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  • 201.
    Kumbhakar, S. C.
    et al.
    Department of Economics, State University of New York, Binghamton, NY 13902, United States.
    Heshmati, Almas
    United Nations University (UNU), World Inst. for Devmt. Econ. Res., Katajanokanlaituri 6B, Fin-00160 Helsinki, Finland.
    Hjalmarsson, L.
    Department of Economics, Göteborg University, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    How fast do banks adjust?: A dynamic model of labor-use with an application to Swedish banks2002In: Journal of Productivity Analysis, ISSN 0895-562X, E-ISSN 1573-0441, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 79-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with a dynamic adjustment process in which adjustment of a key variable input (labor) towards its desired level is modeled in a panel data context. The partial adjustment type model is extended to make the adjustment parameter both firm- and time-specific by specifying it as a function of firm- and time-specific variables. Desired level of labor use is represented by a labor requirement function, which is a function of outputs and other firm-specific variables. The catch-up factor is defined as the ratio of actual to desired level of employment. Productivity growth is then defined in terms of a shift in the desired level of labor use and the change in the catch-up factor. Swedish banking data is used as an application of the above model.

  • 202.
    Kumbhakar, S. C.
    et al.
    University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-1173, United States.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Stockholm School of Economics, SE-113 83 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hjalmarsson, L.
    University of Gothenburg, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Parametric approaches to productivity measurement: A comparison among alternative models1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 405-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with modeling total factor productivity (TFP) growth in a flexible manner using panel data. Several competing parametric models are used to explore whether there are any similarities in the estimates of TFP growth and technical change among these models. Using a primal approach, we decompose TFP growth into different components. The models are then used to measure productivity and technical change in the Swedish cement industry. In general, the results are found to be model dependent and often conflicting, although much less so for returns to scale and overall productivity growth.

  • 203.
    Kumbhakar, S. C.
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1172, United States.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Goteborg University, Vasagatan 1, S-411 80 Goteborg, Sweden.
    Hjalmarsson, L.
    Department of Economics, Goteborg University, Vasagatan 1, S-411 80 Goteborg, Sweden.
    Temporal patterns of technical efficiency: Results from competing models1997In: International Journal of Industrial Organization, ISSN 0167-7187, E-ISSN 1873-7986, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 597-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years several models have been proposed to estimate time-varying technical efficiency. These models differ to a great extent in specification and estimation. This paper undertakes a comparison between different specifications proposed in earlier research. The models are used to estimate the technical efficiency of 15 Colombian cement plants observed in the period 1968-1988. The efficiency scores and the time path of efficiency are found to vary substantially across models. ©1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  • 204.
    Lee, J. -D
    et al.
    Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    University of Kurdistan Hawler, Federal Region of Kurdistan, Kurdistan, Iraq.
    Introduction productivity, efficiency, and economic growth in the asia-pacific region2009In: Productivity, efficiency, and economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region / [ed] Jeong-Dong Lee, Almas Heshmati, Heidelberg: Physica Verlag, 2009, p. 1-10Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Productivity growth enables an individual firm to raise profit and market share at the micro level, and it helps a country to counteract inflation, create jobs, and to force the necessary industrial restructuring at the macro level. There is widespread consensus among academic researchers in the field of growth theory, policy makers, and/or businessmen that productivity growth is indispensable to sustainable economic growth. There is no one-size-fits-all solution to improve the productivity, since the ways and means critically depend upon the context and the condition under which firms operate. For example, the strategy for productivity growth in 2000s should be different from that in 1990s, since the parameters forming the economic condition are different and changing. Cross-sectionally, the strategy for automobile industry should not be the same as that for financial institutions, mainly because the production process and industry structure are all different from each other. Thus, the decision maker who is in charge of productivity growth should learn the characteristics of the context, and track down the relevant studies and successful policies that tackle similar sector and/or period. ©2009 Physica-Verlag Heidelberg.

  • 205.
    Lee, J. -D.
    et al.
    Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Heshmati, AlmasUniversity of Kurdistan Hawler, Federal Region of Kurdistan, Kurdistan, Iraq.
    Productivity, efficiency, and economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region2009Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 206.
    Lee, Jeong-Dong
    et al.
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    University of Kurdistan Hawler, Erbil, Iraq.
    Introduction to Special issue on Manufacturing sector productivity growth in the Asia Pacific region2007In: Global Economic Review, ISSN 1226-508X, E-ISSN 1744-3873, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 301-303Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 207.
    Lenz-Cesar, F.
    et al.
    Ministry of Communications, Esplanada dos Ministérios, Bloco R #702, Brasília, DF, Brazil.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, East Building #217, Anam-dong Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713, South Korea.
    An econometric approach to identify determinants of cooperation for innovation among firms2012In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 227-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    R&D cooperation has received great attention among industrialists, decision-makers and researchers. This article introduces an econometric approach for identifying the factors that lead firms to cooperate in order to achieve innovation. The determining factors were defined according to empirical findings from the Korean Innovation Survey (KIS) 2005, captured in a multivariate probit regression model. The aim is to subsidize further research by applying agent-based modelling to simulate innovation networks in the Korean manufacturing sector. ©2012 Taylor & Francis.

