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  • 201.
    Ahmed, Khondoker Emran
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Karmakar, Suman
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Challenges in the initial stage of internationalization: A study of Swedish and Bangladeshi SMEs2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internationalization is a topic of much importance because of its complex nature. In this study, the focus is on the initial challenges that the SMEs have to face when they go international. The literature suggests that, due to the simple structure and comparatively weaker financial base of SMEs, they face many hurdles when entering into a foreign market. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate what challenges a Swedish and a Balangedishi SME are faced with in the initial stage of the internationalization process.

    We have used a qualitative method and collected empirical data through interviews. For the analysis, we use a theoretical framework that emphasizes the Uppsala Internationali-zation Model. Our main results show that the SMEs suffer because of the challenges to collect appropriate information and to reduce cultural differences.

    With this thesis we hope to contribute with a new understanding of challenges that can help the SME to better cope with challenges in practice when involving in internationalization.

  • 202.
    Ahsan, Yasin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Faria Meireles, Felipe
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Power, Trust, and Commitment in buyer-supplier relationships.: Multiple Case Study in the Manufacturing Sector2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 203. Aidis, R.
    et al.
    Welter, Friederike
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Smallbone, D.
    Isakova, N.
    Female Entrepreneurship in Transi­tion Economies: The Case of Lithuania and Ukraine2007In: Feminist Economics, ISSN 1354-5701, E-ISSN 1466-4372, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 157-183Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 204.
    Aigare, Annija
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Koyumdzhieva, Tsvetelina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Thomas, Petrocelia Louise
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Diversity Management in Higher Education Institutions: Key Motivators2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem and Purpose – Diversity management, a subject of increasing interest over the last three decades in the business context, is even more relevant to higher education institutions, where diversity is present both in the supplier and customer side. In addition to general organisational improvements, most of the benefits arguably derived would have a direct impact on the cognitive processes such as problem-solving, creativity and learning, which are the core of the university reason for existence, being a centre for knowledge creation and transfer. However, the existing research covering diversity and its management in this particular organisational setting is very scarce. This paper aims to fill some of this gap. The purpose of this study is to identify the key motivators for ethnic diversity management in higher education institutions and the perceived benefits derived.

    Method – The investigation took the form of in-depth structured interviews conducted through e-mail, policy document analysis and website reviews of four selected higher education institutions. Pattern matching (Yin, 1994) was employed as the mode for data analysis.

    Findings – Ethnic Diversity Management was present in all units, however, it went beyond just the business case to include social justice view and other aspects. The HEIs studied were found to either manage diversity for purely ethical reasons, be motivated by a combination of moral considerations and perceived performance improvements, or completely culturally embrace diversity in the environment with less designated initiatives of diversity management, dependent on a range of variables present in each institutions related to their perceptions, goals and environment. Hence, both the social justice case and business case were concluded to be strong motivators for diversity management in the higher education context.

    Originality/value – The paper highlights various DM initiatives, strategies as well as observed effects, hence solidifying the arguments for recognizing and managing diversity and the link between well managed diversity and performance in various aspects, both in business and higher education context. The study is expected to make a contribution  to knowledge by assisting in providing information on key motivators for DM in HEIs and is intended  to be  an elementary supplement  for scholarly discourse in management science, and particularly DM in the HEI context.

  • 205.
    Aijaz, Humayun
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management.
    Butt, Faisal Suhail
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Innovation Systems, Entrepreneurship and Growth .
    BARRIERS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRONIC COMMERCE: A STUDY OF PAKISTANI ENVIORNMENT2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    E-commerce has flourished in the developed world and is playing an important role in the everyday lives of the people and national economies. The developing nations are far behind in this regard even though their governments have made considerable efforts to encourage e-commerce. This thesis is a study of the environmental factors that act as barriers to the development of e-commerce in Pakistan. It shows the nature and the level of hindrance these environmental factors have caused and there relation to one another. In order to make a national analysis, environmental factors have been stretched to include the government, businesses, consumers, physical infrastructures, social and cultural factors. A qualitative study was conducted via telephonic and written interviews from academic and professional experts, users and non users of e-commerce in Pakistan. The analysis of these interviews revealed that not all of the factors considered as e-commerce barriers for developing nations were present in Pakistan. The relation between different e-commerce barriers was studied and further, additional barriers were also identified. Low literacy rate, traditional economic sector, failure of government to successfully implement e-commerce initiatives and regulations, shortage of electrical supply and low demand for online businesses and the consumer purchasing behaviour of Pakistanis were identified as the main e-commerce barriers.

