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  • 22201.
    Xu, Mingyi
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Zheng, Wenyan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    How information flow is influenced by culture?: Cross-culture communication in supply chain management----A comparison between China and the West2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 22202.
    Xu, Yansi
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Renou, Alexandre
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Rehn, Victorine Ayah
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Factors influence entrepreneurial immigrants come to Sweden to create businesses2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is no reason to refuse the fact that, in the coming years, Europe is going to face a new wave of immigration. The birth rate is in decline and life expectancy in the European continent is higher than before. As a consequence, there are two major problems: a shortage of labour and the financing of the pensions (Kohler, Billari & Ortega, 2002). World Bank warns European Union that for stabilizing the amount of working age population in 2050 like in 1995, would involve a net migration of 79 million within the EU25. There should be new flow of immigration. As a consequence, the phenomenon combines immigration and entrepreneurship will be vital for countries’ future growth within Europe. However, consider Sweden as the area of study by combining the immigration entrepreneurship study and business start-up abroad. Therefore, the questions of why the entrepreneurs choose to go to other countries for business venture and why they choose Sweden as the host country become a topic to study in this research paper.

    The purpose of the research is going to find out the motivations for the initiative of entrepreneurial immigrants’ choice of Sweden as a host country. In order to find the result for the purpose, the research chose to use an inductive and exploratory approach to find out why those entrepreneurial immigrants indented to come to establish business in Sweden. Those reasons were investigated from previous research; experts working with foreigners who arrived in Sweden for business purpose, and the entrepreneurial immigrants who arrived in Sweden for new ventures. The data collection based on a qualitative method. According to the research purpose, the theories were chosen in the field of migration and entrepreneurship. Determinants of immigration and entrepreneurship were listed and explained. Based on the interview, information was categorized with the determinants listed in the theoretical frame work.

    Based on the analysis, the empirical information shows that entrepreneurs came to Sweden not only for business reasons. All of the Local Development Managers and entrepreneurs interviewed considered that entrepreneurial immigrants chose to create business in Sweden with immigration purpose. However, if we want to apply this result to all entrepreneurial immigrants, further quantitative study would be required.

  • 22203.
    Xu, Youzhi
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid Sweden University.
    A VLSI design for universal Reed-Solomon erasure decoder2002In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Signal Processing, ICSP’02, Beijing, China, Aug, 27-30, 2002, IEEE , 2002, p. 398-401Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an encoding and decoding algorithm of universal Reed-Solomon codes for erasure decoding. It is shown that the algorithms can be implemented with simple, regular and modular circuits, naturally suitable for VLSI design. A typical example shows that the signal processing speed is in the order of Gbits/second and the processing delay is less than one millisecond, by the use of the decoders on a single chip. Here "universal" means that the same code and the same circuit design can be used for different code parameters, such as code length and code rate. Therefore, it can be utilized for different applications to recover lost message.

  • 22204.
    Xu, Youzhi
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University.
    Variable shortened-and-punctured Reed-Solomon codes for packet loss protection2002In: IEEE transactions on broadcasting, ISSN 0018-9316, E-ISSN 1557-9611, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 237-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Techniques using Reed-Solomon (RS) codes to recover lost packets in digital video/audio broadcasting and packet switched network communications are reviewed. Usually, different RS codes and their corresponding encoders/decoders are designed and utilized to meet different requirements for different systems and applications. We incorporate these techniques into a variable RS code and present encoding and decoding algorithms suitable for the variable RS code. A mother RS code can be used to produce a variety of RS codes and the same encoder/decoder can be used for all the derivative codes, with adding/detecting zeros, removing some parity symbols and adding erasures. A VLSI implementation for erasure decoding of the variable RS code is described and the achievable performance is quantitatively analyzed. A typical example shows that the signal processing speed is up to 2.5 Gbits/second and the processing delay is less than one millisecond, when integrating the decoder on a single chip. Therefore, the proposed algorithm and the encoder/decoder can universally be utilized for different applications with various requirements, such as transmission data rate, packet length, packet loss protection capacity, as well as layered protection and adaptive redundancy protection in DVB/DAB, Internet and mobile Internet communications.

  • 22205.
    Xu, Yuchun
    et al.
    Manufacturing Department, School of Applied Science, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, UK.
    Elgh, Fredrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Mechanical Engineering. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Product Development - Computer supported engineering design.
    Erkoyuncu, John
    Manufacturing Department, School of Applied Science, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, UK.
    Bankole, O.
    Manufacturing Department, School of Applied Science, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, UK.
    Goh, Y.
    Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK.
    Cheung, W. M.
    School of Computing, Engineering and Information Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, UK.
    Baguley, P.
    Manufacturing Department, School of Applied Science, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, UK.
    Wang, Q.
    School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, Durham University, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK.
    Arundachawat, P.
    Manufacturing Department, School of Applied Science, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, UK.
    Shehab, E.
    Manufacturing Department, School of Applied Science, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, UK.
    Newnes, L.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK.
    Roy, R.
    Manufacturing Department, School of Applied Science, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, UK.
    Cost Engineering for Manufacturing: Current and Future Research2012In: International journal of computer integrated manufacturing (Print), ISSN 0951-192X, E-ISSN 1362-3052, Vol. 25, no 4/5, p. 300-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims to identify the scientific challenges and point out future research directions on Cost Engineering. The research areas covered in this paper include: Design Cost; Manufacturing Cost; Operating Cost; Life Cycle Cost; Risk & Uncertainty management; Affordability Engineering. Collected information at the academic forum on Cost Engineering held at Cranfield University in 2008 and further literature review findings are presented. The forum set the scope of the Cost Engineering research, a brainstorming was held on the forum and literatures were further reviewed to understand the current and future practices in cost engineering. The main benefits of the paper include coverage of the current research on cost engineering from different perspectives and the future research areas on Cost Engineering.

  • 22206.
    Xu, Yue
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    The Relationship between Stock Prices and Exchange Rates in Sweden2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper empirically investigates the exchange rate effects of Swedish krona against euro (SEK/Euro) on stock prices in Sweden. The sample period for the study has been taken from March, 2001 to March, 2011 using monthly nominal exchange rate of SEK/Euro and monthly closing values of OMX Stockholm All Share (OMXPI) Index. The developed unit root test and cointegration technique have been applied for the research. It was found that both data series were nonstationary and integrated of order 1. The test result also showed there was no cointegrating relationship between stock prices and exchange rates. Further investigation into their contemporaneous relationship highlighted a statistically significant negative linear relationship between the said variables, suggesting that an appreciation of the Swedish krona against euro leads to a contemporaneous increase in the value of the Swedish stock market.

  • 22207.
    Xu, Yun
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Thai, Gia Linh
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Banking Market Competition and SME Financing in China: Case Study across Chinese Provinces2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries are reported to encounter difficulties in accessing to formal external financing resource. Banking systems in this category of countries are either under-developed or newly reformed. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether SME financing in China, measured by SMEs per capita, is affected by local bank competition, measured by number of banks per capita or share of foreign banks. Control variables such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP), level of infrastructure and geographic location are also included in the regression models.

    The main findings are that: when disregarding the ownership of banks, bank competition has positive impact on SME financing across Chinese provinces, although the relationship is non-linear; and foreign banks do not significantly influence SME bank financing in China. The first finding generally support the conventional theories of industrial organization and the second one offers the basis for further arguments about the role of foreign banks in financing SMEs in China.