  • 208. Lenz-Cesar, Flavio
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    Agent-based Simulation of Cooperative Innovation2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces an agent-based simulation model representing the dynamic processes of cooperative R&D in the manufacturing sector of South Korea. Firms' behaviors were defined according to empirical findings on a dataset from the internationally standardized Korean Innovation Survey in 2005. Simulation algorithms and parameters were defined based on the determinants on firms' likelihood to participate in cooperation with other firms when conducting innovation activities. The calibration process was conducted to the point where artificially generated scenarios were equivalent to the one observed in the real world. The aim of this simulation game was to create a basic implementation that could be extended to test different policies strategies in order to observe sector responses (including cross-sector spillovers) when promoting cooperative innovation.

  • 209. Lenz-Cesar, Flavio
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    Determinants of Firms Cooperation in Innovation2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    R&D cooperation has received great attention among industrialists, decision makers and researchers as it facilitates research collaboration, information sharing, reduced R&D cost, and affects R&D resource allocation, advancement and competitiveness of the national industry, employment and survival of firms. This paper introduces an econometric approach for identifying the factors that lead firms to cooperative innovation. The determinants of firms cooperation in innovation were defined according to empirical findings on a dataset from the internationally standardized Korean Innovation Survey 2005, captured in a multivariate probit regression model. The model identified the determinants on firms' likelihood to participate in cooperation with other organizations when conducting innovation activities. The aim of this model was to subsidize further research applying agent-based modeling to simulate innovation networks in the Korean manufacturing sector in order to test different policy strategies on fostering cooperation in innovation.

  • 210.
    Lööf, H.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Industrial Economics and Management, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economic Statistics, Stockholm School of Economics, Box 6501, SE-113 83 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Knowledge capital and performance heterogeneity: A firm-level innovation study2002In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 61-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an empirical analysis of knowledge capital and performance heterogeneity at the firm level. We apply new econometric methods to extensive data on innovation and innovative activities in Swedish manufacturing. A number of interesting results emerge. First, the results show that knowledge capital, defined as the ratio of innovation sales to total sales, is found to be a significant factor contributing to performance heterogeneity among firms. This relationship holds even when we control for human capital, type of output, firm size, and the entry, merger, partial closure or exit of firms. Second, knowledge capital rises with innovation input, the firm’s internal knowledge for innovation, and co-operation on innovation with domestic universities. Third, when controlling for differences in innovation investments and human capital, knowledge-intensive firms are not more innovative than labor-intensive or capital-intensive firms. Fourth, organizational rigidities in innovation projects and a lack of appropriate investment sources for innovative activities are found to have a negative impact on productivity. Finally, we find a positive association between an outspoken aggressive innovation strategy, customers and a firm’s internal resources for innovation and the size of innovation investment. ©2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 211.
    Lööf, H.
    et al.
    Ctr. for European Economic Research, Germany.
    Heshmati, Almas
    United Nations University, Katajanokanlaituri 6B, Fin-00160 Helsinki, Finland.
    The link between firm-level innovation and aggregate productivity growth: A cross-country examination2003In: Research Evaluation, ISSN 0958-2029, E-ISSN 1471-5449, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 131-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A broad definition of innovation input is used, in which R&D is one of several sources of innovation. A quantitative innovation output measure is used in the analysis, which is based on a large representative sample of firms, including small firms. An econometric framework based on the knowledge-production function accounting for both selectivity and simultaneity bias is employed. The results from Nordic countries show that, given difficulties in pooling the data, it is important to identify country-specific models to account for country-specific effects and differences in countries’ national innovation systems.

  • 212.
    Maasoumi, Esfandiar
    et al.
    So Methodist Univ, Dept Econ, Dallas, TX 75275 USA.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Univ Kurdistan Hawler, Hawler, Iraq.
    Evaluating dominance ranking of PSID incomes by various household attributes2008In: Advances on income inequality and concentration measures / [ed] Betti, G; Lemmi, A, Abingdon: Routledge, 2008, Vol. 102, p. 47-69Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 213.
    Maasoumi, Esfandiar
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Su, Biwei
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Analysis of stochastic dominance ranking of Chinese income distributions by household attributes2019In: Panel data econometrics: Empirical applications / [ed] M. Tsionas, London: Elsevier, 2019, p. 931-952Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 214.
    Maasoumi, Esfandiar
    et al.
    Emory University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    Wan, Guanghua
    Asian Development Bank, Manila.
    Introduction to Special Issue on Poverty and Wellbeing in Asia2015In: Journal of economic studies, ISSN 0144-3585, E-ISSN 1758-7387, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 215.
    Maasoumi, Esfandiar
    et al.
    Emory University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    Wan, Guanghua
    Asian Development Bank.
    Introduction to Special Issue on Poverty Reduction in Developing Asia2015In: Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1062-9769, E-ISSN 1878-4259, Vol. 56, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 216.
    Maasoumi, Esfandiar
    et al.
    Emory University.
    Heshmati, AlmasSogang University.Wan, GuanghuaAsian Development Bank.
    Special Issue on Poverty and Wellbeing in Asia2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 217.
    Maasoumi, Esfandiar
    et al.
    Emory University.
    Heshmati, AlmasSogang University.Wan, GuanghuaAsian Development Bank.
    Special Issue on Poverty Reduction in Developing Asia2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 218.
    Maasoumi, Esfandiar
    et al.
    Emory University, Atlanta, USA.
    Su, Biwei
    Korea University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Analysis of Stochastic Dominance Ranking of Chinese Income Distributions by Household Attributes2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we employ stochastic dominance analysis on Chinese Household Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data to investigate the inequality and relative welfare levels in China over time and among population subgroups. We find that from the period of 2000 to 2009, welfare has been continuously improved along with Chinese economic development and growth. Our pairwise comparison of population subgroups shows that there is no dominance relation between subgroups for household type, gender of households head, and age cohorts. While married group and non-child rearing group second order dominate single/divorced group and child rearing group, showing higher level of welfare in the former groups. Also, we find inequality in subgroups with different educational levels and household sizes that the groups with a higher level of education and smaller size of household tend to be better off than their counterparts.

