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  • 22201.
    Tsai, Chung-Ju
    et al.
    National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Lee, Tzong-Ru
    National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Yen, Szu-Wei
    Wufeng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Operational process stages of brand alliances: A case study from the reinforcing bar and the construction industries2015In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 389-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this research is to investigate how companies in the reinforcing bar industry and the construction industry operate and implement brand alliances.

    Design/methodology/approach– This research uses a qualitative interview survey and the grounded theory method to extract key factors of brand alliance development and management in the targeted industries. The interview survey included six managers from different construction companies in Taiwan.

    Findings– This research identifies four common firm-level operational process stages (core categories) of brand alliances including different multidimensional factors, and proposes a conceptual model based on these identified core process stages. The four common core process stages include selection of brand alliance partners, communication with brand alliance partners, enforcement of brand alliances and assessment of brand alliances.

    Originality/value– The proposed model offers a tentative explanation of the development and management of brand alliances between the reinforcing bar industry and the construction industry. This study represents an initial research attempt in this field and explains how reinforcing bar and construction companies operate and implement brand alliances.

  • 22202.
    Tsai, Meng-Che
    et al.
    Department of Pediatrics, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Strong, Carol
    Department of Public Health, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Latner, Janet D.
    Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.
    Lin, Yi-Ching
    Department of Early Childhood and Family Education, College of Education, National Taipei University of Education, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Wang, Shu-Mei
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Attitudes toward and beliefs about obese persons across Hong Kong and Taiwan: wording effects and measurement invariance2019In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The psychosocial consequences of obesity are important but often underrated. The Attitudes Toward Obese Persons (ATOP) and Beliefs About Obese Persons (BAOP) scales used to measure weight-related bias have little psychometric information, especially in East Asian contexts. The objective of this study was to use rigorous statistical methods to demonstrate the psychometric properties of these two instruments in Hong Kong and Taiwanese college students.

    METHODS: A convenience sample of 707 students was recruited from the universities in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Several competing confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were conducted to confirm the factorial structure of the ATOP and BAOP. The best fit models for the ATOP and BAOP were chosen for the examination of the measurement invariance across subcultures. We then compared configurable models with or without loading and/or intercept constrained before correlating the latent constructs between the best models for the ATOP and BAOP.

    RESULTS: The comparison in multiple CFAs found that the model with one factor and two correlated-wording-method factors outperformed the other models for both the ATOP and BOAP. However, the internal consistency was suboptimal (ATOP: α = .56 to .80; BTOP: α = .57 to .65) and the measurement invariance was somewhat unsupported among the Hong Kong and Taiwan samples. Moreover, after controlling wording effects, the latent construct of the ATOP was moderately associated with that of BAOP (r = .356; p < .001).

    CONCLUSION: Chinese versions of the ATOP and BAOP can be treated as a unidimensional factor for use in Hong Kong and Taiwan university students. However, further refinements of both instruments may be needed before using them to capture the social attitudes and beliefs toward obesity individuals, which is expected to advance our understanding of weight-related bias in East Asian contexts.

  • 22203.
    Tsilfidis, Georgios
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Nikolova, Anita
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Momentum strategies: Empirical evidence from the Swedish stock market2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study is based on the study of Jegadeesh and Titman (1993, 2001) which found evidence of succesfull trading strategies which yielded significant positive abnormal returns by exploiting a momentum pattern in stock prices. The purpose of this study is to contribute with empirical results to the discussions of efficient markets, momentum effects and behavioral finance by providing evidence from the Swedish stock market between the years 1998 and 2013. The conclusion is that there exists a Momentum Effect on the Swedish stock market. The utilization of momentum strategies yields significant positive abnormal returns. The Efficient Market Hypothesis is a model which might hold in the long-term, but shows limitations in the short-term. The implications of the results of this study are that short-term investor behavior and momentum profits might be partially explained by behavioral finance models but the origin of the momentum profits need to be further evaluated.

  • 22204.
    Tsoukleris, D. S.
    et al.
    School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Pavlatou, E. A.
    School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Spanou, S.
    School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Novel Self-cleaning, anti-bacterial Sn-Ni electrocoatings of high aesthetics and durability: Abstract s10-0542014In: Book of abstracts of 65th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry, 31/8-5/9 2014, Lausanne, Switzerland: Ubiquitous electrochemistry, 2014, p. 1613-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22205. Tsoukleris, D.S.
    et al.
    Spanou, S.
    Köhler, S.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing - Surface technology.
    Pavlatou, E.A.
    Study of tribological properties of nickel-based coatings reinforced by TiO2 nanoparticles produced by pulse electrodeposition2014In: Proceedings of the 1st African Congress of Tribology / Tribo Satellite Forum 2014, 24-30/4 2014, Marrakesh, Morocco, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22206.
    Tullberg, Carl
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Investing in a higher education: a comparing study between swedish males and females2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies claims that Sweden has the lowest returns on education compared to other OECD countries. Other research made in the subject tend to focus on the gains from education, but forget to calculate the costs, both direct cost such as material, accommodation and food, but also opportunity costs from not working instead of investing in education.

    The purpose of this thesis is to study if an investment in an education is an effective way of monetary utility maximizing in Sweden, in other words income. This thesis will investigate whether education will be a profitable investment, and if so how many years of employment it will take an individual to gain from that investment.

    The Human Capital theory is the theoretical framework of this thesis and the result is in Swedish Crowns. This research quantifies that an education is an effective way to income maximizing and men’s payback time in monetary terms are more likely to be shorter than female’s.

  • 22207.
    Tullgren, Melike
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Uyanik, Viktoria
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    B2B Application Integration: Why companies choose or not choose to implement B2BAI2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The global business environment of today requires companies to be flexible, in order to quickly react and respond to the ever-changing market. Business-to-business application integration (B2BAI) can be seen as a tool which enables companies to stay competitive and it is often regarded by the theory as a must for survival in today’s fierce business environment. Eventhough the employment of a B2BAI strategy can generate a lot of advantages and opportunities for companies operating within today’s global business environment, there are still many challenges and problems to overcome in order to have a successful B2BAI solution.

    Based on this we found it highly interesting to see whether the theories positive outlook on B2BAI could be supported by an empirical research. In this essay we have therefore studied and identified the underlying reasons and the contributing factors to why or why not companies choose to integrate externally, from the perspective of IT-consulting agencies. Besides this, a description and an explanation regarding the concepts covered by the field of B2BAI have been made in order to facilitate the understanding for the reader. As our intention primarily was to investigate the reasons behind and the contributing factors to why or why not companies choose to integrate, we chose to make qualitative interviews. This, as we were in need of information which described the course of events and expressed individual opinions, in order to achieve the purpose of the essay. Regarding the selection of research objects for the research, the population consists of all IT-consulting agencies in Sweden. The research has however been delimited to a selection of the population, where the sample consists of three IT-consulting agencies located in Jönköping, with experience of B2BAI.

    One of the most interesting discoveries we have made in this research is that the empirical findings agree with the theory in regards of that globalization is a central factor contributing to why companies chose to invest in B2BAI. However, the respondents do not discuss all the advantages of B2BAI mentioned in the theory and emphasize slightly different underlying reasons for choosing to employ a B2BAI strategy. The most central reason for not choosing to employ a B2BAI strategy was according to the respondents due to the lack of knowledge regarding issues relating to the phenomenon and this have not been discussed in the theoretical framework. The challenges with B2BAI stated in the theory, were on the other hand not regarded as issues contributing to not choosing to implement B2BAI. We are under the impression that the advantages and the oppor-tunities with B2BAI carry more weight then the challenges, as the essays empirical findings indicate that the demand for B2BAI today is high and constantly growing.

  • 22208.
    Tunbjer, Michael
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Jarne, Marion
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Foreign Market Analysis: Should Oriflame Enter France?2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The global marketplace today encompasses 6 billion people. Many companies are beginning to see themselves as international rather than national acting on a global arena. An essential aspect of going abroad is to know where to go and why to go there. In order to be able to analyze a foreign market a company needs to do market research in the foreign market as to gather essential information. A firm which is facing a quick internationalization process is the Swedish direct sales firm of cosmetics Oriflame. Oriflame has grown quickly in developing countries but is not present in one of the biggest market for direct sales in Europe: France.