  • 22208.
    Xu, Z
    et al.
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.
    Qi, X
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.
    Dahl, Anna
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Xu, W
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.
    Waist-to-height ratio is the best indicator for undiagnosed Type2 diabetes2013In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 30, no 6, p. e201-e207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    Early detection of diabetes is important for the prevention of diabetic complications. The best adiposity index for indicating Type 2 diabetes mellitus remains unclear. We aimed to identify the optimal adiposity measure among BMI, waist circumference, waist–hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio to indicate undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Chinese adults.

    Methods

    A total of 7567 participants aged 20–79 years were included in this study. Impaired fasting glucose was defined as a fasting plasma glucose level of 6.1–6.9 mmol/l in participants without diabetes. Undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes was identified as fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/l when neither a history of diabetes nor use of hypoglycaemic drugs was present. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured following standard procedures. Data were analysed using logistic regression and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves.

    Results

    Of the 7567 participants, 536 were defined as having impaired fasting glucose and 690 were patients with Type 2 diabetes, including 290 (3.8%) persons with undiagnosed diabetes. In multivariate logistic regression, the odds ratios of waist-to-height ratio (≥ 0.5) were stronger than BMI (≥ 24 kg/m2), waist circumference (≥ 85 cm in men and ≥ 80 cm in women) and waist–hip ratio (≥ 0.85) for undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose. Among the four indices, waist-to-height ratio ≥ 0.5 showed the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for diagnosing undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes (0.725, 95% CI 0.693–0.756) and impaired fasting glucose (0.662, 95% CI 0.638–0.687).

    Conclusions

    By comparison with BMI, waist circumference and waist–hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio ≥ 0.5 may be the best indicator for undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose.

  • 22209.
    Xuefang, Zhao
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Product Development.
    3D Finite Element Modeling of the Lower Limb2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis project provides a method to simulate the internal mechanical properties of the undeformed human lower limb when an external force is applied. The value of the external force is determined by the deformed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images, which is converted into displacement instead. The purpose is to predict the area of the lower limb that is at most risk of wounds. The tissues of the human lower limb that are concerned in this study are: skin, fat, muscle, fascia, tibia bone, fibula bone and bone marrow. MRI images taken of an undeformed lower limb from experimental people is used to create a three-dimensional finite element model. During the simulation, the finite element model considers the nonlinear behaviors of individual soft tissues instead of lumping them together. Simulation results are presented as a curve of the external force and deformation of the different types of lower limb tissues and it shows the stress distribution in the lower limb.

  • 22210.
    Yaghoobi, Siamak
    et al.
    Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Hamidfar, Monadi
    Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Lawson, Douglas M.
    University of Calgary, Canada.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Myles, Paul Stewart
    Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Validity and reliability of the Iranian version of the quality of recovery-40 questionnaire2015In: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, ISSN 2228-7523, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 1-8, article id e20350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Recovery after anesthesia and surgery is a complex process and depends on many factors such as patient, anesthesia and surgery conditions as well pre-existing comorbidities.

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to translate the 40-item quality of recovery score (QoR-40) into Persian and evaluate its psychometric properties in Iranian patients.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled patients candidate for elective general surgery undergoing general anesthesia from July 2013 to December 2013 at Shahid Rajaee Hospital, Qazvin, Iran. Translation was performed based on Beaton's and Bullinger's recommendations. Estimates of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, predictive validity and clinical validity were performed.

    RESULTS: All estimates of internal consistency were high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.89 for global estimates, subscales between 0.89 and 0.93). All test-retest scores and subscales were between 0.71 and 0.88.The correlation with a recovery visual analogue scale was 0.51, and all subscales correlated significantly with comparable subscales of the SF-36. An exploratory factor analysis found five-components and explained 52% of the variance. A confirmatory factor analysis based on the five-components, yielded good fit statistics (CFI = 0.93).

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the Persian version of the QoR-40 was both conceptually and linguistically equivalent to the original English QoR-40. This study revealed that the Persian version of the QoR-40 is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the recovery quality in Iranian patients after surgery.

  • 22211.
    Yako, Lenart
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Nakouri, Sonia
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    ”Högläsning i undervisningen är oerhört bra”: En studie om hur fyra svensklärare i årskurs 2 respektive 5 använder sig av högläsning i praktiken.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past ten years, surveys such as PISA and PIRLS have revealed that Swedish pupils’ reading skills have deteriorated. Research indicates that reading aloud is an element that has many advantages and a good influence on students’ reading comprehension. The purpose of this study is to examine how four teachers in the subject Swedish use reading aloud in practice. The study’s questions are as follows:

    • Do teachers use reading aloud in order to improve students’ reading comprehension, and if so, how?
    • Are there any differences and/or similarities between the reading aloud that occur in year 2 and 5?

    The study has been conducted through qualitative research interviews. The data has been analyzed with the help of the Thematic Analysis and Strategy Framework method. The method is based on the search for different themes. This study also relates to the socio-cultural theory with a focus on language development.

    The results have shown that all the informants use reading aloud in order to improve students’ reading comprehension. The informants mention that it is the discussions about the text that strengthen their reading comprehension.

  • 22212.
    Yalamanchili, Phani
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    METHODS FOR MATCHING ONTOLOGY BASED EXPERT PROFILES2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Expert Finder is an application for ontology to find the best possible expert from the user profiles in the ontology for the search field entered which is either a course, area of research or even a project related to a research field. Retrieving instances from ontology of an expert finder is considered as a problem and in this thesis the different possible ways to overcome this problem are analysed and evaluated. The instances in the ontology are retrieved and ranked theoretically to provide the most qualified expert for the query, which will be done by using various available methods to retrieve the instances and rank them. The results and the procedures used for finding the expert are compared with each other to analyse their advantages and disadvantages. Although there are various possible ways using distributed computing and using databases, it was the aim to work only on ontology rather than integrating various available methods which generally complicates the task. Distance mapping and Agglomerative hierarchical clustering are two methods which are analysed in depth and tailored to the situation to provide the required result from the expert finder ontology on which these methods are implemented theoretically. Depending on the situation of the problem, some of these methods are used partially and tailored according to the suitability to the problem that is being analysed.

  • 22213.
    Yam, Chun-Wai
    et al.
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
    Griffiths, Mark D
    International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.
    Yau, Wai-Yan
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Lo, Cheuk-Long Matthew
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Ng, Jennifer M T
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Leung, Hildie
    Department of Applied Social Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
    Psychometric Testing of Three Chinese Online-Related Addictive Behavior Instruments among Hong Kong University Students.2018In: Psychiatric quarterly, ISSN 0033-2720, E-ISSN 1573-6709, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that there is a lack of instruments assessing internet-related addictions among Chinese population, this study aimed to validate the Chinese version of the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scales- Short Form (IGDS-SF9), Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), and Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (SABAS) among Hong Kong university students. Participants aged between 17 and 30 years participated in the present study (n = 307; 32.4% males; mean [SD] age = 21.64 [8.11]). All the participants completed the IGDS-SF9, BSMAS, SABAS, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to examine the factorial structures and the unidimensionality for IGDS-SF9, BSMAS, and SABAS. CFAs demonstrated that the three scales were all unidimensional with satisfactory fit indices: comparative fit index = 0.969 to 0.992. In addition, the IGDS-SF9 and BSMAS were slightly modified based on the modification index in CFA. The Chinese IGDS-SF9, BSMAS, and SABAS are valid instruments to assess the addiction levels of internet-related activities for Hong Kong university students.

