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  • 201.
    Bema, Judith
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Lundgren, Kristina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Malmsten, Ewa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Does the Winner Take it All?: A Case Study on Entrepreneurs' Motivation in an Innovation Competition2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Confronted with an increasing diversity of social and global challenges, innovation competitions become an increasingly important tool to spur innovation amongst entrepreneurs.

    Based on a case study on three finalists of the Wendy Schmidt Oil Clean-Up XChallenge, this thesis aims to investigate what factors motivate entrepreneurs to take part in an innovation competition. Due to the fact that four years after the closure of the challenge nine out of ten finalists were still actively in the oil clean-up business, the authors further investigate on what the main motivational factors for continuing business after participation in an innovation competition are.

    Data was collected via in-depth interviews and analysed by applying the model of entrepreneurial motivation by Naffiziger, Hornsby and Kuratko (1994) as well as Gimeno, Folta, Cooper and Woo’s (1997) threshold model. Further, the authors conducted a case study on the finalists of the Wendy Schmidt Oil Clean-Up XChallenge, which was an innovation competition, initiated by the XPrize Foundation in 2010. The competition was a reaction to the BP oil spill disaster in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010 and aimed for finding better and more efficient oil clean-up solutions. Ten finalists were selected to test their inventions at one of the world’s largest testing facilities for oil spill clean-up technology.

    The findings suggest that the motivators for participation in an innovation competition include a desire for increased publicity and reputation, as well as the opportunity to test the technology. It was also found that factors such as the goal of the organisation and the perception of one’s product and business idea play key roles in the decision to participate in an innovation competition. Furthermore, the research shows that the business environment and a need for achievement influence the decision to partake.

    With regards to the motivational factors that encourage sustained entrepreneurship after participating in an innovation competition, it was found that the correlation between expectations, both regarding the outcome and the implementation process, upon entering the competition and the actual outcome, does not have a large impact upon whether operations are continued after the innovation competition has ended. Instead, it was found that the main motives for continuing operations are a strong psychic attachment to the business, as well as high costs of switching to another area of commerce.

  • 202.
    Bengtsberg, Viking
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Bergström, Anders
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Fäldt, Jonas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Swedish SMEs' Export Experience: What did they learn and how did they use it in China2008Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The authors have noticed that during the last couple of years the interest about China has grown not only as an attractive market for production but also as a consumer market. A limited amount of books and articles have been written about SMEs entering the Chinese consumer market and even fewer articles have been written about Swedish SMEs entering China to sell their products. This is what caught the author’s attention of writing this thesis.

    Sweden has for a long time been good at exporting to other countries. Now when the Chi-nese market has opened up to western companies there are a lot of potential on this market that is estimated to be one of the largest in the world. There are still differences between China and other market not at least the culture. But as time and globalisation goes on the Chinese people learn how to react to the new world of companies from the west that tries to get its share of the highly attractive Chinese market.

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate how previous experience and knowledge af-fected the long-term establishment on the Chinese market for the selected Swedish SMEs. Also the knowledge that was obtained when entered China that made the establishment possible was investigated.

    By interviewing four Swedish small and medium sized companies that have managed to export their products to China and also managed to stay there the authors have gotten to a better understanding of the process of export and the different knowledge's that the com-panies gets in this process of internationalisation. By also interviewing a consultant with a long experience of Chinese-Swedish relations and doing business with China the authors have got a good picture of the issues of today’s SMEs trying to export to China.

    The analysis revealed that the single most important aspect of making a successful long-term establishment on the Chinese market is the commitment the company can give. It is crucial in order to gain crucial connections and to provide the necessary service that is de-manded by the Chinese customers.

  • 203.
    Bengtsson, Martin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Wallström, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Accounting and disclosure of football player registrations: Do they present a true and fair view of the financial statements?: A study of Top European Football Clubs2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The game of football has transformed from just being a game into a huge economic market attracting investors from all over the world. As clubs spend more and more money on player acquisitions, player registrations (considered intangible assets) now represent a significant part of the total assets of major European football clubs. Due to this, treatment of player registrations has become a significant accounting issue.

    The purpose is to analyze and compare from the perspective of an investor, how a sample of European football clubs account and disclose values of player registrations. The purpose aim to answer the questions how and what kind of information each club discloses on their financial statements. Also, are current accounting procedures and disclosure harmonized, and do they present a true and fair view of top European clubs financial status.

    A descriptive case study was the most appropriate as it aims to answer the questions “how” and “why”. A sample selection filter was set in the beginning of the process together with the research questions. The final sample was set to be: Arsenal FC, Manchester United, Borussia Dortmund, Juventus FC and FC Porto. The purpose of the selection filter was to get a study both fair on economical as well as competitive sports level. Primary data consist of information from annual financial reports, and in order to enhance validity, interviews with professionals have been conducted and used. 

    Findings show similarities as well as differences in disclosure and treatment of football player registrations. All clubs meet the minimum requirements from IAS 38 and UEFA. However, how and what kind of information each clubs disclose differ substantially and due to lack of valuation models and the possibility to capitalize home-grown players and free agents, the value of player registrations is not presented in a true and fair view.

  • 204.
    Bengtsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Nagel, Ron
    JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    Nguyen, An
    JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    Value Creation in Buyouts: Value-enhancement practices of private equity firms with a hands-on approach2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

    Swedish private equity firms have demonstrated a historical success in the buyout industry. However, current trends in the industry such as institutional changes, phenomenon of capital overhang and an influx of new entrants have intensified competition among buyout firms. To maintain the expected high gains, private equity firms must actively create values for their portfolio companies. The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze how private equity firms with a hands-on approach add value to the companies under management.

    A literature review on value-creation by private equity firms was conducted. The valuecreation methods were classified by the authors under the four themes: governance engineering, financial engineering, operational engineering, and strategic redirections. In order to collect the empirical data, the authors chose an inductive approach, used semi-structured interviews with representatives from five private equity firms.

    The results show that the studied firms undertake to a large extent similar actions when it comes to corporate governance and financial engineering. With governance engineering, the firms attempt to strengthen the portfolio companies’ governance system through proper

    due diligence, the appointment of a competent and independent board of directors, an appropriate and deep management incentive program, establishment of a close relationship with management, and periodic management reports. The key to efficient governance is to give the portfolio firms 100% focus on operational and strategic issues in the board meetings. All but one firm use significant debt to lever the buyouts as it is evident that the pressure of debt repayment incentivizes management to better handle scarce capital.

    Operational engineering and strategic redirection are the two themes in which the firms mainly distinguish themselves. Operational engineering largely concerns running operation more efficiently through a combination of cost-cuttings (divestment of non-profitable

    product and customer, outsourcing, centralizing purchases) and higher revenue growth (finding new markets, providing more after-sale service, extending product range). Strategic redirection incorporates the focus on core competences, making strategic decisions about investments, divestments, and add-on acquisitions.

    There have been differences in actions taken by the studied firms. Factors that could affect the behavior of private equity firms are the type of companies acquired, the firm size, their perception of risk and reward regarding a particular action, as well as years of experiences in the industry. There is no common timeframe for actions taken by the studied firms. Nevertheless, all firms emphasize the importance of implementing fundamental changes in the early years of the investments.

