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  • 201.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    McAuliffe, Tomomi
    James Cook University, Townsville, Qld, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Should schools expect poor physical and mental health, social adjustment, and participation outcomes in students with disability?2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 1-23, article id e0126630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on whether students with disabilities have worse physical and mental health, social adjustment, and participation outcomes when compared to their peers without disabilities is largely inconclusive. While the majority of case control studies showed significantly worse outcomes for students with disabilities; the proportion of variance accounted for is rarely reported. The current study used a population cross-sectional approach to determine the classification ability of commonly used screening and outcome measures in determining the disability status. Furthermore, the study aimed to identify the variables, if any, that best predicted the presence of disability. Results of univariate discriminant function analyses suggest that across the board, the sensitivity of the outcome/screening tools to correctly identify students with a disability was 31.9% higher than the related Positive Predictive Value (PPV). The lower PPV and Positive Likelihood Ratio (LR+) scores suggest that the included measures had limited discriminant ability (17.6% to 40.3%) in accurately identifying students at-risk for further assessment. Results of multivariate analyses suggested that poor health and hyperactivity increased the odds of having a disability about two to three times, while poor close perceived friendship and academic competences predicted disability with roughly the same magnitude. Overall, the findings of the current study highlight the need for researchers and clinicians to familiarize themselves with the psychometric properties of measures, and be cautious in matching the function of the measures with their research and clinical needs.

  • 202.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Passmore, Anne
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Black, Melissa
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Cuomo, Belinda
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Belongingness in Early Secondary School: Key Factors that Primary and Secondary Schools Need to Consider2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 9, article id e0136053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is unknown if, and how, students redefine their sense of school belongingness after negotiating the transition to secondary school. The current study used longitudinal data from 266 students with, and without, disabilities who negotiated the transition from 52 primary schools to 152 secondary schools. The study presents the 13 most significant personal student and contextual factors associated with belongingness in the first year of secondary school. Student perception of school belongingness was found to be stable across the transition. No variability in school belongingness due to gender, disability or household-socio-economic status (SES) was noted. Primary school belongingness accounted for 22% of the variability in secondary school belongingness. Several personal student factors (competence, coping skills) and school factors (low-level classroom task-goal orientation), which influenced belongingness in primary school, continued to influence belongingness in secondary school. In secondary school, effort-goal orientation of the student and perception of their school's tolerance to disability were each associated with perception of school belongingness. Family factors did not influence belongingness in secondary school. Findings of the current study highlight the need for primary schools to foster belongingness among their students at an early age, and transfer students' belongingness profiles as part of the handover documentation. Most of the factors that influenced school belongingness before and after the transition to secondary are amenable to change.

  • 203.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Passmore, Anne
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    The personal and contextual contributors to school belongingness among primary school students2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    School belongingness has gained currency among educators and school health professionals as an important determinant of adolescent health. The current cross-sectional study presents the 15 most significant personal and contextual factors that collectively explain 66.4% (two-thirds) of the variability in 12-year old students' perceptions of belongingness in primary school. The study is part of a larger longitudinal study investigating the factors associated with student adjustment in the transition from primary to secondary school. The study found that girls and students with disabilities had higher school belongingness scores than boys, and their typically developing counterparts respectively; and explained 2.5% of the variability in school belongingness. The majority (47.1% out of 66.4%) of the variability in school belongingness was explained by student personal factors, such as social acceptance, physical appearance competence, coping skills, and social affiliation motivation; followed by parental expectations (3% out of 66.4%), and school-based factors (13.9% out of 66.4%) such as, classroom involvement, task-goal structure, autonomy provision, cultural pluralism, and absence of bullying. Each of the identified contributors of primary school belongingness can be shaped through interventions, system changes, or policy reforms.