  • 22214.
    Yan, Hairong
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Xu, Youzhi
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Experimental e-Health Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks2009In: Proceedings - 2009 WRI International Conference on Communications and Mobile Computing, CMC 2009, Jan.6-8, Kunming, China, IEEE , 2009, p. 563-567Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22215.
    Yan, Hairong
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Xu, Youzhi
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Nohre, Ragnar
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    An experimental study on home-wireless passive positioning2008In: Proceedings of  the 2nd International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications (Sensorcomm), August 25-31, 2008, Cap Esterel, France, IEEE , 2008, p. 223-228Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22216.
    Yanev, Pavel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Tsenkov, Petar
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The need to foster self-efficacy among students: A multidimensional picture of Jönköping International Business School society2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship is defined as the process of developing, organizing, and managing a new business venture. It is considered as a process of great importance because it improves economic growth, prosperity, innovation and employment. Researchers have identified that different factors, such as individual's background, personal attributes, traits and beliefs, influence the intentions of entrepreneurs to launch a new start up. However, one specific element of personal attributes is seen as a key determinant of developing entrepreneurial intentions - self-efficacy. The purpose of this work is to determine how the individual's level of self-efficacy is influenced by cultural dimensions. For this purpose, Hofstede's model consisting of five cultural dimensions was used. In order to investigate the problem, an explorative approach with a quantitative strategy was conducted as a survey involving 154 students from Jönköping International Business School in Jönköping, Sweden. The results revealed that only one of the cultural dimensions (Long-term Orientation) has a direct effect on self-efficacy. The other four do not have significant correlation with the self-efficacy levels of students. Therefore, recommendations for further research on this topic are presented.

  • 22217.
    Yang, Haoyuan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Zhang, Qian
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    How Effective is the Kyoto Protocol in Impelling Emission Reduction2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Kyoto Protocol is one of the most important international climate change treaties aimed at fighting global warming. On January 1st 2005, the protocol was enforced with its first commitment period 2008-2012. However, the effectiveness of reducing CO2 emission has long been debated. The purpose of this thesis is to empirically as-sess the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on carbon dioxide reduction across countries, whether the protocol led significant difference after entering force in 2005. The data used in this thesis cover 37 Annex B countries and 148 non-annex B countries from 1990 to 2007. The models are constructed on the basis of the various contributing fac-tors to CO2 emissions and the Environmental Kuznets Curve model. The main find-ing is contrary against the result expected. The insignificant dummy variable cannot indicate that there is a “structural break” of CO2 emissions reduction after the Kyoto Protocol was implemented. The conclusion is that political agreements such as Kyoto Protocol cannot show critical effects on reducing carbon dioxide. The underlying main driving factors of CO2 emission are energy use, electricity from coal source, fossil fuel burning, in other words, industrialization. And the technology develop-ments cannot keep in pace with finding a new energy source and effectively control-ling CO2 emissions in the short run.

  • 22218.
    Yang, Jie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Le Thi Ngoc, Mai
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Power of Social Media to Our Mind and Body:: Study of social media’s effect on young female’s perception regarding fitness in Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influences of social media in customer perception toward fitness. The main focus of this study are young females living in Sweden, age from 20 to 25 years old, with the purpose of gaining knowledge of social media’s role in their perception toward fitness & the phenomenon behind it.

     

    The study can be a guideline for the fitness industry to gain customer insights in terms of what attitudes they hold and which platform has the most impact on social media users toward fitness-related contents.

     

    The data for this study were collected from 17 semi- structured interviews in Jonkoping, Sweden. Qualitative research method was adopted in an exploratory nature with the aim of exploring the holistic picture of the topic. Content analysis with human coding was selected to acquire data for further explanations and formulation of recommended implications.

     

    The result of this research shows the significant role of social media toward the perception of ideal body image. It also has been aided as a source of inspiration with regard of body transformation progress and a valuable tool for the suggestion of certain exercise & healthy eating. It must be noted that further research is suggested, as the finding is firmly placed on convenience sampling with specific demographic that can lead to certain traits on the use of social media sites.

  • 22219.
    Yang, Lei
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Sobolevski, Vojciech
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Trade Openness and Economic Growth: Evidence from Asia and Latin America2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on how trade openness influences the average annual growth rates of developing countries in Latin America and Asia. We find that there is a positive correlation between trade openness and economic growth and this indicates the positive impact that can be made by governments through efforts to stimulate growth with trade. We construct a simple regression model to highlight the positive association between trade openness and economic growth and add several control variables such as initial GDP per capita and gross domestic investment. We use a sample of 33 developing countries in Asia and Latin America to test the relationships. Our results confirm a positive relationship between trade openness and growth, as well as a negative correlation between initial GDP per capita and economic growth which means that poorer countries grow faster. We also find a positive correlation between the level of investment and growth.

    In addition to testing the relationship between trade openness and rate of growth generally, we also conduct a regression to examine if there is a significant difference in this effect between Asia and Latin America. We introduce regional dummy variables and interaction terms into the new regression and find that the impacts of trade on growth are not significantly different between these two regions. 

  • 22220.
    Yang, Tuo
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management.
    Chen, Bo
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management.
    Supply chain coordination: A case study of supply chain coordination in practice among one TPL provider and two customers2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The last decade of the twentieth century witnessed radical changes for a variety of organizations especially in the business field. SCM has become the focus of attention from the business world. As the global competition intensifies, many compa-nies pursue solutions to increase their competitive advantages via SCM approaches. However, studies often overlook the customer perspective in supply chain coordination context. As an attempt to bridge the gap, the research is primarily focused on how the coordination works in practice and how customers evaluate the coordination.Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the supply chain coordination be-tween customers and TPL providers, how the customers coordinate with TPL provider and how to evaluate the coordination.Method: This research applies a qualitative approach with holistic case study as re-search strategy. Primary data collection is done via semi-structured interviews with one TPL provider and two of its customers. Secondary data collection is conducted through documentation.Conclusion: In this research, customer A requires an integrated solution from the TPL provider while customer B wants a low cost and efficient transportation service. Cus-tomer A carries out coordination activities including collaborative construction and management of central warehouses, IT setups and utilizations, homologous transporta-tion, inventory management and regular meetings. Meanwhile customer B coordinates with the TPL provider via inbound logistics, outbound logistics, return solution and regular meeting. The common evaluation criteria contain performance, quality and ser-vice. In customer A’s case information technology is also a criterion when evaluating coordination with the TPL provider.

  • 22221.
    Yang, Tuo
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Jiang, Xuan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Improving Business Process Modeling Quality: Identifying Business Process Modeling improvement factors for ERP implemen-tation through Guidelines of Modeling2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: with the expanded application of ERP system, business process model-ing, as an essential part of the ERP system implementation, has already attracted in-creasingly attention from the organizations. However, even though with the great signif-icance, there is no specific guideline to indicate the key factors of a business process modeling within the ERP system implementation context, especially from the supplier, customer and consultancy point of view. Accordingly, the authors are interested in the following two research questions:1. What are the factors that ERP customer. Supplier and consultancy focused on when they do business process modeling for an ERP implementation?2. How these factors are ranked and viewed by ERP customers, suppliers and con-sultants?Purpose: This study is an exploratory study aiming at identifying improvement factors for business process modeling within the context of ERP system implementation. addi-tionally, the authors seek to identify the diverse attitudes from the parties involved in the process of ERP implantation, that are supplier, customer and consultancy, towards the significance level of the improvement factors.Method: This research has adopted an inductive approach due to the nature of its re-search questions. Besides, data has been collected through six interviews in in total. And each supplier, consultancy, customer party has been conducted two interviews respec-tively. The six interview companies are with different cultural background. Additionally, secondary data from books, magazines are obtained through documentation as well.Conclusion: The thesis main results show that there are five improvement factors con-cerning the business process modeling within ERP system implementation, involving correctness, clarity, resource efficiency, cultural specification and relevance. Based upon the suppliers, consultancies and customers points of view, correctness, clarity and cul-tural specification can be categorized into basic factors and resource efficiency, rele-vance are grouped as optional factors. Furthermore, from the customers perspective, correctness and clarity ranks at the top two places among those five factors, while con-sultants focus on correctness and resource efficiency first. Besides, suppliers regard cor-rectness as the most fundamental improvement factors for business process modeling.