  • 205.
    Beniamin, Agnes
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Kadic, Selma
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    A study of CEO bonus transparency among leading banks in EU2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 206.
    Berg, Rebecca
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Rydberg Rajala, Malin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Impact of negative announcements on share prices: - A quantitative study of two Swedish companies2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Accounting fraud is a common problem in the society and the number of accounting frauds has increased enormously during the last decade. This issue affects a lot of stakeholders in a negative way, such as investors, employees and competitors. Especially, there will be an impact on the investors of the involved company already from the announcement of the fraud in the form of negative changes in share prices. In addition, a negative reputation of a company can have negative effects on the company's auditing firm. It has been argued that the possible consequences of accounting fraud need to be investigated further, in order to see the whole picture of the damages caused by this. Therefore, this study enhances the research field about consequences of accounting fraud by investigating if announcements connected to accounting fraud affect share prices of companies that operate in the same industry sector and are audited by the same auditing firm as the company involved in the announcement. The study chooses to examine this question from an investor´s point of view by investigating announcements of two Swedish companies, namely Prosolvia and Eniro. The study uses the event study methodology, and more specifically the market model, to answer the research questions. The study finds no statistically significant results for that the share prices of companies connected to Prosolvia and Eniro should be negatively affected or differently affected because of having the same auditing firm as the company involved in the announcement.

  • 207.
    Bergeling, Gustav
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Binadam, Zulkiflee
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Material Supply Chain in the Construction Industry2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to understand the reason behind why it occurs a large number of pickups each year in the construction industry. In the case company alone, it occurs 160 000 pickups per year and an estimated loss of 50 MSEK. This thesis will try to investigate and explain why the pickups occur, and also what the underlying factors are that could influence the number of pickups.

    Methodology

    The data in the thesis was collected from semi-structured interviews with eight employees within the case company. We chose to interview four employees from the construction department and four employees from the construction service department. The reason to that was that different departments works differently to each other, and we wanted to know what the differences were. The employees all had management or supervisor positions and were based in different geographical areas. In the thesis, we applied a mix of content analysis and grounded analysis method.

    Findings

    The findings made during the thesis, were that the different departments work with pickups very differently when comparing to each other, one department had almost all their supplier contact at the beginning of the projects and didn’t require more supplier contact during the production. While the other department, due to their nature required regular supplier interaction which created an increase number of pickups. The main reasons behind the pickups were to inadequate planning and the organizational culture.

    Conclusion

    The conclusion provides areas where the company can improve on regarding the pickups and recommendation of how the case company can reduce the number of pickups, based on the gathered data and the theoretical frame of references. The recommendations were: enhance the supplier relationship, re-evaluate the contracts with the suppliers, education regarding planning and work-method.

  • 208.
    Bergendorff, Ida
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Osbäck, Maria
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Banking soundness in the European Union: - The impact of the capital requirements regulation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Purpose – The purpose of the report is to investigate the impact of the capital requirements launched by the European Commission in the CRD IV package, using accounting proxies for the CAMELS rating system. By using financial ratios as proxies for the CAMELS variables (capital, assets, management, earnings, liquidity and sensitivity), changes in the financial soundness in Europe can be detected and the impact of the new capital requirements can be understood. Research design – The study is a quantitative research, as the data was collected from the European Union’s 30 largest banks’ annual reports and it is therefore secondary data. The data was used in order to construct financial ratios to act as accounting proxies for the CAMEL variables, which have been used in order to construct a rating of the banks. These ratios were calculated for a five-year period, 2011-2015, in order to detect changes and give an indication of how the banks state and stability have developed during the timeframe. Findings – The findings show that there has been clear changes in the banking sector during the observe time span. The findings indicate a clear increase in capital ratios in the banks, due to the new capital requirements. The findings also show how profitability and liquidity is still too low to indicate a fully sound banking sector, but still may be attributable to the recent recession. Contribution – The authors found indications that while the trend and over all well-being in the banking sector is good there is still room for further improvement in both leverage and liquidity ratios as well as profitability. Value – The sample shows that the have been improvements in the soundness in the banking sector, but the results also indicated that capital requirements by itself is not enough to create stability and increased well-being for the banking sector. Several areas of importance to bank stability are still in need of improvement. 

  • 209.
    Berggren, Coralis
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Wikström, Sarah
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Barriers Online: Exploring Consumers' Resistance to E-groceries2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since the dawn of internet shopping there has always been consumers who show resistance. Researchers have identified several relevant barriers which inhibit these consumers from shopping online. Now that e-commerce has developed to the point that it could be regarded as mainstream, the resistance that remains is most evident in certain industries, such as the e-grocery industry.       

    Purpose: To identify which general e-commerce barriers are also applicable to the industry of e-groceries, and to understand the resistance shown towards the sector. Also, to evaluate how countermeasures could impact these barriers.                   

    Method: A qualitative and abductive approach was used in the study to analyze which barriers are relevant and which are irrelevant. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants located in the south of Sweden who have distinct opinions about e‑groceries and show resistance to embracing their services.        

    Conclusion: Six of the original ten e-commerce barriers were deemed irrelevant to e-groceries. The other four were relevant and impacted the embrace of e-grocery services for potential customers. Two new barriers specifically linked to e-groceries were discovered. Countermeasures have to a certain degree influenced how customers have managed to overcome certain barriers.

  • 210.
    Berggren, Jennie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Engström, Carina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Defensive Tactics: In hostile takeovers2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 211.
    Berggren, Robin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Tage Rejmes bil AB: A case study of the company's budget process2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 212.
    Bergkuist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Andersson, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Glovéus, Sebastian
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Capital and Knowledge  Constraints: Swedish SMEs’ Internationalization to China2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    SMEs are established as an important cornerstone for the Swedish economy, due to the amount of people they employ and the economic activity they present. Due to a changing world SMEs are faced with new competition from foreign firms. In order to counter the new environment, an option for the firms is to move abroad, to internationalize. Furthermore China is established as an attractive country for SMEs to expand into, due to the major economic growth. During internationalization the Swedish agency for regional and economic growth identified SMEs to experience a lack of knowledge and capital, which hinders them in their expansion. The paper observes how four different Swedish SMEs, with activity in China moved abroad and how the mentioned lack of capital and knowledge was bridged.

    A theoretical framework is acquired through established research questions which are meant to analyze the problem description. The firms are identified as Swedish SMEs. In order to acquire empirical data, face to face interviews are conducted with the identified Swedish SMEs. Through the interview the empirical data is gathered, at which point, the paper analyzes the empirical data using the problem statement and the theories previously derived.

    The paper establishes that the experiential knowledge is the major influence on the resources committed by the firm. The amount of resources committed influences the type of entry mode as well as the accompanied advantages. In affect all firms have limited knowledge and ergo their resources committed are limited. This paper draws the conclusion that due to this, the firms were all able to finance their internationalization and no capital gap was experienced. The firms which were interviewed held experiential knowledge within the firm except one case where it was bridged with the assistance of a consultant. The experiential knowledge is held by individuals and has had a deep impact on the manner of the internationalization. It is identified that the personal relationships between individuals is shown to be of great importance to the firm. The knowledge constraints were bridged by the individuals’ experiential knowledge.

