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  • 201.
    Maasoumi, Esfandiar
    et al.
    Emory University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    Wan, Guanghua
    Asian Development Bank.
    Introduction to Special Issue on Poverty Reduction in Developing Asia2015In: Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1062-9769, E-ISSN 1878-4259, Vol. 56, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 202.
    Maasoumi, Esfandiar
    et al.
    Emory University.
    Heshmati, AlmasSogang University.Wan, GuanghuaAsian Development Bank.
    Special Issue on Poverty and Wellbeing in Asia2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 203.
    Maasoumi, Esfandiar
    et al.
    Emory University.
    Heshmati, AlmasSogang University.Wan, GuanghuaAsian Development Bank.
    Special Issue on Poverty Reduction in Developing Asia2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 204.
    Maasoumi, Esfandiar
    et al.
    Emory University, Atlanta, USA.
    Su, Biwei
    Korea University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Analysis of Stochastic Dominance Ranking of Chinese Income Distributions by Household Attributes2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we employ stochastic dominance analysis on Chinese Household Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data to investigate the inequality and relative welfare levels in China over time and among population subgroups. We find that from the period of 2000 to 2009, welfare has been continuously improved along with Chinese economic development and growth. Our pairwise comparison of population subgroups shows that there is no dominance relation between subgroups for household type, gender of households head, and age cohorts. While married group and non-child rearing group second order dominate single/divorced group and child rearing group, showing higher level of welfare in the former groups. Also, we find inequality in subgroups with different educational levels and household sizes that the groups with a higher level of education and smaller size of household tend to be better off than their counterparts.

  • 205.
    Mansour, Walid
    et al.
    King Abdulaziz University.
    Ben-Abdelhamid, Mohamed
    Université de Sousse.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    Recursive profit and loss sharing2015In: Journal of Risk, ISSN 1465-1211, E-ISSN 1755-2842, Vol. 17, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a new financial product that allows the profit-and-loss sharing (PLS) principle to be enforced recursively in practice. A new equity-like financial product is proposed through a three-tier partnership to which a new contracting party (the risk moderator) is added to absorb the underlying risk of premature default and adjust the annual revenue to a predetermined annual cost. The financing mechanism pioneers a new type of option, dubbed the PLS option, to manage the underlying risk of revenue sharing. A dynamic capital structure methodology is developed for the valuation of the PLS option that allows for an annual adjustment of the project’s revenue and recalculates the entitlements pertaining to contracting parties. Monte Carlo simulation is conducted to evaluate the project when the construction cost is deterministic and the streams of expected cash flows are stochastic. The simulation results show that the dynamic adjustment of the capital structure simultaneously endorses a recursive profit-and-loss sharing and a dynamic risk-hedging approach. Sheer evidence shows the immunization against premature default through the involvement of the risk moderator to absorb any potential loss, which is indicative of an incentive factor for the project’s survival and business continuity.

  • 206.
    Masso, J.
    et al.
    University of Tartu, Fac. of Econ. and Bus. Admin, Institute of Economics, 51009 Tartu, Estonia.
    Heshmati, Almas
    MTT Economic Research, Institute for the Study of Labor, Techno-Econ./Plcy. Prog. Coll. Eng., Finland.
    The optimality and overuse of labour in Estonian manufacturing enterprises2004In: The Economics of Transition, ISSN 0967-0750, E-ISSN 1468-0351, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 683-720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition economies need labour market flexibility for successful restructuring and reallocation of the labour force, and for coping with the requirements of the European Monetary Union. In this paper we apply a novel approach to the issue of labour market flexibility in transition countries by studying the optimality and efficiency of labour usage in Estonian manufacturing enterprises. We employ a dynamic model in which both the long-run optimal level of employment and the speed at which actual employment is adjusted to the optimal are modelled as functions of several variables. Firm-level panel data of 1995-99 were used. The results showed that in the long run, employment responds most strongly to wages, followed by value added and capital stock. The speed of adjustment, labour use optimality and efficiency all show much greater variations over firms than over time. In the course of time, both labour-saving technical change and an increase in the efficiency of labour usage occur. On average, there is shortage of labour compared to firms’ own optimal level, along with overuse of labour compared to best-practice technology. Capital seems to be a binding constraint on the development of employment in the Estonian labour market. ©The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2004.

  • 207.
    Musonera, Abdou
    et al.
    MIFOTRA-SPIU, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Sogang University.
    Measuring women’s empowerment in Rwanda2017In: Studies on economic development and growth in selected African countries / [ed] A. Heshmati, Singapore: Springer, 2017, p. 11-39Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the determinants of women’s empowerment in Rwanda using the data obtained from the Demographic and Heath Survey (DHS) (2010). It uses a regression analysis to investigate the association between women’s empowerment and its covariates. The study also uses a multinomial logistic regression to assess what determines households’ decision-making and attitudes toward physical abuse of spouses. It finds variables of sources of empowerment such as education and media exposure to have a net positive association with women’s empowerment, while other variables such as residence and the age at first marriage to be negatively associated with women’s empowerment. A further analysis shows that the effects of education, age of the respondent, wealth and the number of children ever born remain strong conditions which effect households’ decision-making and attitudes about physical abuse. In general, it seems that for women to fully realize their potential and rights, specific emphasis should be put on variables that increase their access to resources and knowledge such as education, employment for cash, and media exposure, but variables that are negatively associated with their empowerment such as higher age at first marriage should also be taken into account.

