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  • 22201.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Dimov, Dimo
    Katz, Jerome E
    Shepherd, Dean
     Entrepreneurship: Frameworks and Empirical Investigations from Forthcoming Leaders of European Research2006 (ed. 9)Book (Other academic)
  • 22202.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    Lockett, A.
    Davidsson, Per
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Organic growth and acquisitive growth: Re-examining and extending Penrose’s growth theory.2007In: 25th Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference: Madrid, Spain, June 7-9 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22203.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    Lockett, A.
    Davidsson, Per
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Organic growth and acquisitive growth: Re-examining and extending Penrose’s growth theory2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22204.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    McKelvie, Alexander
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Davidsson, Per
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    Organisk tillväxt och förvärvstillväxt: Skillnader, deras orsaker och konsekvenser för samhälle och företag2006In: Entreprenörskap och tillväxt: Kunskap, kommersialisering och ekonomisk politik, Stockholm: Forum för Småföretagsforskning , 2006, p. 51-70Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22205.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Whitman School of Management, Syracuse University.
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Hellerstedt, Karin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Bird, Miriam
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Internal Versus External Ownership Transition in Family Firms: An Embeddedness Perspective2013In: Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, ISSN 1042-2587, E-ISSN 1540-6520, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 1319-1340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate factors that influence family business owners' choice between passing ownership within the family or to new external owners. Taking an embeddedness perspective focusing on owner-family structure and involvement, we hypothesize that ownership dispersion, number of potential heirs, multigenerational involvement, and whether the chief executive officer is a family member influence the choice of an internal or external transition of ownership. We build a longitudinal data set from a sample of 3,829 family firms and their ownership transitions. Our theorizing and findings regarding ownership transitions complements the abundant research on management succession and therefore constitutes an important contribution to the literature.

  • 22206.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Patzelt, H.
    Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Germany.
    Shepherd, Dean A.
    Kelley School of Business, Indiana University, USA.
    Building an integrative model of small business growth2009In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 351-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to develop an integrative model of small business growth that is both broad in scope and parsimonious in nature. Such a “big picture” model provides an opportunity (1) to gauge how much we really know about small business growth, when we simultaneously consider the constructs from the dominant perspectives, (2) to assess the contribution of each of these perspectives, (3) to examine the indirect effects that some constructs from one perspective might have on small business growth through constructs from another perspective, and (4) to consider different levels of analysis. Based on an analysis of data from 413 small businesses, we derive a set of propositions that suggest how entrepreneurial orientation, environmental characteristics, firm resources, and managers’ personal attitudes directly and/or indirectly influence the growth of small businesses.

  • 22207.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    Perez-Luño, A.
    Valle, R.
    Risk, proactivity and uncertainties as determinants of the decision to imitate or to innovate2007In: International Journal of Technology Intelligence and Planning, ISSN 1740-2832, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 343-354Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22208.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    Pérez-Luño, A.
    Valle, R.
    Determinants of the disposition to imitate or to innovate.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22209.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    Pérez-Luño, A.
    Valle, R.
    Does knowledge mediate the relation between the environment and the decision to innovate or imitate?2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22210.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    Pérez-Luño, A.
    Valle, R.
    Knowledge and environment as determinants of the decision to innovate or to imitate.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22211.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    Pérez-Luño, A.
    Valle, R.
    Risk, proactivity and uncertainties as determinants of the decision to innovate or to imitate.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22212.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    Pérez-Luño, A.
    Valle, R.
    What internal and external factors determinate the decision of innovate or imitate?2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22213.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Innovation Systems, Entrepreneurship and Growth .
    Shepherd, D.A.
    Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: A Configurational Approach2005In: Journal of Business Venturing, ISSN 0883-9026, E-ISSN 1873-2003, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 71-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22214.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    Shepherd, Dean
    Are we comparing apples with apples or apples with oranges?: Appropriateness of knowledge accumulation across growth studies.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22215.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    Shepherd, Dean
    The effectiveness of alliances and acquisitions:: The role of resource combination activities.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22216.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Shepherd, Dean A
    Portfolio entrepreneurship: Habitual and novice founders, new entry and mode of organizing2008In: Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, ISSN 1042-2587, E-ISSN 1540-6520, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 701-725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the purpose of advancing our understanding of portfolio entrepreneurship, we separate the act of entrepreneurship (new entry) from its mode or organizing (internal vs. independent organization). Analyzing a cohort of 2,253 novice and habitual business founders, we find that portfolio entrepreneurship is a common phenomenon and that the majority of portfolio entrepreneurs use the internal mode of organizing. Whether or not business founders subsequently pursue portfolio entrepreneurship is explained by their human capital (education and start-up experience) and social capital (business networks and links with government support agencies). Further, novice entrepreneurs are more likely to organize portfolio entrepreneurship within their existing firms while habitual entrepreneurs more often organize subsequent acts of portfolio entrepreneurship by creating another new independent organization. Implications for entrepreneurship research are discussed.

