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  • 201.
    Blick, Andreas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Mårtenson, David
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    FDI Impact on Gross Profit, Wages and Labour Productivity: A Study of Swedish Firms in the Industrial Goods and Services Sector2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses what effects foreign direct investments (FDI) has on a firm’s gross profit, wages and labour productivity. Focus is on the Swedish industrial goods and service sector which has shown on a rapid growth of offshore production. We use a theoretical framework with FDI and productivity theories. As a result of cost efficient alternatives to domestic production, a firm’s productivity should fall in the case of increased foreign production. Although, the increase in gross profit should rule out the negative affect that a decrease in productivity cause.

    There is a positive relationship between offshore production and gross profits, and expanded foreign production leads to a decreased wage rate. However, increased foreign employment showed a boost the labour productivity, which is wrong from a theoretical point of view.

  • 202.
    Bo, Pingjing
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Manduchi, Agostino
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Disclosure-based price discrimination by information exchange platforms2017In: Information Economics and Policy, ISSN 0167-6245, E-ISSN 1873-5975, Vol. 41, p. 54-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumers often face a trade off when considering whether to share more information with firms - for example, by letting an app access their list of contacts, location or browsing history. More precise information can help the sellers to make more targeted offers, and can yield multiple relevant offers and lower prices. However, information disclosure can entail costs via identity theft, fraud, extortion etc. In this paper, we explore this trade-off in a model in which a monopoly platform can gather personal customer information, and offer it to other sellers. The consumers differ relatively to their aversion to information disclosure, and the platform can offer them menus with different disclosure levels. In equilibrium, options featuring greater disclosure levels command a premium, and information about the consumers choosing them is sold to the sellers at a lower price. If we compare scenarios with alternative menus, a greater number of options corresponds to a greater average disclosure level and a greater surplus. If the potential surplus from the induced exchanges is relatively large, equilibrium with a binary menu features levels of the platform’s profit and the surplus close to those achieved with a continuum of offers.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-09-02 08:00
  • 203.
    Bo, Pingjing
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Manduchi, Agostino
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Informative transactions, disclosure and privacy2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates a model in which a monopolist obtains information about her customers’ preferences by delivering her product, and can disclose the same information to other sellers, at a price. More refined information is a more effective facilitator of further exchanges, and boosts competition among the sellers using it, but entails a greater nuisance for the consumers. The actual nuisance implied by any given disclosure level differs across consumers. The monopolist makes two alternative offers. In equilibrium, the prices can induce too many consumers to choose the low disclosure-offer, the disclosure levels can be inconsistent with surplus maximization, and the average disclosure level is lower than the surplus-maximizing one. A lower proportional participation of the monopolist in the profits from the induced exchanges typically entails more differentiated disclosure levels; the response of the average level is non-monotonic. The high disclosure-offer can feature a higher price, due to the higher probability of further trade and to the more intense competition among the sellers.

  • 204.
    Bohman, Helena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Everybody knows?: Media, Information, and ExportsManuscript (Other academic)
  • 205.
    Bohman, Helena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Stranger in a Strange land: The effect of international immigration on Swedish exports and importsManuscript (Other academic)
  • 206.
    Bohman, Helena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Nilsson, Désirée
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Income Inequality as a Determinant of Trade Flows2007In: International Journal of Applied Economics, ISSN 1548-0003, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 40-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer studies have a long tradition of incorporating non-homothetic preferences in their models, whereas this has been very uncommon in studies of international trade. We use a model from Mitra and Trindade (2005) to set up a gravity model in which we include income distribution measures as explanatory variables for the exporting as well as for the importing countries. Our results indicate that non-homothetic preferences significantly affect both exports and imports.

  • 207.
    Bohman, Helena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Nilsson, Désirée
    Swedish Institute for Transport and Communication Analysis.
    Knowing me, Knowing you: A new approach of assessing the Linder hypothesisManuscript (Other academic)
  • 208. Bohne, Eberhard
    et al.
    Karlsson, CharlieJönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Repositioning Europe and America for Growth: The Role of Governments and Pri­vate Actors in Key Policy Areas2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 209.
    Borja-Barrera, S. M.
    et al.
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    A comparison of efficiency of mobile operators in South America2011In: Information and communication technologies policies and practices / [ed] Almas Heshmati and Sun Peng, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. 145-165Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Telecommunications plays a major role worldwide with the aim of achieving a bettersocial life for citizens and is one of the major factors contributing to economic growth.This study provides an efficiency analysis of mobile operators in Colombia, Venezuela,Chile and Brazil.For the empirical analysis, the stochastic frontier functions approach is employed toanalyze data from 10 mobile operators from the sample countries. Mobile operators inColombia are compared with others from Venezuela, Chile, and Brazil. Panel data from2005 to 2007 is used in the analysis.The efficiency estimation for each operator over time shows that the level is affectedby some firms and market characteristics such as: type of ownership, market share, typeof technology and firm level wages. One of the main findings of this research is thatsmaller operators work at the same level of efficiency compared with their largercounterparts. ©2010 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 210.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum.
    Desai, Sameeksha
    Indiana University.
    Eklund, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS). Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum.
    Regulation, firm dynamics and entrepreneurship2015In: European Journal of Law and Economics, ISSN 0929-1261, E-ISSN 1572-9990, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship can have important positive effects linked to job creation, wealth and income generation, innovation and industry competitiveness. Scholars and policy-makers around the world have turned to the regulatory environment as a mechanism through which entrepreneurship can be encouraged, grown and its economic benefits harnessed. The effect of regulatory conditions on entrepreneurship however is not well understood, and can be nuanced given the wide range of regulatory tools and possible areas of impact. This paper serves as the introduction to a special issue, which seeks to shed some light on the relationship between regulation, firm dynamics and entrepreneurship. We identify some foundational considerations relevant to this relationship and discuss key questions, followed by a brief overview of each of the papers contained in the special issue.