  • 204.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Centre for Research into Disability and Society, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, and School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Passmore, Anne Elizabeth
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Parkin, Timothy
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    School belongingness and mental health functioning across the primary-secondary transition in a mainstream sample: Multi-group cross-lagged analyses2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 6(e99576), p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between school belongingness and mental health functioning before and after the primary-secondary school transition has not been previously investigated in students with and without disabilities. This study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the bi-directional relationships between these constructs, by surveying 266 students with and without disabilities and their parents, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Cross-lagged multi-group analyses found student perception of belongingness in the final year of primary school to contribute to change in their mental health functioning a year later. The beneficial longitudinal effects of school belongingness on subsequent mental health functioning were evident in all student subgroups; even after accounting for prior mental health scores and the cross-time stability in mental health functioning and school belongingness scores. Findings of the current study substantiate the role of school contextual influences on early adolescent mental health functioning. They highlight the importance for primary and secondary schools to assess students' school belongingness and mental health functioning and transfer these records as part of the transition process, so that appropriate scaffolds are in place to support those in need. Longer term longitudinal studies are needed to increase the understanding of the temporal sequencing between school belongingness and mental health functioning of all mainstream students.

  • 205.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Centre for Research into Disability and Society, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Passmore, Anne Elizabeth
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    The impact of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence and mental health functioning across the primary-secondary school transition2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 1-13, article id e89874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students negotiate the transition to secondary school in different ways. While some thrive on the opportunity, others are challenged. A prospective longitudinal design was used to determine the contribution of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence (AC) and mental health functioning (MHF) of 266 students, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Data from 197 typically developing students and 69 students with a disability were analysed using hierarchical linear regression modelling. Both in primary and secondary school, students with a disability and from socially disadvantaged backgrounds gained poorer scores for AC and MHF than their typically developing and more affluent counterparts. Students who attended independent and mid-range sized primary schools had the highest concurrent AC. Those from independent primary schools had the lowest MHF. The primary school organisational model significantly influenced post-transition AC scores; with students from Kindergarten--Year 7 schools reporting the lowest scores, while those from the Kindergarten--Year 12 structure without middle school having the highest scores. Attending a school which used the Kindergarten--Year 12 with middle school structure was associated with a reduction in AC scores across the transition. Personal background factors accounted for the majority of the variability in post-transition AC and MHF. The contribution of school contextual factors was relatively minor. There is a potential opportunity for schools to provide support to disadvantaged students before the transition to secondary school, as they continue to be at a disadvantage after the transition.

  • 206.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Wilson, Nathan
    University of Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Sim, Angela
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Scott, Melissa
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjorn
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Factors associated with primary school teachers' attitudes towards the inclusion of students with disabilities2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1-12, article id e0137002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Teachers' attitudes toward inclusion are often based on the practical implementation of inclusive education rather than a specific ideology and understanding of inclusiveness. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with primary school teachers' attitudes towards inclusion of students with all disabilities in regular schools.

    Method

    Seventy four primary school teachers participated in a cross-sectional survey conducted in Western Australia. Teachers' attitudes and efficacy toward integration of students with disabilities were measured using the Opinions Relative to Integration of Students with Disabilities scale and Bandura's Teacher Efficacy scale respectively.

    Results

    Four teacher attributes-age, gender, teaching self-efficacy and training collectively explained 42% of the variability in teachers' attitude toward including students with disabilities.

    Conclusion

    The current study further contributes to the accumulation of knowledge that can unpack the complex pattern of factors that should be considered to promote positive attitudes towards inclusive schools.

