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  • 151.
    Black, Melissa H.
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia. Curtin Autism Research Group, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia .
    Mahdi, Soheil
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Centre for Psychiatry Research; Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet & Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Milbourn, Benjamin
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia; Curtin Autism Research Group, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia .
    Thompson, Craig
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia; Curtin Autism Research Group, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia .
    D'Angelo, Axel
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Centre for Psychiatry Research; Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet & Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ström, Eva
    Swedish Public Employment Service, Unit for Rehabilitation and Work, Hallunda-Norsborg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia; Curtin Autism Research Group, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia .
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia; Curtin Autism Research Group, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia; Pain and Rehabilitation Centre. Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden .
    Lerner, Matthew
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA..
    Halladay, Alycia
    Autism Science Foundation, New York, USA.
    Gerber, Alan
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA..
    Esposito, Christopher
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA..
    Girdler, Sonya
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia; Curtin Autism Research Group, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia .
    Bölte, Sven
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia; Curtin Autism Research Group, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia; Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Centre for Psychiatry Research; Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet & Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Perspectives of key stakeholders on employment of autistic adults across the United States, Australia and Sweden2019Ingår i: Autism Research, ISSN 1939-3792, E-ISSN 1939-3806, Vol. 12, nr 11, s. 1648-1662Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite efforts to improve employment outcomes for autistic individuals, internationally their employment rates remain low. There is a need to better understand the factors influencing successful employment for autistic adults in the labor market from the perspectives of multiple keystakeholders. This study represents the second in a series of papers conducted as part of an International Society for Autism Research policy brief aimed at improving employment outcomes for autistic individuals. A community consultation methodology using focus groups, forums, and interviews was applied with autistic individuals (n = 19), family members (n = 18), service providers (n = 21), employers (n = 11), researchers (n = 5), and advocacy group representatives (n = 5) in Australia, Sweden, and the United States, aiming to identify the factors perceived to determine gaining and maintaining employment for autistic individuals. Directed content analysis, guided by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), was conducted to investigate the key factors influencing employment outcomes for autistic individuals. Meaningful verbal concepts, or units of text with common themes, were also derived from the qualitative data and then linked and compared to the ICF Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Core-sets. Across countries, activity and participation and environmental factor categories of the ICF were the most associated with employment outcomes. Results suggest that removal of environmental barriers and enhancing environmental facilitators may assist to remediate ASD-related difficulties in the workplace.

    LAY SUMMARY: This study sought to understand the perspectives of autistic individuals and key stakeholders on factors influencing if autistic adults get and keep jobs. Across Australia, Sweden, and the UnitedStates, focus groups and interviews were conducted to understand international perspectives on what helps and hinders getting and keeping a job for autistic individuals. The environment, including supports, relationships, attitudes, and services, were perceived to be the most important for workplace success. Intervention targeting barriers and facilitators in the workplace environment may support autistic adults to be successful in the labor market.

  • 152.
    Black, Melissa H.
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Tang, Julia S. Y.
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Morris, Susan
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Disembedding performance and eye gaze behavior of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder2019Ingår i: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 66, artikel-id 101417Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Atypical visual perception in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may contribute to superiority in disembedding tasks. Gaze behavior has provided some insights in to mechanisms underlying this purported superiority in children, however evidence is limited and requires additional investigation.

    Method: The performance and gaze behavior of 27 adolescents with ASD and 27 matched typically developing (TD) peers were examined during the Figure Ground Subtest of the Test of Visual Perception Skills-third edition (TVPS-3).

    Results: Compared to their TD counterparts, adolescents with ASD were no different in accuracy, however, had a longer response time. Differences in gaze behavior were also observed, characterized by adolescents with ASD spending less time viewing the incorrect and target figures, and spending a greater proportion of time viewing irrelevant areas of the stimuli compared to TD adolescents.

    Conclusions: Results suggest that while altered visual perception was observed, this did not contribute to superiority in disembedding tasks in adolescents with ASD. Future research is required to elucidate conditions under which altered visual perception may contribute to behavioral superiority. 

  • 153.
    Boren, T.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Axelsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Profound intellectual and multiple disabilities2014Ingår i: JARID: Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, ISSN 1360-2322, E-ISSN 1468-3148, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 371-371Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 154.
    Boren, Taylor
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Wilder, Jenny
    Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Axelsson, Anna Karin
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Sweden’s LSS and social integration: An exploration of the relationship between personal assistant type, activities, and participation for children with PIMD2016Ingår i: Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, ISSN 1741-1122, E-ISSN 1741-1130, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 50-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish personal assistance system, facilitated through Swedish legislation (known as the LSS), allows children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) to receive subsidized personal assistance. This assistance may be either a hired professional from outside the family or a parent paid as a personal assistant. The type of personal assistant can impact activity selection. As noted by bio-ecological systems theory, participation in “systems” beyond the household is important for a child’s cognitive and social development, including the development of children with disabilities. The authors explored whether children’s personal assistant type (i.e., external or parental) is related to their presence in socially integrative activities (SIAs) versus non-socially integrative activities (NSIAs). The relationship between children’s activity engagement and their personal assistant type was examined via a descriptive, comparative study based on a questionnaire. Sixty families answered, providing quantitative data about personal assistance type across 56 common family activities. Children’s external assistants showed a greater presence in SIAs than children’s parental assistants, who showed a greater presence in NSIAs. The level of activity engagement between personal assistant type, however, had a less direct relationship. In accordance with bio-ecological systems theory, activity selection can influence the child’s cognitive and social development. Ultimately, this study suggests that external assistants partake in more SIAs than parental assistants, likely as a function of providing respite for families. This respite stems from the LSS’s implicit role for external personal assistants to also serve as relief for parents. In turn, by facilitating exposure to broader systems, these external assistants can play a critical role in children’s social and cognitive development.

  • 155. Bornman, Juan
    et al.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Facilitating change in early childhood intervention by using principles from systems theory: an interventionist’s perspective2007Ingår i: South African Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0038-2337, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 4-7Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    All interventions have one aspect in common – the pursuit of positive change, ie, moving towards a particular intervention goal. In intervention both sudden changes and long-term changes are necessary – sudden changes act as an incentive to carry on with intervention as the “effect of intervention” is quickly seen, whilst longer term changes are important for maintenance and mastery of particular skills. The purpose of this article is to explore both types of change from a systems theory perspective. Bifurcation points, stabilising central attractors (SCA) and functional and structural linkages are used to explain sudden change, whilst equifinality and self-stabilisation are explained with reference to long-term change. This article concludes by pointing to specific implications for intervention when using systems theory as the framework.