  • 22222.
    Yaoming, Chen
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    A smart gateway design for WSN health care system2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in health care system has yielded a tremendous effort in recent years. However, in most of these researches tasks like sensor data processing, health states decision making and emergency messages sending are done by a remote server. Numbers of patient with large scale of sensor data consume a lot of communication resource, bring a burden to the remote server and delay the decision time and notification time. In this paper, we present a prototype of a smart gateway that we have implemented. This gateway is an interconnection and services management platform especially for WSN health care systems at home environments, by building a bridge between WSN and public communication networks, compatible with an on-board data decision system (DDS) and a lightweight database, which enable to make the patient’s health states decision in the gateway in order to get faster response time to the emergencies. We have also designed the communication protocols between WSN, gateway and remote servers. Additionally Ethernet, Wi-Fi and GSM/GPRS communication module are integrated into the smart gateway in order to report and notify information to care-givers.  We have conducted experiments on the proposed smart gateway by performing it together with a wireless home e-health care sensor network. The results show that it is reliable and has low latency and low power consumption.

  • 22223.
    YARGOVAN, SERTAN
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Transformation of administration into e-government: From municipality to e-municipality in İstanbul Metropolitan Municipality in Turkey2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, citizens are government-related jobs, more quickly and are being carried out in a systematic way of e-government, began to implement a rebuke to all the countries of the world. According to the level of development of countries, this transition moving forward fast or slow.

    To create the infrastructure of e-government, huge investments need to be made financially. For this reason, e-government applications in each country with the same speed and the same advanced infrastructure take place.

    E-government, E-municipality in itself e-finance and so on divided into subtypes. In this species, e-municipalities have an important place. Municipalities with the basic element of urban life, is extremely important to provide services in the form of e-government. Transparency is fundamental to increasing confidence in the local government and citizen-municipal applications, and the city moving forward on more regular jobs.

    Turkey is a country that has the category of developing countries. The transition to e-government applications is still in the country, are carried out for E-municipal applications. Country, city divided into units called local government services is realized. Municipalities and cities with population over a certain number of other provinces administered in the form of the Municipality. Municipalities depend on the central government.

    Istanbul is the most populous province in Turkey.  For this reason, many municipalities in the country to the other applications that are running in this city are a pioneer. E-municipality application is one of the applications of this type. Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, e-municipal applications continues to transition. It has continued to work on infrastructure and related units. A portion of the system works. E- Municipalities applications Istanbul's city hall, the municipal authorities, as well as their approach citizens wary of e-municipality system. However, many began to carry out transactions in the virtual environment.

  • 22224.
    Yañez, David
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Portilla, Iñigo
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Claw, Christopher
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Marketing Investment Effectiveness of Small Clothing Firms in Sweden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is proven difficult to provide evidence for the financial benefit of marketing operations within firms and marketing is the last organizational function to achieve an adopted quantitative method to track and measure its effectiveness. As a result, demands for marketing to provide accountability for its inputs toward firm performance have increased over the past decade and there are an increasing amount of methods looking to measure its contributions.

     

    Problem: Small businesses need to invest financial resources in marketing in order to increase their market share and sales. However, marketing’s value to the firm as an organizational function often goes undervalued. Additionally, small businesses commonly lack the marketing experience and knowledge required in order to make more profitable marketing investment decisions.

     

    Purpose: The purpose of the thesis is to research how much marketing investment influences the profit/sales effectiveness of small business within the clothing sector in Sweden.

     

    Method: The study was conducted using a quantitative research method, through the analysis of 23 small businesses in clothes retailing industry located in Sweden. The data was collected through the firms’ annual reports and telephone surveys with firm managers. This information was processed using a relevant marketing effectiveness model in combination with regression and correlation analyses. Empirical findings were analyzed using theories relevant to pursuing the purpose.

     

    Conclusion: Based on the findings the study concludes that there is evidence for a positive relationship between a firm's marketing investments and sales, as well as between the effectiveness of its marketing activities and it’s incremental revenue. This provides evidence for marketing investments contributing to the economic effectiveness of the firm and that the firms marketing effectiveness contributes to overall financial growth

  • 22225.
    Yedeg, Esubalewe Lakie
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå University.
    Hansbo, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Product Development. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Product Development - Simulation and Optimization.
    Larson, Mats G.
    Umeå University.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå University.
    A Nitsche-type method for Helmholtz equation with an embedded acoustically permeable interface2016In: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, ISSN 0045-7825, E-ISSN 1879-2138, Vol. 304, p. 479-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a new finite element method for Helmholtz equation in the situation where an acoustically permeable interface is embedded in the computational domain. A variant of Nitsche’s method, different from the standard one, weakly enforces the impedance conditions for transmission through the interface. As opposed to a standard finite-element discretization of the problem, our method seamlessly handles a complex-valued impedance function Z that is allowed to vanish. In the case of a vanishing impedance, the proposed method reduces to the classic Nitsche method to weakly enforce continuity over the interface. We show stability of the method, in terms of a discrete Gårding inequality, for a quite general class of surface impedance functions, provided that possible surface waves are sufficiently resolved by the mesh. Moreover, we prove an a priori error estimate under the assumption that the absolute value of the impedance is bounded away from zero almost everywhere. Numerical experiments illustrate the performance of the method for a number of test cases in 2D and 3D with different interface conditions.

  • 22226.
    Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed
    et al.
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Qazvin University of Medical Sciences.
    Tadakamadala, Jyothi
    Griffith University.
    Kumar, Santhosh
    Griffith University.
    Mosavi, Seyed Hamzeh
    Iran University of Medical Sciences.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Bottomley, Andrew
    European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer.
    Aaronson, Neil K.
    The Netherlands Cancer Institute.
    Oral-health-related quality of life in patients with cancer: Cultural adaptation and the psychometric testing of the Persian version of EORTC QOQ-OH172015In: Supportive Care in Cancer, ISSN 0941-4355, E-ISSN 1433-7339, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1215-1224Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22227.
    Yeldham, Casey
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    EU-stadgans tillämplighet på skattetillägg och skattebrott: En fråga om rättssäkerhet?2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this thesis is to clarify the EU Charter’s applicability on the Swedish double parallel system regarding tax crime and tax surcharge, from a Swedish viewpoint, with consideration for the individual’s requirement for legal certainty. The thesis is based on current law as of the 1st of December 2011, however due account is taken to the new law proposal for the Swedish Tax Assessment/Payment Act, which is expected to be in force on the 1st of January 2012. Also, the thesis clarifies the EU Charter’s supremacy over national law. Furthermore, it is shown that the Swedish Supreme Court’s (HD) requirement for “clear support” in the European Convention to bypass national Swedish law cannot be upheld in respect to the EU Charter, as this would conflict with the requirement for a set legal hierarchy to fulfill the individual’s adequate legal certainty. The Swedish Supreme Court has found that the EU Charter can not be applied to the Swedish double punishment system, regardless of concrete facts in the case being related to EU-law. However, the condition of equal treatment with regards to legal certainty does not result in an absolute requirement for the EU Charter’s applicability on the Swedish system, as there is no evidence that the Swedish Supreme Court will change its assessment of the matter at hand. Nevertheless, it is argued that there is ample reason to believe that the Court of Justice would make a different assessment of the issue, considering the Court’s previous statements with respect to the member states responsibility to regard EU Law even within the field of direct taxation. Therefore, the thesis concludes that although there can be no absolute requirement to apply the EU Charter to the Swedish system, with regards to legal certainty, the EU Charter should nonetheless be applicable.