  • 22217.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Shepherd, Dean A
    Resource Combinations and the Effectiveness of External Growth Mechanisms for Small Businesses2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22218.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    Shepherd, Dean A.
    The effectiveness of alliances and acquisitions: The role of resources combination activities2009In: Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, ISSN 1042-2587, E-ISSN 1540-6520, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 193-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resource complementarity increases the potential value of alliances and acquisitions, but the extent to which the value potential of an alliance or an acquisition becomes realized depends on the ability of the firm to discover and conduct productive resource combinations. Using a sample of 319 small firms, we separate domestic from international alliances and acquisitions and show that alliances and acquisitions bring limited benefits to firms unless deliberate effort is devoted to resource combination. These findings help resolve conflicts in the resource-based literature concerning the benefits of alliances and acquisitions.

  • 22219.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Shepherd, Dean A
    The Effectiveness of Domestic and International Growth Mechanisms for SMEs2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22220.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Shepherd, Dean A
    Where to from here? : EO-as-experimentation, failure, and distribution of outcomes2010In: Academy of Management 2010  , Montreal, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22221.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership). Whitman School of Management, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA.
    Shepherd, Dean A.
    Kelley School of Business, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.
    Where to from here?: EO-as-experimentation, failure and distribution of outcomes2011In: Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, ISSN 1042-2587, E-ISSN 1540-6520, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 925-946Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines two potential causal mechanisms underlying the observed entrepreneurial orientation (EO)–performance relationship. We find empirical support for the notion that EO might be a performance–variance-enhancing strategic orientation rather than a performance–mean-enhancing orientation. With such a conceptualization, performance variance (along with, or instead of, mean performance) and failure take center stage. To address the question of “where to from here,” we discuss a number of research opportunities that we believe are going to make important contributions to the entrepreneurship and strategy literature.

  • 22222.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    Shepherd, Dean
    Haynie, M.
    Moving forward: Balancing the financial and emotional costs of a failed venture.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22223.
    Wikman, Birgitta
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and communication science.
    ÄR DU SJÄLVSTÄNDIG?: En kvantitativ innehållsanalys av personliga egenskaper i platsannonser2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning och bakgrund: Klimatet på arbetsmarknaden är hårt i dag på grund av en rådande lågkonjunktur och det blir allt viktigare för arbetssökande inom den konkurrenskraftiga arbetsmarknaden att bygga upp sitt personliga varumärke med egenskaper som ger positiva associationer.

    Syfte: Att kvantifiera de egenskaper som förmedlats i platsannonser för att kunna ge riktlinjer om vilka egenskaper som oftast förekom och därmed blir viktiga för arbetssökande att se över och bygga upp i deras personliga varumärke samt göra en jämförelse av resultatet mellan olika yrkesområden.

    Genomförande: För att uppfylla studiens syfte har en kvantitativ innehållsanalys genomförts på ett urval platsannonser från Arbetsförmedlingens hemsida för att få fram de personliga egenskaper som har angetts som önskemål.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att de oftast förekommande önskemålen hos arbetsgivarna om vad de arbetssökandes personliga varumärke ska innehålla är att personen kan visa sig självständig och självgående. Beroende på yrkesområde finns det sedan olika önskemål hos arbetsgivarna. Det näst vanligaste önskemålet hos arbetsgivare totalt sett är att personen kan uppvisa att denne är en lagspelare och besitter en god samarbetsförmåga. Om personen söker arbete inom kultur, media och design ska denne vara kreativ, initiativrik och idérik. Detta skiljer sig mot en person som arbetar inom ekonomi, administration och juridik. Arbetssökande i den kategorin ska i en högre grad vara strukturerade och noggranna.

  • 22224.
    Wikman, Tom
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi.
    Hansén, Sven-Erik
    Åbo Akademi.
    Lilliedahl, Jonathan
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Epistemic Cultures & Teaching Practices.
    Identifying Coherence in Teacher Education2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22225.
    Wikman, Tom
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Krogell, Mathias
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering.
    Blinkande markör2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a thesis performed by two students at Jönköping University in the field of Mechanical Engineering, Product Development and Design. The task has been carried out on the behalf of the company NPB Automation. The task aims to develop a new generation of marker to the industry for lid handling with respect to beverage can-related products.