  • 207.
    Wagman, Petra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Synen på balans i livet hos personer i yrkesverksam ålder2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stressrelaterad ohälsa ett stort problem som leder till enskilt lidande och stora kostnader. Stress kan ses som obalans mellan en individs krav och resurser. Tankar kring balans mellan olika delar av tillvaron har lång historia och aktualitet inom arbetsterapi. I FSA’s etiska kod är det ett filosofiskt grundantagande att ”Människans hälsa kräver en balans mellan aktivitet och vila”. ’Balans’ har tidigare undersökts ur olika perspektiv och  i olika populationer. Ingen studie har dock identifierats när det gäller en mer generell population. Studiens syfte är undersöka vad personer i yrkesverksam ålder, utan sjukskrivning >1månad i sträck inom två år, anser att ’balans i den dagliga tillvaron’ är och vilka faktorer som ses som mer eller mindre viktiga för att uppleva balans. För att söka svar på frågan vad ’balans i den dagliga tillvaron’ är genomförs kvalitativa intervjuer som analyseras enligt Grounded Theory (GT).  Deltagarna rekryteras via teoretiskt urval och datainsamling planeras pågå tills mättnad erhålls. De faktorer som framkommer i GT-analysen formuleras som påstående vilka undersöks genom Q-metodik. Deltagarna tar ställning till dessa påståenden genom viktning och svaren förs in i form av en normalfördelningskurva och analyseras statistiskt. Vissa intervjudeltagare ingår också i denna del av studien tillsammans med nyrekrytering via tillgänglighetsurval. Studien är pågående och förhoppningen är att ökad kunskap, om ’balans i den dagliga tillvaron’ kan bidra till att förbättra prevention för dem som upplever obalans i sin tillvaro och kanske riskerar sjukskrivning. Den ökade kunskapen kan också leda till mer anpassade åtgärder och rehabilitering av dem som drabbats av t.ex. stressrelaterad ohälsa.

     

  • 208.
    Wagman, Petra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Jacobsson, Christian
    Inst för psykologi, Göteborgs universitet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Perceptions of life balance among a working population in Sweden2011In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 410-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A life in balance is commonly related to health and well-being. However, our knowledge regarding the perceptions of life balance among the general population is limited. Our aim was to explore the perception of life balance among working people without recent long-term sick leave. Individual interviews were conducted with 7 men and 12 women and analyzed according to grounded theory, aiming at achieving a description. The results showed that life balance includes four interrelated dimensions: activity balance, balance in body and mind, balance in relation to others, and time balance. Life balance was regarded by the participants as health related, promoted by a sense of security, and affected by context and individual strategies. Life balance was also seen as being individually defined and dynamic. The results indicate that the perceptions of life balance might be quite general because they show similarities with previous research on different populations.

  • 209.
    Wagman, Petra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Lunds universitet.
    Jacobsson, Christian
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Likheter och skillnader i synen på vad som är viktigt för att uppleva livsbalans2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tema: Vardagsaktiviteter

    Stadier i livet: Vuxna

    Projekttyp: Forskningsarbete

    Bakgrund: Forskning har visat livsbalans som ett subjektivt, mångdimensionellt och hälsorelaterat begrepp. Ingen studie har dock undersökt vad människor ser som mer eller mindre viktigt för att uppleva balans i sitt liv eller om detta skiljer sig åt mellan människor.

    Syfte: Syftet är att utforska vad som anses viktigt för livsbalans och om detta skiljer sig åt mellan människor.

    Metod: Q metodologi användes och deltagarna var sexton män och sexton kvinnor. Samtliga var yrkesverksamma och i åldern 21-67 år. Varje deltagare sorterade 42 påståenden om livsbalans på en mall i enlighet med sin uppfattning om hur viktigt påståendet var för deras balans i livet. Deltagarnas mallar analyserades statistiskt, med faktoranalys och varimaxrotation, för att generera olika synsätt/faktorer.

    Resultat/preliminärt resultat: Både likheter och skillnader mellan deltagarna identifierades. Fyra olika synsätt framkom, dvs. liknande mönster av uppfattningar mellan några deltagare. I samtliga sågs dock goda relationer till de närmaste som mycket viktigt. Andra likheter identifierades också mellan vissa av synsätten och deltagarna i tre av dem ansåg det, till exempel viktigt att känna sig frisk och kry. Därutöver hade varje synsätt sitt unika perspektiv på vad som ansågs viktigt för livsbalans och de namngavs efter respektive perspektiv: ”aktivitetsbalans”, ”självförverkligande”, ”medvetenhet om egna behov” och ”ömsesidiga relationer”.