  • 208.
    Ndagijimana, J.
    et al.
    College of Business and Economics, Department of Economics, University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Nzasingizimana, Tharcisse
    College of Business and Economics, Department of Economics, University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Econometric analysis of business start-ups in Rwanda2017In: Economic Transformation for Poverty Reduction in Africa: A Multidimensional Approach / [ed] Almas Heshmati, New York: Routledge, 2017, p. 240-264Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 209.
    Neutel, M.
    et al.
    University of Groningen.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    Globalisation, inequality and poverty relationships: a cross country evidence2010In: Globalization and income inequality: cross country experiences / [ed] Vandana Shajan, Hyderabad, India: Icfai University Press, 2010Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 210.
    Oh, D. -H
    et al.
    Samsung Economics Research Institute, Samsung Life Seocho Towe, 1321-15, 29th Fl., Seocho 2-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 137-955, South Korea, and Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology, Drottning Kristinas väg 30B, 100 44, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resources Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-701, South Korea.
    A sequential Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index: Environmentally sensitive productivity growth considering the progressive nature of technology2010In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 1345-1355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study proposes an index for measuring environmentally sensitive productivity growth which appropriately considers the nature of technical change. The rationale of this methodology is to exclude a spurious technical regress from the macroeconomic perspective. In order to incorporate this in developing the index, a directional distance function and the concept of the successive sequential production possibility set are combined. With this combination, the conventional Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index is modified to give the sequential Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index. This index is employed in measuring environmentally sensitive productivity growth and its decomposed components of 26 OECD countries for the period 1970-2003.We distinguish two main empirical findings. First, even though the components of the conventional Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index and the proposed index are different, the trends of rates of average productivity growth are similar. Second, unlike in previous studies, the efficiency change is the main contributor to the earlier study period, whereas the effect of technical change has prevailed over time. ©2010 Elsevier B.V.

  • 211.
    Oh, D.
    et al.
    Samsung Economics Research Institute, Seoul, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Food and Resource Economics, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Lööf, H.
    Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Technical change and total factor productivity growth for Swedish manufacturing and service industries2012In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 44, no 18, p. 2373-2391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents alternative specifications of the production functions of a large panel of Swedish firms for the period 1992 to 2000. The period can be characterized as a transition when long-run productivity growth in the Swedish economy improved from being among the weakest to one of the strongest within the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). In order to present a detailed exploration of this dramatic change, the time trend and general index models are applied to estimate Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth, rate of technical change and returns to scale. The models are extended to allow for firm specific as well as time-varying technical change. The parametric TFP measures are also compared with the nonparametric Solow residual, and several hypotheses are tested to explain the growth patterns in the Swedish economy. It is found that the improved growth rate, initially starting in large exporting manufacturing firms, after a deep economic crisis at the beginning of the 1990s, spilled over to the rest of the economy, both manufacturing and services.

  • 212.
    Oh, D.
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, South Korea .
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Lööf, H.
    Center of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Total factor productivity of Korean manufacturing industries: Comparison of competing models with firm-level data2014In: Japan and The World Economy, ISSN 0922-1425, E-ISSN 1879-2006, Vol. 30, p. 25-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the parametric estimation of the rates of technical change and total factor productivity (TFP) growth of 7462 Korean manufacturing firms over the period 1987-2007. Two alternative formulations of technical change measured by the time trend and the general index approaches are estimated with panel data models assuming flexible functional forms. Several extensions of each approach are also considered and their benefits and limitations are discussed. In addition to making estimates of the TFP growth and its decomposition, the paper compares the parametric TFP growth measure with the non-parametric Solow residual serving as a benchmark. Several hypotheses related to technology level, firm sizes, industrial sectors, skill biased technological change and macroeconomic and industrial policies are tested to explain the growth patterns and heterogeneity in technical change, input biases and TFP growth rates. Using second regression analysis, the paper explores the determinants of TFP growth and their policy implications.

  • 213. Oh, Donghyum
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Lööf, Hans
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Total Factor Productivity of Korean Manufacturing Industries: Comparison of Competing Models with Firm-­Level Data2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 214.
    Oh, Dong-hyun
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Tec hnology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    A Sequential Malmquist-Luenberger Productivity Index2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study proposes an alternative methodology for measuring environmentally sensitive productivity growth. The rationale of this methodology is to consider the features of technology appropriately by excluding a spurious technical regress based on the macroeconomic perspective. In order to consider this condition and to develop an alternative index, a directional distance function and the concept of the successive sequential production possibility set are combined. With this combination, the conventional Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index is modified to give the alternative sequential environmentally sensitive productivity index. This proposed index is employed in measuring productivity growth and its decomposed components of OECD countries for the period 1970-2003. We distinguish two main empirical findings. First, even though the components of the conventional Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index and the proposed index are different, the developments of productivity are similar. Second, unlike in previous studies, the efficiency change is the main contributor to the earlier study period, whereas the effect of technical change has prevailed over time.

  • 215.
    Oh, Dong-hyun
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Tec hnology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    Lööf, Hans
    Royal Institute of Tec hnology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Technical Change and Total Factor Productivity Growth for Swedish Manufacturing and Service Industries2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents alternative specifications of the production functions of a large panel of Swedish firms for the period 1992-2000. The period can be characterized as a transition when long-run productivity growth in the Swedish economy improved from being among the weakest to one of the strongest within the OECD. In order to present a detailed exploration of this dramatic change, the time trend and general index models are applied to estimate total factor productivity (TFP) growth, rate of technical change and returns to scale. The models are extended to allow for firm-specific as well as time-varying technical change. The parametric TFP measures are also compared with the non-parametric Solow residual, and several hypotheses are tested to explain the growth patterns in the Swedish economy. It is found that the improved growth rate, initially starting in large exporting manufacturing firms, after a deep economic crisis at the beginning of the 1990s, spilled over to the rest of the economy, both manufacturing and services.