  • 156. Brodin, J
    et al.
    Björck-Åkesson, EvaHögskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Methodological Issues in Research in Augmentative and Alternative Communication: Proceedings from the First ISAAC Research Symposium in Augmentative and Alternative Communication, Stockholm August 16th to 17th, 19901991Konferensmeddelanden, proceedings (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 157. Brodin, J
    et al.
    Björck-Åkesson, EvaHögskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Methodological Issues in Research in Augmentative and Alternative Communication: Proceedings from the Third ISAAC Research Symposium in Augmentative and Alternative Communication, Kerkrade, the Netherlands, October 14 to 15th, 19941994Konferensmeddelanden, proceedings (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 158.
    Brodin, Jane
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Förskolepedagogisk forskning. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Children in Risky Environments and Life Situations2013Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken fokuserar på barn i utsatta livssituationer och miljöer.

  • 159.
    Brodin, Jane
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Förskolepedagogisk forskning. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Sweden: Children in unsafe environments and life situations2014Ingår i: Children Violence and Bullying: International perspectives / [ed] J. Merrick, I. Kandel, & H.A. Omar (Eds.), New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc. , 2014, 1, s. 115-125Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 160.
    Brodin, Jane
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Förskolepedagogisk forskning. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Renblad, Karin
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Förskolepedagogisk forskning.
    Communication support in preschool by reading aloud: Factors influencing student's reading skills (Thematic session)2014Ingår i: CEA 2014: 12th Conference on Educational Assessment: Program – Abstracts / [ed] Erzsébet Korom, Attila Pász, Szeged, Ungern: Gold Press Nyomda kft , 2014, s. 83-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary of abstract: The mission of the Swedish preschool is to stimulate children's learning and development in a holistic. No other period in child development contains so much learning as the first five years in life. The presentation is based on the projetct Let's read a book and focus on reading aloud. The results show that all children appreciated reading aloud and story telling and the assessment showed that the quality of their communication was raised by these efforts. The children's interest in signs, symbols, pictures and letter increased and they improved their vocabulary, their understanding of language and their phonological awareness. The project was presented on an internationla  conference in ECE and also published in proceedings.

  • 161.
    Brodin, Jane
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Förskolepedagogisk forskning. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Renblad, Karin
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Förskolepedagogisk forskning.
    Does the quality in preschool affect children's health and wellbeing?2014Ingår i: International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health, ISSN 1939-5930, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 71-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the long tradition in the social welfare field the number of children in Sweden who do not feel well has increased. This statement is based on reports from preschool teachers and includes young children (1-5 years old). The purpose of this article is to stress the present situation and what can be done to better work to raise healthy and secure children who also feel well. The aim is to discuss how the quality in preschool affects children’s wellbeing? Quality does not only mean happy children and satisfied parents but also competent staff with positive attitudes and systematic quality work. It appears from research that enough time for pedagogical planning and follow-up, small child groups, high teacher density and low staff turnover are also essential. The results also show that the most critical aspects for supporting children’s health and development are quality improvements based on equality, an efficient value system, a useful curriculum, scientifically based teacher training and a school/preschool for all.

  • 162.
    Bölte, Sven
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mahdi, Soheil
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Coghill, David
    University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Gau, Susan Shur -Fen
    National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Biomedicinsk plattform.
    Holtmann, Martin
    University Bochum, Hamm, Germany.
    Karande, Sunil
    Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M. Hospital, Mumbai, India.
    Levy, Florence
    University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Rohde, Luis A.
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Segerer, Wolfgang
    Swiss Paraplegic Research, Nottwil, Switzerland.
    de Vries, Petrus J.
    University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Selb, Melissa
    ICF Research Branch a cooperation partner within the WHO Collaborating Center for the Family of International Classifcations in Germany (at DIMDI), Nottwil, Switzerland.
    Standardised assessment of functioning in ADHD: consensus on the ICF Core Sets for ADHD2018Ingår i: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 27, nr 10, s. 1261-1281Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with significant impairments in social, educational, and occupational functioning, as well as specific strengths. Currently, there is no internationally accepted standard to assess the functioning of individuals with ADHD. WHO’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health—child and youth version (ICF) can serve as a conceptual basis for such a standard. The objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive, a common brief, and three age-appropriate brief ICF Core Sets for ADHD. Using a standardised methodology, four international preparatory studies generated 132 second-level ICF candidate categories that served as the basis for developing ADHD Core Sets. Using these categories and following an iterative consensus process, 20 ADHD experts from nine professional disciplines and representing all six WHO regions selected the most relevant categories to constitute the ADHD Core Sets. The consensus process resulted in 72 second-level ICF categories forming the comprehensive ICF Core Set—these represented 8 body functions, 35 activities and participation, and 29 environmental categories. A Common Brief Core Set that included 38 categories was also defined. Age-specific brief Core Sets included a 47 category preschool version for 0–5 years old, a 55 category school-age version for 6–16 years old, and a 52 category version for older adolescents and adults 17 years old and above. The ICF Core Sets for ADHD mark a milestone toward an internationally standardised functional assessment of ADHD across the lifespan, and across educational, administrative, clinical, and research settings. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 163.
    Bölte, Sven
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Mahdi, Soheil
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vries, Petrus J. de
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Robison, John E.
    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, USA.
    Shulman, Cory
    The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
    Swedo, Susan
    National Institute of Mental Health, USA.
    Tonge, Bruce
    Monash University, Australia.
    Wong, Virginia
    The University of Hong Kong, China.
    Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie
    University of Alberta, Canada.
    Segerer, Wolfgang
    Swiss Paraplegic Research, Switzerland.
    Selb, Melissa
    Swiss Paraplegic Research, Switzerland.
    The Gestalt of functioning in autism spectrum disorder: Results of the international conference to develop final consensus International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health core sets2019Ingår i: Autism, ISSN 1362-3613, E-ISSN 1461-7005, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 449-467Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism spectrum disorder is associated with diverse social, educational, and occupational challenges. To date, no standardized, internationally accepted tools exist to assess autism spectrum disorder–related functioning. World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health can serve as foundation for developing such tools. This study aimed to identify a comprehensive, a common brief, and three age-appropriate brief autism spectrum disorder Core Sets. Four international preparatory studies yielded in total 164 second-level International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health candidate categories. Based on this evidence, 20 international autism spectrum disorder experts applied an established iterative decision-making consensus process to select from the candidate categories the most relevant ones to constitute the autism spectrum disorder Core Sets. The consensus process generated 111 second-level International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health categories in the Comprehensive Core Set for autism spectrum disorder—one body structure, 20 body functions, 59 activities and participation categories, and 31 environmental factors. The Common Brief Core Set comprised 60 categories, while the age-appropriate core sets included 73 categories in the preschool version (0- to 5-year-old children), 81 in the school-age version (6- to 16-year-old children and adolescents), and 79 in the older adolescent and adult version (⩾17-year-old individuals). The autism spectrum disorder Core Sets mark a milestone toward the standardized assessment of autism spectrum disorder–related functioning in educational, administrative, clinical, and research settings.