    Slutsats: Resultatet stöder att livsbalans är subjektivt, mångdimensionellt och hälsorelaterat även om det inte kan generaliseras. Det visar också på betydelsen av klientcentrering då det kan finnas skillnader mellan vad klienter ser som mer eller mindre betydelsefullt för sin livsbalans.

  • 210.
    Wagman, Petra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Jacobsson, Christian
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    What is considered important for life balance? Similarities and differences among some working adults2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 377-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life balance seems subjective, health related, and multidimensional. However, the concept is complex. Exploring what people themselves consider more or less important for their life balance and whether this differs between people would develop new knowledge. Q methodology was chosen for the present study, in which 32 working men and women without recent long-term sick leave participated. They sorted 42 statements regarding life balance according to their importance for each participant's life balance. The analysis resulted in four different viewpoints concerning life balance. All four viewpoints considered good relationships with those closest to them, as well as knowing that these people were doing well, as important. Each viewpoint also showed a unique orientation towards what was considered important for life balance: occupational balance (viewpoint 1), self-actualization (viewpoint 2), self-awareness (viewpoint 3), and reciprocal relationships (viewpoint 4). The results. showed support for life balance as being a subjective, multidimensional, and health-related phenomenon. The results demonstrated the importance of relationships for life balance and heterogeneity in what people considered important for their own life balance.

  • 211.
    Wagman, Petra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Matuska, Kathleen
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    The five dimensions in the Life Balance Model are empirically supported by Swedish participants2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The Life Balance Model by Matuska and Christiansen (2008) proposes that satisfaction of five needs (dimensions) is necessary for people to perceive life balance: basic instrumental needs; rewarding relationships; engagement and challenges; meaningfulness and positive identity; satisfactorily organization of time and energy.

    Aim: To validate the model dimensions by relating them to the perceptions of life balance from women recovering from stress related disorders and working men and women without recent long term sick leave.

    Methods: Secondary qualitative analyses of the two data sets (n 19 each) were conducted. Matrix analyses were used for comparing data with dimensions.

    Results: The results showed support for the five dimensions in the model as they were included in the perceptions of life balance from the two populations: women with stress related disorders and; working men and women.

    Conclusion: The dimensions in Life balance model were supported empirically by two different Swedish populations.

  • 212.
    Wagman, Petra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    Matuska, Kathleen
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Validating the model of lifestyle balance on a working Swedish population2012In: Journal of Occupational Science, ISSN 1442-7591, E-ISSN 2158-1576, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 106-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of data from a previously conducted grounded theory study exploring perceptions of life balance among 19 working adults without recent long term sick leave was carried out. The aim of this secondary analysis was to use these perceptions of life balance to validate the Model of Lifestyle Balance proposed by Matuska and Christiansen. For the validation, a matrix was used. The results showed that Matuska and Christiansen's five need-based dimensions were represented by the participants’ perceptions of life balance, but also an additional aspect not included in the model. The participants stressed healthy habits in relation to sleep, exercise and eating, and good relationships as important for life balance. Furthermore, it was described as important to perceive sufficient challenge and meaningfulness in their occupations and to organize time and energy. Finally, the participants stressed financial security as important for life balance. These findings provide additional evidence of the validity of the Model of Lifestyle Balance, a model that appears to be useful in occupational science.

  • 213.
    Wigston, Christine
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Participation in extracurricular activities for children with and without siblings with autism spectrum disorder2017In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 25-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To compare the number, frequency, enjoyment and performance in extracurricular activities of siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to their typically developing (TD) peers, and to identify differences between actual and desired participation.

    METHODS:

    A case-control study with 30 siblings of children with ASD and 30 siblings of TD children was conducted using the Paediatric Interest Profiles and a questionnaire.

    RESULTS:

    Siblings of children with ASD participated in fewer extracurricular activities than those with TD siblings. ASD symptoms were significantly associated with the sibling participating in fewer extracurricular activities. Children with TD siblings had higher enjoyment scores in relaxation activities than children with siblings with ASD.

    CONCLUSION:

    While results were mainly positive, some differences indicated that having a sibling with ASD may impact participation in extracurricular activities. Assessments of participation barriers, as well as support to minimise participation restrictions among siblings of children with ASD are required.