  • 22228.
    Yemane, Berhane
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Utveckling av sökmotor med ranksystem2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a collaboration with the company Sverige-Norge. Their business concept is to connect Swedish manpower to Norwegian employers. The emphasis of this work is to enhance the existing system they use to find Swedish employees to Norwegian employers. The old system was based on manually selecting candidates for possible job-openings. This was done by handpicking the candidates from the database. However this was not efficient but time-consuming and thereby expensive.

    The solution to prevent inefficiency was to create a search-engine. A search-engine would allow employers to find their suitable candidates, without the intervenience of the administration. In order to give an accurate search result, a grading system was requested for each candidate. A grading system would give the employer the benefit to see how well each candidate is suitable for the job-offering. The result was a fully functional search engine with a grading system based on experiences of the candidates.

     

    The paper has the following structure order:

     

    • Introduction
    • Theoretical background
    • Implementation
    • Result
    • Discussion and Conclusion
    • Appendix
    • References

    This is a thesis paper held in Technical University of Jönköping, Sweden. The major of which the paper is written in is Communication and Information Technology.

     

    Key words

    ASP

    ASP.NET

    C#

    Database engineering

    System development

  • 22229.
    Yi, Gaizhen
    et al.
    School of Computer and Engineering,Xi'an Technological University.
    Xu, Youzhi
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Robust Embedded Systems.
    Yan, Hairong
    School of Computer and Engineering,Xi'an Technological University.
    Research on real-time communication in sensor networks2008In: Proceedings of IEEE ICCA 2007, Guangzhou, China, May 30- June 1, 2008, p. 2544-2547Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22230.
    Yildiz, Cagri
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Investment Performance of the World Automotive Industry2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper examines the investment performance of the world automotive industry using a sample of 21 original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) based in three major continents, North America, Europe and Asia between the years 1999 and 2004. The empirical findings suggest that there exists persistent overinvestment not only in the global level but also in the major automotive production regions analyzed. Proving that none of the 3 regions gain returns on investment at least as large as their costs of capital, shareholder wealth is not maximized in the world automotive industry. Europe, among these regions, proves to gain the highest return on investment of its cost of capital. The empirical results also show that the return on investment financed by debt is high around the world and close to 100% of its cost of capital.

  • 22231.
    Yirmidokuz, Pınar
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    The Uniqueness of the Atelirista2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Documentation plays an important role in the organization of Swedish preschool provision. The collection and interpretation of documentation is typically expected to be conducted by preschool teachers. In the Reggio Emilia-inspired preschools, however, documentation which is termed as pedagogical documentation, is produced both by preschool teachers and atelieristas. Working with an atelierista for a project while creating the pedagogical documentation is an important component to build knowledge, which will provide an artistic and aesthetic perspective to the preschool teacher and the children. The aim of this study is to explore the unique contribution of the atelierista to pedagogical documentation practices in the Reggio Emilia-inspired Swedish preschools. In particular, this study focused on how and why collaborative work between the atelierista and the preschool teacher influences the pedagogical documentation. The data is gathered trought on semi-structured interviews with atelieristas and preschool teachers in two Reggio Emilia-inspired preschools in Sweden. The major question addressed is: What are the differences and similarities between the atelierista and the preschool teacher while producing the pedagogical documentation in the Reggio Emilia-inspired Swedish preschools? The findings showed that during the interviews the themes of the similarities are reported by the participants as, 1) ‘being equally responsible’ and 2) ‘working collaboratively’ for the purpose of making the learning process visible and the themes of the diffferences are reported as, 1) ‘utilizing the background differences’. Moreover, the findings reveal the importance of the atelierista’s role during the pedagogical documentation process through equally responsible collaborative work with the preschool teacher in a mutually trusting learning environment.

  • 22232.
    Ylvén, Regina
    et al.
    Department of Social Sciences, Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Björck-Åkesson, Eva
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Literature review of positive functioning in families with children with a disability2006In: Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, ISSN 1741-1122, E-ISSN 1741-1130, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 253-270Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22233.
    Ylvén, Regina
    et al.
    School of Welfare and Health, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Collaborative problem solving in the context of early childhood intervention – the link between problems and goals2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 221-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish Child and Youth Habilitation Services (C-YHS) for children with disabilities and their families' build on regular planning meetings involving families and professionals, and appointments and interventions implemented between meetings. This study explores the content of issues discussed at planning meetings, and the relation between content and activities implemented in everyday interventions. Longitudinal data from five families and their C-YHS-teams were used. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. The results illustrate a process with a high degree of correspondence between families' concerns, experienced problems, the formal decisions and the activities they generated. Concerns were focused on the future, and related actions focused on supporting adults in the environment, mostly the parents, thus indirectly relating to the child. Problems were focused on the current situation, and to a larger extent concerned actions directly related to the child. Although a family-centred service, interventions focused on the proximal environment, may be underreported.

  • 22234. Ylvén, Regina
    et al.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Identifying and Building on Family Strength: A Thematic Analysis2009In: Infants and young children, ISSN 0896-3746, E-ISSN 1550-5081, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 253-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In family-centered intervention, one important issue is to support families' different ways to manage stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether professionals encourage positive coping strategies in families of children with disabilities. Data (videotaped planning meetings and interviews) from 5 families enrolled in intervention programs were used. The data were analyzed deductively by applying theoretical concepts of 4 types of positive coping. Goal-directed problem-focused coping was the most frequently used type of coping, together with spiritual beliefs and practices. Professional encouragement of families' own strategy to solve problems occurring in everyday life must focus not only on explicit problem solving but also on the use of supplemental coping types.

  • 22235.
    Ylvén, Regina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Welfare and Health.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Persson, Carina
    Karolinska Inst, Div Nursing, Dept Neurobiol, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Problem solving in relation to resources in everyday life in families of children with disabilities: a pilot study2012In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 102-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem solving is recognized as a skill, helping families of children with disabilities to manage problems in everyday life. Family problem-solving skills may therefore be seen as an important outcome of a child and youth habilitation service. The aim of this pilot feasibility study was to examine the design of a future web-based questionnaire study focusing on problem-solving patterns in relation to resources in families of children with disabilities. The descriptive statistical analyses built on data from 13 families and findings showed an overall satisfactory score distribution for three of the included instruments, whereas two instruments showed floor effects in one third of the items. Findings indicated design problems with data collection related to adapting questionnaires to a web-based survey format and to problems with the stop function that was added. Implementing the main study using web-based surveys needs critical considerations according to the choice of the web tool and the recruitment process.