  • 211.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology och Entreprenörskapsforum.
    Eklund, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS). Entreprenörskapsforum.
    En fungerande arbetsmarknad – Nyckel till innovation och kunskapsdriven tillväxt2014In: En fungerande arbetsmarknad – Nyckel till innovation och kunskapsdriven tillväxt / [ed] Pontus Braunerhjelm, Johan Eklund, Stockholm: Entreprenörskapsforum , 2014, p. 7-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 212.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology och Entreprenörskapsforum.
    Eklund, JohanJönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS). Entreprenörskapsforum.
    En fungerande arbetsmarknad – Nyckel till innovation och kunskapsdriven tillväxt2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 213.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH).
    Eklund, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Entreprenörskapsforum.
    Henrekson, Magnus
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN).
    Kreicbergs, Johan
    Kreicbergs Utredning & Opinion.
    Malm, Arvid
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH).
    Skatterna och entreprenörskapet: Företagsbyggande, optioner och tillväxt2017Report (Other academic)
  • 214.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Eklund, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Thulin, Per
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Taxes, the tax administrative burden and the entrepreneurial life cycle2019In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a modified version of the entrepreneurial choice model, where it is shown that the expected utility of becoming an entrepreneur is decreasing in both the levels of taxes and the tax administrative burden. We extend previous empirical findings by examining how these variables influence entrepreneurs at different stages in the entrepreneurial life cycle. Our findings imply that the effect of the tax administrative burden varies over the entrepreneurial life cycle from strongly negative to insignificant. The most pronounced negative effects appear in the early stages of entrepreneurship. We conclude that a 10% reduction in the tax administrative burden increases the propensity for new business establishments by 4%. Our findings support the idea that tax simplification is one way to encourage entrepreneurship, without any reduction in tax revenues.

  • 215. Brueck, Tilman
    et al.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Do Eurozone Countries Cheat with their Budget Deficit Forecasts?2006In: Kyklos (Basel), ISSN 0023-5962, E-ISSN 1467-6435, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 17-29Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 216.
    Budak, Sevim
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Trade and Economic Growth: An analysis based on Sub-Saharan African Countries2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 217.
    Buhre, Louise
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    The Dynamics of Trade Affinities: An Assessment of the Globalization of the European Continent2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is an assessment of the dynamics of trade affinities and how they have influenced trade flows in the European continent. The focus is how trade affinities have altered over a time span of four time periods stretching from the 1970s up to today and how these alterations have influenced globalization.

    A total of 41 countries belonging to the European continent have been selected. Furthermore four variables were selected to represent trade affinities; distance, border, colony, and language. These have been selected as they are generally believed to be static and thus should not change over time. Also, this thesis aims to show the separate influence of each trade affinity as other papers usually estimate trade affinities as one collective variable.

    By the use of a gravity model 9 variables are tested in order to determine their influence on trade flows. This is done through a regression with a log-log equation where the dependent variable is Export and the affinity variables are estimated as dummy variables.

    The regression is divided into four time periods in order to more easily determine how the trade affinity variables have altered in influence on trade flows in Europe. The first time period represent an average of the time period 1974-1976, the second 1984-1986, the third 1994-1996 and the fourth 2004-2006.

    The regression results illustrate that the majority of the selected variables are significant but most importantly that the trade affinity variables are proven to have altered over the time periods. The performance of a Wald estimation gives an indication that trade affinities are in fact dynamic although the results are not entirely significant for all variables.

    Based on the results, it is apparent that trade affinities still have a significant effect on trade flows in the European continent. Although, their effects have altered to become less significant in some cases while others have become stronger they all jointly share the attributes of affecting trade. These alterations can in turn be interpreted as dependent on the globalization process of the European continent. As globalization has progressed some affinities have decreased in influence while others have regained new importance.