  • 219.
    Mansour, Walid
    et al.
    King Abdulaziz University.
    Ben-Abdelhamid, Mohamed
    Université de Sousse.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    Recursive profit and loss sharing2015In: Journal of Risk, ISSN 1465-1211, E-ISSN 1755-2842, Vol. 17, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a new financial product that allows the profit-and-loss sharing (PLS) principle to be enforced recursively in practice. A new equity-like financial product is proposed through a three-tier partnership to which a new contracting party (the risk moderator) is added to absorb the underlying risk of premature default and adjust the annual revenue to a predetermined annual cost. The financing mechanism pioneers a new type of option, dubbed the PLS option, to manage the underlying risk of revenue sharing. A dynamic capital structure methodology is developed for the valuation of the PLS option that allows for an annual adjustment of the project’s revenue and recalculates the entitlements pertaining to contracting parties. Monte Carlo simulation is conducted to evaluate the project when the construction cost is deterministic and the streams of expected cash flows are stochastic. The simulation results show that the dynamic adjustment of the capital structure simultaneously endorses a recursive profit-and-loss sharing and a dynamic risk-hedging approach. Sheer evidence shows the immunization against premature default through the involvement of the risk moderator to absorb any potential loss, which is indicative of an incentive factor for the project’s survival and business continuity.

  • 220.
    Masso, J.
    et al.
    University of Tartu, Fac. of Econ. and Bus. Admin, Institute of Economics, 51009 Tartu, Estonia.
    Heshmati, Almas
    MTT Economic Research, Institute for the Study of Labor, Techno-Econ./Plcy. Prog. Coll. Eng., Finland.
    The optimality and overuse of labour in Estonian manufacturing enterprises2004In: The Economics of Transition, ISSN 0967-0750, E-ISSN 1468-0351, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 683-720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition economies need labour market flexibility for successful restructuring and reallocation of the labour force, and for coping with the requirements of the European Monetary Union. In this paper we apply a novel approach to the issue of labour market flexibility in transition countries by studying the optimality and efficiency of labour usage in Estonian manufacturing enterprises. We employ a dynamic model in which both the long-run optimal level of employment and the speed at which actual employment is adjusted to the optimal are modelled as functions of several variables. Firm-level panel data of 1995-99 were used. The results showed that in the long run, employment responds most strongly to wages, followed by value added and capital stock. The speed of adjustment, labour use optimality and efficiency all show much greater variations over firms than over time. In the course of time, both labour-saving technical change and an increase in the efficiency of labour usage occur. On average, there is shortage of labour compared to firms’ own optimal level, along with overuse of labour compared to best-practice technology. Capital seems to be a binding constraint on the development of employment in the Estonian labour market. ©The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2004.

  • 221.
    Musonera, Abdou
    et al.
    MIFOTRA-SPIU, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Sogang University.
    Measuring women’s empowerment in Rwanda2017In: Studies on economic development and growth in selected African countries / [ed] A. Heshmati, Singapore: Springer, 2017, p. 11-39Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the determinants of women’s empowerment in Rwanda using the data obtained from the Demographic and Heath Survey (DHS) (2010). It uses a regression analysis to investigate the association between women’s empowerment and its covariates. The study also uses a multinomial logistic regression to assess what determines households’ decision-making and attitudes toward physical abuse of spouses. It finds variables of sources of empowerment such as education and media exposure to have a net positive association with women’s empowerment, while other variables such as residence and the age at first marriage to be negatively associated with women’s empowerment. A further analysis shows that the effects of education, age of the respondent, wealth and the number of children ever born remain strong conditions which effect households’ decision-making and attitudes about physical abuse. In general, it seems that for women to fully realize their potential and rights, specific emphasis should be put on variables that increase their access to resources and knowledge such as education, employment for cash, and media exposure, but variables that are negatively associated with their empowerment such as higher age at first marriage should also be taken into account.