  • 216. Oh, Donghyun
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    Lööf, Hans
    Technical Change And Total Factor Productivity Growth For Swedish Manufacturing And Service Industries2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 217.
    Oh, Dong-hyun
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    Lööf, Hans
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Total Factor Productivity of Korean Manufacturing Industries: Comparison of Competing Models with Firm-Level Data2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the parametric estimation of the rates of technical change and total factor productivity (TFP) growth of 7,462 Korean manufacturing firms for the period 1987 to 2007. Two alternative formulations of technical change measured by the time trend and the general index approaches are estimated with panel data models assuming flexible functional forms. Several extensions of each approach are also onsidered and their benefits and limitations are discussed. In addition to making estimates of the TFP growth and its decomposition, the paper compares the parametric TFP growth measure with the non-parametric Solow residual serving as a benchmark. Several hypotheses related to technology level, firm sizes, industrial sectors, skill biased technological change and macroeconomic and industrial policies are tested to explain the growth patterns and heterogeneity in technical change, input biases and TFP growth rates. Using second regression analysis, the paper explores the determinants of TFP growth and their policy implications.

  • 218.
    Oh, Dong-hyun
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lööf, Hans
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    The Icelandic Economy: A Victim of the Financial Crisis or Simply Inefficient?2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Iceland, one of the smallest European economies, was hit severely by the 2008-financial crisis. This paper uses a firm-level Community Innovation Survey (CIS) data set to consider the economy in the period preceding the collapse of its financial system. We examine the linkage between the crisis and innovativeness from the perspective of technical efficiency by means of the Data Envelopment Analysis of 204 randomly selected firms. The results suggest that a substantial fraction of the Icelandic firms can be classified as non-efficient in their production process. The production scale of many manufacturing firms is too small to be considered technically efficient, while services firms typically use excessive resources in their production process. A remarkably weak performance in transforming R&D and labor efforts into successful innovations is observed. Based on the empirical results, suitable policy implications are suggested to remedy the inoptimal production structure and help economic recovery.

  • 219.
    Oh, I.
    et al.
    Korea Energy Economics Institute, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Baek, C.
    Korea Institute of Science and Technology Evaluation and Planning, South Korea.
    Lee, J. -D
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Comparative analysis of plant dynamics by size: Korean manufacturing2009In: Japanese Economic Review, ISSN 1352-4739, E-ISSN 1468-5876, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 512-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative analysis on Korean manufacturing plants is performed by size of plants and sources of TFP growth are decomposed into entry, exit, and survival effects of plants, focusing on the pre- and post-crisis periods. Additional survival analyses investigate internal and external determinants of the survival of plants. The results indicate that the exit of small- and medium-sized establishments (SMEs) with higher productivity is becoming problematic in the post-crisis period. The improvements in large-scale establishments (LSEs) after the crisis appeared to occur generally in high-technology industrial sectors; SMEs in low-technology industries are suffering from a sluggish market selection process. ©2009 The Authors. Journal compilation ©2009 Japanese Economic Association.

  • 220.
    Oh, I.
    et al.
    Techno-Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Lee, J. -D
    Techno-Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Techno-Economics and Policy Program, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Total factor productivity in Korean manufacturing industries2008In: Global Economic Review, ISSN 1226-508X, E-ISSN 1744-3873, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 23-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, parametric and non-parametric methods are employed to measure the total factor productivity (TFP) growth in the Korean manufacturing industry from 1993 to 2003. The analysis period contains both periods before and after the Asian financial crisis. The TFP growth rate is decomposed into different components. Also different elasticities are reported. By classifying the results by period and classifying a number of time invariant firm characteristics, such as sector, size, and location of firms, we observe systematic heterogeneity for each characteristic. We discuss the underlying causal factors. The results from a non-parametric approach are also compared with those of a parametric approach. ©2008 Institute of East and West Studies, Yonsei University, Seoul.

  • 221.
    Oh, I.
    et al.
    Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shilim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Lee, J. -D
    Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shilim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, University of Kurdistan Hawler, Hawler, Federal Region of Kurdistan, Erbil, Iraq.
    Choi, G. -G
    School of Business Administration, Dongguk University, 26, Pil-dong 3-ga, Jung-gu, Seoul, South Korea.
    Evaluation of credit guarantee policy using propensity score matching2009In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 335-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we evaluate the effect of the credit guarantee policy by comparing a large sample of guaranteed firms and matched non-guaranteed firms from 2000 to 2003. The sample firms are compared with respect to growth rates of different performance indicators including: productivity, sales, employment, investment, R&D, wage level, and the survival of firms in the post crisis period. In order to avoid the selectivity problem, propensity score matching methodologies are adopted. Results suggest that credit guarantees influenced significantly firms’ ability to maintain their size, and increase their survival rate, but not to increase their R&D and investment and hence, their growth in productivity. Moreover, due to the adverse selection problem, firms with lower productivity were receiving guarantees. ©Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2008.

  • 222.
    Oh, I.
    et al.
    Korea Energy Economics Institute, 665-1, Naeson 2-dong, Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do 437-713, South Korea.
    Lee, J. -D
    Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program (TEMEP), Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Hwang, S.
    Science and Technology Policy Institute, Specialty Construction Center 26F/27F, Shindaebang-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-714, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program (TEMEP), Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Analysis of product efficiency in the Korean automobile market from a consumer’s perspective2010In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 119-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we develop and describe a conceptual and methodological framework to measure technical and allocative efficiency at the product level considering consumer choice, which encompasses overall efficiency. Empirically, we combined data envelopment analysis and a discrete choice model in order to measure efficiency levels. The suggested framework is applied to the Korean automobile market. The relationship between the level of efficiency and market performance is discussed in terms of market share. ©Springer-Verlag 2009.

  • 223.
    Oh, Inha
    et al.
    Konkuk University, South Korea.
    Oh, Seunghwan
    Science and Technology Policy Institute, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, South Korea.
    Lee, Jeong-Dong
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Can energy service companies promote ‘green’ growth?: The Korean case2016In: Energy and Environment, ISSN 0958-305X, E-ISSN 2048-4070, Vol. 27, no 3-4, p. 420-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate the performance of energy service companies with support from the Korean government. In particular, we focus on the amount and quality of jobs created by energy service company businesses. From the results, we can observe some characteristics of the Korean energy service company industry, which is very volatile with a high turnover rate for the participating firms. The dwindling profitability within the industry appears to be the main reason for the high turnover rate. However, some firms have accumulated the capacities and experiences of the industry and are enjoying monopolistic profits. Job creation for firms conducting energy service company business is higher compared to other similar firms in the same industries studied. However, the quality of newly created jobs measured by the wage level is lower, which by social planners is seen as a worrying trend.

