyser de svenska reglerna avseende gränsöverskridande för-lustutjämningstransaktioner från ett gemenskapsrättsligt perspektiv. Fokus ligger på utjämningsmöjligheter då förlusten i ett utländskt dotterbolag är slutlig. Det är osäkert vilka grunder som rättfärdigar avdrag. I uppsatsen analyseras därför fyra Regeringsrättsmål i ljuset av den Europeiska gemenskapens domstols domar i Marks & Spencer-fallet och i Oy AA-fallet. Finansdepartementet lämnade förslag på ändrade regler för avdragsrätt vid förlustutjämningstransaktioner mellan kon-cernbolag den 22 september 2009. Förslaget jämförs med det tidigare lagförslaget om likvidationsavdrag, Regeringsrättsmålen och gemenskapsrätten. Syftet med uppsatsen är att utreda om Sveriges nya förhållningssätt är förenligt med gemen-skapsrätten.I det svenska regelverket regleras koncernbidrag i inkomstskattelagen kapitel 35 och fusioner i inkomstskattelagen kapitel 37. För att ett bolag ska beviljas av-dragsrätt för ett koncernbidrag ska bidraget vara skattepliktigt hos mottagaren och mottagaren ska vara skattskyldig i Sverige. För att en fusion ska vara kvalificerad ska det fusionerade bolaget direkt innan fusionen vara skattskyldig i Sverige. Des-sa förutsättningar är inte uppfyllda när det mottagande eller fusionerade bolaget har sin hemvist i en annan medlemsstat i gemenskapen.I fallet Marks & Spencer bedömer Europeiska gemenskapens domstol att kon-cernavdrag kan beviljas mellan moderbolag och dotterbolag i särskilda fall. För-lusten i dotterbolaget ska vara slutlig, vilket innebär att den omöjligen ska kunna utnyttjas av vare sig dotterbolaget självt eller någon utomstående person. Domen i Oy AA-målet innebär att regler som förhindrar avdrag för koncernbidrag kan vara proportionerliga om de vägrar avdrag för koncernbidrag till ett moderbolag och förlusten kan utnyttjas i framtiden. Lidl Belgium-fallet behandlar situationen när en förlust uppstår i en filial som är en del av huvudbolaget.Bestämmelser som inskränker den fria etableringsrätten kan rättfärdigas utifrån tvingande hänsyn till allmänintresset. Motiv för att tillämpa bestämmelser som in-skränker den fria etableringsrätten kan vara territorialitetsprincipen, bevarandet av skattesystemets inre sammanhang, neutralitetsprincipen, undvikande av risken för dubbelt beaktande av förluster och risk för skatteflykt. En kombination av flera motiv kan leda till att inskränkande bestämmelser kan rättfärdigas. Bestämmelser-na ska även vara legitima och proportionerliga för att de syften som eftersträvas uppnås.I fyra av de totalt tio rättsfallen som Regeringsrätten meddelade dom i avseende gränsöverskridande koncernbidrag har Skatterättsnämnden ansett förlusten vara slutlig, vilket berättigar till avdrag för koncernbidrag. Skatteverket, Skatterätts-nämnden och Regeringsrätten lägger olika innebörd i begreppet slutlig förlust. Oklarheterna utreds därför i ljuset av gemenskapsrätten. Regeringsrätten bedömer att en likvidation av det förlustbetingade dotterbolaget innebär att förlusten är slut-lig. Skatterättsnämnden anser att en förlust kan vara slutlig även då det förlustbe-tingade dotterbolaget upphör att bedriva verksamhet genom att det fusioneras med ett annat koncernbolag och om det finns regler i mottagarstaten som begränsar att en förlust rullas framåt. Skatteverket menar att en förlust är definitiv när dotterbo-laget självt eller en utomstående person annan än dotterbolaget inte kan utnyttja förlusten.Inom Europeiska Unionen har ett arbete med en gemensam skattebas påbörjats. En sådan skattebas skulle troligtvis undanröja en del av de problemen som gräns-överskridande förlustutjämningstransaktioner innebär. I avvaktan på att arbetet med den gemensamma skattebasen blir färdigställd kan gränsöverskridande för-lustutjämningstransaktioner underlättas genom att medlemsstaterna enas om defi-nitionen av olika skatterättsliga begrepp.För att det svenska förhållningssättet ska vara förenligt med gemenskapsrätten måste, enligt min mening, ett förtydligande ske på tre punkter. Jag anser, för det första, att det ska vara möjligt att ge koncernbidrag mellan systerbolag om deras gemensamma mo-derbolag har sin hemvist i Sverige. För det andra menar jag att det ska vara möjligt att ge koncernbidrag till ett indirekt helägt dotterbolag med slutliga förluster om det totala ägandet är mer än 90 procent. Jag anser också att slutlig förlust, det vill säga att alla möjligheter att utnyttja förlusten i dotterbolagets hemstat har uttömts, ska innefatta för-luster på grund av likvidation, konkurs och fusion då all verksamhet i dotterbolagets hemstat upphör.