    Materials selection, design of marker and the electronic circuit has been the main focus of the work. The industry of today regarding automation is a growing industry where development and efficiency is constantly happening. This work has contributed to increase the efficiency of handling the substantial number of lids that are being processed today.

    The report addresses a further development from the already existing marker of the company which is used when two different types of beverage can lids are changed. The work was initiated with a pilot study which contained gathering data by performing literature research. The pilot study was done to identify important parameters for the products design. These parameters were the foundation for generating different concepts where an elimination matrix later was used for choosing a winning concept. The final decision of the concept was done in consultation with NPB Automation.

    This concept underwent some changes throughout the process of the report but the main focus was to design the electronic circuit so that it fits in the marker without much change of its original dimensions. At the end of the work with NPB Automation a design proposal on the marker had been developed using CAD-modeling as well as manufacturing documentation with blueprints and a BOM-list.

  • 22226.
    Wikman, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Hassel, Philip
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Prestanda och precision på en enkortsdator i ett system med realtidskrav2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report aims to investigate how well a certain type of affordable embedded single board computer can hold up against today's more expensive computers in a computer system by doing various tests on a system with the specified requirements. The system has a Raspberry Pi as the single board computer which task is to control a camera based on coordinates obtained from a server as well as capture and stream a video signal on a network.

    The researches were conducted to check how much network traffic a single-chip computer sent in different video formats and how much CPU utilization was required. Studies were also made to ensure the accuracy of the camera control. The researches have been experimental, where several tests have been performed and analyzed.

    The results show that a sufficiently good accuracy can be obtained from the camera steering unit, in which two different servos have been investigated. When the video format MJPEG and H.264 are used, the single-chip computer is able to transmit a video signal up to 1280x720 at 15 fps. The system managed to download and perform calculations on an object from the server at 42.3 ms.

    When the entire system was up and running at the same time the Raspberry Pi didn’t manage to deliver a video signal and obtain the coordinates from the server fast enough. Depending on the video format the performance on the single-chip computer varied, but no setup managed to keep the system stable enough to reach the requirements. 

  • 22227.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    A service decoupling point framework for logistics, manufacturing, and service operations2012In: International Journal of Services Sciences, ISSN 1753-1446, Vol. 4, no 3/4, p. 330-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Competing through goods only has turned out to be increasingly difficult unless efficiency and low-cost manufacturing are at the core of the business. Extending the offering by introducing customisation in combination with services has improved the effectiveness capability. Still, much remains to understand how these servitised businesses can be managed in an integrated fashion. Service operations management and manufacturing operations management have evolved along separate paths but are beginning to align, and by focusing on value adding processes some fundamental principles can be identified. Using a value driven and process-based approach the value offering is defined as provided by initial capabilities and adapting capabilities of the provider. From a supply chain perspective this is shown to be identical to the established approach of balancing efficiency and responsiveness (also referred to as leagility) based on the customer order decoupling point. As a consequence focus on efficiency is at the core of goods-based supply and focus on responsiveness is at the core of service-based supply.

  • 22228.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Affärssystem och lean production: det bästa av två världar2006In: Intelligent logistik, ISSN 1653-9451, no 5, p. 10-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    De integrerade affärssystemens förmåga att hantera stora mängder data och dela information till både kunder och leverantörer över stora geografiska avstånd, ger dem en given plats om man vill få ut mesta möjliga av lean produktion.

  • 22229.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management. Linköping University, Department of Management & Engineering, Linköping, Sweden.
    An ontology for flow thinking based on decoupling points - unravelling a control logic for lean thinking2018In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 433-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous flow is the guiding star for lean thinking and considered the ideal state for value streams. Despite this objective, it is seldom possible to obtain a state of continuous flow in a wider context. Decision makers face dynamic environments, and variable internal preconditions require a flow-thinking approach that provides support in response to these challenges. In the present study, the underlying logic of flow thinking is first identified as the key management layer, and thereafter the effectiveness of flow is targeted. The vision of continuous flow is challenged by different exogenous requirements that result in flow discontinuities. Flow thinking is then used to identify 10 decision categories based on these discontinuities, each related to a type of decoupling point and classified as time-based (exogenous) or conversion-based (endogenous). The flow-thinking approach is finally applied in three different contexts: a time-phased product structure, a modularized approach for planning and control, and a mixed-model value stream.