  • 224.
    Okulski, Radoslaw
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Time Series Analysis of Global Airline Passengers Transportation Industry2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological developments and the global economic crisis are two types of developments that have affected the commercial airline industry in the last decade. This paper investigates time series analysis of the airline industry. The research has been conducted and is being presented, in a number of steps. First, a new, large database covering the global airline industry was assembled. Second, as part of the descriptive analysis of the industry and modeling a number of statistical tests are investigated. Third, the passenger airline transportation services models are estimated, to investigate their transportation entry and exit activities, as well as issues of heterogeneity and autocorrelation. Finally, we predict future developments within the industry. The empirical results are based on a large panel of 130 airlines observed monthly from January 2001 to April 2009. The airline produce two services of passenger and goods separately or jointly. The results show that specialized passenger companies cannot obtain sufficient revenues to stay at the market for long time. Airlines reduce costs through adding additional products. The worst performed joint service airlines¡¯ result of carrying passengers is much better than the result of specialized best practice airlines. In order to gain profit and improved survival rate, airlines specialized in passenger transportation must diversify their practice to carry both goods and passengers together.

  • 225. Rahimpoor, M.
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Ahmadizad, A.
    University of Kurdistan, Iran.
    A New Weighting Approach to Non-Parametric Composite Indices Compared with Principal Components Analysis2017In: International Journal of Industrial Mathematics, ISSN 2008-5621, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 59-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction of Human Development Index (HDI) by UNDP in early 1990 followed a surge in use of non-parametric and parametric indices for measurement and comparison of countries performance in development, globalization, competition, well-being and etc. The HDI is a composite index of three indicators. Its components are to reflect three major dimensions of human development: longevity, knowledge and access to resources represented by GDP per capita, educational attainment and life expectancy. In recent years additional gender and poverty aspects are included. A known example of the non-parametric index is the HDI, while Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Factor Analysis (FA) are among the parametric counterparts. The indices differ mainly in respect to weighting the indicators in their aggregation. The non-parametric index assumes the weights, while the parametric approach estimates them. In this research, it is aimed to purpose a new weighting approach to non-parametric indices when they are used simultaneous with principal components analysis.

  • 226.
    Rahimpoor, Mohammad
    et al.
    Kharazmi University, Iran.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, Sogang University, Korea.
    Ahmadizad, Arman
    University of Kurdistan, Iran.
    The effect of education on industrial development: Evidence from Iranian small industries2016In: International Journal of Business and Development Studies, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 25-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature show evidence that small manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) are understood as main source of technology development and employment creation. At the same time they are vulnerable to a number of restrictions such as access to finances, skilled labor and public support, while are exposed to high competition and suffer from low survival rate. This research aims to shed lights on the role that education play in the process of industrial and economic development of Iranian provinces. This research is conducted in a number of ways. First, a comprehensive literature review is conducted to gain experience from the national and international literature to identify the state-of-art research and important theories, methods and empirical results to shape the structure of this research and identify key data requirements. Second, the status of industrial infrastructure and distribution of firms by important characteristic of education is investigated. Comparison is made at the aggregate national level. Third, based on the literature findings and analysis of the industry structure, assemble a data set at the province level that is representative with good coverage of the industry sector. Also a composite Development Infrastructure Index for provinces with available ranks in mentioned component is calculated. Based on the findings, appropriate policy recommendations to improve the conditions of SMEs infrastructure and performance will purposed.

  • 227.
    Rupakhetee, Kiran
    et al.
    Purbanchal University, Nepal.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Rhetoric vs. realities in implementation of e-government master plan in Nepal2013In: Developing E-Government Projects: Frameworks and Methodologies / [ed] Zaigham Mahmood, Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2013, p. 368-393Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses different facets of implementation of e-government in Nepal. With the background theoretical information about e-government in general, the Nepalese case of e-government initiatives is discussed with a specific focus on the “e-government Master Plan.” Important pillars of any e-government initiatives, namely infrastructure, human resources, institutions, and policy and legal aspects are looked into from the perspective of feasibility of e-government implementation in Nepal. While doing so, Heeks’s e-government success/failure model has been taken into consideration accounting for different dimensions, namely information, technology, process, objectives and values, staffing and skills, management systems and structures, and other resources, which are responsible to create design reality gap thereby jeopardizing the success of e-government projects. This study is the first in the Nepalese perspective, which tries to analyze the constraints in e-government implementation resulted from shortcomings in infrastructure, human resources, institutions, and policy and legal aspects. The authors believe that failure of e-GMP to achieve targeted objectives by the end of 2011 can also be attributed to these factors. The insights inferred can be useful in facilitating a smoother implementation of the master plan related to e-government.

  • 228.
    Rupakhetee, Kiran
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Rhetorics vs. Realities in Implementation of e-Government Master Plan in Nepal2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses different facets of implementation of e-government in Nepal. With the background theoretical information about e-government in general, the Nepalese case of e-government initiatives is discussed with a specific focus on the “e-government Mater Plan”. Important pillars of any e-government initiatives, namely infrastructure, human resources, institutions, and policy and legal aspects are looked into from the perspective of feasibility in e-government implementation in Nepal. While doing so, Heeks’s e-government success/failure model has been taken into consideration accounting for different dimensions, namely information, technology, process, objectives and values, staffing and skills, management systems and structures, and other resources, which are responsible to create design reality gap thereby jeopardizing the success of e-government projects. This study is the first which tries to analyze the constraints in e-government implementation resulted from shortcomings in infrastructure, human resources, institutions, and policy and legal aspects. The knowledge can be useful in facilitating a smoother implementation of the master plan.