  • 213.
    Berglez, Peter
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Olausson, Ulrika
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Ots, Mart
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    What is Sustainable Journalism?: An introduction2017In: What Is Sustainable Journalism?: Integrating the Environmental, Social, and Economic Challenges of Journalism, Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2017, p. 11-26Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This edited volume, which elaborates on the idea and concept of sustainable journalism, is the result of a perceived lack of integral research approaches to journalism and sustainable development. Thirty years ago, in 1987, Our Common Future, the report from the UN World Commission on Environment and Development (also known as the Brundtland Report), pointed out economic growth, environmental protection and social equality as the three main pillars of a sustainable development. These pillars are intertwined, interdependent, and need to be balanced and reconciled. Economic growth is in this sense necessary for a developing world, but a one-sided focus on economy will eventually lead to a world that is both socially and environmentally poorer. Obviously, the issue of sustainability has not been absent from the field of journalism research; on the contrary, there is plenty of research focusing on journalism and environmental sustainability (e.g., climate change, fracking, renewables, etc.), social sustainability (e.g., democratic and political participation, poverty, inequality), and economic sustainability (e.g., ownership, commercialization, business models). However, where journalism studies traditionally treat these three aspects of sustainability disjointedly, this book attempts to pull them closer together and integrally approach sustainable development in its environmental, social and economic sense.

    The book departs from the premise that journalism has a role to play in global sustainable development—to inform, investigate and to educate in ways that reconcile the three pillars. It also raises questions about the internal sustainability of journalism itself, asking how its rampant need for economically sustainable business models can possibly be negotiated with its social and environmental obligations and impacts. In this way, the concept of sustainable journalism interlinks two current sustainability challenges that are of great theoretical relevance and in urgent need of empirical research.

  • 214.
    Berglez, Peter
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Olausson, UlrikaJönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.Ots, MartJönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    What Is Sustainable Journalism?: Integrating the Environmental, Social, and Economic Challenges of Journalism2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This edited volume, which elaborates on the idea and concept of sustainable journalism, is the result of a perceived lack of integral research approaches to journalism and sustainable development. Thirty years ago, in 1987, the Brundtland Report pointed out economic growth, social equality and environmental protection as the three main pillars of a sustainable development. These pillars are intertwined, interdependent, and need to be reconciled. However, usually, scholars interested in the business crisis of the media industry tend to leave the social and environmental dimensions of journalism aside, and vice versa. What Is Sustainable Journalism? is the first book that discusses and examines the economic, social and environmental challenges of professional journalism simultaneously. This unique book and fresh contribution to the discussion of the future of journalism assembles international expertise in all three fields, arguing for the necessity of integral research perspectives and for sustainable journalism as the key to long-term survival of professional journalism. The book is relevant for scholars and master’s students in media economy, media and communication, and environmental communication.

  • 215.
    Berglund, Camilla
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Ekelund, Benjamin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Corporate Scandal: The Reputational Impact on the Financial Performance: An event study of Danske Bank's money laundering scandal2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 216.
    Berglund, Viktoria
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Landfors, Moa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Gender Balance on Corporate Boards: The Development Amongst the Euorpean Member States2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the situation of women on corporate boards in the European Union, focusing on the development towards gender balance, with respect to if any regulations of women on corporate boards apply within the different European member states.

    Research design – Data regarding gender distribution and regulations of women on corporate boards in the European member states was collected, available on the European Commission website. Corporate governance codes published within the countries have also been scrutinized for recommendations concerning board composition, in terms of gender. To enable comparison, the member states were divided into panels with respect to what regulation that applies in the countries respectively, in form of countries with quotas without sanctions (1), countries with quotas with sanctions (2), countries with corporate governance codes (3) and countries without regulations applicable (4). The research focuses on the years 2010 to 2014 and concerns the largest listed companies in the European member states.

    Findings – This study confirms that women are underrepresented on corporate boards in all the European member states, however progress is visible in a majority of the countries. France, Italy and Belgium substantiated the highest development towards gender balance on boards, the only member states where gender quotas with sanctions applies. The findings indicate that gender balance regulations are necessary to generate a stable progress towards gender balance on corporate boards in the European Union. 

    Contribution – This research contributes with insight on the development towards gender balance in the European member states. Furthermore, value is added to the debated subject of gender balance, foremost within the European Union, but also to the discussion of gender balance on corporate boards worldwide.

  • 217.
    Bergman, Sonia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Dackland, Hanna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    THE INFLUENCE OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOURS IN THE INTERNATIONALISATION PROCESS OF MNCS2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background -Today's international business environment has facilitated the internationalisation process for firms all around the world by the reduced barriers to international trade (Efrat and Shoham, 2012). An expansion across borders is desirable since it offers the possibility of future business activities and it can aid a company to reach superior performance (Cotae, 2013). There are numerous strategies to an internationalisation process and the decisions made by the top management demonstrates the relationship between leadership behaviour and internationalisation (Cotae, 2013; Schweizer, Vahlne and Johanson, 2010). Therefore, this study will investigate leaders in multiple firms during the various stages of the internationalisation process in order to discover both how and to what degree they influence the internationalisation within their organisations.

     

    Purpose- The purpose of this study is to explore what types of leadership behaviour influence the internationalisation process in MNCs and to examine specifically influential types of leadership behaviours in order to analyse the relationship between the behavioural and strategic differences in MNCs throughout the internationalisation process.

     

    Method- This study will use an exploratory approach by combining existing theoretical frameworks and empirical data. Empirical data was collected through a qualitative research method consisting of nine semi-structured interviews, then qualitative content analysis was applied.

    Conclusion– The results show that a medium influence through authentic leadership can be demonstrated and can also be revealed as successful based on the MNCs current international activities.

  • 218.
    Bergquist, Philip
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Lindgren, Patrik
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Persson, Olof
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Value of Change: An event-study of Ownership Disclosures2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Recent business paper articles observe that stocks soar when there is a change in ownership. The clothing company JC climbed 26% when it was announced Torsten Jansson had increased his holdings. Daydream, a computer game developer, followed this trend increasing its market value by 17% on the news that TA Capital had increased its hold-ings. In these examples, the market learned of the changes in ownership through a press release created by the acquiring entity. These pieces of news, also known as ownership disclosures, is the target of this thesis.

    Purpose:

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate whether ownership disclosures result in abnormal stock price changes. Furthermore, the aim is to find out if there are any differ-ences in returns depending on who announced the ownership disclosure. In order to fulfil this purpose, a quantitative approach was used.

    Method:

    A random sample of 160 ownership disclosures is gathered. 77 of these are classified as passive- and 83 as active investors. For each of these pieces of news, 183 days of historical stock price data is retrieved. This data is then parsed through the market model event-study framework.

    Findings:

    Graphically analyzing the whole sample indicates that the market is not efficient in its strong form. The same is true when dividing the sample into passive- and active investors. Statistically, an abnormal return is confirmed for the active investors, but not for the whole sample or the passive investors.