  • 22230.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Analysis of Smoothing Techniques: Application to Production-Inventory Systems2006In: Kybernetes, ISSN 0368-492X, E-ISSN 1758-7883, Vol. 35, no 9, p. 1323-1347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To provide an overview of how a number of frequently used smoothing-based forecasting techniques can be modelled for use in dynamic analysis of production-inventory systems.

    Design/methodology/approach – The smoothing techniques are modelled using transfer functions and state space representation. Basic control theory is used for analysing the dynamic properties.

    Findings – A set of expressions are derived for the smoothing techniques and dynamic properties are identified.

    Practical implications – Dynamic properties are important in many applications. It is shown that the different smoothing techniques can have very different influences on the dynamic behaviour and therefore should be considered as a factor when smoothing parameters are decided on.

    Originality/value – Dynamic behaviour of production-inventory systems can be analysed using control theory based on, e.g. transfer functions or state space models. In this paper a set of models for five common smoothing techniques are analysed and their respective dynamic properties are highlighted.

  • 22231.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Continuous-Time Dynamic Modelling of Variable Lead Times2003In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 41, no 12, p. 2787-2798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic modelling of production-inventory systems usually involves lead time models since this is one of the most important aspects of these systems. Many different models are possible and this paper presents an overview and some ideas for how the models may be interpreted. Three different approaches to continuous-time dynamic modelling of variable lead times based on Control Theory are discussed. Two of the models can easily be incorporated into linear models based on the Laplace transform. The models are shown to be three instances of a generic delay model, which by careful selection of two parameters can be adapted to a wide variety of systems. Also the relation between waiting line theory concepts and the generic delay model is analysed, establishing an interpretation of the models as generating the concept of expected dynamic behaviour.

  • 22232.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Dynamic Analysis of a Production-Inventory Model2005In: Kybernetes, ISSN 0368-492X, E-ISSN 1758-7883, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 803-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – A production-inventory system based on a model proposed by Axsäter is examined with the purpose of understanding the dynamic properties of the model.

    Design/methodology/approach – The information flow concept is discussed and a dynamic analysis using a system simplification approach is carried out to achieve an understanding of the dynamic behaviour of the system. Finally, the information flow is examined and analysed from a hierarchical perspective.

    Findings – The model is extended to include an order decision rule and a production unit and it is shown that the extended model has the capability to represent the dynamics of a number of different system management principles. The three different model instances of base stock, kanban and material requirements planning character are analysed.

    Originality/value – Dynamic modelling of production-inventory and supply chain models are usually analysed at an aggregate level not involving any complex relations of materials or capacities. In this paper, this line of research is merged with an approach based on multiple information channels using matrix representation and it is shown how a system simplification approach can be used for this purpose.

  • 22233.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Dynamic Analysis of the Forrester Supply Chain1990Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The basic production distribution system presented by Forrester in his book "Industrial Dynamics" is analysed. Although many subsequent authors have quoted the original simulation results, especially when referring to supply chain behaviour, a complete analysis of the model has yet to be published. This dissertation fills this gap. As the starting point the Dynamo program representing the system is transformed to a block diagram representation commonly used in control theory. A general model for one echelon of the system is then devised and analysed. Simulations are used to cross check the analysis and to compare the behaviour of sub-systems based on varying degrees of simplification. This general model is then put into the context of the full system and further analysis and simulation is performed to gain a deeper understanding for the dynamics than is obtained from the Forrester results alone. Five different approaches are then used to improve the system.

    - Tuning the policy parameters.

    - Reduction of delays in the system.

    - Removal of the distributor echelon.

    - Improvement of the decision rules.

    - Improvement via better use of information in the system.

    Finally two or more of these alternative approaches are combined to find a new design that behaves better than the original Forrester model.

  • 22234.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Dynamic Modelling and Analysis of Information Flows in Production-Inventory and Supply Chain Systems1994Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    System dynamics is the fundamental concept of this academic dissertation. The focus is on analysis and modelling of properties representative for production-inventory and supply chain systems. The modelling approach is based on Industrial Dynamics but employs a hybrid approach of Control Theory and simulation in the analysis. Simplification based on a structural approach is performed on block diagrams of complex systems as a prerequisite of analysis.