  • 229. Saggay, Ali
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Dhif, Mohamed Adel
    Effects of Trade Liberalization on Domestic Prices: Some Evidence from Tunisian Manufacturing2007In: International Review of Economics, ISSN 1865-1704, E-ISSN 1863-4613, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 148-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents estimates of the competitive effects of trade liberalization on domestic pricing behaviour of Tunisian manufacturing industries. The theoretical framework is based on a dynamic flexible adjustment model of price determination in a small open economy. It investigates the process of adjustment in price level toward a desired level. The adjustment process is both industrial and time-specific. The empirical results show that, in the long run, domestic price responds greatly to import penetration, followed by demand pressure. There was a negative effect from import competition on domestic price. Trade policy is a viable policy option to promote competitiveness.

  • 230.
    Su, B.
    et al.
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, 217, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, 217, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713, South Korea.
    Geng, Y.
    Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110016, China.
    Yu, X.
    Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110016, China.
    A review of the circular economy in China: Moving from rhetoric to implementation2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 42, p. 215-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular economy (CE) is a sustainable development strategy proposed by the central government of China, aiming to improve the efficiency of materials and energy use. This strategy, formally accepted in 2002, has been implemented and developed in a number of pilot areas in China. Scholars have produced rich studies in regard with the CE from its fundamental concept to its practical implementation. Successful enforcement of a CE can be seen as a way for China to tackle its urgent problem of environmental degradation and source scarcity. Given its importance, we provide a holistic literature review on the CE, aiming to provide a panorama of how this strategy has been developed and implemented. The review covers the concept, current practices, and assessment of the CE. To have a more numeric concept of how it has developed, we look at the performance of the CE in Dalian after its implementation of relevant policies and compare the changes with three other pilot cities, Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin. Based on an examination of the statistical results, we identified the underlying problems and challenges for this national strategy. Finally, we offer a conclusion regarding CE’s development as well as policy recommendations for future improvement. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 231.
    Su, Biwei
    et al.
    Korea University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Analysis of Gender Wage Differential in China’s Urban Labor Market2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates the gender wage gap and its composition in China’s urban labor market using the 2009 survey data from the Chinese Family Panel Studies. Several estimation and decomposition methods have been used and compared. First, we examine the gender wage gap using ordinary least square regression method with a gender dummy variable. Then, we apply Oaxaca (1973) decomposition method with different weighting systems to analyze the logarithmic wage differential. To be more specific, we prove the existence of sample selection bias caused by the female’s labor force participation. We eliminate it by using the Heckman’s two-step procedure. Empirical results reveal that male workers generally receive a higher wage than female workers, and a great deal of this difference is unexplained. Meanwhile, this unexplained part, which is usually referred to as discrimination turns out to be higher when the adjustment is made for the selection bias. A further breakdown of the wage gap shows that among all the individual characteristics, occupations explain the largest share of the wage gap, followed by their working experience. On the other hand, education acts as a contributor for discrimination in the labor market.

  • 232.
    Su, Biwei
    et al.
    Korea University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Analysis of the Determinants of Income and Income Gap between Urban and Rural China2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies on the determinants of income and urban-rural income gap to shed light on the problem of urban-rural income inequality in China. OLS, conditional quantile regression and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition methods are used to analyze four waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) household data. Results show that education and occupation are essential determinants of households’ income level. These two factors exert heterogeneous effects at different percentiles of the income distribution. In urban areas, education is more valued for high incomeearners, while for rural areas, specialized or tertiary education are more beneficial for the poorer households. Among all occupational types, farm activities show much lower returns than other types; and this is more evident for individuals at the left tail of the income distribution. We also find that for the sampled provinces, urban-rural income gap increases from the year of 2000 to 2004 but the gap decreases from 2004 to 2009. The income gap can be largely explained by the individuals’ attributes, especially by level of education and type of occupation.

  • 233.
    Su, Biwei
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, K526, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742, Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, K526, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742, Korea.
    Analysis Of The Determinants Of Income And Income Gap Between Urban And Rural China2013In: China Economic Policy Review, ISSN 1793-9690, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the determinants of income and urban–rural income gap to shed light on the problem of urban–rural income inequality in China. Ordinary least square (OLS), conditional quantile regression and Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition methods are used to analyze four waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) household data. Results show that education and occupation are essential determinants of households' income level. These two factors exert heterogeneous effects at different percentiles of income distribution. In urban areas, education is more valued for high income earners, while for rural areas, specialized or tertiary education are more beneficial for the poorer households. Among all occupational types, farm activities show much lower returns than other types; and this is more evident for individuals at the left tail of the income distribution. We also find that for the sampled provinces, urban–rural income gap increases from year 2000 to 2004 but the gap decreases from 2004 to 2009. The income gap can be largely explained by the individuals' attributes, especially by the level of education and type of occupation.

  • 234.
    Su, Biwei
    et al.
    Korea University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Development and Sources of Labor Productivity in Chinese Provinces2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As China exhibited unprecedented rapid economic growth ever since its reform and openness, the development and sources of labor productivity has gradually come to the forefront. This paper studies the development and the source of labor productivity in 31 Chinese provinces during the period of 2000-2009. The labor productivity is investigated through an examination at both the levels and the growth rate. Particularly, we first look at the production function relationship, to see the contribution of labor and other production factors to the gross domestic product. Then, a number of possible determinants are defined. They are regressed on the level and the growth rate of labor productivity to shed light on their relationships. Controlled for unobserved time-specific and province-specific effects, the fixed effects model with heteroskedasticity robust adjustments have been used for the estimation of three functions. Regional breakdown shows severe disparity in the economy where three municipal cities have the highest labor productivity among other regions. Subsequently, we summarize the different sources and their contributions to labor productivity and provide several policy suggestions.