  • 252.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    A Foucauldian framework for discourse analysis2007In: Handbook of qualitative research methods in entrepreneurship, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2007, p. 216-250Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 253.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    A narrative analysis of gender in entrepreneurship stories2004In: Paper presented at the The Greiff Symposium, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 254.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Comparing entrepreneurship policy in different welfare state regimes: lessons from a gender perspective2012In: The joint ACERE-DIANA International Entrepreneurship Conference, 21 jan - 3 feb 2012: Program handbook / [ed] Per Davidsson, Alicia Castilla Holley, John Watson, 2012, p. 11-11Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 255.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Det nödvändiga jämställdhetsarbetet2017In: HR: Att ta tillvara mänskliga resurser / [ed] Helene Ahl, Ingela Bergmo Prvulovic & Karin Kilhammar, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 137-150Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 256.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Do policies for women's entrepreneurship support or challenge gender inequalities?2011In: Presented at Scandinavian Academy of Management, Stockholm, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 257.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Entrepreneurship and Gender2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 258.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Företagandets särskilda nytta2004In: Det oavsedda entreprenörskapet, Lund: Academia Adacta , 2004, p. 108-122Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 259.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Gender, organizations and entrepreneurship2012In: Handbook on Organisational Entrepreneurship / [ed] Daniel Hjorth, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, p. 134-150Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 260.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Gender stereotypes2007In: International Encyclopedia of Organization Studies: 2, E-L, London: Sage , 2007, p. 544-547Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 261.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    How an entrepreneurship teaching case constructs gender and how students learn other things than intended2007In: Nordic Education Research Association, Turku, Finland, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 262.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Inledning: Att ta tillvara mänskliga resurser2017In: HR: Att ta tillvara mänskliga resurser / [ed] Helene Ahl, Ingela Bergmo Prvulovic & Karin Kilhammar, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 17-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 263.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Interorganizational learning: A case study of a systems supplier network2004In: Paper presented at the Nordic Education Research Association, Reykjavik, Iceland., 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 264.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Introduction: Nordic perspectives on human resource management2018In: Human resource management: A Nordic perspective / [ed] Helene Ahl, Ingela Bergmo Prvulovic & Karin Kilhammar, London, UK: Routledge, 2018, p. 1-13Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries consistently rank in top positions of the best places to live and work in the world. They have resilient economies, a well-educated workforce, high labour market participation, job security, and encompassing welfare systems and are facilitated by an institutional context characterised by trust and transparency. Nordic HR practices are embedded in a tradition of workplace democracy, flat organisations, low power distance, open and informal communication, codetermination, and close cooperation between management and labour unions. But the Nordic countries are also embedded in the global economy. This book offers insights into how Nordic HRM responds to global challenges, such as demographic changes, migration, or skills shortages that necessitate inclusionary HR strategies focussed on workforce development.