  • 206.
    Aimar, Maude Eugenie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Milicevic, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Strategic Renewal in the Banking Industry: A middle managerial perspective with the focus on dynamic managerial capabilities in the Swedish Banking industry2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 207.
    Ajakaiye, Ojo Iseghohime
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    The Role of Logistics Service Providers in the Logistics Firms' Supply Chain2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Competition amongst companies in the global market has resulted in increased production of goods and services. Enterprises are now faced with the challenges of shipments of raw materials, spare parts from vendors, and the finished goods to consumers. Logistics companies are springing up to tackle transportation and other logistics problems. There are various logistics companies such as logistics intermediaries, carriers and third party logistics service providers in the market which are in one way or the other competing and at the same time cooperating within the supply chain in order to fulfill their assignments to their customers. Third party logistics service providers are experiencing rapid growth because of the advanced demand of services such as the desire to reduce lead time, inventory management, outsourcing, and a host of other functions. Not much has been written on the logistics firms. Besides, most studies on logistics firms and the third-party logistics providers focus more on such aspects like their skills, services, and their relationships with their customers.

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the logistics service providers’ roles within the logistics firms’ supply chain by identifying how the expected roles are performed. In the frame of reference, the author searched several books and articles that are relevant within the scope of the thesis topic. Both qualitative and explorative data collection methods are used in the thesis and these involve conducting interviews, and reading the accounts of other people concerning the thesis topic.

    The conclusion shows that logistics service providers are able to perform their roles through vertical and horizontal cooperation with other firms and with other logistics firms respectively. Besides, logistics firms do live up to their roles. Carriers and the logistics intermediary now perform more roles than what people think they do, because networks connection and the urge to remain competitive make them to take up value-added services. Third-party logistics service providers add values for their customers through their value-added services in various ways such as time and place utility including tracking and tracing the goods to ensure that they are delivered.

     

  • 208.
    Akbarali, Ahmed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Foma, Awambeng
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Determinants of Capital Structure in Family Firms2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most firms are using optimal combination of equity and debt so as to maximize firms value and the wealth of the shareholders. To achieve all these, firms should be aware of the factors that influence the capital structure decisions.

    Previous empirical studies attempted to explain what determines the choice of capital structure in firms. The focus was on firms in general without categorizing family firms and non-family firms. The primary objective of this study is to examine what determines the capital structure of family firms in OECD countries.

    Amadeus database was used to obtain the data needed for the statistical analysis. Measures for firm-specific characteristics were calculated based on the previous stud-ies. The study was conducted over a period of 9 years from 2005-2013. Dataset com-prised of 95 family firms resulting in 850 observations.

    The results from the study indicate that the capital structure for family firms in OECD countries is influenced by profitability, asset tangibility, growth, size, debt tax shield , non-debt tax shield and liquidity. Both pecking-order theory and trade-off theory explain the capital structure of family firms.

  • 209.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Exit in the context of portfolio firms2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 210.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Family business portfolios: Enduring entrepreneurship and exit strategies2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines how family business portfolios endure across time and investigates the entrepreneurial strategies that they engage in. The goal of this dissertation is addressed through five appended papers in which I have argued for the importance of business families owning multiple firms, that is, portfolio entrepreneurship. Portfolio entrepreneurship plays a central role in economic development as it is a prevalent phenomenon in developed and emerging economies. However, despite its importance, there is currently very little research on portfolio entrepreneurship, especially in the context of family firms.

    In so doing, I study nine business families owning multiple businesses in Pakistan. I conducted in-depth interviews with family owners and employees; the interviews were supplemented with other sources of data such as observations and archival material. When studying questions such as how a portfolio is built-up across generations, how and why business families exit and, when they exit, which businesses they choose to exit from, I draw on insights from the literature on portfolio entrepreneurship, business exit, family firms, socioemotional wealth, sensemaking, compassion and social identity theory in the five papers.