  • 235.
    Su, Biwei
    et al.
    Korea University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Development and Sources of Labor Productivity in Chinese Provinces2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 236.
    Sun, Peng
    et al.
    Liaoning Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau (LNCIQ).
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    International Trade and its Effects on Economic Growth in China2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    International trade, as a major factor of openness, has made an increasingly significant contribution to economic growth. Chinese international trade has experienced rapid expansion together with its dramatic economic growth which has made the country to target the world as its market. This research discusses the role of international trade in China’s economic growth. It starts with a review of conceptions as well as the evolution of China’s international trade regime and the policy that China has taken in favor of trade sectors. In addition, China’s international trade performance is analyzed extensively. This research then evaluates the effects of international trade on China’s economic growth through examining improvement in productivity. Both econometric and non-parametric approaches are applied based on a 6-year balanced panel data of 31 provinces of China from 2002 to 2007. For the econometric approach, a stochastic frontier production function is estimated and province specific determinants of inefficiency in trade identified. For the non-parametric approach, the Divisia index of each province/region is calculated to be used as the benchmark. The study demonstrates that increasing participation in the global trade helps China reap the static and dynamic benefits, stimulating rapid national economic growth. Both international trade volume and trade structure towards high-tech exports result in positive effects on China’s regional productivity. The eastern region of China has been developing most rapidly while the central and western provinces have been lagging behind in terms of both economic growth and participation in international trade. Policy implications are drawn from the empirical results accordingly.

  • 237.
    Tatahi, Motasam
    et al.
    EBS Business School.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    The Financial and Operating Performance of Privatized Firms in Sweden2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the change in operating and financial performance of Swedish firms that were either partly or fully privatized during the period of 1989-2007. Two different methods are used to empirically investigate the performance of privatized firms. First, accounting data prior to and after the privatization are employed to measure the operating performance of privatized firms. We have found no significant difference in performances under state and private ownerships. Second, a return-based event study is found useful to measure the financial performance of privatized firms, since all the firms in the sample that were privatized have used an initial public offering (IPO). This approach allows comparison to the rest of the IPOs that were launched in the same period. It is found that the cumulative returns for the privatized firms are significantly different to private counterparts. Overall results, however, show that the privatization in Sweden was not as successful as it might have been expected and in comparison with those in other countries.

  • 238.
    Tausch, A.
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, University Austria, Austria.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Soran University, Iraq, and Department of Food and Resources Economics, Korea University, Seoul, 136-713, South Korea .
    Migration, openness and the global preconditions of ’smart development’2012In: Bogazici Journal, ISSN 1300-9583, Vol. 26, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a first empirical reflection on smart development,’ its measurement, possible drivers and bottlenecks.’ We first provide cross-national data on how much ecological footprint is used in the nations of the world system to deliver a given amount of democracy, economic growth, gender equality, human development, research and development, and social cohesion. To this end, we first developed UNDP-type performance indicators on these six main dimensions of development and on their combined performance. We then show the non-linear regression trade-offs between ecological footprints per capita on these six dimensions of development and their combined performance index. The residuals from these regressions are our new measures of smart development (a country experiences smart development, if it achieves a maximum development with a minimum of ecological footprint). We then look at the cross-national drivers and bottlenecks of this smart development and compare their predictive power using stepwise regression procedures. Apart from important variables and indicators, derived from sociological dependency and world systems theories, we also test the predictive power of several other predictors as well. Our estimates underline the enormous importance of the transfer of resources from the center to the periphery, brought about by migration, with huge statistical observed positive effects of received worker remittances on smart human development, Happy Life Years, smart gender justice, smart R&D, and both formulations of the smart development index.

  • 239.
    Tausch, A.
    et al.
    Corvinus University, Budapest, Hungary.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, East Building, #217, Seoul 136-713, South Korea.
    The effects of multinational corporation (MNC) penetration on the global political economy. A re-analysis of a recur-rent sociological proposition with contemporary data2012In: Sociológia (Bratislava), ISSN 0049-1225, E-ISSN 1336-8613, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 314-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay we reconsider the effects of direct foreign investments on the host countries around the globe. A number of sociological analyses (Bandelji 2009; Mahutga - Bandelji 2008), already applied such a question to Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Is the growing penetration of host countries of multinational investment heralding the promised gains of stable economic growth and social cohesion, or is social polarization around the corner instead? In our re-analysis with contemporary data of one of the most influential essays ever published in international sociology (Bornschier - Chase-Dunn - Rubinson 1978), which predicted that direct foreign investment would increase economic inequality and that it would have a short-term dynamic, but a long-term stagnation effect on the economic growth of the host countries (Bornschier - Chase-Dunn - Rubinson 1978: 651), we re-confirm the main thrust of the sceptical hypotheses on multinational corporation (MNC) penetration. We also show that on the global level and in the 183 countries analysed there is indeed a very strong connection between foreign capital penetration in the mid-1990s on the one hand and rising inequality, deficient life expectancy, rising unemployment, and a deficient under five mortality rate in the first decade of the new Millennium on the other. Economic growth in the contemporary period (2010) is also being determined negatively by the long-term effects of multinational corporation penetration in the mid-1990s, while in the period between 1990 and 2005 the effect was positive. We thus confirm that the approach, established by Bandelji 2009 and Mahutga and Bandelji 2008, is a valid one, and can be generalized on a global level.