  • 222.
    Ndagijimana, Joseph
    et al.
    School of Economics, College of Business and Economics University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Nzasingizimana, Tharcisse
    School of Economics, College of Business and Economics University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea.
    An analysis of the determinants of youth employment in Rwanda2018In: UKH Journal of Social Sciences, ISSN 2520-7806, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this research is to analyze the determinants of youth employment in Rwanda from the point of view of the demand, supply and the general labor market. An analysis of the data shows that a skill gap is most critical for employment creation and a transition from school-to-work seems problematic. Further, questions remain about what factors influence youth employment in Rwanda and how youth employment is related to poverty reduction and distribution of income. The study uses a multinomial logit model to shed light on the determinants of youth employment status in the country using data from the National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR). It verifies how the current status of youth employment in Rwanda has evolved over time and based on its findings it provides policy recommendations to promote youth employment. The research finds that youth employment in Rwanda is influenced by gender, age, education and geographical location. The finding of this research has implications for the youth unemployment in Kurdistan Region.

  • 223.
    Ndagijimana, Joseph
    et al.
    College of Business and Economics, Department of Economics, University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Nzasingizimana, Tharcisse
    College of Business and Economics, Department of Economics, University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Econometric analysis of business start-ups in Rwanda2019In: Economic Transformation for Poverty Reduction in Africa: A Multidimensional Approach / [ed] Almas Heshmati, Routledge, 2019, p. 241-265Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 224.
    Neutel, M.
    et al.
    University of Groningen.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    Globalisation, inequality and poverty relationships: a cross country evidence2010In: Globalization and income inequality: cross country experiences / [ed] Vandana Shajan, Hyderabad, India: Icfai University Press, 2010Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 225.
    Nilsson, Pia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Introduction and Summary2019In: Efficiency, equity and well-being in selected African countries / [ed] Pia Nilsson & Almas Heshmati, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 1-8Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume is a collection of studies on poverty and well-being, vulnerability to poverty, women’s empowerment and smallholders’ efficiency in selected African countries. It has a collection of 12 empirical studies that have an overall focus on poverty, well-being and vulnerability to poverty and includes contributions by 19 authors. The studies aim at increasing our knowledge about the factors that influence poverty and well-being. This is important as it can help alleviate many of the persistent challenges observed across Africa. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.

  • 226.
    Oh, D. -H
    et al.
    Samsung Economics Research Institute, Samsung Life Seocho Towe, 1321-15, 29th Fl., Seocho 2-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 137-955, South Korea, and Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology, Drottning Kristinas väg 30B, 100 44, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resources Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-701, South Korea.
    A sequential Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index: Environmentally sensitive productivity growth considering the progressive nature of technology2010In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 1345-1355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study proposes an index for measuring environmentally sensitive productivity growth which appropriately considers the nature of technical change. The rationale of this methodology is to exclude a spurious technical regress from the macroeconomic perspective. In order to incorporate this in developing the index, a directional distance function and the concept of the successive sequential production possibility set are combined. With this combination, the conventional Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index is modified to give the sequential Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index. This index is employed in measuring environmentally sensitive productivity growth and its decomposed components of 26 OECD countries for the period 1970-2003.We distinguish two main empirical findings. First, even though the components of the conventional Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index and the proposed index are different, the trends of rates of average productivity growth are similar. Second, unlike in previous studies, the efficiency change is the main contributor to the earlier study period, whereas the effect of technical change has prevailed over time. ©2010 Elsevier B.V.

  • 227.
    Oh, D.
    et al.
    Samsung Economics Research Institute, Seoul, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Food and Resource Economics, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Lööf, H.
    Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Technical change and total factor productivity growth for Swedish manufacturing and service industries2012In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 44, no 18, p. 2373-2391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents alternative specifications of the production functions of a large panel of Swedish firms for the period 1992 to 2000. The period can be characterized as a transition when long-run productivity growth in the Swedish economy improved from being among the weakest to one of the strongest within the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). In order to present a detailed exploration of this dramatic change, the time trend and general index models are applied to estimate Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth, rate of technical change and returns to scale. The models are extended to allow for firm specific as well as time-varying technical change. The parametric TFP measures are also compared with the nonparametric Solow residual, and several hypotheses are tested to explain the growth patterns in the Swedish economy. It is found that the improved growth rate, initially starting in large exporting manufacturing firms, after a deep economic crisis at the beginning of the 1990s, spilled over to the rest of the economy, both manufacturing and services.

  • 228.
    Oh, D.
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, South Korea .
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Lööf, H.
    Center of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Total factor productivity of Korean manufacturing industries: Comparison of competing models with firm-level data2014In: Japan and The World Economy, ISSN 0922-1425, E-ISSN 1879-2006, Vol. 30, p. 25-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the parametric estimation of the rates of technical change and total factor productivity (TFP) growth of 7462 Korean manufacturing firms over the period 1987-2007. Two alternative formulations of technical change measured by the time trend and the general index approaches are estimated with panel data models assuming flexible functional forms. Several extensions of each approach are also considered and their benefits and limitations are discussed. In addition to making estimates of the TFP growth and its decomposition, the paper compares the parametric TFP growth measure with the non-parametric Solow residual serving as a benchmark. Several hypotheses related to technology level, firm sizes, industrial sectors, skill biased technological change and macroeconomic and industrial policies are tested to explain the growth patterns and heterogeneity in technical change, input biases and TFP growth rates. Using second regression analysis, the paper explores the determinants of TFP growth and their policy implications.