    The dissertation addresses the calls for studies on portfolio entrepreneurship in the context of family firms by examining the process through which a portfolio is constructed by studying performance and exit related issues. In other words, it examines both the growth and the contraction of portfolios. The study offers several contributions. First, it contributes to studies on enduring entrepreneurship by investigating how business families last across time despite encountering difficult situations and declining business. Second, the study contributes to the portfolio entrepreneurship literature by elucidating how portfolios are built across generations and the roles of both growth and contractions while addressing processual and contextual issues.

    Third, the study contributes to the business exit literature by looking at the exit process in a family business context and exploring multiple exits. This isunique, as it is, to the best of my knowledge, the first study on business exits looking at multiple exit in the context of family firms. Fourth, the study also contributes to the literature on family firms by exploring how and why business families refrain from exiting from their core legacy business and how their emotions influence the exit process.

    Finally, the study contributes to context-related issues. The study adds to the literature on contextualization and addresses the call for more context-specific studies in entrepreneurship scholarship. This dissertation is focused on context-based factors considering the spatial and social context, where the former has been undertaken by taking an emerging economy and country context as the setting, while the latter refers to the relational and emotional ties within family firms. In addition to its theoretical contributions, this dissertation has important implications for practice. The dissertation brings to the fore some promising and unique ways in which entrepreneurship endures across time and context through the transgenerational transmission of entrepreneurship and insights into how business families behave in a declining business situation. Additionally, this study offers insights for family owners and managers on how to address the dilemma of continued entrepreneurship, that is, how to encourage and foster enduring entrepreneurship in organizations, in particular in the context of family firms.

  • 211.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Firm growth and entrepreneurs: Role of kinship ties2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 212.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Kinship and the family business2015In: Theoretical perspectives on family businesses / [ed] Mattias Nordqvist, Leif Melin, Matthias Waldkirch and Gershon Kumeto, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 175-190Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this chapter is to review and synthesise the prior work on kinship in family firms and to open up future research avenues for this interesting and important topic. The study shows that kinship is highly relevant in family firms by revisiting the concept of family and kinship as well as the definition of family firms. This chapter explores important aspects related to family firms, such as continuity of generations, succession, inheritance and resource provision and links these to kinship. These aspects are identified as four functions of kinship and indicate the possible research gaps, thereby suggesting future kinship research avenues.

  • 213.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Pluriactivity and Portfolio Entrepreneurship in Informal Economies2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 214.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Portfolio entrepreneurship in family firms2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 215.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Portfolio entrepreneurship in family firms: Taking stock and moving forward2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Portfolio entrepreneurship is a critical but relatively unexplored aspect of entrepreneurship literature. In particular, little research exists on portfolio entrepreneurship in the context of family firms. Existing literature on portfolio entrepreneurship in the context of family firms tends to have multiple research gaps which are unaddressed. To this end, we explore the extant literature on portfolio entrepreneurship in general and portfolio entrepreneurship in the context of family firms in particular and bring forth three future research areas. First, we examine how triggers and motivations to indulge in portfolio entrepreneurship are relevant and important for family firms. Second, we explore the role of different settings for the exploration of the portfolio family firms. Third, we argue that performance and outcome results are important aspects to have a closer look at the growth and survival of portfolio family firms.

  • 216.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Portfolio entrepreneurship in family firms: Taking stock and moving forward2017In: The Routledge companion to family business / [ed] Franz W. Kellermanns, Frank Hoy, Routledge, 2017, p. 311-328Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 217.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Portfolio entrepreneurship in growing family firms2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 218.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Portfolio entrepreneurship in the context of family firms role of kinship ties2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 219.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Transgenerational growth: Family business portfolios in rural and urban contexts2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 220.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Brundin, Ethel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Hartel, C.
    Prodigies of Beliefs: Compassion and Positive organization2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 221.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Brundin, Ethel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Härtel, Charmine
    Transgenerational moral emotions: Activating compassion to develop a positive organizationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 222.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Accepting and implementing change in family firms within and across generations2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 223.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Harvest and after: Entrepreneurial recycling in family firm portfolios2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial exit is an integral component of the entrepreneurial process. Yet entrepreneurs often fail to realize the gains from their harvesting activities (Dehlen et al., 2012). This study extends our understanding of entrepreneurial recycling which allows a firm to re-allocate and re-invest the harvested resources (Mason & Harrison, 2006). Although entrepreneurial recycling is viewed as an important element of the post exit process (DeTienne & Chirico, 2013), with few exceptions there is little research present on this phenomenon. This is especially interesting in the case of a special breed of entrepreneurs called portfolio entrepreneurs (DeTienne, 2010; Rosa, 1998) who own multiple businesses simultaneously and undertake multiple exits as compare to entrepreneurs who start and harvest a single venture only (MacMillan, 1986). Theoretical and empirical research suggests that the context of family firms has a profound impact on portfolio entrepreneurship as well as on entrepreneurial recycling strategies (Carter & Ram, 2003).