  • 22236.
    Yngfors, Jonathan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Sandkvist, Fredrik
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Från skärm till perception: En studie om påverkan. Relationen mellan nyhetsvåld och oro bland studenter på Jönköping University.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker relationen mellan konsumtion av nyheter och oro för våldsbrott i Jönköping. Vi utgår från kultivationsteorin som undersöker de långsiktiga effekterna av tv-tittande och som påstår att ju mer tid människor tittar på tv ju mer tenderar dessa att tro på den realitet som porträtteras i tv. Som metod använder vi oss av en enkät som vi distribuerat till studenter på två förstaårsprogram inom varje fackhögskola. Totalt fick cirka 400 studenter tillgång till enkäten. Svarsfrekvensen var låg, endast 127 personer svarade, flest var kvinnor.

    Vårt resultat visar inget samband mellan nyhetskonsumtion och oro/rädsla för våldsbrott. Den data vi inhämtade var inte signifikant så vi kan inte dra några generella slutsatser. Det vi såg bland de som svarade på undersökningen var att kvinnor är mer oroliga för våldsbrott än män. 

  • 22237.
    Yngvesson, Lisa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    The impact of scale when using models of daylight analysis2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines the issue of scale regarding models when analyzing daylight, which scale is the most representative of a real space. There have been previous studies done regarding scale model and daylight, however, they do not look at how the scale itself can affect the experience of daylight. The use of the architects’ already built scale model can be seen as valuable for light designers when evaluations and visualizing daylight in a real space. However, the use of the architect's scale model depends on its scale, hence why this study is being conducted. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects the scale has on daylight visualization with scale models.

    This study began with conducting a small literature study regarding daylight, scale models, visual perception and practical consideration when using scale models. The method was designed thereafter. By choosing a real room to base the scale models on, three scales were chosen, 1:50, 1:20 and 1:10. Thereafter the questionnaire was designed by using the analyzing method PERCIFAL as a base.

    The result of the study showed the subject's answers regarding; light level, shadows, light distribution and specular reflections. As well as a question regarding which scale model the found most representative of the real room and why. The compiled data showed which scale model was the most representative of the real room. The results show a difference between the different scale models and a correlation to the real room is seen. In conclusion, the scale model can be used to estimate and visualize the daylight within a space. However, the scale must be regarded and looked at so the chosen scale can represent the real space, which allows for an easy view of the model.

  • 22238.
    Yonan, Mervat
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, School age educare.
    Inkludering av nyanlända elever i fritidshem2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Mervat Hikmat Yonan

    Inkludering av nyanlända elever i fritidshem

    Inclusion of newly arrived pupils in leisure-centers

    Antal sidor: 33

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur fritidslärare arbetar med att inkludera nyanlända elever i fritidshem. Undersökningen har utförts utifrån följande frågor:

    - Vilka risker för exkludering förekommer i fritidshemsarbetet med nyanlända elever?

    - Hur beskriver fritidslärarna sitt arbete med att inkludera nyanlända elever i fritidshemmets verksamhet?

    - Vilka faktorer tar man med i planering och målsättning?

    Studien bygger på en kvalitativ forskningsmetod via en fokusgruppsdiskussion där fyra utbildade fritidslärare har varit deltagande. Analysen har gjorts utifrån ett sociokulturellt perspektiv då inkludering sker i ett socialt sammanhang. Resultaten visar att eleverna inkluderas via metoder med fokus på socialt samspel och språk. Via spel och lekar som uppmuntrar till språkanvändning och interaktion med lärare och andra elever inkluderas den nyanlända eleven i gemenskapen. Därtill visar resultaten även på brister avseende lärarnas kompetens och kunskap kring nyanlända elever, samverkan med vårdnadshavare och användningen av resurser.

  • 22239.
    Yonan, Rita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Att leva normalt i en annorlunda situation. Närståendes upplevelse av palliativ vård: En litteraturöversikt.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Between 70 000 and 75 000 are estimated to need palliative care of more than 90, 000 deceased persons annually. Palliative care is based on relieving the suffering and other physical, psychological and spiritual problems arising from life-threatening illness. The related persons constitute a major and important part of palliative care. At the end of life's care, the goal is to contribute to well-being and dignity and to support the relatives.

    Aim: The aim was to describe relatives’ experiences when a family member is treated in palliative care.

     

    Method: A literature review was conducted by 14 scientific qualitative articles that were analyzed and compiled.

    Main results: The result of this literature review shows that more relatives have increased the need for support and assistance in the palliative phase. Five main themes are presented based on the experiences of their close relatives, feeling involved, feeling support, feeling helplessness and powerlessness, feeling confidence and secure and to feel hope.

    Conclusions: The related people express the increased need for support and information in the palliative process. As well as being a healthcare professional, it is important to be attentive to the needs and feelings of the close relatives because they feel that it is set aside. The palliative care is experienced as a changing life situation that is demanding and difficult to come from as close relatives. In order to create a better experience of the care, the nurse has an important role by responding and offer support, the nurse contributes to positive experiences as it is a complex situation for the relatives.

  • 22240.
    Yonan, Shilan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Shikro, Sarah
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Utvärdering av frysta färdigsnittade kontroller för immunofärgning: I jämförelse med nytagna snittade kontroller2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    På laboratoriet för Klinisk Patologi i Länssjukhuset Ryhov i Jönköping, snittas paraffinbäddade vävnader som kontroller i en liten mängd med jämna mellanrum för att täcka behovet vid analys av immunohistokemiska färgningar. Vid vissa perioder är behovet av kontroller stort. Detta gör att arbetet kräver mer tid för att hinna snitta alla kontroller som behövs. För att möjliggöra ett smidigt flöde och tidsbesparing skulle ett nytt sätt testas genom att förvara vävnadssnitten för kontrollerna i frysen. Därför syftet med denna studie var att kontrollera om antigenens kvalitet och stabilitet skulle påverkas efter infrysning av kontrollvävnadssnitten i -18 °C under olika tidsperioder (36, 22, 9 och 2 veckor). Detta gjordes genom att utvärdera frysta vävnadssnitt för immunohistokemisk färgning i jämförelse med nytagna vävnadssnitt. Vävnadssnitt som används blev frysta vid fyra olika tidsperioder. Totalt 47 frysta vävnadssnitt färgades med 16 olika antikroppar. Samtliga 47 vävnadssnitten som inkuberades med respektive antikropp för immunohistokemisk färgning godkändes.

    Resultat från denna studie konstaterade att frysta vävnadssnitt kunde bevara stabilitet hos antigen under lång tid. Färgintensitet presenterades som svag hos cirka 40 % av vävnadssnitten som förvarades frysta under ungefär 22 veckor. Denna studie kom även fram till att det fanns ett samband mellan den tiden som vävnadssnitten förvarades i frysen och antigen stabilitet i vävnadssnitten som behövdes för en fullständig immunofärgning.

  • 22241.
    Youcefi, Fares
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Lundgren, Kristina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Social Incubators or Social Work?: Exploring Social Incubators in Mexico2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Alongside the evolution of incubators, research on the subject has also progressed and today constitutes an extensive field of research. However, we argue that academia has too narrowly focused on business incubators, and thus neglected other types of incubators. As such, the purpose of this study was to provide a holistic understanding of what social incubators are, their process and their impact. Through the use semi-structured interviews, observations and textual data from a single case study – Mexico University – with three sub-units of analysis, the findings we reached were threefold.