  • 229. Oh, Donghyum
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Lööf, Hans
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Total Factor Productivity of Korean Manufacturing Industries: Comparison of Competing Models with Firm-­Level Data2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 230.
    Oh, Dong-hyun
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Tec hnology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    A Sequential Malmquist-Luenberger Productivity Index2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study proposes an alternative methodology for measuring environmentally sensitive productivity growth. The rationale of this methodology is to consider the features of technology appropriately by excluding a spurious technical regress based on the macroeconomic perspective. In order to consider this condition and to develop an alternative index, a directional distance function and the concept of the successive sequential production possibility set are combined. With this combination, the conventional Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index is modified to give the alternative sequential environmentally sensitive productivity index. This proposed index is employed in measuring productivity growth and its decomposed components of OECD countries for the period 1970-2003. We distinguish two main empirical findings. First, even though the components of the conventional Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index and the proposed index are different, the developments of productivity are similar. Second, unlike in previous studies, the efficiency change is the main contributor to the earlier study period, whereas the effect of technical change has prevailed over time.

  • 231.
    Oh, Dong-hyun
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Tec hnology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    Lööf, Hans
    Royal Institute of Tec hnology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Technical Change and Total Factor Productivity Growth for Swedish Manufacturing and Service Industries2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents alternative specifications of the production functions of a large panel of Swedish firms for the period 1992-2000. The period can be characterized as a transition when long-run productivity growth in the Swedish economy improved from being among the weakest to one of the strongest within the OECD. In order to present a detailed exploration of this dramatic change, the time trend and general index models are applied to estimate total factor productivity (TFP) growth, rate of technical change and returns to scale. The models are extended to allow for firm-specific as well as time-varying technical change. The parametric TFP measures are also compared with the non-parametric Solow residual, and several hypotheses are tested to explain the growth patterns in the Swedish economy. It is found that the improved growth rate, initially starting in large exporting manufacturing firms, after a deep economic crisis at the beginning of the 1990s, spilled over to the rest of the economy, both manufacturing and services.

  • 232. Oh, Donghyun
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    Lööf, Hans
    Technical Change And Total Factor Productivity Growth For Swedish Manufacturing And Service Industries2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 233.
    Oh, Dong-hyun
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    Lööf, Hans
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Total Factor Productivity of Korean Manufacturing Industries: Comparison of Competing Models with Firm-Level Data2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the parametric estimation of the rates of technical change and total factor productivity (TFP) growth of 7,462 Korean manufacturing firms for the period 1987 to 2007. Two alternative formulations of technical change measured by the time trend and the general index approaches are estimated with panel data models assuming flexible functional forms. Several extensions of each approach are also onsidered and their benefits and limitations are discussed. In addition to making estimates of the TFP growth and its decomposition, the paper compares the parametric TFP growth measure with the non-parametric Solow residual serving as a benchmark. Several hypotheses related to technology level, firm sizes, industrial sectors, skill biased technological change and macroeconomic and industrial policies are tested to explain the growth patterns and heterogeneity in technical change, input biases and TFP growth rates. Using second regression analysis, the paper explores the determinants of TFP growth and their policy implications.

  • 234.
    Oh, Dong-hyun
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lööf, Hans
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    The Icelandic Economy: A Victim of the Financial Crisis or Simply Inefficient?2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Iceland, one of the smallest European economies, was hit severely by the 2008-financial crisis. This paper uses a firm-level Community Innovation Survey (CIS) data set to consider the economy in the period preceding the collapse of its financial system. We examine the linkage between the crisis and innovativeness from the perspective of technical efficiency by means of the Data Envelopment Analysis of 204 randomly selected firms. The results suggest that a substantial fraction of the Icelandic firms can be classified as non-efficient in their production process. The production scale of many manufacturing firms is too small to be considered technically efficient, while services firms typically use excessive resources in their production process. A remarkably weak performance in transforming R&D and labor efforts into successful innovations is observed. Based on the empirical results, suitable policy implications are suggested to remedy the inoptimal production structure and help economic recovery.

  • 235.
    Oh, I.
    et al.
    Korea Energy Economics Institute, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Baek, C.
    Korea Institute of Science and Technology Evaluation and Planning, South Korea.
    Lee, J. -D
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Comparative analysis of plant dynamics by size: Korean manufacturing2009In: Japanese Economic Review, ISSN 1352-4739, E-ISSN 1468-5876, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 512-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative analysis on Korean manufacturing plants is performed by size of plants and sources of TFP growth are decomposed into entry, exit, and survival effects of plants, focusing on the pre- and post-crisis periods. Additional survival analyses investigate internal and external determinants of the survival of plants. The results indicate that the exit of small- and medium-sized establishments (SMEs) with higher productivity is becoming problematic in the post-crisis period. The improvements in large-scale establishments (LSEs) after the crisis appeared to occur generally in high-technology industrial sectors; SMEs in low-technology industries are suffering from a sluggish market selection process. ©2009 The Authors. Journal compilation ©2009 Japanese Economic Association.