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a theoretical framework to analyze foreign markets and apply it to the French market of direct sales in cosmetics and Oriflame.

    A qualitative study based on the 5 Cs framework for analyzing foreign markets has been carried out. Seven focus groups have been conducted in France and Sweden in order to obtain information about and comparability in consumer attitudes towards Oriflame’s marketing mix. Interviews have been conducted in order to get information about Oriflame as a company. Secondary data has been gathered from different sources for the theoretical framework as well as for the empirical research on issues such as culture, competition and market.

    This thesis has developed a theoretical framework to analyze foreign markets called the 5 Cs. The 5 Cs are based on: Company, Constitution, Competition, Customers and Culture. The 5 Cs is a very general framework and can be applied to a wide range of foreign markets and firms and was in this case applied to analyze a real world case of Oriflame and France. The analysis of the empirical findings found that there is potential for Oriflame to enter the French market in terms of consumer preferences and general market characteristics. However, it also found that what will probably determine everything in the end is whether Oriflame can be strategically committed to enter a mature West European market like France.

  • 22209.
    Tunborg, Ida
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management (CeLS).
    Svensson, Emma
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management (CeLS).
    Spare Parts Classification for 3D Printing Suitability2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:           The 3D printing technology has from its birth in the late 1980’s evolved from an emerging technology to being described as one of this decade’s most significant developments. 3D printing has the potential to impact global logistics and has implications for supply chain management by changing the way products are being designed and manufactured. Spare parts have been appointed as a highly interesting area for 3D printing due to its market’s significance and complexity. Even though the technology has a rapid development and provides opportunities for companies, it still holds several limitations. Due to the limitations of the technology, but also spare parts diversity, not all parts are suitable for 3D printing.

     

    Purpose:                  The purpose of the thesis is to develop a spare parts classification for 3D printing suitability. The aim of the classification is to enhance decision making in companies by showing what types of spare parts that are suitable for the technology. In order to fulfill the purpose, a two-dimensional approach is adopted. Firstly, by investigating what characteristics that make spare parts suitable to consider for 3D printing. Secondly, by studying what 3D printing limitations that need to be taken into consideration for printing spare parts.

     

    Method:                   In order to fulfill the purpose of the thesis, a qualitative study is conducted. The methodology of grounded theory is chosen to be able to build new theory in a systematic way. As for the phase of data collection, the study includes ten semi-structured interviews. In analyzing the empirical data, the thesis is following the process of grounded analysis.

     

    Conclusion:             The main contribution of the thesis is the spare parts classification for 3D printing suitability. The classification is developed based on the conclusions of what characteristics make spare parts suitable for 3D printing, as well as what limitations of the technology that need to be considered. The classification illustrates that spare parts with low output in terms of total logistics costs, object size, material requirements, strength requirements and surface finish are most suitable for 3D printing. The results also show that due to current limitations of 3D printing, only a small number of spare parts are suitable to print.

  • 22210.
    Tunér, Hans
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    Rätt temperatur på maten: En fallstudie av ett förbättringsarbete på ett sjukhus med brickdukningssystem2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Tasty and hygienically safe food is essential to the treatment and comfort of the patient. Patients are commonly weak or impaired and more vulnerable to infections. Food hygiene is a matter of patient safety in hospitals where food temperature is the single most important factor. Meal tray as food distribution system in hospitals offers many advantages but one disadvantage is its ability to maintain proper temperature of the food. Measurements at the studied hospital display substantial variations and significant deviations from acceptable temperatures. Hence, an improvement project was completed in order to improve and stabilize temperatures.

    Purpose

    The improvement project was studied in order to describe what phenomena was important to the success for the improvement, according to staff involved and also how patients experience of the food. The aim of the improvement project was to achieve a stable process with proper food temperatures.

    Methods

    The quality improvement completed with the PDSA improvement model as overarching theory and method The study was conducted as a descriptive case study with an inductive approach and deductive ingredients. Focus group interview and questionnaires was used for data collection. Qualitative content analysis an descriptive statistics was used for analysis of data.

    Results

    The improvement project resulted in substantially temperature improvement, a stable process with desired temperatures was achieved. Yet the focus and the aims for the improvement were adjusted under the project period, the original aims were not achieved completely. The improved temperatures decreased the risk for patients getting infected with food poisoning. The study displayed phenomena that to a great extent are within the influence of the microsystem, as important for the success of the improvement. These where summarized in four categories: Utilization of resources, Interaction and communication, Improvement capability and Participation/involvement.

    Conclusions

    A hospital with meal tray distribution system can achieve substantial improvements in food temperature using structured improvement methods. The results of the changes were mainly affected by phenomena that already are described in the quality improvement litterature. Future studies may combine inductive, qualitative approaches with deductive comparisons to phenomena described in literature.

  • 22211.
    Tuomi, Paula
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. 1967.
    Scoping review of facilitative aspects of occupational, personal and environmental factors of caregivers occupational performance when caring for a person with major neurocognitive disorder (NCD)2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    People with neurocognitive disorders (NCD) condition called dementia are mainly taken care by family members. The number of people suffering from neurocognitive disorders is estimated to increase. Providing care for the person with NCD can be stressful and demanding which is why effective interventions to support caregivers are needed. Occupational therapy practitioners have unique knowledge of the person, environment and occupation and how those factors influence on individuals occupational performance. Occupational therapy ́s interventions to support caregivers with NCD have mainly concentrated on problems in the behaviour of person with NCD. The aim of this scoping review was to identify why some caregivers are managing better as a caregiver before any interventions have been done. What are those aspects of Person (P), Occupation (O) and Environment (E) that facilitate occupational performance (OP) when taking care for a person with NCD. PEO-model by Law et. al (Law et al., 1996) was utilized to formulate research question, in search words and in summarizing the results. The search from Ageline, Cinahl, Psycinfo and PubMed databases was done in January 2018 and went back 10 years. Results found 23 relevant articles for inclusion in the scoping review. Facilitating factors emphasized the supports of relationship seen as an overlap of caregivers and individuals with NCD on occupational performance. Facilitating personal factors of resilience, finding gains in caregiving, self -efficacy and religiosity were found to have an impact on care that the caregiver provides. Facilitative aspects of occupations highlighted importance of daily occupations as a source of well-being for both caregiver and person with NCD. In conclusion, facilitating aspects of relationships, personal factors and engagement in activities and hobbies supported occupational performance of both the caregiver and a person with NCD. Taking these factors into consideration could help target interventions more precisely to meet caregivers needs.

  • 22212.
    Tuominen, Alexandra
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Lärares attityd till poesi: En kvalitativ studie om sex lärares attityder till poesi i undervisningen i årskurserna 1-32018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the attitude towards the literature genre of poetry among primary school teachers, and how important they consider the genre to be in grades 1-3. The questions underlying the study are: What is the teacher’s opinion on using poetry in teaching? Do the teacher’s own experiences and personal interest in poetry affect their teaching? Do the teachers consider that they have sufficient knowledge to teach within the genre?

     

    The study was conducted through qualitative interviews with six teachers, teaching in grade 1-3 on five different primary schools. The result of the study showed that poetry takes a marginal place in teaching compared to other types of literature genres. Teachers enjoy working with poetry with the pupils but often find it difficult both for themselves and for the pupils. The teachers’ own interest in the literature genre is weak and poetry books are rarely used in the classroom.

  • 22213.
    Turesson, Ida
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Jag har sådan tillgång när jag har barnen: En kvalitativ studie om att utveckla förståelse för olika kulturella bakgrunder i undervisningen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 22214.
    Turesson, Jonna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Preschool Education Research. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Other School Based Research.
    Lind, Andrea
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Preschool Education research. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Other School Based Research.
    "Göra vad de vill, springa som galningar": En kvalitativ studie om utomhusmiljöns betydelse för barns lek och lärande2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har förskollärares föreställningar om utomhusmiljön varit i fokus. Syftet har varit att undersöka hur förskollärare beskriver utomhusmiljön betydelse för barns lek och lärande. Vi har valt att fokusera på följande frågeställningar: Hur beskriver förskollärare barns lek och lärande i utomhusmiljön? Vilket material erbjuder förskollärare för att stimulera barns lek och lärande i utomhusmiljön? Hur ser förskollärare på sin roll i utomhusmiljön?