  • 164.
    Cameron, David Lansing
    et al.
    Department of Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Persson, Bengt
    Department of Education and Behavioural Sciences, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    School district administrators' perspectives on special education policy and practice in Norway and Sweden2012Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 212-231Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine special education policy and practice from the perspective of school district administrators in Norway and Sweden. Administrators from 266 Norwegian and 262 Swedish municipalities completed a survey concerning: (a) reasons children need special education, (b) common and desired organizational solutions, and (c) the influence of policy on practice. Despite a number of clear differences, findings suggest that Swedish and Norwegian administrators share similar attitudes regarding the provision of special education support. It appears that in both countries inclusive practices are seen as the ideal, yet, Norwegian administrators appear to have a stronger preference for categorical or segregated solutions. However, this finding must be viewed in light of current practices in each country. In particular, we take into consideration data indicating that 17% of Swedish students receive special educational support, as compared to approximately 6% in Norway.

  • 165.
    Carlberg, Louise
    et al.
    Hälsa och Habilitering, Region Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Achievement and participation in schools for young adolescents with self-reported neuropsychiatric disabilities: A cross-sectional study from the Southern part of Sweden2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 199-206Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Schools are expected to be an environment where children can reach their fullest potential and develop their talents, personality, as well as their mental and physical abilities. Children with disabilities often have restricted participation and lower achievement in school. The aim is to investigate if there are any differences in participation and achievement in school between adolescents, with and without self-reported neuropsychiatric disabilities, and to explore the relations between achievement and participation. 

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out based on data collected from 1520 adolescents in the sixth and seventh grade, from the south of Sweden. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to explore the relationship between having a neuropsychiatric disability, with participation and achievement, and how different factors affected this relationship. 

    Results: Having a self-reported neuropsychiatric disability increases the likelihood of having restricted participation (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.99–4.23) and lower achievement in school (AOR: 2.94; 95% CI: 2.06–4.24). These adolescents were also more likely to have negative relationships to their teachers, be bullied, have poorer connectedness to their parents, come from families with less money, be trying drugs and be male, in comparison to the adolescents without a neuropsychiatric disability. The odds of having lower achievement increased with lower engagement and absenteeism from class. 

    Conclusions: Adolescents with self-reported neuropsychiatric disabilities have a disadvantaged situation in school, and are exposed to factors that could have long-term negative effects. More longitudinal research is required to conclude what factors are causing restricted participation and low achievement.

  • 166. Carlhed, Carina
    et al.
    Björck-Åkesson, Eva
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Parent Perspectives on Early Intervention: The Paradox of Needs and Rights2003Ingår i: British Journal of Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0969-7950, Vol. 49, nr 97, s. 69-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article was to discuss conceptions of support in relation to needs and rights based models in early intervention in Sweden, as perceived by parents of young children with disabilities. The discussion is illustrated with data collected by in-depth interviewing of eight parents and analysing the results using a qualitative approach. The theoretical frame is based on empowerment and the data are discussed in relation to this theory. The paradoxical effects of need fulfilment and empowerment that arise in parent-professional interaction are highlighted. This indicates a need for future research about the sometimes conflicting tasks of fulfilling needs and providing proactive support which professionals find in their encounters with parents of children with disabilities. Collaboration in the intervention process based on expertise of both parents and professionals is discussed in relation to these conflicts.

  • 167.
    Carney, J.
    et al.
    Rehabilitation Department, Kennedy Krieger Rehabilitation Institute, Baltimore, United States.
    Fisher, R.
    Baltimore, United States.
    Augutis, M.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Charlifue, S.
    Research Department, Craig Hospital, CO USA, Englewood, United States.
    Biering-Sørensen, F.
    Neuroscience Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Department of Spinal Cord Injuries, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Höfers, W.
    Physiotherapy Department, Sunnaas Hospital, Norway.
    Hwang, M.
    Research Department, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Chicago, Mexico.
    Wayne New, P.
    Epworth-Monash Rehabilitation Unit, Department of Epidemilogy and Preventitive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventative Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Post, M.
    Center of Excellence for Rehabilitation Medicine, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Utrecht and De Hoogstraat Rehabilitation, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Sadowsky, C.
    Rehabilitation Department, Kennedy Krieger Rehabilitation Institute, Baltimore, United States.
    Vogel, L.
    Research Department, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Chicago, Mexico.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Dent, K.
    Department of Occupational Therapy, Center for Outcomes and Measurement, Jefferson College of Rehabilitation Sciences, Jefferson (Philadelphia University+Thomas Jefferson University), Philadelphia, PA USA.
    Mulcahey, M. J.
    Department of Occupational Therapy, Center for Outcomes and Measurement, Jefferson College of Rehabilitation Sciences, Jefferson (Philadelphia University+Thomas Jefferson University), Philadelphia, PA USA.
    Development of the International Spinal Cord Injury/Dysfunction Education Basic Data Set2019Ingår i: Spinal cord series and cases, ISSN 2058-6124, Vol. 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Study design:Consensus among international experts.

    Objectives: The objective of this project was to develop the International Spinal Cord Injury/Dysfunction (SCI/D) Education Basic Data Set. Setting: International expert working group.

    Methods: The published guidelines for developing the International SCI Basic Data Sets were used to develop the International SCI/D Education Basic Data Set. Existing measures and literature on education and disability were reviewed to develop a preliminary draft of the basic education data set through iterative modifications via biweekly conference calls and email communication. The draft was disseminated to the larger International Workgroup for Development of Pediatric SCI/D Basic Data Sets and then to the members of the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS), American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), and relevant expert groups and interested individuals for comments. All feedback received was taken into consideration before the final data set was approved by ISCoS and ASIA.

    Results: The finalized version of the International SCI/D Education Basic Data Set Version 1.0 contains 16 items divided into three domains: school setting/therapeutic services, school participation/academic success, and barriers/attitudes. Most of the variables have been adapted from established measures. This data set is intended for children and youth up to and including high school, but not for emerging adults in higher education or postsecondary vocational training or trade schools.

    Conclusion: The International SCI/D Education Basic Data Set has been developed for collection of a minimal amount of highly relevant information on the education experience in children and youth with SCI/D. Further validation work is needed.

    Sponsorship: This project was funded by the Rick Hansen Institute, Research Award #G2015-27 (Mulcahey, PI). 