  • 236.
    Oh, I.
    et al.
    Techno-Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Lee, J. -D
    Techno-Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Techno-Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Total factor productivity in Korean manufacturing industries2008In: Global Economic Review, ISSN 1226-508X, E-ISSN 1744-3873, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 23-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, parametric and non-parametric methods are employed to measure the total factor productivity (TFP) growth in the Korean manufacturing industry from 1993 to 2003. The analysis period contains both periods before and after the Asian financial crisis. The TFP growth rate is decomposed into different components. Also different elasticities are reported. By classifying the results by period and classifying a number of time invariant firm characteristics, such as sector, size, and location of firms, we observe systematic heterogeneity for each characteristic. We discuss the underlying causal factors. The results from a non-parametric approach are also compared with those of a parametric approach. ©2008 Institute of East and West Studies, Yonsei University, Seoul.

  • 237.
    Oh, I.
    et al.
    Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shilim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Lee, J. -D
    Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shilim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, University of Kurdistan Hawler, Hawler, Federal Region of Kurdistan, Erbil, Iraq.
    Choi, G. -G
    School of Business Administration, Dongguk University, 26, Pil-dong 3-ga, Jung-gu, Seoul, South Korea.
    Evaluation of credit guarantee policy using propensity score matching2009In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 335-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we evaluate the effect of the credit guarantee policy by comparing a large sample of guaranteed firms and matched non-guaranteed firms from 2000 to 2003. The sample firms are compared with respect to growth rates of different performance indicators including: productivity, sales, employment, investment, R&D, wage level, and the survival of firms in the post crisis period. In order to avoid the selectivity problem, propensity score matching methodologies are adopted. Results suggest that credit guarantees influenced significantly firms’ ability to maintain their size, and increase their survival rate, but not to increase their R&D and investment and hence, their growth in productivity. Moreover, due to the adverse selection problem, firms with lower productivity were receiving guarantees. ©Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2008.

  • 238.
    Oh, I.
    et al.
    Korea Energy Economics Institute, 665-1, Naeson 2-dong, Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do 437-713, South Korea.
    Lee, J. -D
    Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program (TEMEP), Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Hwang, S.
    Science and Technology Policy Institute, Specialty Construction Center 26F/27F, Shindaebang-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-714, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program (TEMEP), Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Analysis of product efficiency in the Korean automobile market from a consumer’s perspective2010In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 119-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we develop and describe a conceptual and methodological framework to measure technical and allocative efficiency at the product level considering consumer choice, which encompasses overall efficiency. Empirically, we combined data envelopment analysis and a discrete choice model in order to measure efficiency levels. The suggested framework is applied to the Korean automobile market. The relationship between the level of efficiency and market performance is discussed in terms of market share. ©Springer-Verlag 2009.

  • 239.
    Oh, Inha
    et al.
    Konkuk University, South Korea.
    Oh, Seunghwan
    Science and Technology Policy Institute, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, South Korea.
    Lee, Jeong-Dong
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Can energy service companies promote ‘green’ growth?: The Korean case2016In: Energy and Environment, ISSN 0958-305X, E-ISSN 2048-4070, Vol. 27, no 3-4, p. 420-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate the performance of energy service companies with support from the Korean government. In particular, we focus on the amount and quality of jobs created by energy service company businesses. From the results, we can observe some characteristics of the Korean energy service company industry, which is very volatile with a high turnover rate for the participating firms. The dwindling profitability within the industry appears to be the main reason for the high turnover rate. However, some firms have accumulated the capacities and experiences of the industry and are enjoying monopolistic profits. Job creation for firms conducting energy service company business is higher compared to other similar firms in the same industries studied. However, the quality of newly created jobs measured by the wage level is lower, which by social planners is seen as a worrying trend.

  • 240.
    Okulski, Radoslaw
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Time Series Analysis of Global Airline Passengers Transportation Industry2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological developments and the global economic crisis are two types of developments that have affected the commercial airline industry in the last decade. This paper investigates time series analysis of the airline industry. The research has been conducted and is being presented, in a number of steps. First, a new, large database covering the global airline industry was assembled. Second, as part of the descriptive analysis of the industry and modeling a number of statistical tests are investigated. Third, the passenger airline transportation services models are estimated, to investigate their transportation entry and exit activities, as well as issues of heterogeneity and autocorrelation. Finally, we predict future developments within the industry. The empirical results are based on a large panel of 130 airlines observed monthly from January 2001 to April 2009. The airline produce two services of passenger and goods separately or jointly. The results show that specialized passenger companies cannot obtain sufficient revenues to stay at the market for long time. Airlines reduce costs through adding additional products. The worst performed joint service airlines¡¯ result of carrying passengers is much better than the result of specialized best practice airlines. In order to gain profit and improved survival rate, airlines specialized in passenger transportation must diversify their practice to carry both goods and passengers together.