    De analysbegrepp som använts i studien har varit medierande redskap och appropriering. Studien har genomförts med semistrukturerade intervjuer som metod med sex förskollärare på sex olika förskolor.

    Av resultatet framgår tre teman: Förskollärarnas beskrivningar om barns lek och lärande i utomhusmiljön, material som stimulerar barns lek och lärande i utomhusmiljön samt förskollärarens roll i utomhusmiljön. Ur resultatet hävdar förskollärarna att lek och lärande inte går att särskilja på grund av att barn lär sig samtidigt som de leker sina lekar. Förskollärarna anger att de vill erbjuda natur-rikt material som är ofärdigt som de menar ska ge barn möjligheter till att fantisera kring. De vill även erbjuda liknande material ute som inne då det bidrar till ytterligare dimensioner.  Det framgår även att förskollärarna anser att deras roll är tudelad, dels att ge barn en fri zon där de kan leka fritt eller ibland anordna mer planerade aktiviteter.

  • 22215.
    Turesson, Kenny
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Idin, Sanna
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Faktorer som påverkar följsamheten till behandling hos personer med diabetes mellitus typ 22015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes means lower quality of life amongst the ones that suffer from the disease and it also means high costs for society. The treatment consists of a combination of drugs and lifestyle changes where the nurse supports the patient by providing patient education and promoting empowerment. Research has shown that diabetes patients have a low adherence to treatment which may lead to poorer glucose control and an increased risk of diabetesrelated complications. Purpose: The purpose was to describe factors that contributes to non-adherence in persons that are treated for diabetes type 2. Method: A literature review where twelve quantitative articles where analyzed. Results: Older age seems to be a factor that contributes to adherence while younger age seems to predict non-adherence. The persons view and understanding of the disease and treatment seems to influence the adherence. The ability to take medication seems to be important, with memory problems as a leading cause for non-adherence. Social support, patient participation and patient education are other factors that promotes adherence. Conclusion: This literature review shows factors that can be used by the nurse to identify persons in risk of non-compliance and thereby take action early. The nurse’s measures, such as education and support, may have a positive impact on adherence to treatment.

  • 22216.
    Turesson, Michael
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Koroliov, Vadim
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Brolin, Ola
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    What is your password?: Assessing information security awareness among employees in an organisation2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of Information and Communication Technologies has opened up a large pool of possibilities for any and every business actor. These possibilities have brought up new vulnerabilities as well. Information security has become an inherent part of any organization. Companies and organizations invest significant amount of resources in IT security solutions, usually omitting the weakest link of the defense - the people.

    The research intended to study and evaluate the information security awareness level of employees in a public organization which preferred to remain anonymous. This study is based on a mixed-methods approach. A survey was built up and performed, basing on the interview of the employees and the IT Security Chief. The interview intended to give a general picture of the attitude, knowledge and behavior the employees towards information security and its constituent aspects.

    The results of the survey show that the information security awareness at this particular organization has an average performance based on the grading scale determined by the management of the company. Generally speaking, half of the information security focus areas show underdeveloped sense of awareness among employees, whereas the other focus areas are close to perfect. In terms of information security, the research indicates that there is a gap between the employees' theoretical condition and their day to day be-havior. In other words, the theoretical and practical preparation of the employees does not provide an appropriate information security awareness behavior. Some of the reasons for unsecure behavior were complex and sophisticated security designs including passwords; another problem was inherent in the work design which imposed the use of multiple systems and applications in the daily work.

    In the end, the research suggests some recommendations for improvement, as well as practices to sustain a desirable level of information security awareness level. The overall information security awareness program required immediate improvements in order to boost the positive attitude and behavior of employees towards information security, as well as enrich the knowledge of information security in general.

  • 22217.
    Turunen, Sara
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Muoniovaara, Mari
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Women's Career Development: A Case Study of the Career Paths of Female Middle Managers at Banks in Sweden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding differences between women and men’s career development and promoting equality is important in today’s society. “A growing body of evidence shows that utilizing the skills and talent of both men and women is beneficial for enterprises and for society in general” (Guy Ryder, Director General, International Labour Organization ILO, 2015, p.3). Women are under-represented in management level and measures that can be taken to advance women in business should be analyzed and taken into focus for the future. Especially interesting is banking industry, which is dominated by women in terms of employees but men are the majority in management level.

    The study offers a perspective from female middle managers point of view. The purpose is to contribute to the understanding of what causes women’s under-representation in management level in the banking industry. Moreover, the aim is to demonstrate women’s career path as well as factors that influence on women’s career development. The data was analyzed by using White’s (1995) age-linked stage model of women’s career development, Super’s (1963) self-concepts and Super’s (1980) life roles.

    The study shows that there has been much progress to reduce inequality between women and men, and special programs have been developed in order to increase the number of women in management level in banks. However, there are some negative factors influencing women’s career development that remain the same through the time. The findings emphasize that women still have to deal with a number of challenges and for instance fight against stereotypes. Thus, seven suggestions how to increase the number of women in management level in the banking industry are made.

  • 22218.
    Tuuli, Jaakko
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management.
    Third Party Logistics Companies as Knowledge Sellers: A Dyadic Third Party Logistics Relationship Perspective2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the changes in the business environment, there has been an increasing dependence on the skills of companies to deliver customer adapted products quickly and on time around the world. Therefore, instead of being caught in the high cost and unsatisfactory result of managing logistics operation by themselves, many companies have chosen to outsource some or all of their logistics and supply chain activities to specialist third party logistics companies (TPL). Hence, the TPL companies are managing and integrating their customers’ supply chains to increase the competitiveness and profitability.  It is argued, that knowledge is becoming the only resource capable of offering competitive advantage and continued growth and prosperity for supply chain partners. Therefore, the effective transfer and creation of knowledge has become a top priority in a supply chain. Since third party logistics companies have taken on the major responsibility of managing customers’ supply chains, effective knowledge management has become a top priority for them as well.

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe the knowledge transfer and creation processes within the third party logistics dyadic relationships in the context of supply chain integration.

    The thesis has been carried out by using inductive and conductive research approaches and the qualitative study has been carried out by applying multiple case studies as a research strategy. The empirical material is gathered from four companies in two third party logistics relationships. Data was collected through several interviews conducted at the target companies and the findings have been analysed using the existing theory stated in the frame of reference.

    The main conclusions from this study are that the buyer-seller context determines the way knowledge is transferred and created in the dyadic third party relationships, and the companies did not have any specific strategies or governance structures for managing knowledge although considered important. How the companies in the dyadic TPL relationships transfer and create knowledge changes with the evolvement of the relationship. Knowledge transfer must penetrate all companies and all organizational levels to increase a holistic and integrated understating of the whole supply chain to achieve value created. How TPL companies create and utilize knowledge internally vary due to company size and the practices used. In addition, the customer company using multiple TPL providers is able to transfer and create knowledge from all TPL relationships to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of its supply chain. Due to the buyer-seller characteristic, however, there are no or very little barriers for knowledge creation and transfer in a dyadic TPL relationship.

  • 22219.
    Tveiten, Sisel
    Jönköping University.
    Omvårdnad i barnsjukvården2000Other (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 22220.
    Tydén, Thomas
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Söderström, Jan
    Eriksson, Örjan
    Gemensam FoU för 290 självständiga kommuner?: Hur kommunernas behov av forskning, utveckling och erfarenhetsutbyte har organiserats och finansierats inom gatu- och trafikrådet2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 1984 har Svenska Kommunförbundet, numera Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting (SKL), bedrivit forskning och utveckling (FoU) om vägtransportsystemet i tätort. Ett exempel är det systematiska arbete att utveckla trafiksäkerheten som ingått i programmet. Rondeller, upphöjda övergångsställen och säkrare skolvägar är exempel på åtgärder som man forskat om, utvecklat och informerat om. Effekterna av det arbetet kan vi idag se runt om i landet. Antalet omkomna på de kommunala gatorna har minskat kraftigt under senare år – ett exempel på en framgångsrik implementering av forskningsresultat.