    Conclusion:

    By looking at the price change effects of ownership disclosures, the Stockholm Stock Exchange O-list is determined to be efficient at the semi-strong level. The anomaly caused by active investors leads to the possibility of making a profit of 2.70% between day -1 and day +1 relative to the day of the ownership disclosure being sent out. It should be noted, though, that transaction costs and taxes are not taken into consideration.

  • 219.
    Bergqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Sopaj, Larglinda
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    “Jag hinner aldrig igenom min 'to do'-lista”: En dagboksstudie om hur heltidsanställda med flexibelt arbete använder sin tid2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: “I never have enough time to finish my to-do list”

    Subtitle: A diary study showing how full-time employees with flexible working hours use their time.

    Authors: Cecilia Bergqvist and Larglinda Sopaj

    Advisor: Jean-Charles Languilaire

    Level: Bachelor thesis in Business Administration, Spring 2019 (15 credits)

    Keywords: flextime, flexible work, overtime, work-life conflict, boundaryless work, time, time management

    Question: How do full-time employees with flexible working hours use their time?

    Purpose: Describe how full-time employees with flexible working hours use their time.

    Method: The study is based on a practical problem with limited previous studies on the matter. Therefore, an inductive approach was implemented to answer the purpose of the study and the researchers’ scientific approach to data is hermeneutic. Empirical data was collected through qualitative and quantitative questions, and thereafter analyzed in a qualitative manner as a thematic analysis.

    Empirical framework: Empirical data was collected by a 5-workday diary reported by 15 participants. To participate in the diary study, an individual had to meet two criteria: (1) they must be full-time employee and (2) must have flexible working hours. The diary included both qualitative and quantitative-based questions.

    Results and conclusion: Since the results show that 73.3% of participants were working overtime, it is reasonable to conclude that flexible working hours can lead to individuals working overtime. Furthermore, due to the overtime, participants’ spare time was often affected negatively. Indeed, many participants had work-life conflicts, where the work-life and the private life were incompatible. This phenomenon is evident through reported cancelled or rebooked physical training due to extended working hours. Additionally, participants who had minor children usually had a more coherent and predictable working schedule. On the other hand, individuals who were not parents of minor children had less coherent and less predictable working schedule. The results from the study also showed that the participants had good time management and used their time effectively, but the consistent imbalance between ingoing work tasks and outgoing work tasks resulted in participants often felt like they never finished their task assignments. The results also showed a slight positive correlation between satisfaction over the work effort of the day and the impact on well-being

  • 220.
    Bergström, Gustaf
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Bäckbro, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Johansson, Christofer
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Can a Gazelle Run Forever?: A Study of Rapid Growth's Affect on SMEs' Ability to Grow in a Long-Term Perspective2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Gazelles are high growth Small Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) that constantly are creating new job-opportunities and contributing positively to the Swedish economy. In order to achieve competitive advantage and growth for SMEs, several authors argue that a focus on differentiation is most suitable, which is a strategic approach mainly underpinned by innovative ability. However, when competitive advantage leads to rapid growth certain growing pains occur. Thus, when SMEs are growing rapidly, what happens to their innovative ability and further how does this affect their long-term growth?

    Purpose

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore how rapid growth in SMEs affects their ability to attain long-term growth.

    Method

    In order to fulfil the purpose, a comparison analysis has been conducted based on a holistic multi-case study. The cases included five manufacturing SMEs in Jönköping County, of which all have been appointed the Gazelle-award issued by the Swedish financial newspaper Dagens Industri. This award is given to companies that have doubled its turnover in three years, while simultaneously having positive growth and a stable economical situation.

    Conclusion

    After analysing the empirical results with appropriate theories, some main conclusions could be reached. The study could demonstrate that the growing pains, often emerging in SMEs experiencing rapid growth, influence the organization to adapt itself to the increasing complexity and resource constraints in a way that has a negative affect on the their innovative ability. There was further some support that this in turn had a negative affect on SMEs ability to grow in a long-term per-spective.

  • 221.
    Bergström, Jesper
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Gustafsson, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Employee motivation underexternal control: A study of financial advisors at large Swedish firms2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background – Due to the increased complexity of the Swedish financial market, the increased demand for financial services and the increased number of financial advisors, the role of financial advisors is important on the financial market. The external control from Finansinspektionen has been increased in order to eliminate rogue advisors and this type of control often affects employees’ motivation in a negative way. Because of the important role financial advisors have on the financial market, it is essential that they are motivated in order to perform well in their profession. 

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate how the external control affects the work motivation of financial advisors and how motivational factors could be used when designing a management control system in a context characterized by high external control. To answer this purpose, this thesis answers these following three research questions:

    1. What do financial advisors perceive to be the most effective motivational factors?
    2. How does the external control influence the motivation of financial advisors?
    3. How could the work be designed to maximize the motivation of financial advisors?

    Method – In order to fulfill the purpose of this study, we have a qualitative approach were we conducted ten semi-structured interviews with financial advisors. The financial advisors are working at two large Swedish financial advisory companies.

    Findings/Conclusion – After analyzing the empirical data, with relevant theories, interesting findings were made. In general, the external control from Finansinspektionen is interpreted as unmotivating by financial advisors. To counter this, it is important that the employers invest resources to develop IT-systems that minimize the time spent on these work tasks. The administrative work, which arises from the external control, would become more effective and not so time consuming. The management control systems must be designed so that they maximize the motivation of the advisors. Employers must also use correctly designed reward systems in order to have motivated employees.

    Practical Implications – This study contributes to important findings for managers in Swedish financial advisory companies. Since the management control systems could be designed in another way to maximize the motivation of the financial advisors, this study is an important contribution to the financial sector, where the financial advisors operate.

  • 222.
    Bergström Stacey, Isabel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Svenningsson, Philip
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Thoresson, Anton
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Era of Artificial Intelligence in Swedish Banking: Exploring Customer Attitudes Towards AI as a Substitute to Brick and Mortar Offices2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The wave of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is marching on, replacing jobs and traditional services, and is predicted to be one of the biggest marketing trends in the close future. Four of the major Swedish banks have started to implement AI as a customer service channel. Simultaneously, the Swedish banking industry is experiencing an all-time low in customer satisfaction, where one of the main reasons is the diminishing number of local branches.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to explore the attitudes that customers have towards AI in customer service, as a substitute to local brick and mortar offices within the Swedish bank industry, as well as uncover any significant factors that could influence these attitudes.

    Method: This is a qualitative study of exploratory nature where five focus groups have been used to collect empirical data. A total sample of 26 participants, ranging from 20-55 years old, have partaken in the focus groups. 

    Conclusion: Findings show that there mainly exists a negative attitude towards AI as a substitute to brick-and-mortar offices, but positive attitudes towards it as a complement. Factors that influence the attitudes were found to be Convenience, Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Trust, Risk and Social influence. Awareness and Prior Technological Experience were found to not have great influence on customer attitudes.