  • 265.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    La teoría de la motivación como el poder disfrazado2010In: Foucault y el aprendizaje permanente. Gobernando el sujeto / [ed] A. Fejes & K. Nicoll, Xàtiva: Ediciones del CREC , 2010, p. 231-248Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 266.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Learning in an inter-organizational project: A case study2005In: Paper presented at the Scandinavian Academy of Management, Aarhus, Denmark , 2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 267.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Lessons on gender: unintended side-effects of using teaching cases in adult education2007In: Nordic Conference on Adult Education, Linköping, Sweden, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 268.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Lessons on gender: unintended side-effects of using teaching cases in adult education.2007In: Adult learning and the challenges of social and cultural diversity: diverse lives, cultures, learnings and literacies: proceedings of the 5th ESREA European Research Conference, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 269.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Motivation and adult education: a problem solver or a euphemism for direction and control?2005In: Paper presented at the Nordic Conference on Adult Education, Turku, Finland, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 270.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Motivation in adult education: A problem solver or a euphemism for direction and control?2006In: Paper (2nd edition) presented at workshop on Fouculdian perspectives on adult education. Nyköping, Sweden, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 271.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Motivation in adult education: A problem solver or a euphemism for direction and control?2006In: Paper (3rd edition) presented at the Nordic Education Research Association, Örebro, Sweden, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 272.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Motivation in adult education: A problem solver or a euphemism for direction and control?2006In: International Journal of Lifelong Education, ISSN 0260-1370, E-ISSN 1464-519X, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 385-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adults' motivation to participate in continued education is of immediate interest, as lifelong learning is now considered as the solution to the pressing problems of increased levels of unemployment, not least among unskilled workers. Many theories concerning motivation and adult education maintain that individuals are innately motivated to learn, and conclude that motivation problems result from various dispositional, situational and structural impediments. If such barriers are removed, adults will be naturally motivated to educate themselves. This article argues against these theories and maintains that motivation should not be regarded as something residing within the individual. It is rather a construct of those who see it lacking in others. A critical reading of the literature shows how motivation theory stigmatizes people held ‘unmotivated’ in that the theories ascribe motivation problems to the individual, while assuming the basis upon which the problem is formulated for granted, and making those who formulate the problem invisible. Instead of a problem solver, motivation becomes a euphemism for direction and control. This article suggests that motivation should be seen as a relational concept, rather than as residing within the individual. Adults' motivation, or lack of this, is best understood in relation to those who formulate the problem. Instead of asking what motivates adults to study, research should focus on who states that this is a problem, and why, and the reasons for this conclusion. This approach makes the operations of power visible, and demonstrates how the discourse of lifelong learning, as a necessary political response to economic and technological determinism, constructs adults as inadequate.

  • 273.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Motivation och vuxnas lärande: en kunskapsöversikt och problematisering2004Book (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Motivation theory as power in disguise2008In: Foucault and Lifelong Learning: governing the subject, London: Routledge , 2008, p. 151-162Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 275.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Motivationsteori som verktyg för styrning och kontroll2007In: Studies in Educational Policy and Educational Philosophy Discourse, ISSN 1652-2729, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 276.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Narrating the entrepreneur in an entrepreneurship teaching case2006In: Paper presented at the 1:st Conference on Rhetoric and Narrative in Management Research, ESADE, Barcelona, Spain, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 277.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Oavsiktliga lektioner i kön: Hur ett praktikfall i entreprenörskap konstruerar kön och hur studenter lär sig annat än vad som var avsett2007In: Didaktisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1101-7686, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 185-206Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande artikel är en narrativ analys av ett praktikfall som används ientreprenörskapsundervisning. Analysen utgår från ett post-strukturalistisktfeministiskt perspektiv, där kön ses som socialt konstruerat. Analysen finner attpraktikfallet reproducerar en könsordning där kvinnor, och kvinnligt, systematisktnedvärderas. Praktikfallet avser att lära studenterna hur det kan gå till att starta ettföretag, men det lär samtidigt kvinnor att de inte hör hemma i affärslivet. Män lärsig att entreprenörskap är till för dem, samtidigt som de lär sig att kvinnor är tillför att gifta sig med och föda deras barn. De lär sig också att behandla kvinnorrespektlöst. För att förändra detta föreslås praktikfall med huvudpersoner som ärkvinnor, ett könsneutralt språk, samt berättelser som medvetet utmanartraditionella könsordningar. För att ytterligare berika lärandet från praktikfallföreslås vidare att studenter och lärare själva gör narrativa analyser av praktikfall.