    In general, there are three main activities of interest when modelling manufacturing systems from a system dynamics point of view. Thus forecasting, lead times and inventory replenishment rules are each analysed and the properties of the suggested models discussed. Analogies between delays and density functions are identified introducing the concept of expected dynamic behaviour. Inventory replenishment rules based on inventory position enables a decomposition of production-inventory systems, thus simplifying the inclusion of trigger decision rule models. A production-inventory system and the Forrester supply chain are analysed based on a system simplification approach. It is shown that the amplification of demand fluctuations of the original Forrester model is not due to the much quoted feedback effect. Instead it is shown that no net feedback exists within the echelons due to cancellations of feedback information. Hence, the amplification is due to the design of the feedforward of orders through the supply chain.

    A difficult problem is the performance evaluation of dynamic systems. It is known that the net present value of a system can easily be obtained if a Laplace or z-transform model of the system and its cash flows exists. This theory is expanded also to cover general state space models and an application to a simple production-inventory model is given. In most cases, however, the models do not capture all aspects of economic relevance. Instead, as a complement to the cash flow based analysis, a multiple criteria approach for evaluating complex systems is suggested.

  • 22235.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Financial measures and their relations to decoupling points and decoupling zones2015In: Advances in production management systems: Innovative production management towards sustainable growth / [ed] S. Umeda, M. Nakano, H. Mizuyama, N. Hibino, D. Kiritsis, G. von Cieminski, 2015, Vol. 459, p. 186-193Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Financial management is concerned with the financial evaluation of activities performed in the supply chain. Each activity has implications on the financial situation but the actual cause-effect relation involved in this context is not always obvious. From a return on investment (ROI) perspective the financial measures revenue, cost, and assets, i.e. investment, are identified. Strategic lead-times have been highlighted in the literature as key components for flow design. Strategic lead-times are thereafter further analyzed and the relations between financial measures and strategic lead-times are outlined. Based on these relations, it is possible to establish a relation between financial measures, and decoupling points and decoupling zones. Subsequently this is shown to also provide a reference to supply chain management strategies as they are defined in the literature.

  • 22236.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production. Linköpings universitet.
    Grad av kundorderstyrning2012In: Bonnier ledarskapshandböcker: Inköp & Logistik / [ed] Gösta Hultén, Stockholm: Bonnier Ledarskap , 2012, p. 5.1 / 1-5.1 / 25Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Val av grad av kundorderstyrning är ett av de mest kritiska besluten för att skapa konkurrensfördelar i en industriell verksamhet. Som beslutsstöd för den utmaningen presente­ras här en flödesbaserad analysmodell baserad på fyra beslutskategorier för kundorderstyrning: flödesdrivning, flödesdifferentiering, flödesavgränsning samt flödestran­sparens. Modellen definierar de komponenter som bör ingå i ett flödesbaserat ramverk för kundorderstyrning i termer av innehåll. Den ger även en kortfattad beskrivning av hur ramverket kan användas i termer av arbetsprocess. Ramver­kets flexibilitet illustreras med kritiska beslut om grad av leagility, kundanpassning, utkontraktering, senareläggning, dynamikstyrning, returflöden och tjänstefiering.

  • 22237.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Hantering av osäkerhet i försörjningskedjor med utgångspunkt i frikopplingspunkter2005In: Produktionslogistik 2005: kvalitet och effektivitet i hela försörjningskedjan : artiklar från PLANs forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens i Borås den 18-19 augusti 2005 / [ed] Daniel Ekwall, Borås: Högskolan i Borås , 2005, p. 221-236Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utformning av strategier för försörjningskedjor har rönt allt större uppmärksamhet de senaste åren. Släktskapet med produktionsstrategier är till vissa delar påtagligt och en viktig faktor i båda fallen är att skapa ett robust system som kan hantera olika typer av osäkerhet. Osäkerheten utgörs av många olika faktorer med externt såväl som internt ursprung. Genom att renodla bilden av materialflödet i systemet kan man karakterisera osäkerheten som antingen osäkerhet i förbrukning eller osäkerhet i försörjning. För att hantera dessa osäkerheter har man traditionellt etablerat olika typer av buffertar för attfrikoppla olika delsystem från varandra och därmed minskat risken för att hela systemet exponeras för risken. Ur ett strategiperspektiv försöker man idag också hantera osäkerheten genom att vara responsiv och använda flexibel kapacitet för att möta osäkerhet. Detta innebär bl.a. att man istället skapar buffertar i termer av extrakapacitet som möjliggör att man kan möta variationer i t.ex. efterfrågan utan att leveransledtiderna varierar. Ytterligare verktyg utgörs av flödesaggregering och informationsdelning vilket totalt sett ger fyra strategiska verktyg för utformning av logistiksystem. Användningen av dessa verktyg underlättas av ett antal riktlinjer för hur de fyra verktygen kan användas. Den centrala riktlinjen är att konfigurera konkurrenskraftiga logistik¬system med utgångspunkt i att möta osäkerhet i både förbrukning och försörjning görs genom att skapa en konkurrenskraftig balans mellan effektivitet och responsivitet.