  • 218.
    Bulduk, Burak
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Shyti, Nensi
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Determinants of Comparative Advantage in the ICT Goods Market: A Cross-Country Analysis2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the determinants of revealed comparative advantage that accounts for the ICT goods market. A thorough exploration of the factors and literature related to geographical clustering, innovation, R&D, labor productivity and FDI is provided to promote a complete overview of the ICT sector. Moreover, a brief comparison is made to the ICT service sector. Technological progress resulting from investments in R&D, high innovation activity, and capital accumulation, is the main indicator of dynamic comparative advantage and export specialization. Our analysis is conducted with a special focus on 21 OECD countries and China, whose presence has provided the goods market with substantial dynamism. The results obtained provide an interesting outlook in regards to comparative advantage, with two of our variables yielding unexpected outcomes. The potential for future research is high concerning the ICT industry, in particular the recent surge of exports in services.

  • 219.
    Button, Kenneth J.
    et al.
    Schar School of Policy and Government, George Mason University, Arlington VA, USA.
    Eklund, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Department of Industrial Economics, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Are there inherent biases in applying cost–benefit analysis?2018In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 461-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article extends discussions of potential biases that can exist in applying cost–benefit analysis. While there is extensive evidence that capture can result in stakeholder manipulation of inputs, there are also claims that the analysis is inherently theoretically bias in favour of over acceptance. The article shows that, contrary to these latter claims, treating projects in isolation is unlikely to produce such bias; indeed, it is as likely as not to lead to suboptimally low acceptance rates. The reason for excessive acceptance of projects therefore is largely due to institutional capture of the analysis for either self-interest or natural human over-optimism.

  • 220.
    Cabaravdic, Ademir
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    The Effect of Corruption on Economic Growth2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 221. Cadot, Olivier
    et al.
    Röller, Lars-Hendrik
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Contribution to Productivity or Pork Barrel?: The Two Faces of Infrastructure Investment2006In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 90, no 6-7, p. 1133-1153Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 222.
    Cardona Cervantes, Gabriel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Formation of House Prices in Sweden2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this research, Sweden’s municipalities are categorized into five economic regions which put emphasis on location. Furthermore, since house prices reflect and are reflected by the existing cycles in the economy, four time periods are considered. By using extensive data collected by Sweden Statistics (SCB), this study tests eight variables factors to be used in a cross-section analysis which will help researchers understand which factors are consistent in explaining the formation of house prices in terms of location and time. The conclusion that can be drawn is that no factor can fully explain house prices at a national level and that the Population variable was consistent in regional changes and Employment was consistent in time changes. This has lead to a greater understanding of the field of regional house prices in order for it to contribute to real estate investments or purchases.

  • 223.
    Carlbergh, Ida
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Urban and Rural Housing: A comparison of prices2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 224.
    Carlson, Johanna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Malmfors, Hanna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Gender Differences in Commuting over Municipality Borders: A study of regional Human Capital’s effect on commuting in Sweden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gender equality has increased over time, and the question of how it progresses is highly important. Commuting behavior is an essential theme in Economic research since it, for example, affects the market structure, the distribution of labor, and economic growth. The purpose is to investigate how human capital impacts individuals’ commuting to work, and especially if human capital has different effects on women and men. To construct our model, we present several factors of interest that affect commuting, where human capital is the main variable investigated. Previous research show that women’s commuting behavior differs from men’s. By analyzing data from 2016, we aim to study the difference between women and men, by investigating the factors that impact their commuting for work over municipality borders in Sweden. The contribution of this paper is to increase the understanding of commuting within regional economics and gender studies. Our result show that human capital affects net outgoing commuting for both women and men, but the extent of the effect differs. Women are less affected by the level of human capital, and they still commute less than men although more women obtain higher human capital, in terms of education. 

  • 225.
    Carlsson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Fredriksson, Henrik
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Production Organization at Husqvarna AB: A Study of Chainsaw Production at Three Factories2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis looks at the organization of the production of chainsaws in three different Husqvarna AB plants; one in Sweden, one in Brazil and one in the USA. The field of production organization carries the mark of men like Adam Smith, Frederick Taylor and Henry Ford, and it is with reference to the approaches of these men, and others, that we ask how Husqvarna AB organizes its production of chainsaws.

    We found that production in the Swedish plant consisted of a worker philosophy influenced by the “group thinking” that was prominent in Sweden in the 1970s, coupled with a production philosophy sharing many traits with Ford’s mass production while incorporating elements of lean production. The production lines in Brazil are identical to the newer lines in the Swedish plant. The differences are fewer influences from “group” approaches such as the socio-technical view. The US plant provides a sharp contrast to the other two. It produces saws for the consumer market and not the professional market. Quality and longevity demands are radically different, which enables for another production approach to be used. With simple operations and very short times at each work station, the US plant is not many steps away from Ford’s mass production approach.