  • 224.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    If we cannot have it then no one should: Business exit and re-entry2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 225.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Entrepreneurial exit strategies in family firm portfolios2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 226.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Exit strategies in family firm portfolios2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 227.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Surviving the legacy: Sensemaking of emotions and exit in portfolio firmsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 228.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Sieger, P.
    Ramirez-Pasillas, Marcela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Transgenerational growth in family business portfolios: Strategies and the rural and urban context2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 229.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Sieger, Philipp
    University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    If we cannot have it then no one should: Shutting down versus selling in family business portfolios2015In: Academy of Management Proceedings, January 2015 (Meeting Abstract Supplement) 15764, 2015 / [ed] John Humphreys, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates exit patterns in family business portfolios in times of declining performance. Drawing on social identity theory and a sample of six family business portfolios from Pakistan, we reveal that business families often prefer shutting down satellite portfolio firms rather than selling them. This is found to be mainly driven by the identity fit of the family and the satellite business and the desire to restart it at a later point in time. This study contributes to literature on portfolio entrepreneurship, business exit, and long-term success and endurance of family firms.

  • 230.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Ning, Ernestine
    Resourcefulness and Informal Economy:: From Pluriactivity to Portfolio Entrepreneurship2018In: The Family Business Group Phenomenon: Emergence and Complexities / [ed] Marita Rautiainen, Peter Rosa, Timo Pihkala, Maria José Parada, Allan Discua Cruz, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, p. 145--174Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 231.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Entrepreneurial exit in family firm portfolios2014In: The Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings, January 2014 (Meeting Abstract Supplement), 15060, Academy of Management , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the process of entrepreneurial exit in a sample of five family firm portfolios from Pakistan. Our aim is to understand how entrepreneurial exit occurs in family firm portfolios and why family firm owners exit from some satellites and not from others. The emergent insights of this study through observing total number of 25 exits, portrays that due to emotional depth family firm owners manifest a strong attachment toward their core business and refrain from exiting from it. This tendency persists across generations. By doing so, family firm owners tend to exit from satellites, regardless to the fact that they are successful or not, to save the core business. Furthermore, they are more likely to exit from satellites ventured with external parties, not directly managed by the family and/or founded by distant relatives.

  • 232.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Strategies and Markets Department, ESSCA School of Management, Angers, France.
    Sieger, Philipp
    Department of Management and Entrepreneurship, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). EGADE Business School, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico.
    If we can't have it, then no one should: Shutting down versus selling in family business portfolios2016In: Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, ISSN 1932-4391, E-ISSN 1932-443X, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 371-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How does a business family manage its business portfolio in times of declining performance to sustain the portfolio's long-term endurance? Drawing on social identity theory and six family business portfolios from Pakistan, we find that business families may prefer to shut down a satellite business rather than sell it, which is primarily driven by identity considerations. In addition, the family's goal to recycle the assets, the aim to restart the business later, and the increasing decline in performance are important contingency factors. This study contributes to the literature on portfolio entrepreneurship, business exit, and the enduring entrepreneurship of family firms.

  • 233.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Xavier, Lesage
    ESSCA School of Management, France.
    Should I Stay or Should I Leave: Founders Emotional Hangover and Exit Delay2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 234.
    Akinci, Efe
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Li, Jing
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Bitcoin and Stock Market Indexes Causality2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies Granger Causality relations between Bitcoin and 5 stock market indexes which are Japan, Russia, South Korea, Sweden and the United States. The time-period examined is from 2013 to 2017 and all the tests are conducted based on daily data.  We analyze this in three different periods, last 5 years (2013-2017), in 2017 and last 3 months of 2017.