  • 168.
    Castro, Susana
    et al.
    School of Education, University of Roehampton, London, UK.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Lärandepraktiker i och utanför skolan (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU). School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    The relationship between classroom quality-related variables and engagement levels in Swedish preschool classrooms: a longitudinal study2017Ingår i: European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, ISSN 1350-293X, E-ISSN 1752-1807, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 122-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Child engagement has been defined as active participation in classroom routines, appropriate interactions with the environment and it also predicts academic achievement. Therefore, it is necessary to identify predictors of engagement over time. Moreover, cross-cultural data is needed to provide a global picture of the quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) across countries. This study aims to describe the quality of Swedish preschool classrooms and its relationship with students’ engagement over time. Data was collected from 165 preschool teachers in 55 preschool units in Sweden. Results show that all classroom-related variables (Emotional Support, Instructional Support and Classroom Organisation) have increased levels over time, while engagement remained stable. Three groups of preschool classroom units were identified with similar patterns of classroom quality over time (higher emotional support and lower instructional practice) and similar differences in level. Emotional Support was found to be the best predictor of student engagement over time.

  • 169.
    Celic, Katarina
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Teacher and parents implemented interventions targeting symbolic play of preschool aged children with Autism spectrum disorder2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The estimated prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in 2007 was approximately 6,5-6,6 per 1000 children. Symbolic play is, one of the diagnostic criteria in the cases of ASD. In preschool, symbolic play is predominant form of play. However, children with ASD show lower levels of symbolic play. It takes them more time to start with symbolic play and have problems in performance of it. Nevertheless, they might even never develop symbolic play skills. The need for interventions targeting symbolic play of children with ASD is increasing. Generally speaking, there appear to be very limited number of symbolic play interventions for children with ASD. Even if done, most have been performed in laboratory conditions. The interventions that have been undertaken to support symbolic play have taken form of being child centered, peer mediated or adult mediated, with emphasized role of caregivers as interventionists. The aim of this systematic literature review is to address parents and teachers implemented interventions targeting symbolic play of preschool aged children with ASD, with an emphasis on characteristics of these interventions and pretend play sequences. Findings reveal that interventions implemented by either parents or teachers in natural environment give positive outcomes in terms of symbolic play and its instances of preschool aged children with ASD. The review presented a limited number of studies dealing with this kind of interventions. Since all interventions show that symbolic play can be facilitated in this population, special attention should be payed to the methods used to improve symbolic play behaviours and defining and dividing symbolic play. More focus should be put on implementing interventions targeting symbolic play of children with ASD by caregivers, i.e. parents and teachers, in natural context. Inclusion of peers in these kinds of interventions emerges as possible and potentially successful as well.The estimated prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in 2007 was approximately 6,5-6,6 per 1000 children. Symbolic play is, one of the diagnostic criteria in the cases of ASD. In preschool, symbolic play is predominant form of play. However, children with ASD show lower levels of symbolic play. It takes them more time to start with symbolic play and have problems in performance of it. Nevertheless, they might even never develop symbolic play skills. The need for interventions targeting symbolic play of children with ASD is increasing. Generally speaking, there appear to be very limited number of symbolic play interventions for children with ASD. Even if done, most have been performed in laboratory conditions. The interventions that have been undertaken to support symbolic play have taken form of being child centered, peer mediated or adult mediated, with emphasized role of caregivers as interventionists. The aim of this systematic literature review is to address parents and teachers implemented interventions targeting symbolic play of preschool aged children with ASD, with an emphasis on characteristics of these interventions and pretend play sequences. Findings reveal that interventions implemented by either parents or teachers in natural environment give positive outcomes in terms of symbolic play and its instances of preschool aged children with ASD. The review presented a limited number of studies dealing with this kind of interventions. Since all interventions show that symbolic play can be facilitated in this population, special attention should be payed to the methods used to improve symbolic play behaviours and defining and dividing symbolic play. More focus should be put on implementing interventions targeting symbolic play of children with ASD by caregivers, i.e. parents and teachers, in natural context. Inclusion of peers in these kinds of interventions emerges as possible and potentially successful as well.

  • 170.
    Celic, Katarina
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Through the parents' and educators' eyes: Play of preschool aged children in need of special support2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Play is the primary activity of childhood. It is connected to other areas of child’s development, therefore through play, children improve skills and abilities. The most common categorization of play is into the developmental and social aspect of play. The highest level of play is achieved when the true social play occurs. The ideal setting for social play to occur is early childhood education and care (ECEC) institutions. ECEC in Croatia is striving for inclusion of children with difficulties/special needs, as stated in Croatian ECEC leading documents. In this study, these children will be referred to as children in need of special support since is perceived that name reflects the bio-psycho-social model of disability that recognizes issues in child´s functioning, apart from the child itself, coming from the environment. All the services, for children in need of special support, including ECEC are disability-based. It has been found that children in need of special support experience problems during play which affects other domains of development.

    The purpose of the study is to investigate play of children in need of special support and the factors, i.e., facilitators and barriers for their play. Play of the children in need of special support is chosen to be explored through the perception of their parents and educators with the use of the grounded theory approach. After collecting data through interviews and preformed data analysis, characteristics of play children in need of special support display together with the factors that affect play positively or negatively emerged. Factors were found to affect children’s play directly or indirectly. The most outstanding facilitators for children’s play were found to be the parents’ and educators’ actions and attitudes regarding the importance of play. The most substantial barriers were found to lie in the children’s characteristics concerning play which were tended to be perceived as consequences of their difficulties and diagnosis-based educational and social systems. Furthermore, the schooling system forcing ECEC institutions to focus on early preparedness for academic success, putting play aside emerged as a notable barrier for the play.

  • 171.
    Chee, Derserri Yan-Ting
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia , Australia.
    Lee, Hoe Chung-yeung
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia , Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Barnett, Tania
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia , Australia.
    Falkmer, Olov
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University & Pain.
    Siljehav, Jessica
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University & Pain.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Viewpoints on driving of individuals with and without autism spectrum disorder2015Ingår i: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 26-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Understanding the viewpoints of drivers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is crucial in the development of mobility support and driver training that is responsive to their needs. Methods: Fifty young adults with ASD and fifty seven typically developed adults participated in the study to form a contrasting group. Q-methodology was used to understand viewpoints on driving as a main mode of transportation. Data were analysed using a PQ by-person varimax rotation factor analysis. Results: Although some ASD participants perceived themselves as confident and independent drivers, others preferred other modes of transportation such as public transport and walking. Anxiety was also found to be a barrier to driving. The contrast group revealed consistent viewpoints on their driving ability. They preferred driving as their main mode of transportation and believed that they were competent, safe and independent drivers. Conclusion: These results are important in the planning of transport policies and driver training for individuals with ASD. Driver training manuals can be developed to address anxiety issues, hazard perception and navigation problems in the ASD population. Their use of public transport could be further facilitated through more inclusive transport policies.