  • 214.
    Wretstrand, A
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Lövgren, A
    Petzäll, J
    Drivers' Creating Safe Special Transport Services: Issues of Safe Procedures and Safety Culture2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 215. Wretstrand, Anders
    et al.
    Bylund, Per-Olof
    Petzäll, Jan
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Injuries in special transport services: Situations and risk levels involving wheelchair users2010In: Medical Engineering and Physics, ISSN 1350-4533, E-ISSN 1873-4030, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 248-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that wheelchair-seated passengers using special transportation services (STS) have been injured without being involved in a vehicle crash. In order to estimate incident rate andsocietal costs for these vehicle-related injuries, the focus needs to be adjusted towards a traveler/incidentoriented perspective. The aim of the project was to utilize such a perspective, related to travelers using STS in Sweden. In order to address the chosen perspective, a mixed method approach was used, involving quantitative as well as qualitative research techniques applied on four different sets of data: one hospital-based record,two sets of STS incident report databases, and interviews with wheelchair-seated STS passengers. The results showed that the injury incidence rate in STS is considerable, i.e. 10 per 100,000 trips. However, this high incidence rate is not due to road traffic collisions, but to non-collision injury incidents involving many elderly and frail passengers, who easily sustain traumas ranging from minor to moderate. The costs were estimated to be 23 million USD per annum or 14 USD per trip. Results suggest that future injury prevention measures should focus on safety in boarding and alighting procedures, as well as thecontinuing development of WTORS.

     

  • 216. Wretstrand, Anders
    et al.
    Petzäll, Jan
    Bylund, Per-Olof
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Reducing non-collison injuries in special transportation services enhanced safety culture2010In: Medical Engineering and Physics, ISSN 1350-4533, E-ISSN 1873-4030, Vol. 32, p. 254-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has pointed out that non-collision injuries occur among wheelchair users in Special Transportation Services (STS – a demand-responsive transport mode). The organization of such modesis also quite complex, involving both stakeholders and key personnel at different levels. Our objectivewas therefore to qualitatively explore the state of safety, as perceived and discussed within a workplace context. Focus groups were held with drivers of both taxi companies and bus companies. The results indicated that passengers run the risk of being injured without being involved in a vehicle collision. The pertinent organizational and corporate culture did not prioritize safety. The drivers identifiedsome relatively clear-cut safety threats, primarily before and after a ride, at vehicle standstill. The driver’s work place seemed to be surrounded with a reactive instead of proactive structure. We conclude that not only vehicle and wheelchair technical safety must be considered in STS, butalso system safety. Instead of viewing drivers’ error as a cause, it should be seen as a symptom of systems failure. Human error is connected to aspects of tools, tasks, and operating environment. Enhanced understanding and influence of these connections within STS and accessible public transport systemswill promote safety for wheelchair users.

  • 217. Wretstrand, Anders
    et al.
    Svensson, Helena
    Fristedt, Sofi
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Older people and local public transit: Mobility effects of accessibility improvements in Sweden2009In: Journal of Transport and Land Use, ISSN 1938-7849, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 49-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several transportation factors concerning older and disabled people are under transition in Sweden at present. By the year 2010, the public transit system must be fully accessible for all passengers. The present survey studied older people, in order to assess the perceived travel opportunities. Questionnaires were sent to a sample of older citizens (75+) in three Swedish mid-sized municipalities. The general conclusions were that even though older people show appreciation of the existing travel opportunities, there was evidence for restricted mobility for some sub-groups of these older people, due to various perceived barriers. These groups have few optional modes, and despite various accessibility measures, special transportation services – the mandatory demand-responsive transport service – continues to provide crucial mobility. Hence, there is more to be done regarding accessibility and usability in public transit for older people. Further studies have to clarify reasons for bus travel cessation. Even larger efforts have to be put into accessibility improvements, in particular intermediate transit solutions in order to meet the regulations and policies.

2345 201 - 217 of 217
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