    To estimate the relationship, we use unit root test and Augmented Dickey-Fuller, Lagrange Multiplier, Johansen Cointegration Test and finally Granger Causality Test. After the tests, countries have a same integrated order that exhibits a long-run relationship. In causality, except for Russia, each country has affected the Bitcoin prices and being affected in a different period, especially in the last 3 months of 2017, the impact and popularity of Bitcoin affect too much the stock market in the short-run.

    As a result, the causation between Bitcoin and stock market indexes shows impact statistically significant in the 2017 year. The importance of cryptocurrency and popularity not as much as hype like late 2017 in 2018, but we think that cryptocurrencies are one of the major currencies that affect economical world very deeply.

  • 235.
    al Hussaini, Ammar
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    What factors are driving forces for credit spreads?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine what affects the changes in credit spreads. A

    regression model was performed where the explanatory variables were; volatility,

    SP&500 index, interest-rate level the slope of yield curve and the dependent

    variable was credit spread for each of CSUSDA, CSUSDBBB, and CSUSDB. We

    found a positive correlation between these independent variables (Volatility, S&P

    500index) and a negative correlation between interest-rate level and credit spreads.

    These results were consistent with our hypothesis. However, the link between the

    slope of yield curve and credit spreads was positive and that was inconsistent with

    our hypothesis and some previous studies. The conclusion of this paper was a

    change in credit spread is related to the variables that we used in our model. And

    these variables explained about 50 per cent of this change.

  • 236.
    Al natur, Firas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Acikbas, Canberk
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    The Effect of Corporate Entrepreneurship on Software Development Process in the Automotive Industry2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In this study we connected corporate entrepreneurship with new product development (NPD) process in the automotive industry.Purpose: Our purpose in this thesis is to look in-depth on how corporate entrepreneurship effect the developing process of new software in the automotive industryMethod: This thesis was conducted interviews with Innovation and Digital Services Department which belongs to Volvo Cars. With the help of theoretical framework, we could connect our findings correlated with theoretical framework.Conclusion: The corporate entrepreneurship has indeed a big effect on the software development process, where it changes the internal structure entirely.

  • 237.
    Alabdullatif, Talal
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management (CeLS).
    SABIC Green Logistics Systems & Profitability: To explore chemical industries green logistics and contribution to profitability with a particular case of SABIC2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Logistics is paramount in the business operations as it ensures transit of goods from one point to the other. Green logistics are measures in the logistics systems that are put in place to minimize the environmental implication of logistics operations while at the same time saving on cost. Thus, green logistics is adopted as it conveys a competitive merit which enhances performance of a company. Saudi Basic Industries (SABIC) is one of the biggest petrochemicals in Saudi Arabia and holds the fifth position in the world among the leading producers of petrochemicals. The company already has green logistics in place.

    Purpose: To explore chemical industries green logistics practices and profitability with a particular case study of SABIC. The goal of this paper was achieved by investigating how has SABIC incorporated green practices into supply chain operations to remain profitable. The study answers “how has chemical industries incorporated green practices into supply chain operations to stay profitable?’ And “how do logistic managers recognize green logistics and to what level do chemical industries apply green logistics? Investigating a chemical industry green logistics is important as it contributes to literature since no single study has been carried out in this area. Suggestions from this study are crucial to SABIC, other chemical industry besides any other industry since in one way or the other companies do logistics.

    Method: The study utilized interpretivism. This study was a case study type of thesis focusing merely on SABIC, and it employed induction approach as well as the qualitative method of collecting data.  Interviews were used to explore the experiences, beliefs, motivations and views of individual participants. Using non-probability sampling method, five members in SABIC supply chain department were selected.

    Conclusion: The results show that SABIC or chemical industries utilize most of the green logistics activities (fuel efficiency, route optimization package optimization and calculating carbon emission). However, it was found out that fuel efficiency, route optimizations, and packaging optimization were most common activities. It was also discovered that one major objective of chemical industries going green was to cut cost which contributes positively to its profitability. However, reverse logistics was not familiar because of its nature; it cannot be sufficient on its own.