  • 278.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Politik för kvinnors företagande i Sverige och USA2011In: Kvinnors företagande – mål eller medel? / [ed] E. Blomberg, G. Hedlund & M. Wottle, Stockholm: SNS Förlag , 2011, p. 292-322Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 279.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Sex business in the toy store: A narrative analysis of a teaching case2007In: Journal of Business Venturing, ISSN 0883-9026, E-ISSN 1873-2003, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 673-693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a narrative analysis of an entrepreneurship case performed from a post-structuralist feminist perspective. Acknowledging the social construction of reality, gender is conceptualized as performed rather than as an essential quality attached to male and female bodies. The analysis finds that the case reproduces discriminatory gender relations. While using such cases in entrepreneurship training may teach pragmatic lessons, they also teach women that there is no place for them in business. Suggestions for improvement include cases with female protagonists, gender-inclusive language, stories that challenge received entrepreneurship ideas, and the introduction of narrative analysis to enrich students' learning opportunities.

  • 280.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    The construction of the adult learner in motivation theory2007In: Adult education - liberty, fraternity equality?: Nordic views on lifelong learning, Turku: Finnish Educational Research Association , 2007, p. 139-160Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 281.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    The desperate search for a difference in gender research2007In: Presented at “Doing and undoing gender in entrepreneurship research”, HEC/Advanzia, Paris, France, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 282.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    The equality work that needs to be done2018In: Human resource management: A Nordic perspective / [ed] Helene Ahl, Ingela Bergmo Prvulovic & Karin Kilhammar, London, UK: Routledge, 2018, p. 105-118Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender inequality continues to exist in many organisations, which leads to dysfunctional workplaces and an underexploitation of existing competence. The chapter discusses the most common failures in enforcing gender equality and explains terms such as glass ceiling and vertical-, horizontal-, and internal gender segregation. The chapter examines and deconstructs the most common arguments that are present in the debate on gender equality and ends with an argument for justice, but with a new twist: people who feel that they have been treated unjustly also take up an adversarial stance towards the organisation, irrespective of their gender. Justice is thus a matter of proper resource utilisation.

  • 283.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    The making of the female entrepreneur2003In: Edamba journal: 1st thesis competition, Vol. 1, p. 69-74Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 284.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    The problematic relationship between social capital theory and gender research2008In: Women, entrepreneurship and social capital: A dialogue and construction, Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press , 2008, p. 167-189Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 285.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    The scientific reproduction of gender inequality: A discourse analysis of research texts on women's entrepreneurship2004Book (Other academic)
  • 286.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    The scientific reproduction of gender inequality in entrepreneurship texts2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 287.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Why research on women entrepreneurs needs new directions2008In: Small business and entrepreneurship / [ed] Robert A. Blackburn and Candida G. Brush, Thoasand Oaks: Sage , 2008Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 288.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Why research on women entrepreneurs needs new directions2006In: Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, ISSN 1042-2587, E-ISSN 1540-6520, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 595-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research articles on women's entrepreneurship reveal, in spite of intentions to the contrary and in spite of inconclusive research results, a tendency to recreate the idea of women as being secondary to men and of women's businesses being of less significance or, at best, as being a complement. Based on a discourse analysis, this article discusses what research practices cause these results. It suggests new research directions that do not reproduce women's subordination but capture more and richer aspects of women's entrepreneurship.