  • 240.
    Tausch, A.
    et al.
    Corvinus University Budapest, Honorary Adjunct Department of Economics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University, Department of Food and Resource Economics, Seoul, South Korea.
    Worker remittances and the global preconditions of ’smart development’2013In: Society and Economy, ISSN 1588-9726, E-ISSN 1588-970X, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 25-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing environmental crisis affecting our globe, ideas to weigh economic or social progress by the ’energy input’ necessary to achieve it are increasingly gaining acceptance. This question is intriguing and is being dealt with by a growing number of studies, focusing on the environmental price of human progress. Even more intriguing, however, is the question of which factors of social organization contribute to a responsible use of the resources of our planet to achieve a given social result (’smart development’). In this essay, we present the first systematic study on how migration-or rather, more concretely, received worker remittances per GDP-helps the nations of our globe to enjoy social and economic progress at a relatively small environmental price. We look at the effects of migration on the balance sheets of societal accounting, based on the ’ecological price’ of the combined performance of democracy, economic growth, gender equality, human development, research and development, and social cohesion. Feminism in power, economic freedom, population density, the UNDP education index as well as the receipt of worker remittances all significantly contribute towards a ’smart overall development’, while high military expenditures and a high world economic openness are a bottleneck for ’smart overall development’.

  • 241.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Corvinus University in Budapest, Hungary, and Innsbruck University, Austria.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Globalization, the human condition and sustainable development in the twenty-first century: cross-national perspectives and European implications2012Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An examination of how the pro-globalist policies of the European Union have precipitated the current European crisis, especially in areas of development.

  • 242.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Innsbruck University, Austria.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Korea.
    Islamism and gender relations in the Muslim world as reflected in recent World Values Survey data2016In: Society and Economy, ISSN 1588-9726, E-ISSN 1588-970X, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 427-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since Goldin (1995) proposed the idea that there is a U-shaped female labor force participation rate function in economic development, empirical research is stunned by the question why the countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are characterized by such low rates of female labor force participation. This gap in labor economics research is all the more perplexing since gender equality, particularly in education and employment, signifi cantly contributes to economic growth. The research strategy of this paper is within a relatively new tradition in labor market research, initiated by Besamusca et al. (2015), which does not exclude the “religious factor” and what the authors call “gender ideology”. Our analysis of the “gender ideology” of Islamism and gender values is based on an empirical analysis of World Values Survey data. In recent economic theory, Carvalho (2013) maintained that Muslim veiling is a strategy for integration, enabling women to take up outside economic opportunities while preserving their reputation within the community. The empirical data clearly support a pessimistic view. We show that Muslim Feminism, which according to our analysis implies the rejection of Islamism and the veil, and the democracy movement in the Muslim world, are closely interrelated. Thus, it is imperative that Western Feminism develops solidarity with Muslim Feminism, and that labor economics stop excluding the religious factor from the analytical frameworks explaining low female labor force participation rates.

  • 243.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Innsbruck University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Labour migration and ‘Smart Public Health’2014In: History & Mathematics: Trends and Cycles / [ed] Leonid Grinin, Andrey Korotayev, Volgograd: ‘Uchitel’ Publishing House , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Public health research debates for two decades the effects of inequality on public health. More recent research also considered the additional effects of international trade and world economic openness. These investigations analyse public health outcomes in such terms as infant mortality rates, life expectancies, etc. But with the growing environmental crisis, ideas to weigh economic or social or public health progress by the ‘environmental input’ necessary to achieve it are increasingly gaining acceptance. We might call such a weighting of infant mortality rates, or life expectancies by the ‘environmental input’ necessary to achieve them ‘smart public health’. Which factors of social organization now contribute then to a responsible use of the resources of our planet Earth to achieve ‘smart public health’?

    We use standard OLS non-linear regressions of ecological footprints per capita and their square on combined public health performances. The residuals from this regression are our new measure of ‘smart public health’.

    Our research results suggest that not inequality, but migration is a very important determinant of ‘smart public health’. Migration sending countries find it relatively easy to enjoy combined good public health performances at a relatively small environmental price. Other drivers of ‘smart public health’ are the share of a country's population in world population, and the UNDP education index. The main bottleneck of ‘smart public health’ is constituted by the crowding-out effect of public education expenditures on smart health performance.

    In contrast to earlier research, we come to the conclusion that migration sending countries reap substantial benefits from receiving worker remittances, while inequality and globalization indicators hardly affect the smart public health performance of the sample countries (all countries with available data).

  • 244.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Corvinus Universit y, Budapest, and Innsbruck University, Austria.
    Heshmati, Almas
    College of Engineering, TE MEP, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shilim-dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul, 151-742 Seoul, South Korea.
    Learning from Dependency and World System Theory: Explaining Europe’s Failure in the ‘Lisbon Process’2010In: Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, ISSN 1303-5525, E-ISSN 1303-5525, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 3-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current paper investigates the cross-national relevance of Latin American ‘dependencia theory’ for five dimensions of development (democracy and human rights, environment, human development and basic human needs satisfaction, gender justice, redistribution, growth and employment) on a global scale and tries to confront the very basic pro-globalist assumptions of the ‘Lisbon process’, the predecessor of the ongoing EU-2020 strategy, which was the policy target of the European leaders since the EU’s Lisbon Council meeting in March 2000 to make Europe the leading knowledge-based economy in the world with a ‘Latin American perspective’. A realistic and politically useful analysis of the ‘Lisbon process’ has to be a ‘Schumpeterian’ approach. First, we analyze the ‘Lisbon performance’ of the world economy by multivariate, quantitative means, looking into the possible contradictions that might exists between the dependent insertion into the global economy and other goals of the ‘Lisbon process’. Dependency from the large, transnational corporations, as correctly predicted by Latin American social science of the 1960s and 1970s, emerges as one of the most serious development blockades, confronting Europe. Secondly, we analyze European regional performance since the 1990s in order to know whether growth and development in Europe spread evenly among the different regions of the continent. It emerges that dependency from the large transnational corporations is incompatible with a balanced, regional development. Finally, we discuss cross-national and historical lessons learned from the views of dependency and Schumpeterian perspectives for current policy-making in Europe, and opt for an industrial policy approach in the tradition of former EU-Commission President (1985-1995) Jacques Delors.

