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  • 201. Sjörs, Anna
    et al.
    Larsson, Britt
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Physiological responses to low-force work and psychosocial stress in women with chronic trapezius myalgia.2009In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 10, p. 63-78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 202. Sommer, S M
    et al.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Bekiaris, A
    Panou, M
    Toward a Client-Centred Approach to Fitness-to-Drive Assessment in Elderly Drivers.2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 62-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 203. Sun, Q.
    et al.
    Xia, J.
    Foster, J.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Australia.
    Lee, H.
    Pursuing Precise Vehicle Movement Trajectory in Urban Residential Area Using Multi-GNSS RTK Tracking2017In: Transportation Research Procedia, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 25, p. 2361-2376Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Close-to-reality vehicle movement trajectory data can be useful in many transport and geography studies when precise vehicle localization or timing is required in the application. Vehicle kinematic tracking by GPS (Global Positioning System) varies in the data accuracy depending on some factors such as the receiver capability, satellites availability. Nevertheless, advanced positioning techniques offer possibilities to enhance the tracking data quality. In this paper, the high performance of multi-GNSS (multiple Global Navigation Satellite Systems) with Real-time Kinematic (RTK) solution was investigated aiming to pursue precise vehicle movement trajectory in an urban residential area of Australia. We systematically compared vehicle kinematic recordings between different positioning solutions by multi-GNSS and GPS-only approaches. Different elevation cut-off angles ranging from 5 - 35° were applied to simulate satellites' availability in different sky view conditions. The results showed that the multi-GNSS approach outperformed conventional GPS positioning in availability and positioning accuracy, and RTK solution at 10Hz generated ideal vehicle movement trajectory suitable for driving behaviours studies.

  • 204.
    Sun, Qian C.
    et al.
    Geospatial Science, School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Xia, Jianhong C.
    School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Foster, Jonathan
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    A psycho-Geoinformatics approach for investigating older adults’ driving behaviours and underlying cognitive mechanisms2018In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Safe driving constantly challenges the driver’s ability to respond to the dynamic traffic scene under space and time constraints. It is of particular importance for older drivers to perform sufficient visual and motor actions with effective coordination due to the fact of age-related cognitive decline. However, few studies have been able to integrate drivers’ visual-motor behaviours with environmental information in a spatial-temporal context and link to the cognitive conditions of individual drivers. Little is known about the mechanisms that underpin the deterioration in visual-motor coordination of older drivers.

    Development: Based on a review of driving-related cognitive decline in older adults and the context of driver-vehicle-environment interactions, this paper established a conceptual framework to identify the parameters of driver’s visual and motor behaviour, and reveal the cognitive process from visual search to vehicle control in driving. The framework led to a psycho-geoinformatics approach to measure older drivers’ driving behaviours and investigate the underlying cognitive mechanisms. The proposed data collection protocol and the analysis and assessments depicted the psycho-geoinformatics approach on obtaining quantified variables and the key means of analysis, as well as outcome measures.

    Conclusions: Recordings of the driver and their interactions with the vehicle and environment at a detailed scale give a closer assessment of the driver’s behaviours. Using geoinformatics tools in driving behaviours assessment opens a new era of research with many possible analytical options, which do not have to rely on human observations. Instead, it receives clear indicators of the individual drivers’ interactions with the vehicle and the traffic environment. This approach should make it possible to identify lower-performing older drivers and problematic visual and motor behaviours, and the cognitive predictors of risky driving behaviours. A better targeted regulation and tailored intervention programs for older can be developed by further research. 

  • 205.
    Sun, Qian C.
    et al.
    School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University, Australia.
    Xia, Jianhong C.
    Department of Spatial Sciences, Curtin University, Australia.
    Foster, Jonathan
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Australia.
    Driving manoeuvre during lane maintenance in older adults: Associations with neuropsychological scores2018In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 53, p. 117-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older drivers experience difficulties in lane maintenance under challenging driving sections due to age-related cognitive declines, yet there is little comprehensive evidence on associations between cognitive functions and the lane maintenance in this population. In this study, fifty older drivers completed an on-road driving assessment and a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Mean Lane Position (MLP), Standard Deviation of Lane Position (SDLP) and manoeuvre time calculated from precise vehicle movement trajectories were used as the lane maintenance parameters. The GNSS tracking vehicle movement presents comprehensive and reliable vehicle position data, which is more sensitive for detecting subtle variations of lane maintenance in older drivers. Statistical analysis results show that lower visual attention (selective and divided attention) was associated with higher MLP and SDLP; MLP was also correlated to spatial abilities, executive function, and motor speed; manoeuvre time was negatively correlated with drivers’ risk-taking personality (all p <.01). Selective attention was found to be the best predictor of MLP in lane maintenance. A combined eight variables from three neuropsychological tests, UFOV 2 and 3, BD and BJLO, D-KEFS TMT 1, 2, 3, and 4, correctly classified 80.4% of participants with good versus low-performing lane maintenance. 

  • 206.
    Sun, Qian C.
    et al.
    School of Science, RMIT University, Australia.
    Xia, Jianhong C.
    School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Curtin University, Australia.
    Foster, Jonathan
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Unpacking older drivers’ mobility at roundabouts: Their visual-motor coordination through driver–vehicle–environment interactions2019In: International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, ISSN 1556-8318, E-ISSN 1556-8334, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 627-638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While mobility and safety of older drivers are challenged by age-related cognitive changes, the increasingly complex road environment has placed a higher demand on their adaptability. Older drivers experience difficulties in regulating their operational level behaviors which rely on the second-to-second decision-making, e.g., using the visuospatial information to guide their steering. The roundabout maneuver is one of the critical scenarios for older drivers which requires efficient visual and motor coordination. Understanding older drivers’ visual-motor coordination at roundabouts will provide insights into the mobility and safety of older driver population, which is important yet to be explored. This paper contributes to new measurements in driving behavior through quantitative examinations on driver–vehicle–environment interactions. The drivers’ visual-motor coordination is conceptualized as a sequence of eye fixations coupling with the vehicle trajectory in a space–time path. The experimental data were from 38 older adults’ on-road driving recorded using context and location-aware enabled eye tracking and precise vehicle movement tracking. A visual-motor coordination composite indicator (VMCCI) was developed to measure the efficiency of visual-motor coordination in GIS based on the aggregate multiple parameters of visual and motor behaviors at entry, circulating and exit stage of a roundabout. The results show that the VMCCI is a sensitive indicator for identifying risky drivers, problematic road sections, problematic behaviors. Older drivers’ VMCCI was associated with the angle of deviation at roundabouts, particularly at the entry stage. Findings of this study have implications for actual roundabout designing practice, which will contribute to improve the safety of older drivers behind the wheel. 