  • 22238.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Kundorderstyrning och frikopplingszoner2012In: Plans forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2012: Logistik i praktisk tillämpning / [ed] Peter Berling, 2012, p. 129-144Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med kundorderstyrning avses att kundens önskemål på något sätt påverkar, d.v.s. styr, hur denförsörjande enheten agerar. Den här kopplingen till kunder innebär att företag som befinner sig närakunderna kan utveckla konkurrensfördelar som företag på längre avstånd från kunderna har svårt attmöta. Olika grad av kundorderstyrning innebär på så sätt en viktig möjlighet för t.ex. svenska företagatt stärka sin position på hemmamarknaden i förhållande till konkurrenter med produktion i andraländer. Det teoretiska stödet för att beskriva försörjningssystem ur ett kundorderstyrningsperspektiv ärdock relativt begränsat. En viktig komponent är kundorderpunkten men det är ett lite trubbigt verktygsom framförallt är användbart i renodlade fall med en tydlig uppdelning i prognosdrivna ochkundorderdrivna aktiviteter. Här ges en mer omfattande teoretisk plattform för kundorderstyrning sombaseras på en generisk bas av frikopplingspunkter och frikopplingszoner vilka sedan appliceras itermer av processdrivare (kundorderpunkt och kundorderzon) och slutligen tillämpas och tolkas medexempel från MRPII respektive lean produktion.

  • 22239.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Kundorderstyrning och frikopplingszoner2012In: Bättre produktivitet, ISSN 1402-1145, no 7, p. 10-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Med kundorderstyrning avses att kundens önskemål på någotsätt påverkar, d v s styr, hur den försörjande enheten agerar.Den här kopplingen till kunder innebär att företag som befinnersig nära kunderna kan utveckla konkurrensfördelar somföretag på längre avstånd från kunderna har svårt att möta.Olika grad av kundorderstyrning innebär på så sätt en viktigmöjlighet för t ex svenska företag att stärka sin position påhemmamarknaden i förhållande till konkurrenter med produktioni andra länder. Det teoretiska stödet för att beskrivaförsörjningssystem ur ett kundorderstyrningsperspektiv ärdock relativt begränsat. En viktig komponent är kundorderpunktenmen det är ett lite trubbigt verktyg som framförallt äranvändbart i renodlade fall med en tydlig uppdelning i prognosdrivnaoch kundorderdrivna aktiviteter. Här ges en meromfattande teoretisk plattform för kundorderstyrning sombaseras på en generisk bas av frikopplingspunkter och frikopplingszonervilka sedan appliceras i termer av processdrivare(kundorderpunkt och kundorderzon) och slutligen tillämpasoch tolkas med exempel från MRPII respektive lean produktion

  • 22240.
    Wikner, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Ledtidsbaserat ramverk för kundorderstyrning2011In: PLANs Forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens: logistik i praktisk tillämpning / [ed] Fredrik Persson och Martin Rudberg, Stockholm: Plan , 2011, p. 21-38Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grad av kundorderstyrning är ett av de mest kritiska besluten för att skapa konkurrensfördelar i en industriell verksamhet. Som beslutsstöd för den utmaningen presenteras här en ledtidsbaserad analysmodell. Modellen definierar beslutsdomäner och omfattar kritiska beslut om grad av senare-läggning, tjänstefiering, kundanpassning, utkontraktering, och transparens.

  • 22241.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Aligning operations strategy and purchasing strategy2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possible advantages gained by outsourcing non-core competences and utilizing theglobalization of the market will be diminished if inter-firm relationships are notdesigned and managed properly. Hence, extended support for purchasing decisionsbased on market requirements in terms of order winners and delivery lead times isneeded. We provide a framework that combines the strategic implications from a wellknownpurchasing framework (Kraljic, 1983) with a decoupling based framework thatemphasizes the balance between efficiency and responsiveness, and the level ofcontrollability in the supply chain.