  • 226.
    Carlsson, Georg
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Röös, Elin
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Witthöft, Cornelia
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    ”Ät hälften så mycket kött och mer ärtor och bönor”2018In: Dagens Nyheter 2018-10-13, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 227.
    Carlsson, Martin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Performance differences across markets: A study of mutual funds2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, I examine the performance of a sample of ten Swedish-based internationally diversified mutual funds managed by one of the largest commercial banks in the Nordic region.

    The investigation cover a time span between 2000 and 2005 divided into two sets, 2000-2002 and 2003-2005. To measure the performance of the funds, I will utilize the Jensen’s index.

    The results shows that there is no empirical evidence which indicates that managers seize superior stock selection skills when investing locally compared with investing on different markets for the selected funds. It does on the other hand shows that two out of the seven funds increases the beta towards the market when the market goes up. Finally, this thesis shows that inclusion of emerging markets creates further possibilities for diversification in a portfolio due to more developed markets tends to have high level of integration and move together.

  • 228.
    Carstensen, Pierre
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Bremberg, Ludwig
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Spillovers from Higher Education on Regional Innovation Propensity2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of accessibility to higher education on innovation propensity. The study includes two forms of higher education – university/college and vocational. A reason for this is that although the relationship between accessibility to higher education and innovation propensity has been investigated many times over the recent years, there is a lack of research on the implications that the vocational education system has. The dependent variable representing innovation is patent grant counts for every municipality in Sweden between 2002 and 2013. By following the theoretical bases of Regional Innovation Systems, human capital and accessibility, we estimate two negative binomial regressions in a knowledge production function setting. Significant and positive effects are found for all of our explanatory variables, suggesting that access to both universities and vocational education has a positive effect on regional innovation propensity, although in different degrees. As access to education may increase people’s level of economically useful knowledge and human capital, we suggest that policies should be applied to support this access.

  • 229.
    Castro, José Luis
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Determinants of the Economic Growth in Mexico: An Exogenous Growth Model2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

     

    This bachelor thesis aims to uncover the determinants of the economic growth in Mexico with an exogenous growth model. The study is based in an Augmented Solow Model em-ployed by Mankiw, Romer and Weil in

    "A contribution to the Empirics of the Economic Growth" (1992). The model uses annual data of Mexico from 1960-2007 and the regressions and tests are developed in the econometric package Stata 10 for eight different periods. The thesis not only uses the Effective Labour and Physical Capital as Inputs in the production Function, but also employs the variable of Human Capital as an economic determinant of growth in the production function. The results of the model correspond with the actual scenario in Mexico; more weight to the Effective Labour (76.34%) rather than to Human Capital (2.12%) or Physical Capital (21.54%) as determinants of growth.

     

     

  • 230.
    Cau Nicklasson, Ronnie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Hansson, Simon
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Investment Companies’ Discount Fluctuation on the Swedish Market: A statistical analysis regarding different micro-   and macroeconomic factors influence on Swedish closed-end funds’ discount2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Closed-end funds’ (CEF) discount and discount fluctuations have been puzzling researchers for decades. Up to date, there are no multidimensional or cross-sectional variables that have been proved to influence CEFs simultaneously. Fact is that, earlier research and theories on the subject are contradictious and several suggestions on the origin of the CEF’s discount and its fluctuations have been proposed. To mention a few, investor sentiments, taxation issues, dividend policies, agency costs and agency problems are considered to influence these discounts.

    The purpose of this report is to examine the relationship between micro- and macroeconomic variables fluctuations, and how these can explain the discount fluctuation of the Swedish CEFs.

    This report focuses upon the CEFs traded at NASDAQ OMX Stockholm, which have been selected through a comprehensive multistage selection process. 10 CEFs were selected. Monthly data for calculating micro- and macroeconomic variables was collected for the period March 2003 – February 2013, which resulted in approximately 1 200 observations. OLS regression analysis, Fixed- and Random Effect Models and Hausman tests were conducted.

    The findings conclude that some of this report’s chosen micro- and macro variables influence on the Swedish CEFs’ discount fluctuation, although these findings are conditioned. The CEFs’ individual characteristics or traits result in a significant impact on the fluctuation of CEFs’ discount. Hence, only by controlling these characteristics, multidimensional or cross-sectional micro- and macroeconomic variables can be proved to affect the CEFs’ discount fluctuation.

  • 231. Cavallin, Rafael
    Bankruptcy prediction models: Predicting financial distress amongst Scandinavian construction SME´s2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 232.
    Chamoun, Maykel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    Altun, Alexander
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    Swedish Mutual Funds: Does the portfolio turnover rate affect the excess return of mutual funds?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 233.
    Cherro, Samir
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    Sadiku, Fadilj
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    Aim For The Stars: Is it worth paying higher fees for funds within the Morningstar RatingTM system2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Morningstar is an independent provider of investment research and provide information on approximately 380 000 investment offerings about mutual funds. Morningstar are most known for their “star” rating system, which rates funds from the lowest 1-star to the highest 5-stars.