  • 207.
    Sun, Qian C.
    et al.
    School of Science, RMIT University, Australia.
    Xia, Jianhong C.
    School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Curtin University, Australia.
    Li, Yongfu
    Institute of Architectural Design, Shanghai University, China.
    Foster, Jonathan
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Australia.
    Unpacking older drivers’ maneuver at intersections: Their visual-motor coordination and underlying neuropsychological mechanisms2018In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 58, p. 11-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Negotiating intersections is one of the principal concerns for older drivers as it requires precision and efficiency in visual-motor coordination (VMC). The complex intersection manoeuvre places high demands on visual perception, attention, motor control and executive functioning. Understanding the relationship between VMC and cognitive abilities in older drivers is important, but yet to be systematically explored.

    Methods: We recorded 38 older adults’ driving manoeuvre at intersections using eye tracking and advanced surveying positioning technologies. VCM performance of the participants were indexed using multiple parameters of visual and motor behaviors with a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. Participants also performed a battery of cognitive tests of visual attention, spatial abilities, visual-motor speed and executive functions.

    Results: Significant correlations were identified between VMC performance and eight cognitive measurements: UFOV 2 and 3, Block Design, Benton's JLO, D-KEFS TMT 1, 2, 3 and 4. Cognitive tests measuring selective attention, spatial ability and executive function were found to be the best predictors for VMC performance.

    Conclusions: Specific cognitive abilities in older drivers were associated with poorer VMC at intersections. VMC assessment can be used to identify risky older drivers and their problematic behaviors. In the future, tailored VMC evaluations and intervention programs may be developed to improve older drivers’ safety behind the wheel. 

  • 208.
    Sun, Qian (Chayn)
    et al.
    Department of Spatial Sciences, Curtin University, Australia.
    Odolinski, Robert
    School of Surveying, University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Xia, Jianhong (Cecilia)
    Department of Spatial Sciences, Curtin University, Australia.
    Foster, Jonathan
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Australia.
    Validating the efficacy of GPS tracking vehicle movement for driving behaviour assessment2017In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688, Vol. 6, p. 32-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle movement trajectory recorded by GPS maps the vehicle's lane position in time sequence, therefore theoretically can be used to assess driving behaviour. However, the data quality level which can be achieved for vehicle movement tracking by different GPS receivers and positioning techniques hasn't been fully explored and documented. This study systematically validated the efficacy of GPS recording vehicle movement using different types of receivers and positioning techniques. The receivers include both recreational and professional devices; the positioning techniques refer to Single Point Positioning (SPP), Differential GPS (DGPS) and Real-time kinematic (RTK) solutions. The field trials tested the positioning accuracy as well as the quality of trajectory tracking by comparing the recorded positions to benchmarks. The study findings indicate that vehicle movement trajectories recorded by recreational-grade GPS receivers can only match other spatial information at low resolution, which is limited to the assessment of wayfinding and navigation behaviour. In contrast, the SPP, DGPS and RTK techniques undertaken by professional receivers can raise horizontal accuracy to the metre, decimetre, and centimetre level respectively. For under open sky road driving, the RTK solution generated accurate and precise vehicle movement trajectories sufficient for extracting vehicle lane position, speed, acceleration/deceleration, so as to detect detailed driving events and quantitatively assess individual driver behaviour. This paper serves as a critical reference for other researchers on the different types of GPS receivers and solutions prior to engaging a GPS in their studies. © 2016 Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies.

  • 209.
    Sun, Qian (Chayn)
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Xia, Jianhong (Cecilia)
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Curtin University, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Investigating the spatial pattern of older drivers' eye fixation behaviour and associations with their visual capacity2016In: Journal of Eye Movement Research, E-ISSN 1995-8692, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual capacity generally declines as people age, yet its impact on the visual search patterns along sections of different road during actual driving still remains undocumented. This on-road driving study simultaneously recorded 30 older drivers' eye movement and precise vehicle movement trajectories. The vehicle positions were linked to every identified eye fixation for each individual driver, so that the locations of the driver's gaze origin in geo-spatial coordinates were obtained. Spatial distribution pattern of drivers' eye fixations were then mapped and analysed. In addition, the associations between older drivers' visual ca-pacity (processing speed, divided and selective attention) and their eye fixation patterns in various driving manoeuvres were investigated. The results indicate that driving scenarios have a significant impact on older drivers' visual patterns. Older drivers performed more frequent eye fixations at roundabouts, while they tended to fixate on certain objects for longer periods during straight road driving. The key findings show that the processing speed and divided attention of older drivers were associated with their eye fixations at complex right-turns; drivers with a lower capacity in selective attention performed less frequent eye fixations at roundabouts. This study has also demonstrated that visualisation and spatial sta-tistics are effective and intuitive approaches to eye movement analysis.

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  • 210.
    Sun, Qian (Chayn)
    et al.
    Department of Spatial Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Xia, Jianhong (Cecilia)
    Department of Spatial Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Nadarajah, Nandakumaran
    Department of Spatial Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Foster, Jonathan
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Assessing drivers' visual-motor coordination using eye tracking, GNSS and GIS: a spatial turn in driving psychology2016In: Journal of Spatial Science, ISSN 1449-8596, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 299-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle-driving in real traffic can be considered as a human-machine system involving not only the attribute of the vehicle movement but also the human visual perception, cognition and motion of the driver. The study of driving behaviours, therefore, would integrate information related to driver psychology, vehicle dynamics and road information in order to tackle research questions concerning driving safety. This paper describes a conceptual framework and an integrated GIS data model of a visual-motor coordination model (VMCM) to investigate drivers' driving behaviour via the combination of vision tracking and vehicle positioning. The eye tracker recorded eye fixations and duration on video images to exhibit the drivers' visual search pattern and the traffic scenes. Real-time kinematic (RTK) post-processing of multi-GNSS (global navigation satellite system) tracking generated the vehicle movement trajectory at centimeter-level accuracy, which encompasses precise lateral positioning and speed control parameters of driving behaviours. The eye fixation data were then geocoded and linked to the vehicle movement trajectory to represent the VMCM on the GIS platform. An implementation prototype of the framework and the VMCM for a study of older drivers is presented in this paper. The spatial-temporal visualisation and statistical analysis based on the VMCM data-set allow for a greater insight into the inherent variability of older drivers' visual search and motor behaviours. The research framework has demonstrated a discriminant and ecologically valid approach in driving behaviour assessment, which can also be used in studies for other cohort populations with modified driving scenarios or experiment designs.