  • 22242.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Decoupling points and product uniqueness impact on supplier relations2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22243.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Grad av kundorderstyrning2009In: PLANs forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2009: effektiva och lönsamma försörjningskedjor : artiklar från konferensen på Växjö universitet 19-20 augusti 2009, Stockholm: PLAN , 2009, p. 161-172Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Grad av kundorderstyrning är ett begrepp som används i många sammanhang men kanske inte alltid vilar på en så tydlig definition om vad som avses. Den vanligaste utgångspunkten är nog att utgå ifrån när en produkt blir knuten till en kundorder. Det här innebär att delar av materialflödet uppströms är prognosdrivna och de senare delarna, vars ledtid ligger inom leveransledtiden, är kundorderdrivna. Dessa två flöden sitter ihop i en lagerpunkt som fungerar som en buffert mellan flödena och den benämns ofta kundorderpunkt. Om man dessutom beaktar att man kan ha en stigande grad av säkerhet om kundordern längs flödet så kan flödet delas in i tre segment: spekulation, förväntan och åtagande, där den senare ligger efter kundorderpunkten. En annan aspekt är hur varianter skapas längs flödet. Detta är nära förknippat med utformningen av produktstrukturen och kan associeras med var i strukturen som dessa varianter skapas, d.v.s. variantspridningspunkten. Produktstrukturer kan inom ramen för detta ha olika uppbyggnad som t.ex. en specialprodukt som görs helt kundunik, eller en standardprodukt som ser likadan ut för alla kunder. Däremellan återfinns modulariserade strukturer som har inslag av standardmoduler,baserat på vilka man kan sätta samman kundunika lösningar. Sammanfattningsvis finns det tre olika grader av säkerhet om kundorder och några olika modeller för att hantera variantspridning. Detta innebär ett antal möjliga kombinationer, men enbart en delmängd av dessa är att betrakta som konkurrenskraftiga strategier. Syftet med den här artikeln är att belysa hur grad av kundorderstyrning kan definieras som ett koncept baserat på positionering av kundorderpunkt respektive positionering av variantspridningspunkt.

  • 22244.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Strategiska frikopplingspunkter och samverkan i försörjningskedjor2010In: Bättre Produktivitet, ISSN 1402-1145, Vol. 8, no 8, p. 12-16Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22245.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Strategiska frikopplingspunkter och samverkan i försörjningskedjor2010In: PLANs Forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2010: Efterfrågedrivna försörjningskedjor / [ed] Sandor Ujvari, Stockholm: Logistikföreningen PLAN , 2010, p. 111-122Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledning och styrning av försörjningskedjor kräver en god överblick över kedjornas grundläggande strukturella egenskaper och över hur samverkan mellan olika aktörer i kedjorna formeras. Fundamentala egenskaper ur detta perspektiv är hur verksamhetens processer är strukturerade och ur vilken utgångspunkt de är definierade. För att säkerställa att processer genomförs endast då ett behov är identifierat är det viktigt att fokusera på centrala processdrivare i flödet. Förutom att avgöra vad som initierar en process är det också viktigt hur, och av vilken aktör, processen planeras och styrs. Om en aktör har full kontroll över processen kan processen betecknas som styrbar ur den aktörens perspektiv men om den ligger utanför aktörens kontroll så kan den på motsvarande sätt beteckna som ostyrbar. Beroende på vilken aktör som styr en process och om samma eller en annan aktör genomför processen så skapas olika förutsättningar för utformning av hur dessa aktörer samverkar. Traditionellt har den typen av frågor, kopplat till leverantörssamverkan, behandlats inom inköpsstrategin. För att illustrera hur produktions- och inköpsstrategi kan knytas närmare varandra exemplifieras detta med hur den välkända Kraljic-modellen kan integreras i ett processbaserade ramverket med hjälp av fokus på ordervinnare.

  • 22246.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Triadic perspective on customization and supplier interaction in customer-driven manufacturing2018In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 3-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Customization and customer-driven manufacturing are both explicitly based on the focal actor’s interaction with the customer actor. The impact of these aspects on the internal operations of the focal actor is relatively well known compared to the limited number of studies performed on the impact on the focal actor’s supplier. The purpose here is therefore to investigate how the concept of customization complements the concept of customer-driven and how customer requirements affect interaction between a supplier and the supplier’s supplier in a triad. Frameworks for different perspectives are developed where match and mismatch between the actors on the perception of flow driver and flow differentiation is highlighted. The frameworks are then applied on a case company to illustrate application.