  • 223.
    Berndt, Adele
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Building customer relationships and loyalty2018In: Services marketing: A contemporary approach / [ed] A. Berndt & C. Boshoff, Cape Town: Juta Publishers, 2018, 3, p. 322-345Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 224.
    Berndt, Adele
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Business-to-business marketing2018In: Relationship marketing and customer relationship management / [ed] M. Tait & M. Roberts-Lombard, Capte Town: Juta Publishers, 2018, 4, p. 137-153Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 225.
    Berndt, Adele
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Crowdfunding in the African context: A new way to fund ventures2016In: Entrepreneurship and SME Management Across Africa: Context, Challenges, Cases / [ed] Leona Achtenhagen, Ethel Brundin, Springer, 2016, , p. 220p. 31-50Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 226.
    Berndt, Adele
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Implementing customer relationship management in an organisation2018In: Relationship marketing and customer relationship management / [ed] M. Tait & M. Roberts-Lombard, Capte Town: Juta Publishers, 2018, 4, p. 197-212Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 227.
    Berndt, Adele
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Spotify2016In: Contemporary cases in Southern African marketing / [ed] H.B. Klopper & Kim Viljoen, Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers , 2016, 3, p. 89-96Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 228.
    Berndt, Adele
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Stakeholders in relationship marketing2018In: Relationship marketing and customer relationship management / [ed] M. Tait & M. Roberts-Lombard, Capte Town: Juta Publishers, 2018, 4, p. 155-168Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 229.
    Berndt, Adele
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    The South African Police Service (SAPS)2016In: Contemporary cases in Southern African marketing / [ed] H.B. Klopper & Kim Viljoen, Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers , 2016, 3, p. 47-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 230.
    Berndt, Adele
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Boshoff, Christo
    Services marketing: A contemporary approach2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 231.
    Berndt, Adele
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Hollebeek, Linda D.
    Montpellier Business School, Montpellier, France.
    Brand image and reputation development in higher education institutions2019In: Strategic brand management in higher education / [ed] B. Nguyen, T. C. Melewar & J. Hemsley-Brown, Abingdon: Routledge, 2019, 1, p. 143-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 232.
    Berndt, Adele
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Holmberg, Ulrika
    Göteborgs universitet, Sweden.
    Jafari, Hamid
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Hartmann, Benjamin
    Göteborgs universitet, Sweden.
    Ots, Mart
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Mobilapplikationer inom dagligvaruhandeln: Konsumtionens medialisering genom nya digitala tjänster2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en sammanfattning av forskningsprojektet ”Medialiserad shopping”. Utgångspunkten har varit ett intresse för hur digital teknik i allmänhet, och smarta telefoner i synnerhet, påverkar shopping i butik. De senaste tjugo åren har vi upplevt hur e-handelssektorn genomgått en kontinuerlig expansion och hur en allt större del av våra inköp kommit att göras online. Samtidigt hade vi inför projektet en känsla av att kunskapen om matvarubutiker och deras relation till den nya digitala tekniken var otillräcklig – i synnerhet som användandet av smarta telefoner i praktiken innebär att konsumenter tar med sig sina egna datorer till butiken och på så sätt skapar en köpupplevelse som på samma gång är fysisk och digital. Hur påverkar detta oss konsumenter och vårt sätt att handla?

    För detaljhandelns del så ligger ännu så länge utvecklingen av shoppingappar, användande av platsbaserad teknik, individualisering och digitala tjänster i butik i sin linda. Vi har bara påbörjat utforskandet av hur shoppingupplevelsen i butik kan berikas och förädlas med hjälp av digital teknik.

    Inom ramen för detta projekt har vi under de gångna två åren utfört ett antal studier på en rad olika platser, och denna rapport sammanfattar och presenterar några av de viktigaste resultaten från vårt arbete. Vi är givetvis mycket tacksamma gentemot alla de som hjälpt oss längs vägen och vill passa på att tacka Handelsrådet (Andreas Hedlund, Lena Strålsjö och Jenny Dahlerus), deltagande företag, sponsorer och deltagare i referensgrupper.

  • 233.
    Berndt, Adele
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Mbassana, Marvin
    College of Business and Economics, University of Rwanda.
    Crowdfunding: The beliefs of Rwandan entrepreneurs2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Crowdfunding, through the use of Internet platforms, is a relatively recent development that has attracted both interest among entrepreneurs and investors. Recent figures suggest approximately $34.4 billion was raised in 2015, making crowdfunding attractive to entrepreneurs. Crowdfunding in Africa has not received the same level of attention, and thus the purpose of the research was to investigate the beliefs (awareness and knowledge) of Rwandan entrepreneurs towards crowdfunding. This study is important due to the lack of academic research into this phenomenon in Africa and in Rwanda. Understanding the beliefs (awareness and knowledge) of Rwandan entrepreneurs can indicate the potential for crowdfunding for entrepreneurs and their intention to use it as a future financing strategy. Due to the limited research conducted into crowdfunding, this study was exploratory in nature with the use of qualitative methods in order to attain the purpose of the study. Use was made of convenience sampling and in this pilot study, findings from personal interviews with 8 entrepreneurs are reported on. Financial constraints were identified by most of the entrepreneurs as impacting the development of their ventures. The findings show limited knowledge of crowdfunding as a phenomenon and the specific aspects of how it operates. Despite this lack of knowledge, the participants reflected an interest in using crowdfunding, though clarification of the expectations of the entrepreneurs and the investors would be necessary prior to its use. The use of crowdfunding can be considered by entrepreneurs but care would be needed to ensure successful implementation. The study concludes by suggesting implications for entrepreneurs, crowdfunding platforms as well as crowdinvestors who would invest in the various ventures.

  • 234.
    Berndt, Adele
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC). Gordon Institute of Business Science, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Peasley, Mike
    Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN, USA.
    Understanding collaborative consumption: A three-country study: An abstract2019In: Finding new ways to engage and satisfy global customers: Proceedings of the 2018 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) World Marketing Congress (WMC) / [ed] P. Rossi & N. Krey, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 869-870Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 235.
    Berndt, Adele
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Petzer, Danie
    Gordon Institute of Business Science, Business school in Sandton, South Africa.
    Mostert, Pierre
    Department of Marketing Management, University of Pretoria Private, South Africa.
    Brand avoidance: An exploratory study in a services context2016In: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Southern African Institute of Management Scientists, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 236.
    Berndt, Adele
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Petzer, Danie
    Gordon Institute of Business Science, Business school in Sandton, South Africa.
    Mostert, Pierre
    Department of Marketing Management, University of Pretoria Private, South Africa.
    Brand Avoidance: The Potential Negative Role of Communication2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brands continue to be regarded as critical in the success of an organisation, serving as a key contributor to an organisation’s competitive advantage (McDonald, de Chernatony, & Harris, 2001). Research in branding has largely focused on the positive aspects, such as brand love, brand attachment (Japutra, Ekinci, & Simkin, 2014; Thomson, MacInnis, & Whan Park, 2005), with a dearth of research focusing on the negative aspects of branding such as brand hate, brand aversion and brand avoidance (Cherrier, 2009; Dalli, Gistri, & Romani, 2006; Lee, Conroy, & Motion, 2009a). Previous research on brand avoidance identified five types namely experiential avoidance, identity avoidance, moral avoidance, deficit-value avoidance and advertising (Knittel, Beurer, & Berndt, 2016; Lee, 2008; Lee et al., 2009a; Lee, Motion, & Conroy, 2009b) (see Figure 1). With previous research generally ignoring the role of advertising on negative brand aspects, this paper seeks to broaden our understanding by not only considering advertising but the role of communication as a type of brand avoidance.