  • 211.
    Tammimies, Kristiina
    et al.
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Division of Neuropsychiatry, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Li, Danyang
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Division of Neuropsychiatry, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Rabkina, Ielyzaveta
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Division of Neuropsychiatry, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Stamouli, Sofia
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Division of Neuropsychiatry, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Becker, Martin
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Division of Neuropsychiatry, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Nicolaou, Veronika
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Division of Neuropsychiatry, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Berggren, Steve
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Division of Neuropsychiatry, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Coco, Christina
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Division of Neuropsychiatry, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Division of Neuropsychiatry, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Choque-Olsson, Nora
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Division of Neuropsychiatry, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Bölte, Sven
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Division of Neuropsychiatry, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden, and Curtin Autism Research Group, School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Bentley, Australia.
    Association between copy number variation and response to social skills training in Autism Spectrum Disorder2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 9810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Challenges in social communication and interaction are core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) for which social skills group training (SSGT) is a commonly used intervention. SSGT has shown modest and heterogeneous effects. One of the major genetic risk factors in ASD is rare copy number variation (CNV). However, limited information exists whether CNV profiles could be used to aid intervention decisions. Here, we analyzed the rare genic CNV carrier status for 207 children, of which 105 received SSGT and 102 standard care as part of a randomized clinical trial for SSGT. We found that being a carrier of rare genic CNV did not have an impact on the SSGT outcome measured by the parent-report Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). However, when stratifying by pathogenicity and size of the CNVs, we identified that carriers of clinically significant and large genic CNVs (>500 kb) showed inferior SRS outcomes at post-intervention (P = 0.047 and P = 0.036, respectively) and follow-up (P = 0.008 and P = 0.072, respectively) when adjusting for standard care effects. Our study provides preliminary evidence that carriers of clinically significant and large genic CNVs might not benefit as much from SSGT as non-carriers. Our results indicate that genetic information might help guide the modifications of interventions in ASD. 

  • 212.
    Tammimies, Kristiina
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Danyang
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rabkina, Ielyzaveta
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stamouli, Sofia
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Becker, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nicolaou, Veronika
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berggren, Steve
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Coco, Christina
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University, Australia.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Choque-Olsson, Nora
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bölte, Sven
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Association between rare copy number variation and response to social skills training in autism spectrum disorder2018In: bioRxivArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Challenges in social communication and interaction are core symptoms in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) for which social skills group training (SSGT) is a commonly used intervention. SSGT has shown modest but heterogeneous effects in clinical trials, and therefore identification of effect moderators could enable more precise intervention decisions. One of the major genetic risk factors in ASD are rare copy number variation (CNV). However, limited information exists whether rare CNVs profiles can be used to aid in intervention decisions. Therefore, we conducted the first study to date analyzing rare CNVs as genetic moderators in the outcome of SSGT in ASD. For this, we analyzed rare genic CNV carrier status of 207 children of which 105 received SSGT and 102 standard care as part of a recent randomized clinical trial for 12-weeks SSGT. We used mixed linear models to assess the association of being a CNV carrier, grouped by the effect and size of the CNVs and the primary response to SSGT, the parent-report Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) measured at post-intervention and 3-months follow-up. Additionally, we analyzed the secondary outcome assessments included parent-rated adaptive behaviors (ABAS-II) and trainer-rated clinical global impression (CGI). We show that being a carrier of any size rare genic CNV did not impact on the SSGT outcome. However, when stratifying the groups by size of the CNVs, we identified that carriers of large CNVs (>500 kb) showed inferior SRS outcomes at post-intervention (β = 15.35, 95% CI 2.86-27.84, P=0.017) and follow-up (β = 14.19, 95% CI 1.68-26.70, P=0.028). Similar results were shown for the parent-rated secondary outcome. In contrast, the carriers of small CNVs had better outcome at post-intervention (β = -1.20, 95 % CI -2.0 - -0.4 P = 0.003) but not at follow-up for the trainer-rated secondary outcome CGI. These results remained when we tested the specificity of the effect by including the standard care group and adjusting for IQ levels. While our study suggests that being a carrier of any size rare genic CNV did not impact the outcome, it provides preliminary evidence that carriers of high-risk CNVs might not benefit on SSGT as much as non-carriers. Our results indicate that genetic information eventually might help guide personalized intervention planning in ASD. We additionally highlight that more research is needed to understand the intervention needs of autistic individuals with specified molecular alterations.

  • 213.
    Tang, Julia
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Horlin, Chiara
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Face recognition and visual search strategies in autism spectrum disorders: Amending and extending a recent review by Weigelt et al.2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1-19, article id e0134439Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this review was to build upon a recent review by Weigelt et al. which examined visual search strategies and face identification between individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing peers. Seven databases, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, ERIC, Medline, Proquest, PsychInfo and PubMed were used to locate published scientific studies matching our inclusion criteria. A total of 28 articles not included in Weigelt et al. met criteria for inclusion into this systematic review. Of these 28 studies, 16 were available and met criteria at the time of the previous review, but were mistakenly excluded; and twelve were recently published. Weigelt et al. found quantitative, but not qualitative, differences in face identification in individuals with ASD. In contrast, the current systematic review found both qualitative and quantitative differences in face identification between individuals with and without ASD. There is a large inconsistency in findings across the eye tracking and neurobiological studies reviewed. Recommendations for future research in face recognition in ASD were discussed.

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  • 214.
    Taylor, Susan
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    McCutcheon, Sara
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    McLean, Belinda
    School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Jacoby, Peter
    Population Sciences, Telethon Kids Institute, Perth, Australia.
    Carey, Leeanne
    School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Elliott, Catherine
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Haptic exploratory procedures of children and youth with and without cerebral palsy2019In: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, ISSN 0194-2638, E-ISSN 1541-3144, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 337-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Compare haptic exploratory procedures (EPs) and exploratory movements (EMs) of children. This study also tested the interrater reliability of a novel digital recording method.

    Methods: Participants were 31 children with typical development (TD) (aged 6 years 1 month to 15 years 9 months; 14 male) and 23 children with spastic unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) (aged 6 years to 15 years 5 months; 13 males; right hemiplegia, n = 12).

    Results: There were no statistically significant differences between groups for expected EP (p =.15), additional EPs (p =.78), or EMs (p =.69) but there was for mean duration of exploration (p <.001) and accuracy (p <.001). This suggests that although children with CP performed similar haptic EPs for each object as children with TD, they took more time and were less accurate in their identification. There was substantial agreement between the two raters' observations of expected EP, κ =.64, p <.0005.