  • 22221.
    Tyngel, Sara
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Ståhlgren, Linda
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    "Dom målar ju upp en verklighet eller en fantasi som vi unga tjejer vill ha...": En receptionsanalys av mottagares upplevelse av sponsrade inlägg på Instagram2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Avsikten med den här studien är att undersöka sponsrade inlägg på Instagram och dessa inläggs trovärdighet. Det kommer vi att göra genom en receptionsanalys bestående av analyser av instagraminlägg och intervjuer med instagramanvändare. Ett antal sponsrade inlägg, utvalda från instagramkontona till två av Sveriges största influencers på Instagram, kommer att analyseras. Det kommer även att ske intervjuer med ett antal personer från de olika fackhögskolorna på Jönköping University.

    Syftet med studien är att se hur trovärdiga mottagarna upplever sponsrade inlägg på Instagram samt hur de påverkas av influencer marketing i jämförelse med traditionell reklam. Studien syftar även att undersöka hur Kenza Zouiten Subosic och Bianca Ingrosso framställer sina sponsrade inlägg på Instagram.

    Uppsatsens teoretiska ramverk består av receptionsteorin och tvåstegshypotesen som hjälper oss att förstå hur ett budskap kan tolkas och vad opinionsbildare är som fenomen. Vi kommer också även att använda oss av branding via opinionsbildaremedia och identitet som teoretiskt begrepp.

    Resultatet av studien visar att sponsrade inlägg till stor del upplevs trovärdiga, men att bland annat tidigare erfarenheter av influencern gör att upplevelsen hos mottagarna skiljer sig. Utifrån de intervjuer som har gjorts i studien kan vi fastställa att intervjupersonerna blir mer påverkade av sponsrade inlägg på Instagram än av traditionell reklam.

  • 22222.
    Tynkkynen, Susann
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Pinheiro, Oskar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Kan planar skelettscintigrafi ersättas av helkroppstomografi vid screening av prostatacancer?: Ökar därmed det diagnostiska värdet ?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 22223.
    Tyreskog, Emma
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Widell, Linda
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Kvinnors upplevelse av att drabbas av bröstcancer: En litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women in the western world. Although treatment is improving and the mortality rate drops, problems still exist within health care. This may be because the women undergo difficult treatments which affect them physically and mentally.

    Purpose: To describe women’s experience of suffering from breast cancer.

    Method: A literature review based on qualitative articles, analyzed with an inductive approach.

    Results: The analysis resulted in four categories: Receiving a diagnosis, Experiencing consequences from treatment, Experiencing consequences in everyday life and Having thoughts about the future. The women experienced the breast cancer diagnosis as overwhelming. Several of the women experienced that the breast cancer process gave them a new identity, both physically and mentally. After completed treatment some women still feared cancer would return which affected their view of their future.

    Conclusion: Suffering from breast cancer affected women differently. Some women looked positively at the experience after the treatments was completed while others just focused on what they had lost. Because the women's experience varied, it’s important that healthcare staff adjust their care according to the individual's needs and desires, and provides the patients with clear information to create peace and security.

  • 22224.
    Tyrstrup, Mia
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, General Practice, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    van der Velden, Alike
    Department of Clinical Sciences, General Practice, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Engström, Sven
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Primary Care Research and Development Unit, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Goderis, Geert
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Academic Center for General Practice, Leuven, Belgium.
    Molstad, Sigvard
    Department of Clinical Sciences, General Practice, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Verheij, Theo
    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Coenen, Samuel
    Department of Primary and Interdisciplinary Care (ELIZA), Center for General Practice, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Adriaenssens, Niels
    Department of Primary and Interdisciplinary Care (ELIZA), Center for General Practice, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Antibiotic prescribing in relation to diagnoses and consultation rates in Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden: use of European quality indicators2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 10-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of antibiotic prescribing in primary care in Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden using European disease-specific antibiotic prescribing quality indicators (APQI) and taking into account the threshold to consult and national guidelines.

    DESIGN: A retrospective observational database study.

    SETTING: Routine primary health care registration networks in Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden.

    SUBJECTS: All consultations for one of seven acute infections [upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, bronchitis, pneumonia and cystitis] and the antibiotic prescriptions in 2012 corresponding to these diagnoses.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Consultation incidences for these diagnoses and APQI values (a) the percentages of patients receiving an antibiotic per diagnosis, (b) the percentages prescribed first-choice antibiotics and (c) the percentages prescribed quinolones.

    RESULTS: The consultation incidence for respiratory tract infection was much higher in Belgium than in the Netherlands and Sweden. Most of the prescribing percentage indicators (a) were outside the recommended ranges, with Belgium deviating the most for URTI and bronchitis, Sweden for tonsillitis and the Netherlands for cystitis. The Netherlands and Sweden prescribed the recommended antibiotics (b) to a higher degree and the prescribing of quinolones exceeded the proposed range for most diagnoses (c) in Belgium. The interpretation of APQI was found to be dependent on the consultation incidences. High consultation incidences were associated with high antibiotic prescription rates. Taking into account the recommended treatments from national guidelines improved the results of the APQI values for sinusitis in the Netherlands and cystitis in Sweden.

    CONCLUSION: Quality assessment using European disease-specific APQI was feasible and their inter-country comparison can identify opportunities for quality improvement. Their interpretation, however, should take consultation incidences and national guidelines into account. Differences in registration quality might limit the comparison of diagnosis-linked data between countries, especially for conditions such as cystitis where patients do not always see a clinician before treatment. Key points The large variation in antibiotic use between European countries points towards quality differences in prescribing in primary care.  • The European disease-specific antibiotic prescribing quality indicators (APQI) provide insight into antibiotic prescribing, but need further development, taking into account consultation incidences and country-specific guidelines.  • The incidence of consultations for respiratory tract infections was almost twice as high in Belgium compared to the Netherlands and Sweden.  • Comparison between countries of diagnosis-linked data were complicated by differences in data collection, especially for urinary tract infections.

  • 22225.
    Tyrén, Adam
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Koncernchefens: Rättsliga ställning och interna skadeståndsansvar2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At first glance, the group CEO's (koncernchefens) legal position looks easy. It is the CEO’s responsibility to lead and make decisions on matters which affect the entire group, all while defending the company’s best interests. However, when one looks closely at how the Companies Act (Aktiebolagslagen) regulates how a company should organize itself, as well as the options available to manage the group, one rea-lizes that simply appointing a group CEO does not necessarily make the company compatible with the Companies Act. A group CEO threatens to reduce both the Board and CEO's legal administrative districts which are not in accordance with legal and commercial principles.In order to introduce a group CEO it requires a detailed investigation of the group's legal relationships. Through investigation, the companies can clarify what is included in the subsidiaries’ executives' legal management area, in order to align the group CEO's powers—eliminating the threat to restrict the jurisdiction of the various group companies' Board of Directors and CEO. The group CEO could potentially take advantage of his or her position and use his or her power to damage one of the subsidiaries. Since the group CEO is not mentioned in the Companies Act, Chapter 29, as one of the responsible parties, the group CEO is not, at least not directly, sub-ject to damages based on the Companies Act, tort law.A potential solution to this is to apply the Commercial Code (Handelsbalkens) 18th chapter and its rules of tort law, which states that the group CEO would take a trus-teeship (sysslomannaställning) with one of the Group companies. This paper/essay presents and analyzes various ways a CEO can exercise the power to represent sever-al group companies and the grounds upon which the group CEO can be held liable for his or her actions.