  • 245.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Innsbruck University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    Learning from Latin America’s Experience: Europe’s Failure in the “Lisbon Process”2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current paper investigates the cross-national relevance of Latin American “dependencia theory” for five dimensions of development (democracy and human rights, environment, human development and basic human needs satisfaction, gender justice, redistribution, growth and employment) on a global scale. It tries to confront the very basic pro-globalist assumptions of the “Lisbon process”, the policy target of the European leaders since the EU’s Lisbon Council meeting in March 2000 to make Europe the leading knowledge-based economy in the world with a “Latin American perspective”. A realistic and politically useful analysis of the “Lisbon process” has to be a “Schumpeterian” approach. First, we analyze the “Lisbon performance” of the world economy by multivariate, quantitative means, looking into the possible contradictions that might exists between the dependent insertion into the global economy and other goals of the “Lisbon process”. Dependency from the large, transnational corporations, as correctly predicted by Latin American social science of the 1960s and 1970s, emerges as one of the most serious development blockades, confronting Europe. Secondly, we analyze European regional performance since the 1990s in order to know whether growth and development in Europe spread evenly among the different regions of the continent. It emerges that dependency from the large transnational corporations is incompatible with a balanced, regional development. Finally, we discuss cross-national and historical lessons learned from the views of dependency and Schumpeterian perspectives for current policy-making in Europe, and opt for an industrial policy approach in the tradition of former EU-Commission President (1985-1995) Jacques Delors.

  • 246.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Corvinus University Budapest and Innsbruck University .
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Migration, Openness and the Global Preconditions of ‘Smart Development’2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we present a first empirical reflection on ‘smart development’, its measurement, possible ‘drivers’ and ‘bottlenecks’. We first provide cross-national data on how much ecological footprint is used in the nations of the world system to ‘deliver’ a given amount of democracy, economic growth, gender equality, human development, research and development, and social cohesion. To this end, we first developed UNDP-type performance indicators on these six main dimensions of development and on their combined performance. We then show the non-linear regression trade-offs between ecological footprints per capita on these six dimensions of development and their combined performance index. The residuals from these regressions are our new measures of smart development: a country experiences smart development, if it achieves a maximum of development with a minimum of ecological footprint. We then look at the cross-national drivers and bottlenecks of this ‘smart development’ and compare their predictive power using stepwise regression procedures. Apart from important variables and indicators, derived from sociological dependency and world systems theories, we also test the predictive power of several other predictors as well. Our estimates underline the enormous importance of the transfer of resources from the center to the periphery, brought about by migration, with huge statistical observed positive effects of received worker remittances on smart human development, Happy Life Years, smart gender justice, smart R&D, and both formulations of the smart development index.

  • 247.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Innsbruck University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    Re-Orient? MNC Penetration and Contemporary Shifts in the Global Political Economy2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses IMF estimates of economic growth in 180 countries (IMF, 2009),and links the results to the ¡°Re-orient¡± approach, put forward by Frank, 1998. With global economic gravitation shifting to the Indian Ocean/Pacific region, the article also analyses the role of MNC (foreign capital) penetration as the key variable of past quantitative dependency studies for contemporary economic growth and social performance. In a Schumpeterian fashion, MNC penetration reflects the power, which transnational oligopolies wield over local economies. Today, social polarization and stagnation increase as a consequence of the development model, based on high MNC penetration.

  • 248.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Innsbruck University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Re-Orient? Understanding Contemporary Shifts in the Global Political Economy2011In: Journal of Globalization Studies, ISSN 2075-8103, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 89-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the logic of the current global economic crisis by using the IMF estimates of economic growth in 180 countries (IMF 2009), and links the results to the ‘Re-Orient’ approach, put forward by Frank (1998). With global economic gravitation shifting to the Indian Ocean / Pacific region, the article also analyses the role of MNC (foreign capital) penetration as the key variable of past quantitative dependency studies for contemporary economic growth and social performance. In a Schumpeterian fashion, MNC penetration reflects the power, which transnational oligopolies wield over local economies. Today, social polarization and stagnation increase as a consequence of the development model, based on high MNC penetration.

  • 249. Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Social polarization in the age of globalization: the continued relevance of the quantitative dependency (Bornschier) model2011In: Globalizacja, europejska integracja a kryzys gospodarczy = Globalization, European integration and economic crisis / [ed] Jarosław Kundera, Wrocław: Instytut Nauk Ekonomicznych Wydziału Prawa, Administracji i Ekonomii Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego , 2011, p. 53-98Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 250.
    Tausch, Arno
    et al.
    Innsbruck University and Corvinus University of Budapest.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Testing an EU-Candidate’s Place on the Maps of Global Economic, Political and Social Values: The Case of Turkey2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the attempt by Alesina and Guiliano (2013) to measure global culture and to project these measurements onto real choropleth geographical world maps, we utilize the data from the World Values Survey (WVS) to arrive at robust measurement scales of global economic, political and social values and to assess Turkey’s place on them. Our study, which is based on 92,289 representative individuals with complete data in 68 countries, representing 56.89% of the global population, looks at hard-core economic values in the countries. From our new nine dimensions for the determination of the geography of human values, based on a promax factor analysis of the available data, we use six factor analytical scores to calculate a new Global Value Development Index, which combines: avoiding economic permissiveness; avoiding racism; avoiding distrust of the army and the press; avoiding the authoritarian character; tolerance and respect; and avoiding the rejection of the market economy and democracy. Our results show that the five best ranked countries are all western democracies. Our global value development index ranks Morocco twelfth - just behind the USA. Turkey is ranked 25, ahead of several EU member countries. But there are still considerable deficits concerning the liberal values components, which are very important for effective democracy, and there are very large regional differences, confirming the dictum by Huntington (1996) about Turkey as a torn country. The deficits suggest that the Turkish state, Turkish civil society and European decision makers would be well advised to continue to support civil society and secular democracy in Turkey.

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