    Conclusion: Children with CP performed similar haptic EPs as their TD peers. However, despite similarities, the results indicate that for children with CP manual ability was not the primary determinant of accuracy or speed of identification. This study provides evidence for a reliable method of recording haptic EPs. 

  • 215.
    Taylor, Susan
    et al.
    Faculty of Computing Health and Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    McLean, B.
    School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy and Social work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Carey, L.
    Neurorehabilitation and Recovery, The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Melbourne, Australia.
    Girdler, S.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Elliott, C.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Blair, E.
    Population Sciences, Telethon Kids Institute, Perth, Australia.
    Does somatosensation change with age in children and adolescents? A systematic review.2016In: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 809-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Somatosensory modalities, such as touch, proprioception and haptic ability, greatly influence the achievement of developmental milestones for children. Describing somatosensory impairment, natural variability and typical or expected developmental changes across age groups will help establish frameworks for intervention in clinical populations. This systematic review aimed to determine how different somatosensory modalities develop across childhood into adolescence to use as a point of reference for children at risk of somatosensory impairment.

    METHODS: Searches of five electronic databases were undertaken through EBSCO-host (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus and ERIC) for studies measuring at least one somatosensory modality in typically developing individuals between birth and 18 years and analysed by age. Characteristics of studies were collected including country of origin, sample size, demographics and outcome measure used. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed by two independent reviewers.

    RESULTS: Twenty three cross-sectional studies were included from a total of 188 articles retrieved: 8 examined aspects of touch, 5 proprioception and 10 haptic ability. Variability of study designs and variation in assessment tools precluded any formal meta-analysis.

    CONCLUSIONS: Somatosensation matures through childhood into adolescence; however, the present review found the pattern of somatosensory development varied depending on the assessment tool used and the aspect of somatosensation being measured, making it difficult to describe typical performance. There is a need for comprehensive assessment batteries to measure the somatosensation, including touch, proprioception and haptic ability, of children at risk of somatosensory impairment to aid in the development of effective interventions.

  • 216.
    Taylor, Susan
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Department of Paediatric Rehabilitation, Perth Children's Hospital, Australia.
    McLean, Belinda
    School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia, Department of Paediatric Rehabilitation, Perth Children's Hospital, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Australia.
    Carey, Leeanne M.
    School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Population Sciences, Telethon Kids Institute, Australia.
    Elliott, Catherine
    Department of Paediatric Rehabilitation, Perth Children's Hospital, Australia.
    Blair, Eve
    Population Sciences, Telethon Kids Institute, Australia.
    Assessing body sensations in children: Intra-rater reliability of assessment and effects of age2019In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 82, no 3, p. 179-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: This article examines the effect of age and gender on somatosensory capacity for children and adolescents, and provides preliminary normative data and reliability for the SenScreen © Kids, a new standardised measure of touch, wrist position sense and haptic object recognition.

    Method: A cross-sectional study of 88 typically developing children aged 6–15 years (mean 10.3 years; SD 2.6 years) was used to determine the developmental effects of age and gender on somatosensory capacity. Intra-rater reliability was assessed in 22 of the 88 participants at two time points (mean 8.8 years; SD 2.6 years).

    Results: Statistically significant differences were observed between age groups for tactile discrimination, wrist position sense and haptic object recognition, but not for touch registration for which all except one participant achieved a maximum score. There was no effect of gender. Three of four SenScreen Kids subtests demonstrated good intra-rater agreement between time points.

    Conclusions: Somatosensory capacity increased with age for typically developing children aged 6–15 years. Three subtests of the SenScreen Kids demonstrated good intra-rater reliability with typically developing children. Further investigation of reliability is required, and all subtests require psychometric testing with clinical populations.

  • 217.
    Thompson, C.
    et al.
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Perth, Australia.
    McDonald, J.
    Counselling and Disability Services, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Kidd, T.
    School of Psychology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Perth, Australia.
    Bölte, S.
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Perth, Australia.
    Girdler, S.
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Perth, Australia.
    "I don't want to be a patient": Peer mentoring partnership fosters communication for autistic university students2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite recognition of the benefits of post-school education in improving life outcomes for autistic adults their university completion rates remain low.

    Aim: To explore the experiences of undergraduate autistic university students participating in specialist peer mentoring (SPM) to identify active ingredients in the peer mentoring process and to examine the impact of SPM on social communication.

    Material and method: A total of 30 (8 female; M age = 22.3; SD = 6.7) undergraduate autistic university students engaged in SPM participated in this study. A quantitative pre-test post-test design examined changes in autistic traits. In parallel, the experiences of participating in SPM were explored through semi-structured interviews.

    Results: Improvements were noted at post-test on the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 total score p = 0.02), and its Social Communication, (p = 0.03) and Social Motivation (p = 0.03) sub-scales. Four themes emerged from the interviews: Developing Partnership and Understanding, Modelling and Practising Communication, Psychological Support and Grading and Planning Skills.

    Conclusions: These results indicated that the mentor-mentee partnership was a crucial active ingredient of SPM. This partnership appeared to modify social cognition and motivation for autistic university students through modelling and practising communication.

    Significance: These results demonstrate that SPM can support participation at university for autistic university students.

  • 218.
    Thompson, Craig
    et al.
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Long Pocket, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Bölte, Sven
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Long Pocket, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Long Pocket, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Long Pocket, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    To be understood: Transitioning to adult life for people with Autism Spectrum Disorder2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 3, article id e0194758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to explore the viewpoints of parents of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in relation to their child's transition to adulthood.

    Methods: Data were collected during four structured focus groups with 19 parents of young people with ASD with average to high intellectual capacities. Condensed meaning units were identified and checked during focus groups, and were subsequently linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    Results: Three major themes emerged: to be understood, to understand the world and to succeed. The ICF domains of activity and participation and environmental factors emerged as having the greatest potential to influence transition outcomes.

    Conclusions: Policies and services should focus on strengths to maximise participation in higher education, employment and independent living amongst young people with ASD. Interventions targeting environmental factors could be effective in improving participation in adult life. Person-centred and individualised approaches could further complement this approach supporting the transition to adulthood for people with ASD, ultimately improving outcomes in adulthood. 

  • 219.
    Thompson, Craig
    et al.
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC) , Long Pocket, Brisbane , Queensland , Australia.
    Bölte, Sven
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC) , Long Pocket, Brisbane , Queensland , Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC) , Long Pocket, Brisbane , Queensland , Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC) , Long Pocket, Brisbane , Queensland , Australia.
    Viewpoints on how students with autism can best navigate university.2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 294-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Despite recognition of the challenges faced by students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) there is limited understanding of the barriers and facilitators to participation in major life areas, such as being a university student.