  • 237.
    Berndt, Adele
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Petzer, Daniel J.
    Gordon Institute of Business Science, University of Pretoria, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Mostert, Pierre
    Department of Marketing Management, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Brand avoidance – a services perspective2019In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 179-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into brand avoidance of service brands and explore whether the different types of brand avoidance identified in a product context apply to service providers.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Because of the exploratory nature of the study, the critical incident method and semi-structured interviews were used to achieve the purpose of the study.

    Findings

    The findings suggest that five types of brand avoidance, as identified in studies involving product brands, can be identified as impacting service brands. In addition, the findings show that advertising avoidance should be expanded to communication avoidance because of the multifarious communication influences that were identified. The study proposes a framework to deepen the understanding of the types of brand avoidance affecting service brands.

    Research limitations/implications

    Since the different types of brand avoidance previously identified are also evident in a services environment, service providers should develop strategies to deal with the different types of service brand avoidance. The findings are broad in scope because of the exploratory nature of the study, and a detailed analysis of each type of service brand avoidance is still required.

    Originality/value

    This paper focuses on the various types of brand avoidance and their manifestation in the services context. The study contributes by showing that the broader concept of communication, not only advertising, should be considered when studying brand avoidance in a service context.

  • 238.
    Berndt, Adele
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Wayland, Jane
    University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Arkansas, USA.
    Evaluating the Readability of Marketing Research textbooks: An International Comparison2016In: Thriving in a new world economy: proceedings of the 2012 World Marketing Congress/ Cultural Perspectives in Marketing Conference / [ed] Kirk Plangger, Cham: Springer, 2016, p. 247-247Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 239.
    Berrio Rueda, Diana
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Echeverria Monsalve, Angelica
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Hoyos Jaramillo, Andres
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Managerial practices and perception of how music affects customers’ shopping behaviour: an insight from clothing retailers:  2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Several researchers have studied atmospheric factors like crowding, col-ours, music and olfactory cues and tested their effect on shopping behav-iour. In the particular case of the influence of music in consumers‟ be-haviour, several notable observations have been made.

    Yet, the majority of the studies have focused on the phenomena of the music and the influences of its different factors towards consumers‟ be-haviour but little research has focused on managerial awareness of such effects on its consumers. Thus, there are still a lot of doubts about man-ager‟s practices and perception regarding the use and effects of atmos-pheric music.

    In line with the approaches mentioned above, this thesis intends to fill this gap in the literature through the attainment of two objectives: the first one is to study what exactly clothing retailers are doing in terms of atmospheric music and the second objective is to examine their implicit theories about the impact of the music on consumers‟ shopping behav-iour.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this thesis is to study managerial practices and percep-tions of how music affects customers‟ shopping behaviour in clothing retailers in Sweden.

    Method

    This study employs a qualitative method. The Data was obtained through semi-structured face to face interviews with managers and staff of clothing retailers in Jönköping. These interviews were conducted in clothing stores located in the two main commercial areas of the city where the majority of the stores were located.

    Conclusions

    Our research found that in the big retailers the atmospheric music is used in a more systematically way than in the small ones. This level of sys-tematization is directly related to the level of centralization in decision-making and to the size of the store.

    On the other hand, with regards to our second objective we found thatnot only managers but also the salespersons working in the clothing stores have a high degree of knowledge about how music affects their customer´s shopping behavior. Some of their implicit theories coincided with what previous researchers have found while others didn´t.

  • 240.
    Betti, Matteo
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Dad, Iram Jahan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Unique Nostalgic Shopper: Nostalgia proneness and desire for uniqueness as determinants of shopping behavior among Millennials2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Millennials, or Generation Y, represent one of today’s most prominent age cohorts: with their increasingly stronger purchasing power and importance in the global economic landscape, it is no wonder that marketers are striving to find new ways to appeal to the taste of this peculiar generation of consumers. Among the various modern research fields in business, one in particular is offering incredibly interesting insights to both scholars and professional marketers: the concept of nostalgia proneness in consumer behavior. While several studies examine the dynamics of this phenomenon, none of them so far examined the impact of nostalgia proneness in shopping behavior, especially examining the dynamics on a sample of Generation Y consumers.

    This study was conducted in order to explore the dynamics of nostalgia proneness, linking the constructs to both desire for uniqueness and shopping behavior, using the framework provided by the Consumer Styles Inventory (Sproles & Sproles, 1990).

    After a theoretical review on the matter, several hypotheses and a conceptual model were developed to serve as the core framework of the quantitative analysis. The data, obtained from a convenience sample of 222 respondents, were subsequently examined using several statistical techniques (ANOVA, correlation and factor analysis), with the intent to test the hypotheses and shed light on the research questions. The outcome was then presented and interpreted using both the theoretical background and other complementary relevant literature.

    The results showed a positive relationship between nostalgia proneness and desire for uniqueness, with both variables being further connected to several shopping traits of the Generation Y consumer. The cluster and factor analysis eventually showed patterns that could be interpreted using the theory of hedonic and utilitarian shopping motivations.

  • 241.
    Bexell, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Olofsson, Fredrik
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Talent Management: Beyond the concept of Talent Management2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The authors of this thesis have found that, during the last years, the world has witnessed a dramatic explosion of articles and books about the concept Talent Management. These books and articles, all emphasise the urgency for companies to adopt the concept and the devastating consequences if they don’t. The concept is by many re-searchers seen to be the top issue and, the latest trend within Human Resource Management.

    Nevertheless, throughout the history of the personnel profession the world has witnessed several different concepts such as Personnel Management, Human Resource Management, and Strategic Human Resource Management and several researches have claimed that these concepts describes the same thing. Some researchers have argued that the different concept instead represent a continuous rhetoric struggle by HR professionals to enhance their legitimacy and status by becoming more business oriented and demonstrate that employees indeed can make a difference in distinguish-ing successful organizations from others.

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the underlying reasoning and logic to why companies adopt talent management and explore what the concept represents in terms of new knowledge.

    By comparing traditional theories of HRM and HR planning with normative literature and interviews on Talent Management the authors have found that the concept does not represent any new and distinctive knowledge, but rather can be considered as an effort to repackage old ideas and techniques with a new label. The authors of this thesis believe that Talent Management is another illustration of the struggle by HR professionals to enhance their legitimacy and status in their organization.

  • 242.
    Bhatti, Areeb
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Internet of Equipment: Enhancing customer value and experience2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organizations are continuously challenged to create differentiated customer value and experience to increase profitability and gain competitive advantage. At the same time, the fast-paced advancement of technologies provides the opportunity to the organizations to create a differentiated customer value by offering innovative products and services. Internet of things (IoTs) is one such emerging technology that brings within itself opportunities and challenges to be addressed. However, so far research has not sufficiently followed how the utilization of IoTs can enhance customer value and experience.