    Since investors frequently use fund data provided by Morningstar, we will evaluate whether investing in funds with higher fees and higher ratings would end up with higher returns. Examinations will be made if there is a relationship between mutual fund performance and the management fees within top-rated (5-star) funds and bottom-rated (1-&2-star).

    The mutual funds which are included in this thesis are United Kingdom (UK) managed and invested in three different markets; Asia-Pacific except-Japan, Europe except UK-Large Cap, and the United States (US) Market. This allows us to compare different markets at different stages of maturity.

    The results clearly show that the top-rated funds within all three markets outperformed the bottom-rated funds. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the investor in general will earn a higher return by paying a higher management fee (TER) for the top-rated funds in all regions. The results also show that the TER for the bottom-rated funds in Europe and US market is higher compared to the top-rated funds. This means that the investor will pay higher fees for funds that do not perform well.

  • 234.
    Chimboza, Milcent
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    The effect of financial development on income inequality in Africa: Looking for a needle in a haystack?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the effect of financial development on income inequality in 20 African countries. Theory and a growing number of empirical studies suggest that the former exerts a negative impact on the latter by enabling low-income holders to undertake income-enhancing education and business investments, thereby promoting a tighter income distribution. However, using the share of GDP constituted by domestic credit to the private sector and broad money respectively as proxies for financial development, the results of this study fail to give significant evidence of this income-equalising effect. Given the heterogeneous nature of the economies studied here and the fact that data quality and quantity improve over time, it is believed that country-specific studies and future research can offer more conclusive results on how financial development influences income distribution in the African context. This would also provide a stronger foundation for policy recommendations in the continent’s plight to address the persistent high levels of income inequality.

  • 235.
    Cho, Sungwook
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea.
    What if you had been less fortunate: The effects of poor family background on current labor market outcomes2015In: Journal of economic studies, ISSN 0144-3585, E-ISSN 1758-7387, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 20-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to examine the correlation between childhood poverty and its influence on adulthood wage distribution, where childhood poverty refers to the experience of poverty or poor family background during one’s childhood.

    Design/methodology/approach– With data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study, a quantile regression technique and a decomposition method are conducted to identify and decompose the wage gap between low (poor) and middle class income groups along the whole current wage distribution, based on a simulated counterfactual distribution.

    Findings– The results show that those who had been less fortunate during their childhood were also less likely to have the opportunity to gain labor market favored characteristics, such as a higher level of education, and even earn lower returns to their labor market characteristics in the current labor market. This leads to a discount of about 15 percentage points in the wage, on average, in total for those with underprivileged backgrounds during childhood compared to those with a middle class background. This disadvantage is observed heterogeneously, with a greater effect at the lower quantiles compared to the higher quantiles of the current wage distribution.

    Originality/value– This research contributes to the literature by providing a partial understanding of poverty in Korea along with possible causes, including poor family background or childhood poverty, with which the implication of an intergenerational effect is considered.

  • 236.
    Choi, Ga Eun
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Galonja, Stephanie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    The Euro Effect on Trade: The Trade Effect of the Euro on non-EMU and EMU Members2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the changes in trade values are affected by the implementation of the euro currency. We study the EU members, including 11 EMU members and 3 non-EMU members (Sweden, Denmark and the United Kingdom). The empirical analysis is conducted by using a modified version of the standard gravity model. Our core findings can be summarized into two parts. First, the euro effect on trade which is estimated by the euro-dummy coefficient reflects an adverse influence by the euro creation on trade values for the first two years of the implementation on all our sample countries. It leads us to a conclusion that there is no significant improvement of trade in the year of implementation. These results do not change when a time trend variable is added to evaluate the robustness of the model. Our primary interpretation is that the euro creation does not have an immediate impact on trade but it is rather gradual as countries need time to adapt to a new currency. It is connected to our second finding that the negative influence of the euro implementation is not permanent but eventually initiates positive outcomes on trade values over time, thus concluding that the euro implementation has had gradual impact on both EMU and non-EMU members.