    AIM/OBJECTIVE:

    This research aimed to examine viewpoints on what affects the success of Australian university students with ASD.

    MATERIAL AND METHOD:

    Q-methodology was used to describe the viewpoints of university students with ASD, their parents and their mentors, on success at university for students with ASD. A total of 57 participants completed the Q-sort.

    RESULTS/FINDINGS:

    Three viewpoints emerged; Individualised Support, Contextual Support and Social Support.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    This study highlighted that supports need to be individualized to the barriers and facilitators faced by Australian students with ASD. Supports also need to be contextualized to the built and social environments of universities.

    SIGNIFICANCE:

    This study supports the premise that environmental interventions can be effective in facilitating participation in major life areas, such as university education. Peer mentoring for students with ASD may have utility for this group, but should be extended to include social, emotional and psychological support.

  • 220.
    Thompson, Melanie
    et al.
    Curtin University.
    Elliott, Catherine
    Curtin University.
    Willis, Claire
    University of Western Australia.
    Ward, Roslyn
    University of Western Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University.
    Gubbay, Anna
    University of Western Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University.
    Can, Want and Try: Parents’ Viewpoints Regarding the Participation of Their Child with an Acquired Brain Injury2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 7, article id e0157951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background 

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a leading cause of permanent disability, currently affecting 20,000 Australian children. Community participation is essential for childhood development and enjoyment, yet children with ABI can often experience barriers to participation. The factors which act as barriers and facilitators to community participation for children with an ABI are not well understood. 

    Aim

    To identify the viewpoints of parents of children with an ABI, regarding the barriers and facilitators most pertinent to community participation for their child. 

    Methods 

    Using Q-method, 41 parents of children with moderate/severe ABI sorted 37 statements regarding barriers and facilitators to community participation. Factor analysis identified three viewpoints. 

    Results 

    This study identified three distinct viewpoints, with the perceived ability to participate decreasing with a stepwise trend from parents who felt their child and family "can" participate in viewpoint one, to "want" in viewpoint two and "try" in viewpoint three. 

    Conclusions 

    Findings indicated good participation outcomes for most children and families, however some families who were motivated to participate experienced significant barriers. The most significant facilitators included child motivation, supportive relationships from immediate family and friends, and supportive community attitudes. The lack of supportive relationships and attitudes was perceived as a fundamental barrier to community participation. 

    Significance 

    This research begins to address the paucity of information regarding those factors that impact upon the participation of children with an ABI in Australia. Findings have implications for therapists, service providers and community organisations.

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  • 221.
    Ting Chee, Derserri Y.
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Yeung Lee, HoeChung
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Patomella, Ann-Helen
    Department of Neurobiology, Care science and Society, Division of Occupational Therapy, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    The visual search patterns of drivers with Autism Spectrum Disorders in complex driving scenarios2019In: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 14, article id 100597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Driving is a highly demanding task which presents itself with various unpredictable and potentially hazardous situations. The failure to visually scan the driving environment and strategically search for potential road hazards, can be considered as unsafe driving practices. Little is known about how licensed drivers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) visually scan the roads while driving. The present study assessed the visual scanning and fixation patterns of drivers with and without ASD during a simulated drive.

    Methods: Twenty-eight licensed drivers between the age of 18–40 years old, including 14 drivers with ASD (male = 13) driving at least 2 h per week participated in a simulated drive with 14 matched controls. Psychometric profiles and visual scanning patterns on various objects of interest were analysed between groups.

    Results: Drivers with ASD were found to fixate and spend significantly more time focusing on the central visual field and less time scanning where hazards potentially emerge. They also tended to allocate less visual attention on social stimuli (i.e., involving a person), and failed to stop in time at the red lights. Psychometric profiles confirmed poorer visual scanning and motor processing speed but less risk-taking behaviour in drivers with ASD.

    Conclusion: Licensed drivers with ASD were found to allocate visual attention differently compared to licensed drivers without ASD. Poor scanning patterns with an over-focus on the road ahead and less scanning of the road side and periphery may possibly result in unsafe driving. However, risk-taking behaviour was not prevalent in these drivers. Effective visual scanning strategies could be incorporated in the driver training of individuals with ASD. 

  • 222.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Boyes, Mark
    School of Psychology, Speech Pathology Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Joosten, Annette
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Is using the strengths and difficulties questionnaire in a community sample the optimal way to assess mental health functioning?2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 0144039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important characteristic of a screening tool is its discriminant ability or the measure's accuracy to distinguish between those with and without mental health problems. The current study examined the inter-rater agreement and screening concordance of the parent and teacher versions of SDQ at scale, subscale and item-levels, with the view of identifying the items that have the most informant discrepancies; and determining whether the concordance between parent and teacher reports on some items has the potential to influence decision making. Cross-sectional data from parent and teacher reports of the mental health functioning of a community sample of 299 students with and without disabilities from 75 different primary schools in Perth, Western Australia were analysed. The study found that: a) Intraclass correlations between parent and teacher ratings of children's mental health using the SDQ at person level was fair on individual child level; b) The SDQ only demonstrated clinical utility when there was agreement between teacher and parent reports using the possible or 90% dichotomisation system; and c) Three individual items had positive likelihood ratio scores indicating clinical utility. Of note was the finding that the negative likelihood ratio or likelihood of disregarding the absence of a condition when both parents and teachers rate the item as absent was not significant. Taken together, these findings suggest that the SDQ is not optimised for use in community samples and that further psychometric evaluation of the SDQ in this context is clearly warranted.

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  • 223.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    McAuliffe, Tomomi
    James Cook University, Townsville, Qld, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Should schools expect poor physical and mental health, social adjustment, and participation outcomes in students with disability?2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 1-23, article id e0126630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on whether students with disabilities have worse physical and mental health, social adjustment, and participation outcomes when compared to their peers without disabilities is largely inconclusive. While the majority of case control studies showed significantly worse outcomes for students with disabilities; the proportion of variance accounted for is rarely reported. The current study used a population cross-sectional approach to determine the classification ability of commonly used screening and outcome measures in determining the disability status. Furthermore, the study aimed to identify the variables, if any, that best predicted the presence of disability. Results of univariate discriminant function analyses suggest that across the board, the sensitivity of the outcome/screening tools to correctly identify students with a disability was 31.9% higher than the related Positive Predictive Value (PPV). The lower PPV and Positive Likelihood Ratio (LR+) scores suggest that the included measures had limited discriminant ability (17.6% to 40.3%) in accurately identifying students at-risk for further assessment. Results of multivariate analyses suggested that poor health and hyperactivity increased the odds of having a disability about two to three times, while poor close perceived friendship and academic competences predicted disability with roughly the same magnitude. Overall, the findings of the current study highlight the need for researchers and clinicians to familiarize themselves with the psychometric properties of measures, and be cautious in matching the function of the measures with their research and clinical needs.