  • 238.
    Alayón, Claudia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Sannö, Anna
    Mälardalen University,School of Innovation, IDT-Design and Engineering.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Johansson, Glenn
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Mälardalen University,School of Innovation, IDT-Design and Engineering, .
    Sustainable production adoption by surface treatment SMEs: Challenges and enablers2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The adoption to sustainable production is a continuous but necessary strive for manufacturing operations, including small and medium enterprises, SMEs. Meeting the future needs of the economic, social and environmental dimensions provides challenges for SMEs. In order for these challenges to be met understanding of internal and external enablers is required. Studies focusing on the enablers for sustainability amongst SMEs are rare; hence these companies are important players in the supply chain to focal companies. In order to enhance the understanding of the adoption of sustainable production for the sector surface treatment SMEs, an explorative study has been conducted. In this study, the focus has been placed in the identification and analysis of the challenges and enablers for adoption of sustainable production. Two stages of empirical data collection were undertaken: a focus group session and an online questionnaire. The findings present challenges based on the limitations of the surface treatment process but also where enablers for the social, economic and environmental for meeting those challenges are strongly linked. The results showed that these SMEs face challenges in their way towards sustainable production, mainly due to: low economic profitability, need for improvement in old working procedures, lack of fully understanding regarding environmental legislation, difficulty in ensuring workforce, lack of technology development and resistance towards change. These challenges could be faced through internal and external enablers, where the support of large-size customers and other stakeholders is critical for these SMEs.

  • 239.
    Alayón, Claudia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Johansson, Glenn
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    Implementation of sustainable production principles within Swedish manufacturers2014In: Proceedings of The 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014, Göteborg: Chalmers university , 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Both, a common understanding on sustainable production principles and the identification of sustainable production practices within manufacturers constitute key starting points when the aim is to study how Swedish manufacturers are working towards sustainable production. Using an interview guide based on the sustainable production principles by the Lowell Center of Sustainable Production (LCSP), this paper provides an overview of how Swedish manufacturers comply with these set of principles.

  • 240.
    Alban, Lucas Carlos
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Wieneck, Michael
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Let Them Brand This Town: A Qualitative Study of How Major Cities Manage User-Generated Content in Their Branding Strategies2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ongoing urbanization and increased visits to urban areas make cities around the globe compete with each other. As places increasingly aim to attract visitors, residents, businesses or investments, place branding becomes a new discipline within the field of marketing and city branding arises as a means to differentiate a city in the global marketplace. In order to communicate with their potential audience, the digital space allows brands to address potential customers through two-way-communication. In this context, user-generated content (UGC) becomes an interesting alternative to interact with audiences, offering marketing professionals the opportunity to effectively engage stakeholders in the branding process and co-create the city brand.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to gain a broader understanding of how, within the place branding context, major city brands manage UGC in their social media strategies.

    Method: The study relied on a qualitative methodology and was conducted with an abductive approach. Primary data was gathered through email-based interviews with a sample of eleven representatives from valuable major city brands, as well as with one independent professional in the field of place branding consultancy.

    Conclusion: In the city branding context, UGC was found to be an effective tool to engage with stakeholders and build a strong brand in order to differentiate it among its competitors. Four categories of potential issues connected to the application of UGC were uncovered: Control, Credibility, Motivation as well as Features of UGC. Finally, a model of UGC facilitating the participatory approach to city branding was proposed by the authors.

  • 241.
    Aleem, Majid
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Islam, Md. Shariful
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Successful Succession in Family Businesses: Individual Level Factors and Succession Planning Models.2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Individual level factors related to the successor have a central role to play in the succession process of the business. When these factors are viewed in relation to succession planning models, these factors have a direct relation to the succession models in terms of success or failure of the succession process. The major contributing factor to the success or failure of the succession process is that of the leadership provided to the organization by the predecessor. These leadership qualities change from one form to another during different phases of the succession planning models.

  • 242.
    Alexandra-Claudia, Minescu
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    The real exchange rate: a factor in the economic growth? -The case of Romania-2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 243.
    Algotsson, Frida
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Johansson, Christoffer
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Lindskog, Amanda
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Talent Retention: A case study of two companies' Trainee Programmes2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Talent Management is a topic gaining more attention among businesses and it is one of the most

    important challenges faced by companies worldwide; therefore it should be a top priority for

    managers. Literature states that many organisations are not aware of the issue of Talent Retention

    and that it is the high performers who are the ones end up leaving. Due to that the generation

    Millennials are considered to be a generation with talent and the education needed to take over

    and become the next generation of leaders, it is important to take advantage of them as

    opportunities and factors for success.