    Purpose: The purpose of conducting this study is to explore how the utilization of IoTs enhance customer value and experience in an equipment manufacturers context and what are the associated opportunities and challenges. The study also aims to contribute to gap identified in the literature about how organizations can utilize IoTs to enhance customer value and experience.

    Method: The qualitative study utilized a single instrumental case study to explore the research questions. The data is collected by conducting semi-structured in-depth interviews.

    Conclusion: The study reveals that the utilization of IoTs can significantly improve customer value and experience in many ways. This may involve enabling user to monitor, control and optimally use the equipment, sharing useful information, allowing value co-creation and synergistic values and finally by providing autonomous equipment’s or solutions. However, the study also reveals that the utilization of IoTs also pose certain challenges along with the opportunities which must be carefully evaluated.

  • 243.
    Bidiwala, Aqsaa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Liu, Ziying
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Does it matter to have an ethical brand?: A qualitative study of millennials perspective on unethical marketing activities within the soft drink industry2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Brand loyalty has been studied by a large number of scholars over the past few decades, including its impact on consumer purchase behavior and as a core concept when creating brand value. Having ethical business practice helps retain customers trust and enforce their loyalty to the brand. However, brand’s unethical behavior has always been a topic discussed by society, especially for the soft drinks industry.

    Problem

    Previous research has shown that there is a link between brand loyalty, brand trust and brand attachment. It has also been implied that consumers with high commitment to a brand might justify a brands unethical behavior. However, there is a lack of research within the field of brand loyalty and ethical business practices within the beverage industry.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to understand how millennials with different levels of brand loyalty respond to unethical marketing activities to soft drink brands within the beverage industry. Furthermore, this research would like to give an insight to whether consumers care about ethical brands within this industry or not. Additionally, this study can help brands in the beverage industry to build their marketing strategies and maintain their consumer relationship.

    Method

    This study used a qualitative research method, where 15 semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sampling method, with millennials as research objects. Additionally, the brand Pepsi has been used as a case to measure the participants brand loyalty in order to classify them to one of the three levels of loyalty in the conceptual framework. 

    Conclusion

    The results show that the more loyal consumers are towards brands, the less impact the brand’s unethical behavior has on them. For consumers with low loyalty, the chances of turning to alternatives when brands have ethical issues are greater. Whereas consumers who are on the Satisfied level have a neutral opinion towards the brand when it comes to unethical issues. While, consumers with high brand loyalty may ignore the brand's unethical behavior because of their loyalty and love for the brand. Brand image, product quality, product safety, environmental footprint and how brands handle the unethical issues have been identified as important factors when consumers make the purchasing decision.

  • 244.
    Bilen, Celal Can
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Alavizadeh, Zahra
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Open Source Strategy: A Change of Perception through the Lens of Innovation: The Case of Open Source Software (OSS) in Sweden2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Open Source Software has been all about myths until recently, with many people believing that open source isn't reliable because the open source projects are held by a small group of amateurs in their friend's garage. Such myths have been refuted with the emerging success and increased popularity of open source, but still many considered open source and proprietary software to be enemies, which can never co-exist in the corporate platform. As a result, some firms have decided to stick to their tradition of commercial software development, while new firms, which base their corporate strategy solely on open source, have emerged. The former group of firms has suffered from losing time and money in fixing the errors and bugs in the software, whereas the latter group has found difficulties in finding financial support and market share in competition among the former group.

    Neither group has found absolute success in their business, as result a compromise model has emerged in the software industry, which resulted in a third group of firms that work neither with pure open source model nor with pure proprietary models, but instead with “hybrid” business models which allows integration of these so-called two enemies. Such firms have overcome the pitfalls of both approaches, while combining the benefits of them. The growing success of open-source integration attracted further public attention on the potential importance of open-source software (OSS). Indeed, major large commercial IT companies have started to integrate open-source software into their core strategies. Despite the widespread doubts and resistance during the early stages of open source revolution, there has recently been a “change of perception” in the software development industry towards incorporating open source strategies into their business models.

    This master thesis investigates the open source software scene in Sweden by examining Swedish firms that develop software products either based on open source components (hybrid model) or just open source products (pure open source model). After analyzing the market based on the business models of these firms, further details of the open source strategies pursued by these firms have been analyzed. Our study then finalizes the investigation with an analysis of the open source development scene in Sweden, which we use to determine the characteristics of the software industry in Sweden.

    Our conclusions reveal that open source strategy shares most of its components with innovation strategy (with some components found to be specific to open source strategy only), confirming the link between open source software and innovation. Therefore, firms that work with open source software have to pay attention to innovation and form an appropriate innovation and open source strategy if they want to be successful in the software industry.

  • 245.
    Bille, Eva Maria
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Gao, Yafang
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Simon, Christel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Entrepreneurship in a Global Context: Case Studies from Start-ups in China, Lebanon and Sweden2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, we have investigated what skill sets entrepreneurs apply in order to become entrepreneurs, how entrepreneurs are influenced by globalisation and how they overcome societal barriers in their countries.

    The thesis consists of case studies with entrepreneurs from three firms in China, Lebanon and Sweden. It examines the societal barriers in each country, as well as what skill sets helped the entrepreneurs overcome these barriers.

    We found that they were all to a high degree utilising the Internet and the possibil-ity of interacting with the global world. Their societal barriers differed, but the ways in which they overcame them did not differ significantly. In our limited study, the more difficult the local barrier is, the more global the firm is.

    We would infer from our analysis that entrepreneurs are influenced both by the global society and their national society. The higher the societal barriers, the more skills were needed to overcome them.

  • 246.
    Bjur, Elin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Christo-Dionne, Dimitri
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Fortification of New Venture Branding through Brand Image and Brand Identity: An exploratory study to shed new light on branding for new venture entrepreneurs2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Entrepreneurs embarking upon a new business venture have a vast amount of responsibilities to

    consider during the new venture phase, therefore strategically taking action to gain a competitive

    advantage in the marketplace is a necessity. While there exist many routes towards acquiring an

    edge over the competition, branding proves to be a highly effective and influential strategy. As

    entrepreneurs are left to their own business development devise, there is no one approach towards

    creating a brand. Brand image and brand identity are two components of the brand strategy that

    impact and leverage the success of the branding design. Nonetheless, it is up to the entrepreneur’s

    own accord to implement these components, thus the general consensus is unknown as to whether

    they take into consideration aspects of branding, specifically those of brand image and brand

    identity during their new venture development.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to shed new light on branding for new venture companies, specifically

    investigating the brand image and brand identity perspectives.

    Method

    The primary data for the research was gathered through a series of semi-structured open ended

    interviews among five entrepreneurs who all cultivated a new venture for no longer than two years

    of age. Furthermore, secondary data was compiled from suitable peer-reviewed articles and

    published books sustaining appropriate theories and models.

    Conclusion

    The discovered research indicates that branding in general is a known valued strategy among new ventures but not necessarily a highly ‘worked with’ concept. As a whole, the new ventures work with branding activities to a various extent but for the most part did not show a comprehension of what entails brand image and brand identity. However, the findings show that new venture entrepreneurs withhold their own interpretations of the terms, but those meanings did not translate into the actual essence of what brand image and brand identity signify. Furthermore the research suggests that new ventures unknowingly consider some aspects of brand identity and brand image in their development phase. They were found to deliberatively acknowledge some facets of brand identity and brand image but also were recognized as disregarding others. Even though there existed some unknowingness, inconsistencies, and lack of comprehension among the ventures in regards to brand image and brand identity, it is important to note that the entrepreneurs upheld an eagerness to learn, thus suggesting that their future branding strategies may become successful. 