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  • 224.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Passmore, Anne
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Black, Melissa
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Cuomo, Belinda
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Belongingness in Early Secondary School: Key Factors that Primary and Secondary Schools Need to Consider2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 9, article id e0136053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is unknown if, and how, students redefine their sense of school belongingness after negotiating the transition to secondary school. The current study used longitudinal data from 266 students with, and without, disabilities who negotiated the transition from 52 primary schools to 152 secondary schools. The study presents the 13 most significant personal student and contextual factors associated with belongingness in the first year of secondary school. Student perception of school belongingness was found to be stable across the transition. No variability in school belongingness due to gender, disability or household-socio-economic status (SES) was noted. Primary school belongingness accounted for 22% of the variability in secondary school belongingness. Several personal student factors (competence, coping skills) and school factors (low-level classroom task-goal orientation), which influenced belongingness in primary school, continued to influence belongingness in secondary school. In secondary school, effort-goal orientation of the student and perception of their school's tolerance to disability were each associated with perception of school belongingness. Family factors did not influence belongingness in secondary school. Findings of the current study highlight the need for primary schools to foster belongingness among their students at an early age, and transfer students' belongingness profiles as part of the handover documentation. Most of the factors that influenced school belongingness before and after the transition to secondary are amenable to change.

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  • 225.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Passmore, Anne
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    The personal and contextual contributors to school belongingness among primary school students2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    School belongingness has gained currency among educators and school health professionals as an important determinant of adolescent health. The current cross-sectional study presents the 15 most significant personal and contextual factors that collectively explain 66.4% (two-thirds) of the variability in 12-year old students' perceptions of belongingness in primary school. The study is part of a larger longitudinal study investigating the factors associated with student adjustment in the transition from primary to secondary school. The study found that girls and students with disabilities had higher school belongingness scores than boys, and their typically developing counterparts respectively; and explained 2.5% of the variability in school belongingness. The majority (47.1% out of 66.4%) of the variability in school belongingness was explained by student personal factors, such as social acceptance, physical appearance competence, coping skills, and social affiliation motivation; followed by parental expectations (3% out of 66.4%), and school-based factors (13.9% out of 66.4%) such as, classroom involvement, task-goal structure, autonomy provision, cultural pluralism, and absence of bullying. Each of the identified contributors of primary school belongingness can be shaped through interventions, system changes, or policy reforms.

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  • 226.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Centre for Research into Disability and Society, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, and School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Passmore, Anne Elizabeth
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Parkin, Timothy
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    School belongingness and mental health functioning across the primary-secondary transition in a mainstream sample: Multi-group cross-lagged analyses2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 6(e99576), p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between school belongingness and mental health functioning before and after the primary-secondary school transition has not been previously investigated in students with and without disabilities. This study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the bi-directional relationships between these constructs, by surveying 266 students with and without disabilities and their parents, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Cross-lagged multi-group analyses found student perception of belongingness in the final year of primary school to contribute to change in their mental health functioning a year later. The beneficial longitudinal effects of school belongingness on subsequent mental health functioning were evident in all student subgroups; even after accounting for prior mental health scores and the cross-time stability in mental health functioning and school belongingness scores. Findings of the current study substantiate the role of school contextual influences on early adolescent mental health functioning. They highlight the importance for primary and secondary schools to assess students' school belongingness and mental health functioning and transfer these records as part of the transition process, so that appropriate scaffolds are in place to support those in need. Longer term longitudinal studies are needed to increase the understanding of the temporal sequencing between school belongingness and mental health functioning of all mainstream students.

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  • 227.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Centre for Research into Disability and Society, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Passmore, Anne Elizabeth
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    The impact of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence and mental health functioning across the primary-secondary school transition2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 1-13, article id e89874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students negotiate the transition to secondary school in different ways. While some thrive on the opportunity, others are challenged. A prospective longitudinal design was used to determine the contribution of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence (AC) and mental health functioning (MHF) of 266 students, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Data from 197 typically developing students and 69 students with a disability were analysed using hierarchical linear regression modelling. Both in primary and secondary school, students with a disability and from socially disadvantaged backgrounds gained poorer scores for AC and MHF than their typically developing and more affluent counterparts. Students who attended independent and mid-range sized primary schools had the highest concurrent AC. Those from independent primary schools had the lowest MHF. The primary school organisational model significantly influenced post-transition AC scores; with students from Kindergarten--Year 7 schools reporting the lowest scores, while those from the Kindergarten--Year 12 structure without middle school having the highest scores. Attending a school which used the Kindergarten--Year 12 with middle school structure was associated with a reduction in AC scores across the transition. Personal background factors accounted for the majority of the variability in post-transition AC and MHF. The contribution of school contextual factors was relatively minor. There is a potential opportunity for schools to provide support to disadvantaged students before the transition to secondary school, as they continue to be at a disadvantage after the transition.

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  • 228.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Wilson, Nathan
    University of Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Sim, Angela
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Scott, Melissa
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjorn
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Factors associated with primary school teachers' attitudes towards the inclusion of students with disabilities2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1-12, article id e0137002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Teachers' attitudes toward inclusion are often based on the practical implementation of inclusive education rather than a specific ideology and understanding of inclusiveness. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with primary school teachers' attitudes towards inclusion of students with all disabilities in regular schools.

    Method

    Seventy four primary school teachers participated in a cross-sectional survey conducted in Western Australia. Teachers' attitudes and efficacy toward integration of students with disabilities were measured using the Opinions Relative to Integration of Students with Disabilities scale and Bandura's Teacher Efficacy scale respectively.

    Results

    Four teacher attributes-age, gender, teaching self-efficacy and training collectively explained 42% of the variability in teachers' attitude toward including students with disabilities.

    Conclusion

    The current study further contributes to the accumulation of knowledge that can unpack the complex pattern of factors that should be considered to promote positive attitudes towards inclusive schools.