    One opportunity for companies to both attract talents and thereafter retain them is through

    conducting trainee programmes, however, to successfully execute these programmes, resources in

    terms of money, time and efforts are required. Therefore, in order to achieve the best possible

    return on the resources invested is it crucial to be able to retain the talents after them finishing

    the trainee programme. In order to answer our research question and fulfil our purpose we have

    done a multiple case study and conducted in-depth interviews to gather qualitative data. Our

    sample group consisted of eight representatives, two managers and six trainees, working at the

    two companies sampled. Consequently, our findings show that even without having an outlined

    retention plan, companies can be successful within Talent Retention. Moreover, this research

    acknowledge that good leadership, presence of Psychological Ownership and opportunities for

    challenges and development are the most important factors leading to talents wanting to stay

    within the company, after participating in the company’s trainee programme.

  • 244.
    Al-Hammadany, F. H.
    et al.
    Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, Korea University, South Korea, and Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Korea University, South Korea.
    Determinants of internet use in Iraq2011In: International Journal of Communication, ISSN 1932-8036, E-ISSN 1932-8036, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1967-1989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet is considered to be today’s most advanced technology and a key to progress in communications and in the exchange of information, goods, services, and technologies. Since its introduction during the late 1960s, the Internet has been instrumental in creating opportunities and conditions for progress in developed and developing nations alike. Not all nations, though, welcome this particular tool of global interconnectivity. One such nation is Iraq, which faces huge challenges in increasing Internet penetration, capacity building, and changing the traditional methods of communications. This study of Iraq’s efforts during this difficult undertaking explores the many factors that define this transition process. It concludes by explaining the determinants of Internet use in Iraq. The results of the study indicate that while Iraqis are eager to adopt this technology in order to reach out to the world, a number of factors are not allowing it to become a public domain. Factors include lack of adequate resources, insufficient incentives and encouragement from the government, and social inhibitions. ©2011 (Firas H. al-Hammadany, Almas Heshmati).

  • 245.
    Al-Hammadany, Firas H.
    et al.
    Ministry of Foreign Affairs Department of Information Technology Baghdad, Iraq.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology Korea University, East Building Room #217 Anam-dong Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713, Korea.
    Analysis of the Purpose of Using Internet in Iraq: A Multinomial Logit Model2011In: Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology, ISSN 2069-5934, Vol. 1, no 6, p. 1-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet accessibility is positively correlated with infrastructure development and nature of government policies. Though Iraq has shown considerable increase in Internet connectivity, it constitutes only 10 % of its population. In this study, the significant factors determining the use and non-use of Internet have been identified and analyzed. The results revealed that human development, human capital, institutional and legal environment, existing technologies, government policy making and income levels affect the Internet accessibility. The non-Internet users mainly comprised from 12-25 years age group. Similarly, high school and diploma students constituted significant proportion ofnon-Internet users. Lack of awareness and poor access to Internet facility were quoted as the most significant factors that resulted in the poor Internet accessibility which were supported by the used multinomial logit model. Low income level of the people resulted in non-use of Internet. The use of Internet was found to be highest among those with high level of education. Hence, the measures like provision of ICT based training programs, effective government policy for prioritizing Internet in education sector and allowing most advanced Internet technologies in e-governance and increased efforts for enhancing human development and human capital would enhance the rate of Internet accessibility in Iraq.

  • 246.
    Alhosaini, Mohamad Rami
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Abduldaiem, Abdulwareih
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Effects of External Funding on the Work Environment of Self-Funded Firms2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The work environment in organizations has been associated with a number of factors that contribute to both their success and sustainability. Many researchers have identified the role, influence or the connection between the work environment and these factors such as productivity and creativity. However, it seems that business owners do not take their organization’s work environment into consideration when making major business decisions such as acquiring external funding. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of acquiring external funding on the different social factors influencing the work environment for self-funded firms. We have conducted a multiple case study in which we collected data through conducting interviews with eight employees from five different organizations located in the Middle East region. We analyzed the gathered data based on a theoretical model that connects eleven work environment dimensions with three aspects that are accompanied by acquiring external funding, which are: the changes in management and goals, financial resources and new networks and contacts. As a result, we concluded that the changes in management and goals have the most complex effect on work environment when compared to the other two aspects. In addition, we explored how would these aspects affect the work environment, either directly or indirectly, and found that the individual level changes in the work environment are mostly affected indirectly since the employees do not tend to attribute such changes to external funding directly. Finally, according to our results, it doesn’t seem that having the same funding type would trigger similar changes in the work environment. On the other hand, having a similar funding objective by the financing party would trigger more similarities especially when it comes to the changes in management and goals.