  • 241. Rahimpoor, M.
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Ahmadizad, A.
    University of Kurdistan, Iran.
    A New Weighting Approach to Non-Parametric Composite Indices Compared with Principal Components Analysis2017In: International Journal of Industrial Mathematics, ISSN 2008-5621, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 59-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction of Human Development Index (HDI) by UNDP in early 1990 followed a surge in use of non-parametric and parametric indices for measurement and comparison of countries performance in development, globalization, competition, well-being and etc. The HDI is a composite index of three indicators. Its components are to reflect three major dimensions of human development: longevity, knowledge and access to resources represented by GDP per capita, educational attainment and life expectancy. In recent years additional gender and poverty aspects are included. A known example of the non-parametric index is the HDI, while Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Factor Analysis (FA) are among the parametric counterparts. The indices differ mainly in respect to weighting the indicators in their aggregation. The non-parametric index assumes the weights, while the parametric approach estimates them. In this research, it is aimed to purpose a new weighting approach to non-parametric indices when they are used simultaneous with principal components analysis.

  • 242.
    Rahimpoor, Mohammad
    et al.
    Kharazmi University, Iran.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, Sogang University, Korea.
    Ahmadizad, Arman
    University of Kurdistan, Iran.
    The effect of education on industrial development: Evidence from Iranian small industries2016In: International Journal of Business and Development Studies, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 25-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature show evidence that small manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) are understood as main source of technology development and employment creation. At the same time they are vulnerable to a number of restrictions such as access to finances, skilled labor and public support, while are exposed to high competition and suffer from low survival rate. This research aims to shed lights on the role that education play in the process of industrial and economic development of Iranian provinces. This research is conducted in a number of ways. First, a comprehensive literature review is conducted to gain experience from the national and international literature to identify the state-of-art research and important theories, methods and empirical results to shape the structure of this research and identify key data requirements. Second, the status of industrial infrastructure and distribution of firms by important characteristic of education is investigated. Comparison is made at the aggregate national level. Third, based on the literature findings and analysis of the industry structure, assemble a data set at the province level that is representative with good coverage of the industry sector. Also a composite Development Infrastructure Index for provinces with available ranks in mentioned component is calculated. Based on the findings, appropriate policy recommendations to improve the conditions of SMEs infrastructure and performance will purposed.

  • 243.
    Rahimpour, Mohammad
    et al.
    Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Sogang University, Department of Economics, Seoul, Korea.
    Pasandideh, Seyed HamidReza
    Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
    Measurement and comparison of industrial infrastructure of SMEs among Iranian provinces2018In: SSRG International Journal of Economics and Management Studies, ISSN 2393-9125, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 7-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The creation of small manufacturing enterprises is considered by many governments and donor agencies, as the key to economic and social development in countries regardless of development level. Furthermore, review of the literature show evidence that SMEs are understood as a source of technology development. At the same time they are vulnerable to a number of restrictions such as access to finances, skilled labor, public support and suffer from survival rate problems. First, this research aims to shed lights on the role that small manufacturing enterprises play in the process of industrial and economic development across provinces of Iran. Second, the status of industrial infrastructure is investigated. The data is used to estimate parametrically and non-parametrically a number of composite infrastructure indices to investigate the capacity, resource, education, credit and capital assets components. Finally based on the findings, lessons and conclusion, guidelines for policy formulation will be suggested. For our study, use of sub-indices and a new composite of Development Infrastructure Index (DII) can help provinces to evaluate their status of industrial infrastructure.

  • 244.
    Rupakhetee, Kiran
    et al.
    Purbanchal University, Nepal.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Rhetoric vs. realities in implementation of e-government master plan in Nepal2013In: Developing E-Government Projects: Frameworks and Methodologies / [ed] Zaigham Mahmood, Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2013, p. 368-393Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses different facets of implementation of e-government in Nepal. With the background theoretical information about e-government in general, the Nepalese case of e-government initiatives is discussed with a specific focus on the “e-government Master Plan.” Important pillars of any e-government initiatives, namely infrastructure, human resources, institutions, and policy and legal aspects are looked into from the perspective of feasibility of e-government implementation in Nepal. While doing so, Heeks’s e-government success/failure model has been taken into consideration accounting for different dimensions, namely information, technology, process, objectives and values, staffing and skills, management systems and structures, and other resources, which are responsible to create design reality gap thereby jeopardizing the success of e-government projects. This study is the first in the Nepalese perspective, which tries to analyze the constraints in e-government implementation resulted from shortcomings in infrastructure, human resources, institutions, and policy and legal aspects. The authors believe that failure of e-GMP to achieve targeted objectives by the end of 2011 can also be attributed to these factors. The insights inferred can be useful in facilitating a smoother implementation of the master plan related to e-government.

  • 245.
    Rupakhetee, Kiran
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Rhetorics vs. Realities in Implementation of e-Government Master Plan in Nepal2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses different facets of implementation of e-government in Nepal. With the background theoretical information about e-government in general, the Nepalese case of e-government initiatives is discussed with a specific focus on the “e-government Mater Plan”. Important pillars of any e-government initiatives, namely infrastructure, human resources, institutions, and policy and legal aspects are looked into from the perspective of feasibility in e-government implementation in Nepal. While doing so, Heeks’s e-government success/failure model has been taken into consideration accounting for different dimensions, namely information, technology, process, objectives and values, staffing and skills, management systems and structures, and other resources, which are responsible to create design reality gap thereby jeopardizing the success of e-government projects. This study is the first which tries to analyze the constraints in e-government implementation resulted from shortcomings in infrastructure, human resources, institutions, and policy and legal aspects. The knowledge can be useful in facilitating a smoother implementation of the master plan.