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  • 229.
    Wagman, Petra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Synen på balans i livet hos personer i yrkesverksam ålder2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stressrelaterad ohälsa ett stort problem som leder till enskilt lidande och stora kostnader. Stress kan ses som obalans mellan en individs krav och resurser. Tankar kring balans mellan olika delar av tillvaron har lång historia och aktualitet inom arbetsterapi. I FSA’s etiska kod är det ett filosofiskt grundantagande att ”Människans hälsa kräver en balans mellan aktivitet och vila”. ’Balans’ har tidigare undersökts ur olika perspektiv och  i olika populationer. Ingen studie har dock identifierats när det gäller en mer generell population. Studiens syfte är undersöka vad personer i yrkesverksam ålder, utan sjukskrivning >1månad i sträck inom två år, anser att ’balans i den dagliga tillvaron’ är och vilka faktorer som ses som mer eller mindre viktiga för att uppleva balans. För att söka svar på frågan vad ’balans i den dagliga tillvaron’ är genomförs kvalitativa intervjuer som analyseras enligt Grounded Theory (GT).  Deltagarna rekryteras via teoretiskt urval och datainsamling planeras pågå tills mättnad erhålls. De faktorer som framkommer i GT-analysen formuleras som påstående vilka undersöks genom Q-metodik. Deltagarna tar ställning till dessa påståenden genom viktning och svaren förs in i form av en normalfördelningskurva och analyseras statistiskt. Vissa intervjudeltagare ingår också i denna del av studien tillsammans med nyrekrytering via tillgänglighetsurval. Studien är pågående och förhoppningen är att ökad kunskap, om ’balans i den dagliga tillvaron’ kan bidra till att förbättra prevention för dem som upplever obalans i sin tillvaro och kanske riskerar sjukskrivning. Den ökade kunskapen kan också leda till mer anpassade åtgärder och rehabilitering av dem som drabbats av t.ex. stressrelaterad ohälsa.

     

  • 230.
    Wagman, Petra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Jacobsson, Christian
    Inst för psykologi, Göteborgs universitet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Perceptions of life balance among a working population in Sweden2011In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 410-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A life in balance is commonly related to health and well-being. However, our knowledge regarding the perceptions of life balance among the general population is limited. Our aim was to explore the perception of life balance among working people without recent long-term sick leave. Individual interviews were conducted with 7 men and 12 women and analyzed according to grounded theory, aiming at achieving a description. The results showed that life balance includes four interrelated dimensions: activity balance, balance in body and mind, balance in relation to others, and time balance. Life balance was regarded by the participants as health related, promoted by a sense of security, and affected by context and individual strategies. Life balance was also seen as being individually defined and dynamic. The results indicate that the perceptions of life balance might be quite general because they show similarities with previous research on different populations.

  • 231.
    Wagman, Petra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Lunds universitet.
    Jacobsson, Christian
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Likheter och skillnader i synen på vad som är viktigt för att uppleva livsbalans2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tema: Vardagsaktiviteter

    Stadier i livet: Vuxna

    Projekttyp: Forskningsarbete

    Bakgrund: Forskning har visat livsbalans som ett subjektivt, mångdimensionellt och hälsorelaterat begrepp. Ingen studie har dock undersökt vad människor ser som mer eller mindre viktigt för att uppleva balans i sitt liv eller om detta skiljer sig åt mellan människor.

    Syfte: Syftet är att utforska vad som anses viktigt för livsbalans och om detta skiljer sig åt mellan människor.

    Metod: Q metodologi användes och deltagarna var sexton män och sexton kvinnor. Samtliga var yrkesverksamma och i åldern 21-67 år. Varje deltagare sorterade 42 påståenden om livsbalans på en mall i enlighet med sin uppfattning om hur viktigt påståendet var för deras balans i livet. Deltagarnas mallar analyserades statistiskt, med faktoranalys och varimaxrotation, för att generera olika synsätt/faktorer.

    Resultat/preliminärt resultat: Både likheter och skillnader mellan deltagarna identifierades. Fyra olika synsätt framkom, dvs. liknande mönster av uppfattningar mellan några deltagare. I samtliga sågs dock goda relationer till de närmaste som mycket viktigt. Andra likheter identifierades också mellan vissa av synsätten och deltagarna i tre av dem ansåg det, till exempel viktigt att känna sig frisk och kry. Därutöver hade varje synsätt sitt unika perspektiv på vad som ansågs viktigt för livsbalans och de namngavs efter respektive perspektiv: ”aktivitetsbalans”, ”självförverkligande”, ”medvetenhet om egna behov” och ”ömsesidiga relationer”.

    Slutsats: Resultatet stöder att livsbalans är subjektivt, mångdimensionellt och hälsorelaterat även om det inte kan generaliseras. Det visar också på betydelsen av klientcentrering då det kan finnas skillnader mellan vad klienter ser som mer eller mindre betydelsefullt för sin livsbalans.

  • 232.
    Wagman, Petra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Jacobsson, Christian
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    What is considered important for life balance? Similarities and differences among some working adults2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 377-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life balance seems subjective, health related, and multidimensional. However, the concept is complex. Exploring what people themselves consider more or less important for their life balance and whether this differs between people would develop new knowledge. Q methodology was chosen for the present study, in which 32 working men and women without recent long-term sick leave participated. They sorted 42 statements regarding life balance according to their importance for each participant's life balance. The analysis resulted in four different viewpoints concerning life balance. All four viewpoints considered good relationships with those closest to them, as well as knowing that these people were doing well, as important. Each viewpoint also showed a unique orientation towards what was considered important for life balance: occupational balance (viewpoint 1), self-actualization (viewpoint 2), self-awareness (viewpoint 3), and reciprocal relationships (viewpoint 4). The results. showed support for life balance as being a subjective, multidimensional, and health-related phenomenon. The results demonstrated the importance of relationships for life balance and heterogeneity in what people considered important for their own life balance.

  • 233.
    Wagman, Petra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Matuska, Kathleen
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    The five dimensions in the Life Balance Model are empirically supported by Swedish participants2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The Life Balance Model by Matuska and Christiansen (2008) proposes that satisfaction of five needs (dimensions) is necessary for people to perceive life balance: basic instrumental needs; rewarding relationships; engagement and challenges; meaningfulness and positive identity; satisfactorily organization of time and energy.

    Aim: To validate the model dimensions by relating them to the perceptions of life balance from women recovering from stress related disorders and working men and women without recent long term sick leave.

    Methods: Secondary qualitative analyses of the two data sets (n 19 each) were conducted. Matrix analyses were used for comparing data with dimensions.

    Results: The results showed support for the five dimensions in the model as they were included in the perceptions of life balance from the two populations: women with stress related disorders and; working men and women.

    Conclusion: The dimensions in Life balance model were supported empirically by two different Swedish populations.