  • 237.
    Christensson, Linn
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Microfinance Institutions and Poverty Reduction: Evidence from Nigeria2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 238.
    Chung, Yeimin
    et al.
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Republic of Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Sinsoo-dong #1, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742, Republic of Korea .
    Measurement of environmentally sensitive productivity growth in Korean industries2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 104, p. 380-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we will attempt to measure productivity growth at the industrial level using the Metafrontier Malmquist-Luenberger (MML) productivity growth index and dissect/analyze this index to reveal further information. The results will be compared with those obtained from the conventional Malmquist-Luenberger (ML) productivity growth index. Utilizing the MML-index has two advantages when compared with the ML-index: the first is that it is able to consider undesirable output as a by-product of production; and the second is that it can account for producer group heterogeneities such as production technology. Noting such advantages, we will model this study to achieve three objectives related to productivity, technology and policy effects. To separate the results of the productivity index, we estimate the changes in the technological gap between regional and global frontier technologies. The proposed index presents productivity growth and dissects its components into 14 Korean industrial sectors from 1981 to 2010. For the purpose of detailed analysis, we have divided the relevant period into three decades. The results show that technology innovation can be regarded as an important component of productivity growth, rather than merely efficiency change. Chemical and petrochemical, iron and steel and machinery are all treated as global innovators throughout the entire period. It is also inferred that the groups with higher labor productivity obtain a higher productivity growth rate as compared with their low labor productivity counterparts. Considering the heterogeneity of production technology and the time that policy is introduced, the policy implications of the results will affect the circumstances regarding investment in environmental technology.

  • 239.
    Cicek, Sevim
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Economic Growth in China: During the Period of 1980-20032007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Prior to China’s open-door policy, China was considered among one of the worlds’ most isolated economies. However, that changed when they allowed the market force to go before central planning, and decided on an outward orientation for their development strategy. This was a sign indicating that China allowed foreign trade to play a leading role in its economic development.

    This thesis, with the help of income terms of trade (ITT) and GDP per capita, aim to study if there is any relation between trade and growth in China during 1980-2003. The purpose is with help of the econometric tool, time series, to find a positive correlation between these variables. ITT include both the value of exports and imports. That is why the theory ITT is being used for this thesis, since the theory indicates that exports alone cannot explain growth if imports is not considered as well.

    The test, time series, was performed by doing a unit root problem, co integration, and a Granger causality test. The result given when doing these tests show of statistically significant result, which indicates that trade is of relevance for growth in China during 1980-2003.

  • 240.
    Claesson, Gustav
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Firm Valuation: Which model gives me the most accurate share price, the Dividend Discount Model or the Free Cash Flow to Equity Model?2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the applicability of the Free Cash Flow to Equity Model and the Dividend Discount Model on ten large cap firms on the Stockholm Stock Exchange. Moreover the author intends to examine whether these valuation methods differs in regards of the companies’ operational segment, business cycle and turnover. The target prices will hereafter be benchmarked with actual closing prices and professional analysts to observe similarities and deviations.

    Method:

    The focus lies on Swedish companies listed on Nasdaq OMX Stockholm’s Large Cap list. The companies are valued by collecting financial information from 2006- 2010 in order to find out what the share price in the beginning of 2011 should be. The models that are used to value the share are the Dividend Discount Model, which basically discounts actual dividends in order to find the present value of the share, and the Free Cash Flow to Equity model, which is discounting the firms’ cash flow available to its stockholders, i.e. the potential dividends. Since both of the valuation models require assumptions on future growth to be made, a combination of calculations and goals presented by the companies has been made in order to assume growth rates.

    Findings:

    The findings reveal that out of the twenty valuations that were made half of the most accurate ones came from the Dividend Discount Model, and half came from the Free Cash Flow to Equity model. It was however the Dividend Discount Model that provided the most accurate share prices, in comparison to the actual share prices from January 2011. It is also concluded that the turnover of the firm being evaluated does not have an impact on the valuation process, whilst the industry in which the firm operates as well as its payout ratio are factors that need to be taken into consideration when choosing between the Dividend Discount Model and the Free Cash Flow to Equity model.

  • 241.
    Claesson, Victor
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Eriksson, Adam
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Is the proposed ban of commission for instruments in financial counseling competitively neutral?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 242.
    Clarin, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Johansson, Sara
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Hållbar konsumtion av jordbruksvaror: Hur påverkas klimat och miljö av olika matvanor?2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilka livsmedel man väljer att konsumera har stor betydelse för klimat och miljö. Genom att välja mellan olika livsmedel kan konsumenterna påverka hur mycket växthusgaser och vilken mängd växtnäring som förloras på vägen från jord till bord. Syftet med den här rapporten är att genom hypotetiska konsumtionsscenarier visa hur konsumenters val är avgörande för miljöpåverkan. De analyser av olika livsmedels klimatpåverkan som presenteras i rapporten har utförts av Institutet för Livsmedel och Bioteknik AB (SIK) på uppdrag av Jordbruksverket.

    Om hela Sveriges befolkning helt slutade äta nöt,- lamm-, kyckling- och griskött skulle utsläppen av växthusgaser från invånarnas totala konsumtion minska med tio procent. Det är i synnerhet idisslande djur, det vill säga nötkreatur och får, som har en negativ påverkan på klimatet. Samtidigt finns det ett starkt och viktigt samspel mellan dessa djurslag och andra miljömål. Betande djur är till exempel en förutsättning för att bevara vissa landskapsmiljöer och de växt- och djurarter som lever där. Nötkött orsakar drygt fem procent av befolkningens totala utsläpp.