  • 246. Saggay, Ali
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Dhif, Mohamed Adel
    Effects of Trade Liberalization on Domestic Prices: Some Evidence from Tunisian Manufacturing2007In: International Review of Economics, ISSN 1865-1704, E-ISSN 1863-4613, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 148-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents estimates of the competitive effects of trade liberalization on domestic pricing behaviour of Tunisian manufacturing industries. The theoretical framework is based on a dynamic flexible adjustment model of price determination in a small open economy. It investigates the process of adjustment in price level toward a desired level. The adjustment process is both industrial and time-specific. The empirical results show that, in the long run, domestic price responds greatly to import penetration, followed by demand pressure. There was a negative effect from import competition on domestic price. Trade policy is a viable policy option to promote competitiveness.

  • 247.
    Su, B.
    et al.
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, 217, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, 217, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713, South Korea.
    Geng, Y.
    Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110016, China.
    Yu, X.
    Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110016, China.
    A review of the circular economy in China: Moving from rhetoric to implementation2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 42, p. 215-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular economy (CE) is a sustainable development strategy proposed by the central government of China, aiming to improve the efficiency of materials and energy use. This strategy, formally accepted in 2002, has been implemented and developed in a number of pilot areas in China. Scholars have produced rich studies in regard with the CE from its fundamental concept to its practical implementation. Successful enforcement of a CE can be seen as a way for China to tackle its urgent problem of environmental degradation and source scarcity. Given its importance, we provide a holistic literature review on the CE, aiming to provide a panorama of how this strategy has been developed and implemented. The review covers the concept, current practices, and assessment of the CE. To have a more numeric concept of how it has developed, we look at the performance of the CE in Dalian after its implementation of relevant policies and compare the changes with three other pilot cities, Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin. Based on an examination of the statistical results, we identified the underlying problems and challenges for this national strategy. Finally, we offer a conclusion regarding CE’s development as well as policy recommendations for future improvement. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 248.
    Su, Biwei
    et al.
    Korea University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Analysis of Gender Wage Differential in China’s Urban Labor Market2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates the gender wage gap and its composition in China’s urban labor market using the 2009 survey data from the Chinese Family Panel Studies. Several estimation and decomposition methods have been used and compared. First, we examine the gender wage gap using ordinary least square regression method with a gender dummy variable. Then, we apply Oaxaca (1973) decomposition method with different weighting systems to analyze the logarithmic wage differential. To be more specific, we prove the existence of sample selection bias caused by the female’s labor force participation. We eliminate it by using the Heckman’s two-step procedure. Empirical results reveal that male workers generally receive a higher wage than female workers, and a great deal of this difference is unexplained. Meanwhile, this unexplained part, which is usually referred to as discrimination turns out to be higher when the adjustment is made for the selection bias. A further breakdown of the wage gap shows that among all the individual characteristics, occupations explain the largest share of the wage gap, followed by their working experience. On the other hand, education acts as a contributor for discrimination in the labor market.

  • 249.
    Su, Biwei
    et al.
    Korea University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Analysis of the Determinants of Income and Income Gap between Urban and Rural China2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies on the determinants of income and urban-rural income gap to shed light on the problem of urban-rural income inequality in China. OLS, conditional quantile regression and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition methods are used to analyze four waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) household data. Results show that education and occupation are essential determinants of households’ income level. These two factors exert heterogeneous effects at different percentiles of the income distribution. In urban areas, education is more valued for high incomeearners, while for rural areas, specialized or tertiary education are more beneficial for the poorer households. Among all occupational types, farm activities show much lower returns than other types; and this is more evident for individuals at the left tail of the income distribution. We also find that for the sampled provinces, urban-rural income gap increases from the year of 2000 to 2004 but the gap decreases from 2004 to 2009. The income gap can be largely explained by the individuals’ attributes, especially by level of education and type of occupation.

  • 250.
    Su, Biwei
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, K526, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742, Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, K526, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742, Korea.
    Analysis Of The Determinants Of Income And Income Gap Between Urban And Rural China2013In: China Economic Policy Review, ISSN 1793-9690, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the determinants of income and urban–rural income gap to shed light on the problem of urban–rural income inequality in China. Ordinary least square (OLS), conditional quantile regression and Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition methods are used to analyze four waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) household data. Results show that education and occupation are essential determinants of households' income level. These two factors exert heterogeneous effects at different percentiles of income distribution. In urban areas, education is more valued for high income earners, while for rural areas, specialized or tertiary education are more beneficial for the poorer households. Among all occupational types, farm activities show much lower returns than other types; and this is more evident for individuals at the left tail of the income distribution. We also find that for the sampled provinces, urban–rural income gap increases from year 2000 to 2004 but the gap decreases from 2004 to 2009. The income gap can be largely explained by the individuals' attributes, especially by the level of education and type of occupation.

23456 201 - 250 of 276
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