  • 234.
    Wagman, Petra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    Matuska, Kathleen
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Validating the model of lifestyle balance on a working Swedish population2012In: Journal of Occupational Science, ISSN 1442-7591, E-ISSN 2158-1576, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 106-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of data from a previously conducted grounded theory study exploring perceptions of life balance among 19 working adults without recent long term sick leave was carried out. The aim of this secondary analysis was to use these perceptions of life balance to validate the Model of Lifestyle Balance proposed by Matuska and Christiansen. For the validation, a matrix was used. The results showed that Matuska and Christiansen's five need-based dimensions were represented by the participants’ perceptions of life balance, but also an additional aspect not included in the model. The participants stressed healthy habits in relation to sleep, exercise and eating, and good relationships as important for life balance. Furthermore, it was described as important to perceive sufficient challenge and meaningfulness in their occupations and to organize time and energy. Finally, the participants stressed financial security as important for life balance. These findings provide additional evidence of the validity of the Model of Lifestyle Balance, a model that appears to be useful in occupational science.

  • 235.
    Wigston, Christine
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Participation in extracurricular activities for children with and without siblings with autism spectrum disorder2017In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 25-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To compare the number, frequency, enjoyment and performance in extracurricular activities of siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to their typically developing (TD) peers, and to identify differences between actual and desired participation.

    METHODS:

    A case-control study with 30 siblings of children with ASD and 30 siblings of TD children was conducted using the Paediatric Interest Profiles and a questionnaire.

    RESULTS:

    Siblings of children with ASD participated in fewer extracurricular activities than those with TD siblings. ASD symptoms were significantly associated with the sibling participating in fewer extracurricular activities. Children with TD siblings had higher enjoyment scores in relaxation activities than children with siblings with ASD.

    CONCLUSION:

    While results were mainly positive, some differences indicated that having a sibling with ASD may impact participation in extracurricular activities. Assessments of participation barriers, as well as support to minimise participation restrictions among siblings of children with ASD are required.

  • 236.
    Wretstrand, A
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Lövgren, A
    Petzäll, J
    Drivers' Creating Safe Special Transport Services: Issues of Safe Procedures and Safety Culture2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 237. Wretstrand, Anders
    et al.
    Bylund, Per-Olof
    Petzäll, Jan
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Injuries in special transport services: Situations and risk levels involving wheelchair users2010In: Medical Engineering and Physics, ISSN 1350-4533, E-ISSN 1873-4030, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 248-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that wheelchair-seated passengers using special transportation services (STS) have been injured without being involved in a vehicle crash. In order to estimate incident rate andsocietal costs for these vehicle-related injuries, the focus needs to be adjusted towards a traveler/incidentoriented perspective. The aim of the project was to utilize such a perspective, related to travelers using STS in Sweden. In order to address the chosen perspective, a mixed method approach was used, involving quantitative as well as qualitative research techniques applied on four different sets of data: one hospital-based record,two sets of STS incident report databases, and interviews with wheelchair-seated STS passengers. The results showed that the injury incidence rate in STS is considerable, i.e. 10 per 100,000 trips. However, this high incidence rate is not due to road traffic collisions, but to non-collision injury incidents involving many elderly and frail passengers, who easily sustain traumas ranging from minor to moderate. The costs were estimated to be 23 million USD per annum or 14 USD per trip. Results suggest that future injury prevention measures should focus on safety in boarding and alighting procedures, as well as thecontinuing development of WTORS.

     

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  • 238. Wretstrand, Anders
    et al.
    Petzäll, Jan
    Bylund, Per-Olof
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Reducing non-collison injuries in special transportation services enhanced safety culture2010In: Medical Engineering and Physics, ISSN 1350-4533, E-ISSN 1873-4030, Vol. 32, p. 254-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has pointed out that non-collision injuries occur among wheelchair users in Special Transportation Services (STS – a demand-responsive transport mode). The organization of such modesis also quite complex, involving both stakeholders and key personnel at different levels. Our objectivewas therefore to qualitatively explore the state of safety, as perceived and discussed within a workplace context. Focus groups were held with drivers of both taxi companies and bus companies. The results indicated that passengers run the risk of being injured without being involved in a vehicle collision. The pertinent organizational and corporate culture did not prioritize safety. The drivers identifiedsome relatively clear-cut safety threats, primarily before and after a ride, at vehicle standstill. The driver’s work place seemed to be surrounded with a reactive instead of proactive structure. We conclude that not only vehicle and wheelchair technical safety must be considered in STS, butalso system safety. Instead of viewing drivers’ error as a cause, it should be seen as a symptom of systems failure. Human error is connected to aspects of tools, tasks, and operating environment. Enhanced understanding and influence of these connections within STS and accessible public transport systemswill promote safety for wheelchair users.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT02
  • 239. Wretstrand, Anders
    et al.
    Svensson, Helena
    Fristedt, Sofi
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Older people and local public transit: Mobility effects of accessibility improvements in Sweden2009In: Journal of Transport and Land Use, ISSN 1938-7849, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 49-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several transportation factors concerning older and disabled people are under transition in Sweden at present. By the year 2010, the public transit system must be fully accessible for all passengers. The present survey studied older people, in order to assess the perceived travel opportunities. Questionnaires were sent to a sample of older citizens (75+) in three Swedish mid-sized municipalities. The general conclusions were that even though older people show appreciation of the existing travel opportunities, there was evidence for restricted mobility for some sub-groups of these older people, due to various perceived barriers. These groups have few optional modes, and despite various accessibility measures, special transportation services – the mandatory demand-responsive transport service – continues to provide crucial mobility. Hence, there is more to be done regarding accessibility and usability in public transit for older people. Further studies have to clarify reasons for bus travel cessation. Even larger efforts have to be put into accessibility improvements, in particular intermediate transit solutions in order to meet the regulations and policies.

  • 240.
    Zhou, Heng
    et al.
    School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Xia, Jianhong
    School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Norman, Richard
    School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Hughes, Brett
    Department of Transport, Perth, Australia.
    Nikolova, Gabi
    Department of Transport, Perth, Australia.
    Kelobonye, Keone
    School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Du, Kai
    School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Do air passengers behave differently to other regional travellers? A travel mode choice model investigation2019In: Journal of Air Transport Management, ISSN 0969-6997, E-ISSN 1873-2089, Vol. 79, article id 101682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to investigate travel mode choices and behaviours of air passengers and community respondents in regional Western Australia. Multinomial logit and Nested logit models were used for the mode choice analysis based on Stated-Preference survey data. The results indicate that travel cost, journey time, service frequency and seat comfort played important roles in affecting travellers' mode choices. For business trips, air passengers are willing to pay more to reduce journey time and increase seat comfort and service frequency compared to community respondents. While for non-business trips, these differences were much smaller. The findings will provide some insights in understanding people's mode choice behaviours and therefore guide policy makers and airlines in developing policies and practice. 

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