  • 172.
    Clement, Jill
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Support strategies that promote parenting skills for parents with intellectual disabilities: A systematic literature review2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 173.
    Clemente, Isabel
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity for children with disabilities.: A systematic literature review2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with disabilities need physical activity in order to correctly develop, however, finding an adequate type of physical activity for children with disabilities can be a very complicated issue. Furthermore, trying to include them in an ordinary physical education class is even more difficult. We come across several barriers that impede their proper inclusion in physical activity. In order to enhance children with disabilities´ participation, it is important to know the barriers and facilitators that exist and take them into account. Therefore, the aim of the study is to explore what facilitators and barriers children with all kinds of disabilities can come across in order to get involved in physical activity. By doing a systematic review of articles that explain perceived barriers and facilitators, this paper is addressed to find out the barriers and facilitators children with all kind of disabilities can have. The results show that each kind of disability has different barriers and facilitators. While some disabilities focus more on physical facilitators and barriers, others find more important the logistical ones or the psychological aspects. Answers given from professionals, children and parents are very different and therefore shows a lack of communication between them as well as a need for cooperation and working.

  • 174.
    Clemente, Isabel
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Children's involvement in Physical Education lessons: Differences between children with high grades and children with disabilities2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with disabilities need physical activity in order to promote development and health, and this can be fulfilled in their physical education lessons. However, adapting lessons for children with disabilities can be a very complicated task as there are many factors that affect, both positively and negatively, the child´s general self-efficacy, their self-efficacy in their physical education lesson and their aptitude to participate. In a previous descriptive quantitative study teachers self-rated teacher skill were positively correlated to self-efficacy for students with high grades but negatively correlated to self-efficacy for students with disabilities. Therefore, the aim of the study is to test two hypothesis concerning the relations between teacher´s teaching skills, environmental prerequisites and climate and the student´s general self-efficacy, self-efficacy in physical education and aptitude to participate for with high grades and with disabilities respectively. With the help of a quantitative study with questionnaire data the hypotheses were tested for children with disabilities and children with high grades within PE lessons in regular Swedish mainstream schools. The results show that teaching skills are negatively correlated to general self-efficacy, self-efficacy in physical education and aptitude to participate for children with disabilities. For children with high grades the same relations were positive. Regarding prerequisites for physical education and climate in class both were positively related to general selfefficacy, self-efficacy in physical education and aptitude to participate for both children with high grades and children with disabilities. The importance of having an individually adapted lesson planning and grading criteria are discussed.

  • 175.
    Cowan, Georgia
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Perth, Australia.
    Earl, Robyn
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Girdler, Sonya
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Perth, Australia.
    Morris, Susan L.
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Perth, Australia.
    Fixation patterns of individuals with and without Autism Spectrum disorder: Do they differ in shared zones and in zebra crossings?2018Ingår i: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 8, s. 112-122Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Shared zones are a contemporary traffic zone that promotes equality between multiple road users and efficiently utilizes available space, while simultaneously maintaining safety and function. As this is a relatively new traffic zone, it is important to understand how pedestrians navigate a shared zone and any potential challenges this may pose to individuals with impairments. The aim of this study was to utilize eye-tracking technology to determine fixations and fixation duration on traffic relevant objects, non-traffic relevant objects, and eye contact, in 40 individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a shared zone and a zebra crossing. It was assumed that individuals with ASD would make less eye contact in the shared zone compared to the group of typically developing adults. A total of 3287 fixations across the shared zone and zebra crossing were analysed for areas of interest that were traffic relevant, non-traffic relevant, and eye contact, and for fixation duration. Individuals with ASD did not display any difference in terms of eye contact in the shared zone and the zebra crossing when compared to the controls. All pedestrians were more likely to look at traffic relevant objects at the zebra crossing compared to the shared zone. Individuals with ASD had an overall shorter fixation duration compared to the control group, indicating people with ASD either process information quickly, or they do not process it for long enough, although these findings require further investigation. While shared zones have many benefits for traffic movement and environmental quality, it appeared that pedestrians displayed safer road crossing behaviours at a zebra crossing than in a shared zone, indicating that more education and environmental adaptations are required to make shared zones safe for all pedestrians. 

  • 176. Dada, S
    et al.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Alant, E
    A discussion of individual variability, in activity-based interventions, using the niche concept2007Ingår i: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 33, nr 4, s. 424-431Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 177.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping university.
    Bölte, Sven
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wilder, Jenny
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    A Systematic Review of Early Intervention for Education in Scandinavia2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, Early Childhood Education and Care is a right for every child and children in need of special support have access to these provisions in inclusive mainstream settings. National evaluations show great quality variations in special educational support in preschools and schools across the country. A Multicenter Research School with 10 PhD students from four Universities and international partners has been funded (2018- 2021) by the Swedish Research Council to develop knowledge in early intervention. Preschool/school environments are assessed and tailored interventions at unit or child level are developed. The projects are built on previous research and identified needs in research and practice. The theoretical framework for the Research School will be described, results from a systematic review of previous research and specific plans for various topics (engagement, early literacy, expressive language development, socio- emotional development, self-regulation) will be presented and linked to the theoretical framework.

  • 178.
    Darcy, Laura
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Björk, Maria
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. SALVE (Socialt arbete, Livssammanhang, Välfärd).
    Enskär, Karin
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    ICF applications in health care for children with cancer in Sweden2017Ingår i: An emerging approach for education and care: Implementing a worldwide classification of functioning and disability / [ed] S. Castro & O. Palikara, London: Routledge, 2017, s. 178-186Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and its version for children and youth, the ICF-CY, can contribute to the present knowledge on the lives of young children with cancer, with an international and interdisciplinary language. In this context, the term health can be seen as a multidimensional concept in which both illness and non-illness/well-being are dimensions that can be present at the same time, rather than two opposite concepts. Health is the result of a continuous process rather than something that one individual has; it is a resource for everyday life rather than the objective of living (WHO, 1986). The ICF was developed to classify different dimensions on individuals’ health as a unified standardised common language and framework, to be used across disciplines (WHO, 2007). It acknowledges that health and illness are complex concepts and promotes a biopsychosocial model of health, in which the context is as important as the individual and his/her needs. The view of health as functioning in everyday life can be operationalised using the ICF model of body structure, body function, activities and participation and environmental factors (Rosenbaum & Gorter, 2012).

  • 179.
    Darcy, Laura
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Björk, Maria
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Knutsson, Susanne
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete.
    Enskär, Karin
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Following young children's health and functioning in everyday life through their cancer trajectory2016Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1043-4542, E-ISSN 1532-8457, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 173-189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Knowledge of living with childhood cancer, through the trajectory, is sparse.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to follow young children’s health and functioning in everyday life through their cancer trajectory.

    Methods: Data were gathered longitudinally from a group of 13 young children and their parents connected to a pediatric oncology unit in Sweden. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth structure was used to identify difficulties in health and functioning in everyday life, in interview and questionnaire data. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed to show patterns of difficulty over a 3-year period from diagnosis.