    First, social incubators are physical spaces for social interaction and development in which socially vulnerable individuals, through the use of cross-sectoral partnerships and community adapted development services, are empowered to become agents of their own social transformation. Second, in the social incubation process, incubatees are first selected after which the social incubators probe to understand their needs. Subsequently, incubatees are given general services and are enrolled in social development programs that are tailored in accordance to those needs. After graduating, incubatees are anew offered different services, once again, based on probing and tailoring after-services according to their needs. Third, having completed this process, our initial understanding of social incubator impact is that their practices have a psychological and professional impact on incubatees, which then impact the communities in which they live. 

  • 22242.
    Youkhana, Sana
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Code-switching in the foreign language classroom2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is a frequently observed phenomenon that language learners often turn to their native language in the foreign language classroom, i.e. they code-switch, but why is it so? In order to investigate this, this study had two aims; the first aim was about trying to see if the frequency of code-switching differed depending on the questions’ levels of difficulty. This study was conducted on three different upper-secondary schools and involved 24 pupils. The pupils’ age varied from 16 to 19. The hypotheses were that pupils code-switch less when answering basic level questions and more when answering advanced level questions. Small groups were observed and they read a text and answered eight questions. The results showed that the pupils did code-switch more on the advanced level questions and less on the basic level questions. They code-switched 15 times on the basic level-questions and 21 times on the advanced level-questions. However, this is not a big difference since there were only six instances that differed between them. The second aim was about trying to see if one could categorize code-switching. It was based on Sert’s (2005) three categories; Equivalence, Reiteration and Floor-holding and four other categories invented by the researcher of this study; Student-student code-switching, Student-researcher code-switching, Comfort code-switching and Sorry code-switching, thus, seven categories in total. The results showed that the pupils did code-switch differently and that Sert’s categories did exist, but they were not enough that is why the researcher added the four other categories.

  • 22243.
    Yousaf, Imran
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    MAC SCHEDULING IN INDUSTRIAL WIRELESS CELL-BASED MESH SENSOR NETWORKS2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Undergoing developments for the adaptation of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in automation industry is creating several research questions. The usage of wireless technologies in industrial environments requires real-time reliability and security. Many standards for WSNs and Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) have been developed. The list includes WirelessHART [4], ISA100.11a [10], Zigbee [16], IEEE 802.15.4, and IEEE 802.15.4a etc.Recently a new network topology “Cell-Based Mesh Networks” [12] has been developed in an effort to make IWSNs feasible for large scale deployments in process automation industries. Cell-Based Mesh Network topology inherits the qualities of star-mesh topology and mesh topology, and also offers many additional features.Reliability of an IWSN significantly depends on the real-time scheduling of the network. During this thesis work a scheduling mechanism has been developed by exploiting the features of a Cell-based Mesh Network. The idea of superframes’ further partitioning into time-cells of 100ms duration is presented, these 100ms time-cells guarantees interlocking data transmission [9] within 100ms. The closed loop control data [9] transmission is guaranteed by assigning dedicated time-slots. The performance evaluation of the presented scheduling mechanism is done by considering two case studies i.e. oil-industry and paper & pulp industry.

  • 22244.
    Yousef, Saemon
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Stillemark, Erik
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Vuxna personers upplevelser av att leva med diabetes mellitus typ II2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Summary

    Background: Diabetes is a disease that is steadily increasing around the world and in Sweden it is seen as a national disease. The underlying cause of the disease is often related to lifestyle, this requires that the affected person necessarily need to make lifestyle changes.

     

    Aim: The aim of this literature review is to describe the adult people's experiences of living with type II diabetes.

    Method: A literature review has been made and 12 articles of qualitative inductive design was reviewed critically, analyzed and compiled.

     

    Result: The persons’ experiences are presented in three categories with associated subcategories. Fear, shame and frustration were some of the many unfavorable feelings that proved to occur at a diabetes diagnosis. Support from the environment gave power and motivation to self-care management, which in turn was a prerequisite for achieving control and thereby health.

    Conclusions: A diagnosis of diabetes create a life adjustment that is both emotionally and practically difficult to handle.

  • 22245.
    Yousef, Walid
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Lindberg, Jesper
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Fostering Creativity in New Product Development Teams: Exploring the Impact of Control Systems on Individual Creativity2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    New product development is crucial for companies to remain strong and competitive in the market. Many companies today have implemented systems for controlling and managing their new product development. These control systems can be structured in a formal way with clear steps and criteria throughout the projects or in a more open-ended way where the projects follow a fuzzy front-end approach. Decision making is an immense factor in the control systems and the execution varies depending on its structure. The purpose with this thesis is to investigate the impact of which the structure of formal control systems as decision making tools, has on the creativity of members in new product development teams. Also, to explore which types of leadership behaviors in managers that best structure the formal control system for it to foster individual creativity. To fulfil this purpose, studies on how individuals perceive their work environment and their ability to be a part of the processes have been done.

     

    This qualitative study was conducted by first building a theoretical framework which provided the research question, "How does the structure of formal control systems affect the creativity in individuals working in NPD teams?”. Data collection was done in a Swedish context using multiple case studies at various sized companies in diverse industries. Primarily through semi-structured interviews which then was followed up by secondary data. The collected data have been analysed by using a cross-case analysis where the identified themes developed an understanding that helped answer the research question. The findings provide value in the field with new insights in the management of innovation and new product development. 

  • 22246.
    Yousif, Lena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Krasniqi, Rafet
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Förutsättningar och hinder för asylsökandes språklärande och integration2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Problem From 2013 to April 2016, Sweden has received 309,669 asylum seekers. The great waves of asylum seekers who have come underscores the need to provide the optimal conditions to adapt and integrate into society. How fast and to what degree they manage to socialize and integrate into society is related to the basic conditions such as language training and civic orientation. This study examines the opportunities and obstacles for asylum seekers to learn Swedish and increase their chances to integrate.

    Method The study used a mixed method (qualitative and quantitative) approach. Through qualitative interviews with staff and volunteer teachers, has seven such activities as (ABF, NBV, Library, Adult education” Vuxenskola”, BILDA, Folkuniversitet and Red Cross) investigated. Through a questionnaire with structured questionnaires, examined 183 asylum seekers in terms of factors that affect the availability to the teaching and motivation for study and linguistic practices. The questionnaires were distributed in Jönköping, Nässjö, Bodafors, Viebäck, Vetlanda, Sävsjö, Värnamo, Vaggeryd, Tokeryd and Skillingaryd.

    Result

    Qualitative part: Those interviewed said that it is important to offer Swedish tuition for asylum seekers from the first day they come to Sweden. Teachers raise the issue that there are several shortcomings that make difficulties for businesses so that they can provide quality and adequate education.

    Quantitative part: The motivation for language learning is influenced by several factors: among them, the time since arrival the motivation for and participation in language teaching. Despite similarities in education and language skills between the sexes, still significant gender differences in the practical application and integration.

    Conclusion Asylum seekers strive to become a part of Swedish society. There are gender differences in the practical application and integration. The conditions for learning the Swedish language is not good enough, because lack of information or delay of information for offered Swedish teaching, too few offered teaching hours, location outside of society, economic barriers and the lack of childcare, which also affects the ability to learn Swedish and integrate into society.

  • 22247.
    Youssefi, Masoud
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Andersson, Patrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Hemsida för ett musikbolag: Website for a music company2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to answer the question:

    How do you create a media player that can stream music for a website?

    We started the work by searching the web and reading books about the subject

    and found several technologies to use to stream media files over the internet.

    We decided upon using the http protocol and created the media player itself in

    Macromedia Flash.