  • 289.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Women and entrepreneurship: Contemporary classics2006In: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 661-664Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 290.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Women and humanities: Allies or enemies?2006In: Management Education and Humanites, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2006, p. 45-66Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 291.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Women’s enterprise – a boost or a detriment to the Scandinavian welfare system?2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 292.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, K.
    Pettersson, K.
    Sköld, B.
    Tillmar, M.
    Entrepreneurship in rural areas: The role of women?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 293.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Can governments support both women and entrepreneurship?  2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminism in Sweden as well as in the other Scandinavian countries was largely formulated as state feminism. The women’s movement has cooperated with feminists in the state, resulting in societies that count as the most gender equal in the world. The Scandinavian countries are consistently ranked in the top position on international gender equality indices. The state has provided a large publicly financed welfare sector that both employs many women, and makes it possible to combine work and family through family friendly policies. The last decade has seen a political change influenced by neoliberal thought, in which politicians hand over welfare state responsibilities to the market, and instead encourage entrepreneurship, not least among women. The Swedish government has since 20 years back programs and policies to promote women’s entrepreneurship. The Swedish state has during the same period shrunk the public sector and privatized many operations in services and care, which traditionally employ many women. Instead, women are encouraged to start businesses in former public sectors. Empirical studies suggest however, that all of the increase of women’s entrepreneurship in these sectors is within low-paid, micro service businesses, typically child minding.

    Traditional state feminism has also changed character. Instead of public regulations, market solutions are advocated. In this paper we ask how to theorize this change from a feminist theory perspective; we ask what the implications for feminist action are, and we ask what consequences for women’s position in society are. We use research literature and policy texts as our empirical material and conduct a critical literature analysis. We conclude that the entrepreneurship discourse challenges, and possibly weakens state feminism and feminist action as we have known it in the Scandinavian countries, but may also offer new forms of feminist resistance, on market terms. 

  • 294.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholms universitet.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Entrepreneurship for Equality?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 295.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    From feminism to FemInc.ism: On the uneasy relationship between feminism, entrepreneurship and the Nordic welfare state2016In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 369-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminism in the Nordic countries was primarily formulated in terms of ‘state feminism’. The women’s movement cooperated with feminist government officials and politicians, resulting in societies that can be considered to be the most gender-equal societies in the world. Historically, the state provided for a large publicly-financed welfare sector which made it possible for many women to combine work and family through the state’s implementation of family-friendly policies, while simultaneously providing employment opportunities for many women.

    However, since the financial crisis of the 1990s, there has been a political change influenced by neo-liberal thought, in which politicians have handed over the welfare state’s responsibilities to the market, and, instead, the politicians have encouraged entrepreneurship, not least among women. Further to this development, there has been a change in emphasis from entrepreneurship (understood as starting and running a business) to entrepreneurialism which, in addition to a belief in the efficacy of market forces, also contains a social dimension where individuals are supposed to be flexible and exercise choice. In this article, we ask whether this entails a change in the feminist project in the Nordic countries, and if so, what the likely consequences are for this project, both in practice and in research.

    In order to answer this question, we reviewed existing Nordic research on women’s entrepreneurship and examined how this body of work conceptualizes entrepreneurship, gender, the state, and equality. We also considered whether any trends could be identified. We relate our findings to recent changes in government policy and conclude that the current discourse on entrepreneurship challenges, and possibly weakens, state feminism, but we also conclude that this discourse may also provide space for new forms of feminist action, in market terms. We coin the term FemInc.ism to denote feminist action through enterprise and we discuss a number of important challenges that research on this phenomenon is faced with.

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