    Results: Difficulties experienced by children declined and changed over time. An increase in difficulties with personal interactions with others and access to and support from health care professionals was seen 2 to 3 years after diagnosis and start of treatment. Similar patterns are seen within individual children’s trajectories in relation to diagnosis but individual patterns were seen for each child.

    Conclusions and Clinical Implications: Health care professionals need to plan for ongoing contact with school services and information and support pathways, beyond the treatment period. A person-centered philosophy of care is required throughout the cancer trajectory.

  • 180.
    Darcy, Laura
    et al.
    Institution of Health Science, University College Borås.
    Enskär, Karin
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Simeonsson, Rune J
    Petersson, Christina
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Björk, Maria
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Health and functioning in the everyday lives of young children with cancer: documenting with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY).2015Ingår i: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 475-482Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Health care focus is shifting for children from surviving childhood cancer to living with it on a daily basis. There is a need to document health and function in the everyday lives of young children with cancer using the multidimensional framework and language of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY).

    AIMS: The aims of this study were (1) to document health and functioning in the everyday lives of young children with cancer using ICF-CY codes and (2) to identify a comprehensive code set that can aid clinical assessment.

    METHOD: Interviews with children diagnosed with cancer and their parents, were transcribed, reviewed for content and coded to the ICF-CY using linking procedures.

    RESULTS: A comprehensive code set (n = 70) for childhood cancer was identified. The majority of content identified to codes was related to activity and participation describing social relations with family, peers and professionals, preschool attendance and play, as well as issues related to support and independence.

    CONCLUSIONS: The ICF-CY can be used to document the nature and range of characteristics and consequences of cancer experienced by children. The identified comprehensive code set could be helpful to health care professionals, parents and teachers in assessing and supporting young children's health and everyday life through the cancer trajectory. The comprehensive code set could be developed as a clinical assessment tool for those caring for young children with cancer. The universal language of the ICF-CY means that the utility of a clinical assessment tool based on identified codes can have wide reaching effects for the care of young children with cancer.

  • 181.
    Darcy, Laura
    et al.
    Department of Caring Science, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Enskär, Karin
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Björk, Maria
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    The development of the Clinical Assessment Tool "Health and Everyday Functioning in Young Children with Cancer"2020Ingår i: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Key messages

    • The aim of this study was to select and validate the content of a clinical assessment tool (CAT) for health and everyday functioning in young children with cancer.
    • Items were developed based on frequently occurring ICF-CY codes identified in the transcripts of 12 interviews with young children with cancer and their parents.
    • The CAT consists of 52 items grouped in four dimensions, “The child her/himself”, “The child’s everyday life”, “The child’s need for support” and “The child’s contacts with health care”.
    • The items correlate well with known research results
    • The CAT can be used by both parents and health care personnel to highlight aspects of care for the young child with cancer
  • 182.
    De Beule, Kiara
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    The use of communication aids with children in health care and the outcomes for the child’s functioning based on the ICF-CY: A systematic literature review2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Participation in every life situation is a basic child’s right. Within health care, participation is achieved by effective patient-provider communication. Increased participation is shown to be beneficial for the well-being of the child. To achieve this, augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) could be implemented during the care.  Aim: To explore the use of communication aids with children in health care settings and to see what the outcomes are for a child’s functioning based on the ICF-CY.  Method: A systematic literature review was conducted. The databases MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL and Dentistry and Oral Sciences Source were searched and nine articles were included for review. Results: It was found that both typically developing children and children with a variety of disabilities have been studied, as well as a wide age range. Low-tech aids have been practised most often, particularly visual picture schedules. Five studies measured ‘Activity and participation’ outcomes and the results showed improvement of patient-provider communication and enhanced completion of a medical procedure. Six studies measured outcomes that could be identified as ‘Body functions’ and results showed a decrease in anxiety, stress or pain at some point of the medical procedure.  Conclusion: This systematic literature review shows that AAC is still an emerging concept within health care with children, but the first results suggest that it has benefits for different child populations and for different aspects of a child’s functioning. However, it is not clear what the outcomes are for participation in particular. The limited amount of studies on this topic could be due to several barriers to achieve participation and use of AAC. Future research should focus more on using specific measures for participation. Also, researchers need to explore ways to overcome the barriers to implement AAC. Finally, new technologies such as tablet devices could be studied.

  • 183.
    de la Peña Aguilera, Cristina
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Resilience in young children at risk: A systematic literature review on the studies conducted to date and their outcomes2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Children living in risk environments can experience traumatic events that could affect their future life. Providing these children with the necessary strategies to cope with adversity and to develop in an optimal way is needed in order to avoid trauma or being damaged for the rest of their lives. Because of this reason, a systematic literature review was performed with the aim to examine how resilience is defined and implemented in studies focusing on young children at risk. The search was done through five electronic databases and conducted during the spring semester of 2016. During the research process, inclusion and exclusion criteria were taken into account and different search words were used for each database. According to the inclusion/exclusion criteria a title/abstract screening was performed. Thereafter, for the articles which were not excluded a full text review screening was conducted, which led to the inclusion of 14 articles in total. Articles were analysed using a data extraction tool (protocol). All the articles were about resilience, aimed at children between 0 and 12 years old. Eight out of the fourteen were studies that evaluated the resilience degree in young children, while seven were aimed at developing resilience with specially designed intervention programmes. A range of definitions of the term resilience were found, showing that resilience can be understood as a process or as ability. On this basis, studies focused on resilience were found to be mainly of two kinds: related to observation or intervention, using different methodologies and tools to measure or develop resilience in children. The outcomes found were in line with previous research, showing the great importance of supportive relationships, developing within a certain environment and having a positive self-perception as facts that can influence the development of resilience.

  • 184.
    de Schipper, Elles
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lundequist, Aiko
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Coghill, David
    University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UK.
    de Vries, Petrus J.
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Holtmann, Martin
    Ruhr University Bochum, Hamm, Germany.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Karande, Sunil
    Seth G.S. Medical College & K.E.M. Hospital, Mumbai, India.
    Robison, John E.
    US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.
    Shulman, Cory
    Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
    Singhal, Nidhi
    Action for Autism, New Delhi, India.
    Tonge, Bruce
    Monash University, Victoria, Australia.
    Wong, Virginia C. N.
    The University of Hong Kong, China.
    Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie
    University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Bölte, Sven
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ability and disability in autism spectrum disorder: A systematic literature review employing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version2015Ingår i: Autism Research, ISSN 1939-3792, E-ISSN 1939-3806, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 782-794Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study is the first in a series of four empirical investigations to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The objective was to use a systematic review approach to identify, number, and link functional ability and disability concepts used in the scientific ASD literature to the nomenclature of the ICF-CY (Children and Youth version of the ICF, covering the life span).