    The website is mostly developed with PHP, JavaScript and CSS templates and

    the websites design was created with Macromedia Dreamweaver and Adobe

    Photoshop. We also created an administrative system for the media player with

    PHP programming.

    The website contains a simple guestbook; the guestbook makes use of a

    database created with MySQL.

    Our work resulted in a webpage with a fully functional media player that

    streams audio files together with a corresponding administrative system for it.

  • 22248.
    Ysberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Pettersson, Jessica
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Socialt stöd, arbetsrelaterad stress samt fysisk aktivitets påverkan på individens välmående: En kvantitativ fallstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka vilken effekt socialt stöd, arbetsrelaterad stress samt fysisk aktivitet har på individens välmående. Dessutom undersöktes vilken påverkan kön och ålder har på individens välmående. Karasek´s krav-kontroll-stödmodell utgjorde grund vid analys av resultatet (Karasek & Theorell, 1990). Studien utfördes på en organisation och bygger på en enkätundersökning (n=124) där bekvämlighetsurval användes. Mätinstrumentet består av fem delar som utgörs av demografiska faktorer, QPS-Nordic (Dallner, Lindström, Elo, Skogstad et al., 2000), MHC-SF (Keyes, 2009), PSS-14 (Cohen, Karmarck & Mermelstein, 1983) samt fysisk aktivitet. Reliabilitetstestet Cronbach´s alpha utfördes på mätinstrumentet och uppvisade god reliabilitet. Den del av enkäten som berör QPS-Nordic uppvisar (α=0,771), MHC-SF (α=0,85), PSS-14 (α=0,868). Vidare beräknades resultatet med hjälp av stegvis regressionsanalys samt separata One-way ANOVA analyser. Resultatet demonstrerade att socialt stöd positivt predicerar individens välmående (p=0,000) och att arbetsrelaterad stress negativt predicerar individens välmående (p=0,000). Vidare visade resultatet att det inte fanns något samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och välmående. Beträffande demografiska faktorer påvisade resultatet att det inte fanns några signifikanta skillnader.

  • 22249.
    Yström, Annika
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    Financial reporting in entrepreneurial SMEs: in search of significant areas of financial reporting information2010Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study sets out from the contemporary discussion on the need of separate financial reporting standards for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and focuses on financial reporting information needs in the context of entrepreneurial and growth-oriented SMEs. The main purpose of the study is to sort out areas of financial reporting information that are likely to be of significance tomanagers of entrepreneurial SMEs in their provision of information to users. In order to fulfill this purpose data has been collected in several sequential steps where the results of each step have provided with significant input and structure to the carrying through of the following step/s. The first step consists of a literature study of previous empirical studies about accounting information in entrepreneurial contexts. In the second step, interviews have been conducted with accounting experts engaged in the current discussion on the development of accounting standards for SMEs. The third and fourth step consists ofdocument studies of comment letters to the Swedish standard setter Bokföringsnämnden’s (BFN) two drafts of the accounting standard Financial reporting in small companies (K2) and IASB’s Esposure draft of an IFRS for SMEs.

    According to the study results the continuous high demand for financial capitalis a great challenge to managers of entrepreneurial SMEs in their efforts to make their entities develop and grow. In this context, financial reports make up an important tool mainly for informing external capital providers, among which bankers are considered to hold a prominent position. The high demand for financial capital also makes risk capitalists and other external owners more important as financiers of entrepreneurial SMEs than what is the case in SMEs in general. Other important users of entrepreneurial SMEs’ financial reports are customers, suppliers, employees, potential acquirers and management.

    One of the areas of financial reporting information that have been sorted out in this study as likely to be of significance to managers of entrepreneurial SMEs in their provision of information to users is cash flow. Information on cash flow is likely to be significant in the entrepreneurial context not at least since the development of entrepreneurial activities puts a lot of pressure on managers to secure the continuous inflow of cash. The extent to which capital providers make use of cash flow information provides with further argument for its importance in the entrepreneurial context. Also, entrepreneurial entities tend to rely on intangible assets to a high extent, and these assets are in general not sufficiently reflected in the balance sheets. Cash flow provides in this respect straightforward and reliable complementary information that is important when assessing the prospects of the business.

    Besides information on cash flow, information on intangible assets is according to the results of this study likely to be significant in an entrepreneurial context. The possibility to capitalize expenses for intangible investments is crucial not at least to avoid the legal consequences of bankruptcy law, which may be critical to the very survival of development-intensive entrepreneurial SMEs. The importance of innovation as a central part of the entrepreneurial process also makes financial reporting information on intangibles highly relevant from an informational perspective.

    In addition, financial ratios in general, and financial ratios measuring various aspects of growth - i.e. growth ratios - in specific, have been sorted out as likely to be of specific importance to include in the financial reports of entrepreneurial SMEs. Besides disclosure of additional information on individual intangible assets, additional disclosure of information related to the collective earning capacity of ongoing projects - including the business concept of the reporting entity - has also been identified as significant in the entrepreneurial context.

  • 22250.
    Yu, Melissa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Öhlund, Karolina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Handel med utsläppsrätter: En analys av bristerna i redovisnings- och beskattningsreglerna2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    To reverse the increasing global warming the Kyoto Protocol established three market mechanisms intended to reduce the emissions of green house gases. The only currently active mechanism within the Protocol is the Emission Trading System.

    Since the EU is a member of the Kyoto Protocol, in order to achieve the goals agreed in the Protocol, the European Council approved a Directive (2003/87/EG) setting the framework for an EU-wide system of green house gas emission allowance trading. The Directive was implemented into Swedish legislation through lag (2004:1199) om handel med utsläppsrätter. One emission allowance grants the possessor a right to emit one tonne of car-bon dioxide into the atmosphere. The purpose of the system is to reduce the emissions of green house gas in a cost effective manner and thereby decrease global warming. The European Emission Trading System is divided into different commitment periods where the initial period runs from 2005 to 2007. This commitment period is also regarded as a learning-by-doing period for Member States. Subsequent periods will be of five years be-ginning in 2008, concurrently with the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol.

    As many as 95 % of the emission rights will be distributed as government grants to certain companies with high emission levels. Remaining emission rights will be immediately avail-able for trading on the open market. Through emission reducing procedures, companies can reduce their need of emission rights, enabling them the opportunity to trade with the remaining units. This aims to create an incentive for companies to reduce their need of emission rights, thus decreasing the number of tradable units.

    However, neither Swedish law nor the Directive contains any guidance regarding how the existing legal regulations should be applied to Emission Trading Units. This lack of guidance may result in a number of national and international uncertainties regarding the legal aspects of emissions trading.

    In our application of the model tax convention to international transactions with emission rights, we will show that it is irrelevant which article is chosen to include emission units. Therefore the final consequences of such transactions will be determined within the national law of the taxing state.

    Since community law legislation has been enacted by the EU legislative council, the ac-counting and value added tax rules that apply to emission rights trading have been partially harmonized.

    Due to the partial harmonization, many of the current issues regarding emission rights have been clarified on a national level in Sweden. Nevertheless, since the trading system is in-tended to extend also to non EU-members, the present level of harmonization still remains insufficient. In addition, the future activation of the remaining mechanisms, Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation, can also be expected to give rise to a number of new uncertainties. Hence, the legal consequences of Emission Rights Trading re-main in need of further investigation.

    In this master’s thesis we will address several questions regarding how the articles in the OECD Model Tax Convention should be applied to the international trade with Emission Rights. We will also analyze the value added tax rules that are applicable to such trade and how possession of Emission Trading Units will affect business accounting procedures.

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