  • 22226.
    Tyynelä, Jonna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Hagström, Johanna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Unfolding Corporate Accelerators: The Learning Experiences Corporate Accelerator Programs Offer For Startups2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Corporate Accelerator (CA) trend has extended beyond high technology industries, gaining global traction across a variety of industries, such as in finance, healthcare, insurance, entertainment and consumer packaged goods. CAs are described as an approach that bridges the gap between corporations and startups, further supporting long-term growth and corporate renewal. When organized effectively, CAs provide a platform that allows both the established corporations and startups to tap into the resources of what one has and the other lacks. Despite its’ many opportunities, some aspects of CAs have also been criticized. In particular, CAs aim to fulfill their corporation’s goals which may lead to discrepancies between the goals of the corporation and the startup. This could potentially limit the level of innovativeness of the startups as well as other learning benefits they aimed to achieve from taking part in the program.

    Purpose: From an entrepreneur’s point of view, this study aims to understand the learning experiences CA programs offer for participating startups.

    Method: An instrumental collective case study was conducted in the form of semi-structured interviews from five cases that represented five different CA programs.

    Conclusion: This study aims to elaborate the existing CA literature through providing insights about how individuals in startups develop new knowledge through taking part in CA programs. The findings of this study suggest that three main factors affect the startup individuals learning experiences in CA programs that consist of; (1) The need for learning that is built upon the background attributes of each startup individual and the stage at which the startup organization is at; (2) The different entrepreneurial support activities that offer the startups authentic learning, generative learning and acquisitive learning opportunities; (3) The learning network offered during the program that consists of corporations, facilitator organizations and other startup organizations that enable the startup individuals to acquire complementary knowledge resources across their own organizational boundaries. Moreover, the findings of this study illustrate that experiences gained during the program are transformed into entrepreneurial knowledge that constitutes to the individual's ability to recognize new opportunities as well as the ability to cope with the liabilities of newness.

  • 22227. Tárcia, Lorena
    et al.
    Alzamora, Geane
    Gambarato, Renira R.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Cobertura jornalística transmídia de megaeventos esportivos: Proposta metodológica aplicada às Olimpíadas de Sochi (2014) e do Rio de Janeiro (2016): [Transmedia news coverage of sporting megaevents: Methodological proposal applied to the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics and 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympics]2018In: Narrativas midiaticas contemporaneas [Contemporary media narratives]: Perspectivas metodologicas [Methodological perspectives] / [ed] Marta Maia e Monica Martinez, Santa Cruz do Sul: Catarse , 2018, p. 240-253Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22228.
    Tärneberg, Emily
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Svahn Karlsson, Carina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Sjuksköterskors arbete inom barnhälsovården med familjer som söker asyl2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The large number of families seeking asylum affect nurses work in child health care. All children in Sweden between 0-6 years, do regular check-ups, including children seeking asylum. Nurses health promotion and preventive care covers childrens health based on the physical, mental and social well-being. Health promotion develops empowerment of families where the goal is good health. Escape and trauma affect families seeking asylum and many suffer from mental illness. Nurses work requires special and individual efforts in meeting with families.

    Purpose: To describe nurses experience of work in child health care with families seeking asylum.

    Method: The interview study had a qualitative design with an inductive approach. Fifteen nurses from six different municipalities participated in the study, all with experience working with asylum-seeking families in child health care. Collected data were analyzed according to qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The results revealed three categories: Families needs and support affect the work, External factors affect the work, The complexity of the meeting with the families affect the work.

    Conclusion: The study shows that nurses in child health care adapts work to asylum seeking families needs and circumstances. Nurses experience and education is the foundation of his or her skills. Mental illness and a socially complex situation for families seeking asylum is a challenge for nurses working with health promotion.

  • 22229.
    Tågerud, Linnéa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Halen, Lovisa
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Jämförelse av pelotthöjder med avseende på det plantara trycket under MTH2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Framfoten är en av de vanligaste platserna i foten för smärta. Under metatarsalfalangealhuvudena (MTH) är också en av de vanligaste platserna för fotsår. Pelotter är en intervention som ibland används vid framfotsproblematik för att minska trycket under MTH. Syftet med detta projekt är att undersöka om pelottens höjd påverkar trycket under MTH.

    Metod: Fem deltagare rekryterades till projektet. Varje deltagare genomgick 5 mätningar med varje intervention; individtillverkade inlägg utan pelott, samma inlägg med en 5 mm pelott och samma inlägg med en 12 mm pelott. Trycket under fötterna mättes med F-Scan. 

    Resultat: För en deltagare minskade trycket under framfoten mer ju högre pelott som användes. För en deltagare syntes motsatt effekt, alltså en ökning i tryck ju högre pelott som användes. För övriga tre deltagare var tryckförändringarna under framfoten inte statistiskt signifikanta. 

    Slutsats: Vilken effekt pelotthöjd har på trycket under MTH varierar från person till person. Viss försiktighet bör vidtas vid användning av pelott, så att inte motsatt effekt jämfört med det eftersträvade uppstår. 

  • 22230.
    Tångby, Charlotte
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Strelin Larsson, Eva
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Oklarhetsregeln: En analys av dess tillämpning inom försäkringsrätten2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
  • 22231.
    Tångby, Charlotte
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Strelin Larsson, Eva
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Oklarhetsregeln: En analys av dess tillämpning inom försäkringsrätten2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den viktigaste uppgiften vid avtalstolkning är att försöka fastställa vad parterna hade för avsikt vid avtalsslutet. Av vikt vid fastställandet av den gemensamma partsviljan är hur parterna har handlat i tidigare liknande avtal. Försäkringsgivaren har enskilt utformat försäkringsavtalet så någon gemensam partsvilja kan i dessa fall sällan fastställas.

    Då det inte kan fastställas vad parterna hade för avsikt vid avtalets ingående, så ska avtalet tolkas med utgångspunkt i avtalets lydelse. Det vill säga hur en utomstående part uppfattar avtalet. Uttryck med juridisk innebörd antas vara använda i sin allmänna rättsliga betydelse. Fackuttryck tolkas mot bakgrund av den allmänna uppfattningen inom branschen.

    Tolkningsregler såsom oklarhetsregeln används som en sista utväg då avtalet inte har kunnat tolkas med hjälp av de vanliga tolkningsmetoderna. Tolkningsreglernas uppgift är att fastställa vad som ska anses vara det korrekta innehållet i det avtal som har ingåtts. Traditionellt sett har oklarhetsregeln inneburit att tolkning ska ske till nackdel för den part som har haft skuld till otydligheten, eller som har haft störst möjlighet till att förhindra oklarheten. Då det inte kan urskiljas vilken part som har haft störst möjlighet till att förhindra oklarheten så ska klausulen tolkas till nackdel för den som har författat den.

    Till grund för oklarhetsregelns uppkomst låg behovet av att kompensera försäkringstagaren för sitt underläge, eftersom försäkringstagaren inte hade något inflytande över avtalets formulering.

    I svensk rätt är oklarhetsregeln lagstadgad i AVLK som har sitt ursprung i EGdirektivet om oskäliga villkor i konsumentavtal (93/13/EEG). Oklarhetsregeln lyder enligt 10 § AVLK:

    ”Om innebörden av ett avtalsvillkor som inte har varit föremål för individuell förhandling är oklar, skall vid en tvist mellan en näringsidkare och en konsument villkoret tolkas till konsumentens förmån.”

    Oklarhetsregelns tillämpningsområde utgörs oftast av förtryckta standardiserade avtalsvillkor som ena parten tillhandahåller, exempelvis försäkringsavtal. Oklarheten måste inte bero på en otydlighet i texten utan det kan också föreligga en oklarhet i avtalet på grund av att det har redigerats på ett sätt som gör läsaren förvirrad. Oklarhetsregeln

    utformas ofta som en culparegel vilket innebär att den part som formulerat otydligheten borde ha utformat avtalet tydligare. I försäkringsavtal förekommer det ofta allmänna fraser som kan uppfattas som oklara. Typiska exempel på oklara fraser är försäkringen täcker endast direkta och omedelbara skador samt lämna kvar och genom.