    Om hela Sveriges befolkning skulle sluta att slänga bort livsmedel och äta lagom mycket skulle den totala konsumtionens växthusgasutsläpp minska med cirka sex procent. Denna minskning beror huvudsakligen på minskad köttkonsumtion men också på minskad konsumtion av läsk, godis och snacks som har förhållandevis stora klimatpåverkande utsläpp. En återhållsam konsumtion av alla livsmedel ger således en potentiell utsläppsminskning som storleksmässigt har samma effekt på klimatet som en kostförändring där alla Sveriges invånare ersätter nötkött med kött av gris och kyckling. Odlingslandskapet och den biologiska mångfalden skulle dock kunna påverkas.

    Att äta frukt och grönt efter svensk odlingssäsong är bättre ur klimatsynpunkt än att äta importerade frukter och grönsaker, men effekten på totala klimatpåverkande utsläpp är jämförelsevis liten. En minskning av växthusgasutsläppen skulle också uppnås om konsumtionen av ris ersattes med potatis eller vetebaserade produkter. Dessa ändrade konsumtionsmönster skulle kunna innebära en tillväxt i svensk frukt- och grönsaksproduktion men också medföra att miljöbelastning, i form av övergödning och spridning av växtskyddsmedel flyttar till Sverige från de länder som idag exporterar dessa produkter till oss.

    Det är inte självklart att det är bättre ur klimatsynpunkt att välja närodlade livsmedel istället för ”fjärrodlade”. Till att börja med måste man definiera vad närodlade livsmedel är. Likaså är det inte alltid självklart att ekologiskt producerade livsmedel är mer klimatvänliga än konventionella. Det finns studier som visar att ekologisk produktion ger mindre eller lika stora klimatpåverkan som konventionell produktion. Däremot gynnar ofta ekologisk produktion biologisk mångfald och bidrar till en giftfri miljö. En produkts totala klimat- och miljöpåverkan beror på alla produktionsled, från jord till bord.

    Trots att varje individs enskilda konsumtion bara har en ytterst liten påverkan på globala konsumtionsmönster är den förändring som görs av en individ ändå en förändring. Om många ändrar sina konsumtionsmönster kan miljökonsekvenserna minska, men om ingen förändrar sin konsumtion kommer miljöpåverkan oundvikligen att växa.

  • 243.
    Cociu, Sergiu
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Trade openess and exchange rate volatility2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis tries to argue the importance of non monetary factors in explaining real exchange rate volatility. The main interest is on the effect of trade openness on real effec-tive exchange rate (REER) volatility. Based on theoretical studies I test the existence of a negative relationship between total trade share of an economy and the volatility of REER. Empirical evidence on a panel of 11 CEE and Baltic Countries for the 1995-2006 period confirms the relationship. The conclusion is that for these specific countries a large part of variation of the real exchange rate can be explained by openness of the respective economy to trade.

  • 244.
    Cociu, Sergiu
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Gustavsson, Thomas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Determinants of Swedish and German FDI: The case of Baltic and CEE Countries2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis tries to determine some of the driving force behind Swedish foreign direct in-vestments into the Baltic counties. The analysis is performed in three steps, first we analyze global FDI into transitional economies, and afterwards we look at Swedish FDI and com-pare it with German FDI. The determinants examined are index of economic freedom, R&D intensity, trade balance, wage level and proximity. The analyzed period is form 1995 to 2005. The analysis use data on the following transition countries Latvia, Lithuania, Esto-nia, Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Croatia, Romania and Bulgaria. The results show that the determinants vary across the countries. The motives of Swedish and German investors differ. Thus, for Swedish investors R&D, economical free-dom and trade balance are the influencing factors, but for Germany only trade balance and wage level are important. The conclusion is that different determinants triggers foreign di-rect investment in transitional economies in different ways.

  • 245.
    Coenen, Lars
    et al.
    CIRCLE, Lund University.
    Asheim, Bjørn
    CIRCLE, Lund University.
    Ljungh, Bertil
    CIRCLE, Lund University.
    Moodysson, Jerker
    CIRCLE, Lund University.
    Vinnväxt i Skåne2007In: Regional växtkraft i en global ekonomi: det svenska Vinnväxtprogrammet / [ed] Staffan Laestadius, Cali Nuur & Håkan Ylinenpää, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2007, Vol. s. 219-236, p. 219-236Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 246.
    Coenen, Lars
    et al.
    CIRCLE, Lund University.
    Moodysson, Jerker
    CIRCLE, Lund University.
    Putting constructed regional advantage into Swedish practice2009In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 587-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of the pre-history and evolution of a regional innovation system initiative supporting activities at the intersection of traditional food production and modern biotechnology. Drawing on established ideas on the triple helix of industry, university and government and its impact on innovative capacity (as they are formulated in the regional innovation systems approach) and more recently introduced ideas on differentiated industrial knowledge bases, the study illustrates how regional innovation system support initiatives are formulated and implemented in close dialogue with the actors and activities constituting the systems under support. The initiative analysed in this paper is a good example of pro-active and fine-tuned regional innovation policy, referred to as constructed regional advantage. By focusing on an initiative targeting the renewal of a mature industry in a declining phase of its life cycle, the paper fills a gap in the literature which so far has dealt mostly with emerging industries at the start of their life cycle. Two innovation trajectories that contributed to the formulation of the initiative, and now benefits from it, are used to illustrate the arguments.