    Methods: Systematic searches on outcome studies of ASD were carried out in Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC and Cinahl, and relevant functional ability and disability concepts extracted from the included studies. These concepts were then linked to the ICF-CY by two independent researchers using a standardized linking procedure. New concepts were extracted from the studies until saturation of identified ICF-CY categories was reached.

    Results: Seventy-one studies were included in the final analysis and 2475 meaningful concepts contained in these studies were linked to 146 ICF-CY categories. Of these, 99 categories were considered most relevant to ASD (i.e., identified in at least 5% of the studies), of which 63 were related to Activities and Participation, 28 were related to Body functions, and 8 were related to Environmental factors. The five most frequently identified categories were basic interpersonal interactions (51%), emotional functions (49%), complex interpersonal interactions (48%), attention functions (44%), and mental functions of language (44%).

    Conclusion: The broad variety of ICF-CY categories identified in this study reflects the heterogeneity of functional differences found in ASD—both with respect to disability and exceptionality—and underlines the potential value of the ICF-CY as a framework to capture an individual's functioning in all dimensions of life. The current results in combination with three additional preparatory studies (expert survey, focus groups, and clinical study) will provide the scientific basis for defining the ICF Core Sets for ASD for multipurpose use in basic and applied research and every day clinical practice of ASD.

  • 185.
    de Schipper, Elles
    et al.
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundequist, Aiko
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wilteus, Anna Löfgren
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Coghill, David
    University of Dundee, UK.
    de Vries, Petrus J.
    University of Cape Town, South Africa .
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Holtmann, Martin
    Ruhr University Bochum, Hamm, Germany.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karande, Sunil
    Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M. Hospital, Mumbai, India.
    Levy, Florence
    Prince of Wales Hospital and University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Al-Modayfer, Omar
    College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Rohde, Luis
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Tannock, Rosemary
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Tonge, Bruce
    Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Bölte, Sven
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Stockholm, Sweden.
    A comprehensive scoping review of ability and disability in ADHD using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY)2015Ingår i: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, nr 8, s. 859-872Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first in a series of four empirical investigations to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The objective here was to use a comprehensive scoping review approach to identify the concepts of functional ability and disability used in the scientific ADHD literature and link these to the nomenclature of the ICF-CY. Systematic searches were conducted using Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC and Cinahl, to extract the relevant concepts of functional ability and disability from the identified outcome studies of ADHD. These concepts were then linked to ICF-CY by two independent researchers using a standardized linking procedure. Data from identified studies were analysed until saturation of ICF-CY categories was reached. Eighty studies were included in the final analysis. Concepts contained in these studies were linked to 128 ICF-CY categories. Of these categories, 68 were considered to be particularly relevant to ADHD (i.e., identified in at least 5 % of the studies). Of these, 32 were related to Activities and participation, 31 were related to Body functions, and five were related to environmental factors. The five most frequently identified categories were school education (53 %), energy and drive functions (50 %), psychomotor functions (50 %), attention functions (49 %), and emotional functions (45 %). The broad variety of ICF-CY categories identified in this study underlines the necessity to consider ability and disability in ADHD across all dimensions of life, for which the ICF-CY provides a valuable and universally applicable framework. These results, in combination with three additional preparatory studies (expert survey, focus groups, clinical study), will provide a scientific basis to define the ICF Core Sets for ADHD for multi-purpose use in basic and applied research, and every day clinical practice.

  • 186.
    de Schipper, Elles
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mahdi, Soheil
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Coghill, David
    University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, United Kingdom.
    de Vries, Petrus J.
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
    National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Holtmann, Martin
    Ruhr University Bochum, Hamm, Germany.
    Karande, Sunil
    Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M. Hospital, Mumbai, India.
    Levy, Florence
    School of Psychiatry, Prince of Wales Hospital and University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Almodayfer, Omar
    Psychiatry Section, King Abdulaziz Medical City, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Rohde, Luis
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Tannock, Rosemary
    The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Canada.
    Bolte, Sven
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Towards an ICF core set for ADHD: a worldwide expert survey on ability and disability2015Ingår i: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, nr 12, s. 1509-1521Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the second in a series of four empirical studies designed to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF and Children and Youth version, ICF-CY) core sets for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of this stage was to gather the opinions from international experts on which ability and disability concepts were considered relevant to functioning in ADHD. An email-based survey was carried out amongst international experts in ADHD. Relevant functional ability and disability concepts were extracted from their responses and linked to the ICF/-CY categories by two independent researchers using a standardised linking procedure. 174 experts from 11 different disciplines and 45 different countries completed the survey. Meaningful concepts identified in their responses were linked to 185 ICF/-CY categories. Of these, 83 categories were identified by at least 5 % of the experts and considered the most relevant to ADHD: 30 of these were related to Body functions (most identified: attention functions, 85 %), 30 to Activities and Participation (most identified: school education, 52 %), 20 to Environmental factors (most identified: support from immediate family, 61 %), and 3 to Body structures (most identified: structure of brain, 83 %). Experts also provided their views on particular abilities related to ADHD, naming characteristics such as high-energy levels, flexibility and resiliency. Gender differences in the expression of ADHD identified by experts pertained mainly to females showing more internalising (e.g. anxiety, low self-esteem) and less externalising behaviours (e.g. hyperactivity), leading to a risk of late- and under-diagnosis in females. Results indicate that the impact of ADHD extends beyond the core symptom domains, into all areas of life and across the lifespan. The current study in combination with three additional preparatory studies (comprehensive scoping review, focus groups, clinical study) will provide the scientific basis to define the ADHD ICF/-CY core sets for multi-purpose use in basic and applied research and every day clinical practice.

  • 187. de Schipper, Elles
    et al.
    Mahdi, Soheil
    de Vries, Petrus
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Holtman, Martin
    Karande, Sunil
    Almodayfer, Omar
    Shulman, Cory
    Tonge, Bruce
    Wong, Virginia V. C. N.
    Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie
    Bölte, Sven
    Functioning and disability in autism spectrum disorder: A worldwide survey of experts2016Ingår i: Autism Research, ISSN 1939-3792, E-ISSN 1939-3806, Vol. 9, nr 9, s. 959-969Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study is the second of four to prepare International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF; and Children and Youth version, ICF(-CY)) Core Sets for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).The objective of this study was to survey the opinions and experiences of international experts on functioning and disability in ASD.

    Methods: Using a protocol stipulated by the World Health Organization (WHO) and monitored by the ICF Research Branch, an email-based questionnaire was circulated worldwide among ASD experts, and meaningful functional ability and disability concepts were extracted from their responses. These concepts were then linked to the ICF(-CY) by two independent researchers using a standardized linking procedure.