    Den svenska 10 § AVLK, den danska § 38 b DAvtL, den norska § 37 NAvtL samt den brittiska artikeln 7 i the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations bygger på ett EG-direktiv om oskäliga villkor i konsumentavtal. Anmärkningsvärt är att samtliga länders lagstadgade oklarhetsregel har en begränsad räckvidd. Detta innebär att oklarhetsregeln med stöd av lagtexten endast kan tillämpas på avtal mellan näringsidkare och konsument, andra avtal faller utanför. De avtal som inte rör konsument och näringsidkare får istället stödjas av rättspraxis då oklarhetsregeln tillämpas. I både Danmark, Norge, Sverige och Storbritannien tillämpas oklarhetsregeln i stort sett endast på avtal som är av standardkaraktär.

  • 22232.
    Tånneryd, Therese
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Det praktiska arbetet med ASL: Hur lärare och deras elever arbetar praktiskt med läs- och skrivmetoden att skriva sig till läsning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis discusses the reading and writing method WTR (Writing Through Reading). The aim of the study is to research how WTR can be utilized in first and second grade. This aim is answered by the research questions: In what way are the teachers and pupils practicing the reading and writing method WTR? In what way do the teachers believe the learning of the pupils is affected by these methods? The thesis has been conducted with a sociocultural perspective as a theoretical foundation. The method was a quality research executed with an inductive approach. This was accomplished through interviews with teachers and observations of pupils. The result of the thesis showed that the teachers practiced WTR differently and used varied devices. Some used tablets and others used laptops. The pupils practiced both individual work and in pairs. In addition, the results show variation in the classroom context and in the teachers’ attitude to how their teaching affected their pupils.

  • 22233.
    Tóth, Judit
    et al.
    University of Miskolc, Miskolc, Hungary.
    Svidró, József Tamás
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Diószegi, Attila
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Stevenson, David
    ExOne GmbH, Augsburg, Germany.
    Heat absorption capacity and binder degradation characteristics of 3D printed cores investigated by inverse fourier thermal analysis2016In: International Journal of metalcasting, ISSN 1939-5981, E-ISSN 2163-3193, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 306-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of 3D printing techniques is a recently developing area used within foundry technology. Digital production of sand molds and cores eliminates the need for hard tooling, drastically reduces lead times and offers design freedoms not possible in the traditional pattern making. Even though mold and core making technologies are refined from both scientific and practical points of view, casting defects may still occur in the final products. Thus, molding material related casting research is required to generate state-of-the-art methods and understandings to avoid the formation of casting defects. In this paper, a pioneering method is presented which is suitable to determine novel thermophysical and heat transfer properties of various types of molding materials. These properties are strongly connected to the cooling capacity and the gas evolution features of the cores used in casting production. The method is based on temperature measurements inside spherical shaped core sand specimens and evaluated by a special application of Fourier thermal analysis. Temperature measurements were performed in test samples produced by two different 3D core printing systems. The registered temperature data were processed by Fourier thermal analysis to calculate the thermal properties and the decomposition characteristics of the 3D printed cores. The experiments were executed under different heating conditions analogous to aluminium and cast iron production.

  • 22234.
    Tönnesen, Anna
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Tillgänglighet – Att anpassa befintligabyggnader och närmiljön till dagens kravför att öka kvarboende2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of elderly people in society is increasing, and the existing buildings need to be adapted to meet their requirements of accessibility. Today a lot of the existing buildings were built at 1965-1975, and these contain many difficulties for people with impaired mobility.

    The purpose of this work is to explore the possibility of the elderly to continue living at home by studying the actions needed to adapting the common areas and the neighborhood. The goal is to find out what the most common measures are, and study some methods that are possible to use for an accessibility inventory.

    A literature review has been made, where reference objects, laws, rules and requirements regarding availability have been studied. A case study has been made, where a study of the availability of the residential Tunet in Mjölby. The entrances contain many different levels like steps and thresholds, there is no elevator and entrance door is heavy to open. There is also no storage to place walkers in. Other accessibility problems that exist in the area are few benches, inaccessible patios and long walking distances to the waste disposal and parking.

    To study the availability of existing residential, different survey methods were used, such as TIBB - availability of existing housing, the Housing Enabler - Methodology for the assessment/survey and analysis of accessibility problems in housing and Västra Götaland inventory model. TIBB has been used in practice and then evaluated. The inventory tool is suitable for a basic accessibility inventory which takes account of elderly people’s conditions.

    The measures that are most common in residential areas from the 1965-1075 is to smooth out differences in levels, like thresholds, installing an elevator and automatic door openers. Waste disposal in the area should be located as close to the entrance as possible. Usually the possibility to rest by sitting down needs to improve, partly by placing more benches in the area, and partly by placing some form of sit opportunity in the entrance area. These measures improve the availability and accessibility for the elderly, and affect the mental and social life as they become more independent. To install an elevator is in many cases a costly measure, and thus mostly not being made. To enable for elderly to keep living in their homes, the public areas of a building and the neighborhood should be adapted.

    For an availability adjustment to be successful is the holistic approach of great importance. When individual measures are implemented with no holistic approach, is the risk that the problems still remains high. Therefore, an accessibility survey should be made, to study all of the measures required to adapt the availability of a neighborhood.

  • 22235.
    ​​​​​​​Töpperwien Blom, Nathalie
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies.
    “Bilingual education opens doors”: A qualitative research study based on teachers’ views on dropouts, achievement and bilingual education in Sololá, Guatemala.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to gain better understanding of the educational environment that indigenous children in Sololá, Guatemala, are found in. What are the basic concepts and methods used by teacher? Why are the achievements so low and the dropouts so high among indigenous children, and how is bilingual education beneficial for them? These questions were answered through 33 semi-structured interviews conducted with teachers working at schools in the department. The results showed that the greatest difficulties for indigenous children were related to parents’ financial situation, child labour and the children’s lack of interest in studying. Teachers who did not speak the any indigenous languages were concerned how to reach the children, as they could not transmit the knowledge properly. Some teachers mentioned lack of adequate bilingual material was the reason why many children were not able to pass classes. When children work in their parents’ business they have no time to do homework and are often tired when they are in school, causing class repetition or complete dropout. Indigenous peoples’ understanding and way of transferring knowledge comes in conflict with the way the public school system is imparting knowledge. Bilingual education is an attempt to educate indigenous children, with considerable benefits for the whole society. Teachers mentioned the numerous benefits, including opportunities to get a good job, continue studying at a higher level and improve the children’s future possibilities. Bilingual education makes it easier for teachers to impart the necessary knowledge and teach the children Spanish while at the same time maintaining the indigenous languages.

  • 22236.
    Töre, Hedro
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    Gustavsson, Anders
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    Venture Capital: In need of new valuation tools?2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Venture capital investments have become a major contributor the growth of start-up firms. Investing in start-up firms carries a substantial risk of failure, only a minority of start-ups is high-return investments. This put great responsibility to the valuation methods used by the venture capital firm. It is argued that when uncertainties about future pay-offs are high traditional valuation tools are of little help, they are said to be too static and not to comply with change. A valuation method that is alleged to act in accordance with a changing environment where uncertainty is high is real option which is said to consider these variables, thus giving a more accurate valuation. The structure of venture capital funding can be seen as well suited for real option valuation.

    The authors find it interesting to find out how venture capitalists screen possible investments, if the traditional valuation methods hold in proportion to the challenges they face and if the real option approach could be suitable.

    The purpose is to describe and analyze how Swedish venture capital firms can valuate investments.

    The research was carried out using a qualitative method. We conducted interviews with four venture capital firms that operate in Sweden. The participating firms were: Industrifonden, Itact, FöretagsByggarna and LinkMed.

    The authors found in their research that the most important factors when screening the possible investments are the market and the entrepreneur. The venture capital firms use of valuation methods differ significantly. LinkMed and Industrifonden apply traditional valuation tools in contrast to Itact and FöretagsByggarna that rely on personal experience and expertise. Limitations found in the traditional models were lack of accurate and reliable estimations. The structural outlay of the investment is in line with that of the real option approach and the authors believes that real options exist embedded in the respondent’s investments. This implies that a real option approach is suitable for them.