  • 22247.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Johansson, Eva
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Customer-differentiated triadic interaction based on decoupling points2017In: Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, ISSN 2398-5364, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 185-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The integration of supply chains together with the disintegration of individual actors in the supply chain shifts the focus from actors to challenges in the interaction between actors. This paper sets out to identify risk strategies for different supplier interactions in triadic configurations, in order to outline supply strategies.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Companies participating in a research project recounted the challenges they faced regarding the integration of customer order-based management and supply from a triad perspective. Six triad configurations were identified, based on the literature, resulting in three risk strategies, which were empirically illustrated in practice by the participating companies.

    Findings

    A key finding is that a triad perspective for a customer-differentiated approach to supplier interaction results in a material classification that highlights the circumstances in which to apply ‘balance efficiency’, ‘postpone’, ‘balance responsiveness’ and ‘speculate’ supply strategies.

    Research limitations/implications

    The research has focused on process drivers and controllability and the results may require careful interpretation when there is a mix of standardized and customized products since further interaction differentiation then may be required.

    Practical implications

    The strategies developed herein provide guidelines for differentiated supplier interaction with explicit focus on triads where customer actors directly influence supplier actors. This approach highlights how outsourcing must be carefully executed when supplier actors are involved in delivery to customer orders.

    Originality/value

    The paper sheds new light on how customer requirements impact supplier interaction in terms of decoupling points related to both delivery strategy and control strategy. The study also presents a novel application of the Kraljic matrix in in terms of risk strategies in different triad configurations.

  • 22248.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Tiedemann, Fredrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Johansson, Eva
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Leagility in a triad with multiple decoupling points2015In: Advances in production management systems: Innovative production management towards sustainable growth / [ed] S. Umeda, M. Nakano, H. Mizuyama, N. Hibino, D. Kiritsis, G. von Cieminski, Berlin: Springer, 2015, Vol. 459, p. 113-120Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leagility is a strategic concept that represents a combination of lean and agile. Lean is assumed to be a cost-based strategy that is appropriate in a forecast-driven context upstream of the customer order decoupling point (CODP). Agile is the corresponding flexibility-based strategy in a customer-order-driven context downstream of the CODP. Competitive advantage is based on that the position of the CODP is aligned with the market requirements. In a dyad setting this alignment can be realized with relative ease but in a triad setting it becomes more complicated if both supply actors pursue a leagile strategy. If lean based purchasing faces an agile based delivery strategy or the opposite, where agile based purchasing faces a lean based delivery strategy, the interface is misaligned. In this paper, four interface configurations are identified and empirical examples of each are given based on a case study.

  • 22249.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Hedvall, Lisa
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    A Flow Based Foundation for Capacity Dimensioning2018In: Advances in Production Management Systems. Production Management for Data-Driven, Intelligent, Collaborative, and Sustainable Manufacturing. APMS 2018 / [ed] Moon I., Lee G., Park J., Kiritsis D., von Cieminski G., Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 384-391Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To proactively decide on the volume of capacity available in a period of time is referred to as capacity dimensioning. The actual dimensioning of capacity concerns both the regular capacity, to cater for systematic variations, and safety capacity, to handle the stochastic variations. Despite the critical impact of these two types of variations, the support in the literature is limited in terms of formal methods for resource management based on dimensioning of capacity in general, and of safety capacity in particular. Capacity is one aspect of resources’ capabilities and as a point of departure for developing such methods, the two overarching challenges of form-place-time matching and capacity balancing are defined. These challenges are exploited to provide a holistic approach to the combination of capacity and the generic form, place and time transformations performed to create customer value. This approach requires alignment between these types of transformation to enable a homogenous perspective on different types of resources such as machines and stock shelves. Such transformations are performed over time and a discrete-time period-based approach requires that the intra-period transfers and inter-period variations are integrated. Finally, the preconditions for proactive and reactive control related to capacity required are outlined. A foundation for capacity dimensioning is then established based on capacity balancing, period transfers and flow control.

  • 22250.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Johansson, Eva
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Inventory classification based on decoupling points2015In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 218-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ideal state of continuous one-piece flow may never be achieved. Still the logistics manager can improve the flow by carefully positioning inventory to buffer against variations. Strategies such as lean, postponement, mass customization, and outsourcing all rely on strategic positioning of decoupling points to separate forecast-driven from customer-order-driven flows. Planning and scheduling of the flow are also based on classification of decoupling points as master scheduled or not. A comprehensive classification scheme for these types of decoupling points is introduced. The approach rests on identification of flows as being either demand based or supply based. The demand or supply is then combined with exogenous factors, classified as independent, or endogenous factors, classified as dependent. As a result, eight types of strategic as well as tactical decoupling points are identified resulting in a process-based framework for inventory classification that can be used for flow design.

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