  • 247.
    Björk, Sofia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Corporate customer loyalty within the banking sector: The case of SEB2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background:

    The financial sector is under constant development and the massive digitalization has changed the banking sector. The banking industry is nowadays characterized by self-service solutions and customers can solve their problems from everywhere and at any moment. The banking industry is highly competitive since all banks offer homogenous products and services that easily can be duplicated. Therefore it is of major importance for the banks to distinguish themselves from the other banks, offering the same products and services. The only way to distinguish oneself in today’s competitive environment is by either price or quality.  Hence customer satisfaction, which leads to customer loyalty, can be seen as a potential tool to gain a strategic advantage in the highly competitive environment.

     

    Purpose:

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine marketing strategies for bank companies work in reaching corporate customer loyalty concerning digitalization, decision-making and service quality towards their corporate customers in the modern banking industry.

     

    Method:

    This thesis builds on primary sources in the form of semi-structured interviews. Three key persons carefully selected within SEB have been chosen to get an insight of how the bank works towards shaping long-term relationships and loyal customers. Respondents were chosen after their competence concerning corporate customer loyalty.

     

    Conclusion:

    The banking sector was examined and it showed to be highly homogenous and the products and services offered are basically the same. In that, three important conclusions were highlighted. First, there is a need for banks to distinguish oneself through high service quality, which will result in customer loyalty. The importance of being easy, credible and secure in order to keep existing customers and acquire new ones was fundamental. However being predictable and transparent in their reasoning is a necessity to shape a loyal clientele. Second, providing high service quality and reducing the gap between the customer expectations and delivered service will enhance the customer loyalty and also the bank’s profitability. Significant since it is cheaper to keep loyal customers than to acquire new ones. Third, as digitalization has changed the banking landscape, the future customers will consider themselves as loyal, but they will be loyal with more actors at the same time. This is due to the fact that competitors will only be a click away and that the digitalization will make it easier for customer to increase their probability by switching bank, as they will be offered more different available alternatives.

     

  • 248.
    Björkgren, Andreas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Brodin, Henrik
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    First Impression Lasts: The First Meeting2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When firms are doing business it is important to meet the customer’s expectations. It is often in the first impression (the first time the parties meet in a sales encounter) that the seller fails to do this, sometimes resulting in the prospective customer dropping the whole thought of a business deal and no further relationship is established. The first impression results from the first image and understanding a seller creates in a potential customer: here the latter gets a brief insight into the former’s organization, credibility and overall quality. Each encounter or meeting is an opportunity to achieve trust and build a relationship, but also contains the risk of reducing credibility and losing all chances of a relationship. The purpose of this thesis is to describe and analyse the importance of the first impression when creating and building a business to business relationship and to describe the factors which influence this process. The theoretical framework is based on theories regarding the concept of first impression and the implications of two-way communication during the first encounter. These include the seller’s preparation and categorisation of the customer before each encounter. Other variations of communication concerns verbal and non-verbal communication, generalizations, cultural differences and circumstances where a failure can turn into an advantage. The present qualitative case study is based on interviews with five highly competent respondents with long experience of business relationships. They were chosen after discussions with Walter Carvajal, owner and MD of City Guest Service. The results showed that the first impression was very important in creating a business relationship. Some variables, e.g. gender, had less significance. Generally, the first impression included the small things a person perceived and interpreted during the first encounter. Combined, they determined whether a person chose to do business with the counterpart in question. All aspects of verbal and non-verbal commu-nication formed a basis for judging the other person. Cultural differences increased the acceptance level, reducing the risk of failure, when the parties were from differ-ent cultures.

  • 249.
    Björkgren, Andreas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Brodin, Henrik
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    First Impression Lasts: The First Meeting2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When firms are doing business it is important to meet the customer’s expectations. It is often in the first impression (the first time the parties meet in a sales encounter) that the seller fails to do this, sometimes resulting in the prospective customer dropping the whole thought of a business deal and no further relationship is established. The first impression results from the first image and understanding a seller creates in a potential customer: here the latter gets a brief insight into the former’s organization, credibility and overall quality. Each encounter or meeting is an opportunity to achieve trust and build a relationship, but also contains the risk of reducing credibility and losing all chances of a relationship. The purpose of this thesis is to describe and analyse the importance of the first impression when creating and building a business to business relationship and to describe the factors which influence this process. The theoretical framework is based on theories regarding the concept of first impression and the implications of two-way communication during the first encounter. These include the seller’s preparation and categorisation of the customer before each encounter. Other variations of communication concerns verbal and non-verbal communication, generalizations, cultural differences and circumstances where a failure can turn into an advantage. The present qualitative case study is based on interviews with five highly competent respondents with long experience of business relationships. They were chosen after discussions with Walter Carvajal, owner and MD of City Guest Service. The results showed that the first impression was very important in creating a business relationship. Some variables, e.g. gender, had less significance. Generally, the first impression included the small things a person perceived and interpreted during the first encounter. Combined, they determined whether a person chose to do business with the counterpart in question. All aspects of verbal and non-verbal communication formed a basis for judging the other person. Cultural differences increased the acceptance level, reducing the risk of failure, when the parties were from different cultures.

  • 250.
    Björklund, Elin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Balkefors, Hanna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Carlquist, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Co-Existence of Strategic Renewal and Strategic Inertia: A Case Study of an Innovative Firm2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: Today’s rapid globalization along with technological improvements force organizations to adapt its strategy to external changes. Companies may undertake strategic renewal in order to cope with these changes (Agarwal & Helfat, 2009). However, there are forces that somehow interrupt a firm’s ability to adapt, which are called strategic inertia (Mallette & Hopkins, 2013). The forces of strategic renewal and strategic inertia do not exist independently from one another rather they coexist and vary in its influence on the company (Melin, 1998). The previous research exploring Strategic Renewal and Strategic Inertia as two co-existing forces appears to be limited, which creates an incentive to explore the phenomena in an innovative company setting.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to explore the existence of the phenomena of strategic renewal and strategic inertia in an innovative firm.

    Method: In order to fulfill the aim of this research, a qualitative case study was undertaken. The primary data was gathered through interviews with managers from different departments at the company Fagerhult Lighting AB.

    Conclusion: This research contributes to the academic field of strategy as it proposes six circumstances that foster strategic renewal and strategic inertia in an innovative firm. The circumstances are clarified in the following six propositions, where (1) the encouragement of new ideas, (2) employees that are open to change, and (3) the acquiring of people with different perspectives and backgrounds, are presented as drivers for strategic renewal, while (4) prioritization of resources, (5) differences in interests and attitudes and (6) insufficient understanding and engagement, are sources for strategic inertia. The conclusion of this research is that strategic renewal and strategic inertia can co-exist within an innovative firm.

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