  • 247.
    Alibegovic, Sandra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Hawkins, Andrew
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Parmar, Mitesh
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Empowerment, Contextual Performance & Job Satisfaction -      A Case Study of the Scandic Hotels in Jönköping -2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between job satisfaction among hotel employees as well as the relationship between employee empowerment and contextual performance behaviours.

    Background: Most managers and scholars emphasize that an organization’s most important tool for gaining a competitive advantage is its people and; in order for the firm to attain success employees must be involved and active. It has been argued that success within the hotel industry lies with customer satisfaction, of which is the result of overall job satisfaction of the employee. Most hotels strive to empower their employees in order to deliver better quality service. In addition, contextual performance behaviours are also common practice in such places where employees have a broad range of duties and tasks. Both empowerment and contextual performance behaviours are thus seen to provide overall job satisfaction.

    Method: The research approach used was that of a single case study, using a survey instrument to collect data on facets empowerment and contextual performance behaviours. The Scandic Hotels of Jonkoping were used for this purpose. The data collected were then analysed by way of factor analysis and multiple regression methods to validate the hypotheses formed in the theoretical framework.

    Findings and

    Conclusions: Based on the results of the analysis, the majority of the hypotheses were supported.  Training and rewards showed a significant relationship with overall job satisfaction. Job dedication behaviours also showed similar results. In addition, information sharing and trust and training and rewards proved to have interrelationships as facets of empowerment.  Interpersonal facilitation and job dedication behaviours were also proved to be distinct behaviours within contextual performance.

  • 248.
    Alizada, Zekria
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Clarin, Oscar
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Impact of Loss Aversion Bias on Herding Behavior of Young Swedish Retail Investors: A Behavioral Perspective on Young Swedish Retail Investors' Decision Making in the Stock Market2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Kahneman and Tversky (1974, 1979 & 1992) argue that individuals are bound to numerous behavioral biases that may lead to the emergence of different irrational behaviors. This is often observed with even a higher degree among participants of financial and stock markets as agents such as investors are frequently exposed to significant level of risk and uncertainty (Kahneman, 2013; Kahneman, Knetsch & Thaler, 1991; Kahneman & Tversky, 1974, 1979, 1992). Also, empirical studies indicate that a significant level of herding exists among investors when they are exposed to a high degree of risk and uncertainty such as those in financial crises (Galariotis, Rong & Spyrou, 2014; Litimi, 2017; Hott, 2009).

    Purpose: the main purpose of this thesis is to explore if the loss aversion bias has a significant causal impact on forming herding behavior among young Swedish retail investors.

    Method: an online analytical questionnaire including eight questions has been conducted to collect primary data, with 77 Swedish retail investors under the age of 35 participating in the study. Furthermore, a multiple regression analysis has been implemented to analyze and interpret the data.

    Conclusion: it can be concluded that there is not a significant correlation between the degree of loss aversion and the degree of herding behavior within the sample group of young Swedish retail investors. Hence, loss aversion bias cannot be considered as one of the major contributors of herding within the target population.

  • 249.
    Aljafari, Asma
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Bagyo, Rares
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Insider Trading: the Case of Family Business and Capitalization Levels Event study on earning announcements.: Master’s thesis within Business Administration2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Is the stock market reacting differently when it comes to family businesses than non-family businesses? It is known that family firms have a special effect on investors especially when it comes to news and decision making. This study is focused on the insider trading issue on the Swedish financial market. We apply the event study methodology on 1280 observations of interim and annual financial report announcements, taken from family and non-family companies. We found family businesses more secure when it comes to insider trading. The market is more susceptible to reaction when the financial news are released by non-family firms. The difference between the two categories is up to 10%. The study contains an insider trading analysis by taking into account the capitalization level, the interim versus annual report and the family status. We also discuss and contrast the Swedish law with insider trading efficiency and ethical aspects.

  • 250. Alkamisi, M. A.
    et al.
    Khalaf, G.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Some Modifications for Choosing Ridge Parameters2006In: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 35, no 11, p. 2005-2020Article in journal (Refereed)
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