  • 22237. Törmäkangas, T
    et al.
    Lyyra, T
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    The relationship of blood pressure to all-cause mortality in octogenarian twins2006In: 59th Annual Scientific Meeting, The Gerontological Society of America, Dallas, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22238.
    Törnblom, Oskar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Managing complexity in organizations: Analyzing and discussing a managerial perspective on the nature of organizational leadership2018In: Behavioral Development, ISSN 1942-0722, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 51-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternative ways of organizing are emerging, questioning and challenging conventional assumptions regarding organizational structures, managerial roles, and leadership. In addition, new emerging industries, such as the Internet industry, possibly fuel the development of new ways of organizing. This article examines and discusses stratified systems theory in terms of its key concepts, constructs, support, and limitations, as well as discussing its perspectives and underlying assumptions, applicability in academic research, and usefulness for practitioners. The theory is positioned as a modernistic approach and an early attempt, and, in some ways, a contribution to the integration of leadership and organizational theory, and of theory and practice. From the practitioner’s perspective, this article provides no general academic support for the proposed value of applying the theory and its extension for organizational design and improvement. However, applicability of the theory in contemporary research has some support, but there are differences in its support, and limitations to the key concepts and constructs should be considered. This article calls for further research exploring the support and limitations of the key concepts and constructs from theories within the field of adult development, and furthermore, research that explores what is really new regarding hierarchical structures, managerial roles, and leadership in new types of organizations. Finally, research that explores how organizational design can shape and leverage leadership development is called for.

  • 22239.
    Törnblom, Oskar
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stålne, Kristian
    Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Kjellström, Sofia
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Analyzing roles and leadership in organizations from cognitive complexity and meaning-making perspectives2018In: Behavioral Development, ISSN 1942-0722, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 63-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations can be seen as social systems with hierarchical structures and roles at different levels of complexity with correspondingly different complexity of tasks. This article applies the perspectives of two theories from the field of adult development, namely, the model of hierarchical complexity (MHC) and ego development theory (EDT) to analyze stratified systems theory (SST). Although the theories are not regarded as strictly comparable and commensurable on account of differences in basic assumptions and methods of the theories, the analysis leads to the conclusion that descriptions of role complexity and individual capabilities in SST, to some extent, correspond to descriptions of developmental levels according to the MHC and EDT. Both comparisons support the notion that task and leadership complexity increases with organizational level, and thereby demonstrates support for the existence of qualitatively different levels of leadership. However, based on the methodological choices of the study, it is beyond the scope of the article to validate the key concepts, constructs in SST, as well as provide support or nonsupport for the proposed value of application in practice. Furthermore, we point out the lack of a more thorough analysis and comparison between the theories built on rich empirical material. Nevertheless, we conclude that the MHC, EDT and SST are fruitful lenses that can further the understanding of organizations as social systems with hierarchical structures.

  • 22240.
    Törneling, Charlotta
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    Gustafsson, Rickard
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    Statutory audit - beyond the yes or no debate2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is an extensive debate going on in Sweden about the being or not being of the statutory audit for small limited companies. Sweden is one of the few European countries that still have a statutory audit for all limited companies, and the debate is even more of immediate interest when the Swedish accounting and auditing standards are converging more and more to international standards. A member state in the European Union has the possibility to exempt small limited companies from the statutory audit. But due to the current regulations in Sweden, all limited companies are to follow the same rules, which is questioned in the debate. This debate is a current and important issue due to that approximately 200 000 limited companies would be affected if the statutory audit would be abolished.

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the debate about the statutory audit for small limited companies, by moving beyond the “yes and no debate”. We will describe and explain the attitudes towards the statutory audit and the existing accounting regulations among micro companies in two different business sectors.

    In order to fulfil the purpose, we have conducted a qualitative study. We have interviewed the owners of six micro companies from two different business sectors, namely organizational consultants and building contractors.

    The main conclusions from this study are that independent of their respective attitudes towards the statutory audit, none of the respondents would like the statutory audit to be abolished for small limited companies. Further, the respondents within the building contractors business perceive the accounting rules as more complicated than the respondents within the organizational consultants sector do, and a simplification of regulation would not change any of the respondents’ attitudes towards the statutory audit.

  • 22241.
    Törnered, Anna
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    Bytestid på operation: En beskrivning av medarbetarnas förväntningar på ett kommande förbättringsarbete2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 22242.
    Törnkrans, Stine
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Johansson, Susanne
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Sarbanes Oxley Act: Med fokus på svenska företag2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 22243.
    Törnkvist, Åsa
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare. Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Att leda systematiskt förbättringsarbete: Framgångsfaktorer och svårigheter enligt chefer och ledare2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title

    To lead systematic improvement – success factors and difficulties according to managers and leaders.

    Background

    Healthcare in Sweden is facing great challenges. The body of knowledge grows faster than the economic resources for healthcare, there is a gap between what we know should be done and what we actually do, and there are differences between different care givers in results for the same medical problems. One of many ways for healthcare to manage to develop and improve, despite limited economic resources, is that managers and leaders know how and are able to lead systematic quality improvement.

    Aim

    This study explores what managers and leaders in healthcare describes as success factors and difficulties in leading systematic quality improvement.

    Method

    Focus group interviews were used to gather information, which was analyzed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results

    The results show that the most important success factor described is enough time for quality improvement, followed by easily accessed and valid outcome data, competence in quality improvement, accessible decision support and a mandate to lead quality improvement.

     

    Keywords: healthcare, managers, micro systems, quality improvement, time.

  • 22244.
    Törnlöf, Sofia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Ryttberg, Kajsa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Supplying the Latino Way: A study of the Mexican automotive industry2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem- Sweden is for the moment one of the countries in the world that is most dependent on the automotive industry. Significant companies within this industry at a global level move parts of, or entire operations abroad which increase the competition for Swedish companies. This fact conveys problem for the Swedish SMEs suppliers, as if a supplier only focus on the national market will not match the requirements from the OEMs such as integrated product development and delivery of complete systems on a JIT- basis. Considering these fact, SME suppliers in Sweden need to look for new opportunities on new markets, and create an understanding for how to act accordingly to the new market’s particular business conditions.

    Purpose- The main purpose of this thesis is to examine business conditions and prerequisites that applies for the buyers and the suppliers in the supply chain in the Mexican auto-motive industry, and further to develop an understanding of the logic of the interaction and integration between them. Derived from the obtained knowledge, a sub-purpose of this thesis is to present recommendations for how Swedish suppliers should enter and act accordingly on the new market.

    Method- In this thesis we have applied a case study method. We have conducted semi-structured interviews with four of the largest OEMs and five suppliers, all of whom have production in Mexico. We have in addition to the interviews with OEMs and suppliers supported the collected information with one interview with a representative of a trade association within the Mexican automotive industry and one representative from a governmental institution.

    Results- Our analysis indicates that the conditions for Swedish automotive suppliers to enter the Mexican market are favorable. Factors such as Free Trade Agreements, the positive attitude towards Foreign Direct Investments and skilled but low labor costs all imply for opportunities for Swedish suppliers. Secondly, our analysis indicates that the OEMs are today doing supply base rationalizations. We consider that this is based on the fact that the OEMs are changing their ordering basis from purchasing single parts to complete systems in order to reduce costs and increase the efficiency. Thirdly, our analysis indicates that it is the buyer, no matter on what level in the supply chain it is acting, who forms the strategy of its suppliers. If the buyer has a lean approach, its suppliers are forced to use the same thinking and apply it to their suppliers in order to meet the pressures on costs reductions, product development and JIT delivery. This we entitle as a continues correlation, which permeate in the complete supply chain.