  • 247.
    Coenen, Lars
    et al.
    CIRCLE, Lund University.
    Moodysson, Jerker
    CIRCLE, Lund University.
    Martin, Hanna
    CIRCLE, Lund University.
    Path renewal in old industrial regions: Possibilities and limitations for regional innovation policy2015In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 850-865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the potential, barriers and limitations for regional innovation policy to facilitate industrial renewal in old industrial regions. It draws on a case analysis of the policy programme ‘Biorefinery of the Future’ geared to promote renewal of the forest industry in Northern Sweden. It is shown that infusion of radical emergent technology is necessary for new regional path development, but not sufficient. To avoid a singular focus on technology-push, policy should pay more attention to complementary experimentation processes in relation to demand-side characteristics, firm strategies and business models as well as regulatory aspects. Moreover, coordination between regional innovation policy and adjacent domains and levels of policy-making is needed as some of the most pressing obstacles for renewal are not specific to the region but instead to the industry at large.

  • 248.
    Coenen, Lars
    et al.
    Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU), Oslo, Norway.
    Moodysson, Jerker
    CIRCLE, Lund University.
    Martin, Hanna
    CIRCLE, Lund University.
    Renewal of mature industry in an old industrial region: regional innovation policy and the co-evolution of institutions and technology2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to further insights on the potentials and barriers for industrial renewal in locked-in regions and industries. To do so, the paper analyzes the Swedish policy program ‘Biorefinery of the Future’ (BioF). This initiative is geared to develop a strong regional innovation environment for forestry-based biorefinery development in the area of Örnköldsvik and Umeå in Northern Sweden. Theoretically, the paper draws on concepts from evolutionary economic geography regarding path-dependence, related variety and lockin, and combines these with institutional approaches found in science and technology studies to explain disruptive shifts or transitions in socio-technical systems.

  • 249.
    Coenen, Lars
    et al.
    CIRCLE, Lund University.
    Moodysson, Jerker
    Department of Social and Economic Geography, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ryan, Camille
    Faculty of Communication and Culture, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Asheim, Bjørn
    CIRCLE, Lund University.
    Phillips, Peter
    Department of Political Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Comparing a pharmaceutical and an agro-food bioregion: On the importance of knowledge bases for socio-spatial patterns of innovation2006In: Industry and Innovation, ISSN 1366-2716, E-ISSN 1469-8390, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 393-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to compare the socio-spatial patterns of innovation and knowledge linkages of a biopharmaceutical and an agro-food biotech cluster. Dissimilarities can be expected based on differences in terms of historical technological regimes and sectoral innovation system dynamics between the agro-food and pharmaceutical industries in general and particularly the distinctive analytical (science-based) knowledge base of biopharmaceuticals in contrast with the more synthetic (engineering-based) knowledge base of agro-food biotechnology. Drawing on bibliometric data and case material the study compares two representative bioregions: a biopharmaceutical cluster in Scania, Sweden and an agro-food biotech cluster in Saskatoon, Canada. The empirical study supports the theoretical expectations and shows that knowledge dynamics in the agro-food cluster are more localized than in the biopharmaceuticals cluster. It is important, however, to acknowledge that these differences are relative. Both sectors display local and non-local patterns of collaboration following the general pattern for biotechnology.

  • 250.
    Cook, Gary
    et al.
    University of Liverpool.
    Pandit, Naresh
    Norwich Business School.
    Lööf, Hans
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Clustering, MNE and Innovation: Who Benefits and How?2013In: International Journal of the Economics of Business, ISSN 1357-1516, E-ISSN 1466-1829, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 203-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores three under-researched questions in the literature on multinational enterprises (MNEs), clustering, and innovation. First, to what extent does multinationality lead to higher rates of innovation activity and performance? Second, what, if any, is the link between MNE cluster location and innovation inputs and outputs? Third, are there any significant differences between enterprises belonging to domestic and overseas MNEs in these regards? Evidence is based primarily on 11,775 firms derived from the UK Community Innovation Survey 2007. Diversity in the regional economy exerts the most consistent positive influence, followed by the scale of employment in the enterprise’s own industry. Enterprises belonging to domestic MNEs appear to exert higher levels of innovation effort. However, evidence regarding their superiority in innovation outputs was weaker. Contrary to Michael Porter’s work, it appears that enterprises belonging to overseas firms benefit more than domestic firms.

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