  • 22245.
    Törnquist, Louise
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Näringsriktiga mellanmål och tätare viktkontroller minskade ofrivilligviktnedgång: En kvalitativ studie om ett förbättringsarbete på ett äldreboende2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Det finns omfattande belägg om nutritionens betydelse för äldres hälsa och livskvalitet. För äldre patienter som bor på äldreboenden förekommer undernäring och ofrivillig viktnedgång vilket kan leda till ökade komplikationer såsom fall, trycksår och dödlighet.Syfte: Syftet i denna uppsats består av två delar. Syfte i det genomförda förbättringsarbetet: Att alla patienter på Solgården erbjuds bästa möjliga förutsättningar för att inta en god och näringsriktig kost. På lång sikt är målet att alla patienter ska ha ett gott nutritionsstatus. Syftet med studien av förbättringsarbetet: var att beskriva om och i så fall på vilket sätt personalen upplevde att förbättringsarbetet resulterade i förbättringar (i vården) för personer med demenssjukdom samt beskriva hur personalens erfarenheter av förbättringsarbetet kan bidra till förbättrad nutritionsvård för personer med demenssjukdom.Metod: Förbättringsarbetet genomfördes utifrån Nelson, Batalden och Godfreys (2011) Improvement ramp. I studien användes fallstudie med kvalitativ, induktiv metod och datainsamlingen bestod av intervjuer.Resultat: Förbättringsarbetets resultat visade att andelen mellanmål som innehöll tillräckligt mycket kalorier ökade och att journalförda viktuppföljningar gjordes i högre utsträckning. Studiens resultat bestod av fem kategorier som beskrev erfarenheter av förbättringsarbetet och på vilket sätt det upplevdes ha resulterat i förbättringar för patienterna.

  • 22246.
    Törnquist, Matilda
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    ”I’m not vain but I love shoes and champagne…”: En kvalitativ textanalys av svenska influencers alkoholrelaterade Instagram-inlägg2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, influencers and alcohol as well as Sweden’s second most popular social media platform Instagram, have a great position in Sweden. This examination, that is found within the social media field, investigates how Swedish influencers on Instagram, through photos, films and captions, communicate about alcohol. The study aims to find out which alcoholrelated lifestyle that influencers mediate and if the alcoholic drinks indicate to be something more than only drinks. The study is based on Bourdieu’s theory about fields, habitus and capitals, that produce and reproduce power elites. It is also based on semiotics, denotation and connotation as well as the interplay between photos and written texts. This examination works on a qualitative text analysis. In total, 182 photos/films, that contain alcohol, and belonging captions are being analysed. These were published between April and September in 2018. The content – the participants, objects and environments – is being analysed, systematized and classified into different categories and themes. The analysis results in five categories, that focus on the placing of the alcohol, and seven themes, that focus on what the alcohol symbolizes. The seven themes are weekdays, exclusivity, celebration, vacation, weekend, fellowship and jocularity. The results also show that influencers drink different alcoholic drinks, with different people or alone, and in different environments, something that has to do with their lifestyle and habitus. They mainly indicate an economic and a social capital, and they appear to be part of the same social field. The analysed photos, films and captions principally connotate messages saying alcohol is something good.

  • 22247. Törnqvist, Anna Lena
    et al.
    Ahlström, Gerd
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Widner, Håkan
    Rehncrona, Stig
    Fulfilment of patients' goals after thalamic deep brain stimulation: a follow-up study.2007In: Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, ISSN 1353-8020, E-ISSN 1873-5126, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 29-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the ventrolateral thalamus (VIM) is shown to reduce tremor in essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Our aim was to evaluate the results of VIM DBS from the patients' perspective. Sixteen consecutively included patients (8 ET and 8 PD) described their own outcome goals preoperatively and evaluated the fulfillment 1, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. We conclude that the patients could do specific activities that are of importance to them such as eating, drinking and socializing, and perceived either partial or total fulfillment of their goals.

  • 22248.
    Törnqvist, Elin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Pettersson, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Lagval för förrsäkringsavtal: särskilt utrymmet för partsautonomi2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The globalization and the realization of a European common insurance market have increased the importance of cross border insurance contracts. Despite that, a gathered set of rules regulating cross border insurance contracts does not exist. The sets of rules within Private International Law which arises today when determining the applicable law regarding cross border insurance contracts are the law of 1993 on applicable law to certain insurance contracts (the law of 1993) and the law of 1998 on applicable law to contractual obligations (Rome Convention). Since the Rome Convention is the only Community instrument which still is in the form of a treaty, work has been done in order to convert it into a regulation, called the Rome-I-regulation. Therefore, the future Rome I-regulation is of importance for the thesis as well since it most likely will replace the Rome Convention.

    Swedish law is based on the principle of party autonomy, which means that the contracting parties have the right to freely agree on the content of the contract, including the choice of law. However, the thesis shows that some limitations to the parties’ freedom of choice does exist in the different sets of rules. The thesis also examines how the two sets of rules differ concerning the extent of the freedom of choice of law. Further, the thesis investigates the distinction between the rules regarding the choice of law within the same set of rules. In addition, the objective choice of law in accordance with the sets of rules is discussed.

    Which of the sets of rules that is applicable on a certain insurance contract is often difficult to foresee, particularly for someone who is not familiar with the legal systems. It is even more complicated to determine which provision in a certain set of rules that is applicable on a contracting party. Article 3 in the Rome Convention permits party autonomy regarding the choice of law in a business to business relation.

    When the contract involves a consumer, the party autonomy is reduced. Here, article 5 in the Rome Convention allow the parties to choose applicable law, but the choice shall not have the result of depriving the consumer of the protection afforded to him by the mandatory rules of the law of the consumer’s country. A problem that the provision brings is that most of the insurance consumer contracts fall outside its scope since they rarely meet the criteria which the provision sets out. Instead the consumer contracts normally fall under the provisions in article 3, especially developed for businessmen on an equal level.

    The law of 1993 differ between small and large risks. A free choice of law is basicly only allowed when the insurance contract involves a large risk, which mainly includes risks insured by larger companies. When the insured risk is defined as a small risk, the choice of law is limited. Only under certain circumstances are the parties allowed to choose another law than the law in the country where the policy-holder has his habitual residence or central administration, or the law of the country where the risk is situated. Insurance contracts regarding small risks are usually signed by private persons or, to a certain extent, small- or medium sized companies.

  • 22249.
    Törnros, Sara
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Economic Development and Pollutants: Brazil’s Economic Development2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the correlation of economic development and pollutants in Brazil from 1960 to 2008. This investigation is conducted by scrutinizing and testing the much contested Environmental Kuznet Curve (EKC); an economic theory relating income to environmental degradation by an inverted U-shape. Empirical tests of Carbon dioxide (CO2) per capita and income (GDP per capita) provided us with the conclusion that there is a strongly positive correlation between these variables. The observed relationship tells us that as income increases, CO2 emissions increase as well, although at a slightly decreasing scale. Thus, the expected inverted U-shape is not observed in Brazil, findings that are in line with previous research. Further, the empirical tests tell us that Brazil is approaching a potential turning point of an EKC. The results indicate that although Brazil may have succeeded in some aspects of approaching a Sustainable Development, there are still issues for improvement. 

  • 22250.
    Törnroth, John
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Alshaer, Mohammed
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Upplevelser av egenvård hos personer med hjärtsvikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In today's society, there are many people who suffer from heart failure and many people with heart failure who need care. Patients with heart failure experience both physical and mental stresses that also affect the quality of life. For patients with heart failure, self-care is an important part for enabling a functioning life.

    Aim: To describe experiences of self-care in people with heart failure.

    Method: Literature overview with inductive approach. Thirteen qualitative articles were included and downloaded through the CINHALL and MEDLINE databases. Result: The essay result describes patients' self-care experience and shows that motivation is a driving force in self-care practice. Patients appreciated the support they received from family, friends and care personnel in connection with self-care. Based on the results, self-awareness and lack of knowledge results in poor compliance with self-care. The results are presented in the following three main headings: motivation, knowledge and support.

    Conclusion: The essay showed that patients with heart failure have barriers and constraints associated with self-care. Another problem in patients was lack of knowledge about heart failure and self-care which results in reduced quality of life. Patients with heart failure and lack of self-care are in great need of support, guidance and knowledge in order to increase patient's power and self-determination over the situation. Nurses should understand the patient's perception of self-care in heart failure in order to be able to adapt care together with the patient and to the needs of the individual person.

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