    Results: N  = 225 experts from 10 different disciplines and all six WHO-regions completed the survey. Meaningful concepts from the responses were linked to 210 ICF(-CY) categories. Of these, 103 categories were considered most relevant to ASD (i.e., identified by at least 5% of the experts), of which 37 were related to

    Activities and Participation, 35 to Body functions, 22 to Environmental factors, and 9 to Body structures. A variety of personal characteristics and ASD-related functioning skills were provided by experts, including honesty, loyalty, attention to detail and creative talents. Reported gender differences in ASD comprised more externalizing behaviors among males and more internalizing behaviors in females.

    Conclusion: The ICF(-CY) categories derived from international expert opinions indicate that the impact of ASD on functioning extends far beyond core symptom domains

  • 188.
    Deen, Ellemieke
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Psychotherapies that improve self-concept in children and adolescents with a minority status2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 189.
    Deramore Denver, Belinda
    et al.
    Australian Catholic University, Australia.
    Adolfsson, Margareta
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Froude, Elspeth
    Australian Catholic University, Australia.
    Rosenbaum, Peter
    McMaster University, Canada.
    Imms, Christine
    Australian Catholic University, Australia.
    Methods for conceptualising ‘visual ability’ as a measurable construct in children with cerebral palsy2017Ingår i: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 17, nr 46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Vision influences functioning and disability of children with cerebral palsy, so there is a growing need for psychometrically robust tools to advance assessment of children’s vision abilities in clinical practice and research. Vision is a complex construct, and in the absence of clarity about this construct it is challenging to know whether valid, reliable measures exist. This study reports a method for conceptualising ‘visual ability’ as a measurable construct. Methods: Using the items from 19 assessment tools previously identified in a systematic review, this study used a two-phase process: first, deductive content analysis linked items to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Child and Youth version (ICF-CY), and second, vision-specific ‘Activity’-level items were explored using inductive thematic analysis. Results: The linking and content analysis identified that existing assessment tools are measuring vision across the ICF-CY domains of Body Functions, Activities and Participation, and Environmental and Personal Factors. Items specifically coded to vision at the Activity level were defined as measuring ‘how vision is used’, and these items form the basis of the conceptualisation that ‘visual ability’ is measurable as a single construct. The thematic analysis led to the identification of 3 categories containing 13 themes that reflect a child’s observable visual behaviours. Seven abilities reflect how a child uses vision: responds or reacts, initiates, maintains or sustains looking, changes or shifts looking, searches, locates or finds, and follows. Four interactions reflect the contexts in which a child uses their vision to purposefully interact: watches and visually interacts with people and faces, objects, over distance, and with hands. Finally, two themes reflect a child’s overall use of vision in daily activities: frequency of use, and efficiency of use. Conclusions: This study demonstrates an approach to exploring and explaining a complex topic utilising World Health Organization language and building on existing research. Despite the complexity of vision, the concept of ‘how vision is used’ can be clearly defined as a measurable construct at the Activity level of the ICF-CY. This study has identified observable visual behaviours that may be developed into items assessing how vision is used in daily activities.

  • 190.
    Dijkshoorn, Anna
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Inclusive Education for Refugees and Asylum Seeking Children: A Systematic Literature Review2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of children with a refugee background in the Netherlands. All of these children who are under 18 years of age must go to school, but they face many barriers towards inclusion. Appropriately educating this diverse group of children presents schools with challenges. Supportive programs are needed to overcome these barriers and challenges. AIM The aim of this paper was to explore what supports are put in place to foster refugee students’ inclusion in school. METHOD A systematic literature review was conducted to synthesize research on school-based programs and practices. RESULTS A broad range of supports were identified. Most studies addressed access barriers to learning by offering emotional and educational support, while fewer studies focused on opportunity barriers such as negative attitudes and lack of parental involvement. CONCLUSION It was concluded that schools can play an important role in supporting the inclusion of refugee children and their families because of their accessibility, but that more high quality research is necessary in order to assess the effectiveness of supports that minimize barriers towards learning and promote their inclusion in school.

  • 191.
    Donohue, Dana
    et al.
    Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Bornman, Juan
    Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Household size is associated with unintelligible speech in children who have intellectual disabilities: A South African study2015Ingår i: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 402-406Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether four socioeconomic factors, namely caregiver age, caregiver education, family income and/or household size were related to the presence of motor delays or unintelligible speech in South African children with intellectual disabilities. Methods: Caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities completed a biographical questionnaire regarding their home environments. Other items on the questionnaire queried whether their children experienced co-occurring developmental impairments of motor delays or unintelligible speech. Results: A total of 145 caregivers were included in the analyses. Two logistic regressions were run with the set of four socioeconomic factors as predictors, and motor delays and intelligible speech as the outcome variables. Household size was a statistically significant predictor of whether children evidenced intelligible speech. Conclusion: Children living in dwellings with more people were less likely to have intelligible speech. The processes through which large household size might influence children’s language are discussed.

  • 192.
    Donohue, Dana K.
    et al.
    University of Pretoria, SA.
    Bornman, Juan
    University of Pretoria, SA.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Examining the rights of children with intellectual disability in South Africa: Children's perspectives2014Ingår i: Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 55-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Human rights provide fundamental conditions for people to maintain dignity and self-determination and protect a nation's most vulnerable citizens. In South Africa, children with intellectual disability who experience socioeconomic disadvantage may be particularly vulnerable due to their cognitive impairments and inability to garner needed resources.

    Method The perceptions of children with intellectual disability regarding their access to basic amenities in their home environments were examined to determine whether their positive human rights were met. Risk factors were examined in relation to these perceptions.

    Results The results suggested that participants generally reported high degrees of access to basic resources. Logistic regressions suggested socioeconomic risk factors (e.g., income, education, household size, relationship status) were negatively related to children's reports of access to food and their own beds and positively related to having someone available to explain confusing concepts to them.

    Conclusions The positive human rights of children living in high-risk environments should be monitored to ensure all South Africans have their rights met.

  • 193.
    Dreaver, Jessica
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Thompson, Craig
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Adolfsson, Margareta
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Black, Melissa H.
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Success Factors Enabling Employment for Adults on the Autism Spectrum from Employers' Perspective2019Ingår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Employment outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are poor and there is limited understanding on how best to support individuals with ASD in the workplace. Stakeholders involved in the employment of adults with ASD, including employers and employment service providers have unique insights into the factors influencing employment for this population. Organisational and individual factors facilitating successful employment for adults with ASD across Australia and Sweden were explored, including the supports and strategies underpinning employment success from an employers' perspective. Three themes including Knowledge and Understanding of ASD, Work Environment and Job Match emerged, suggesting that a holistic approach was key to supporting success, with employer knowledge and understanding of ASD underpinning their ability to facilitate employment.

  • 194.
    Earl, Robyn
    et al.
    Curtin University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Rehnberg, Anette
    The Swedish Transport Administration.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University.
    Visual search strategies of pedestrians with and without visual and cognitive impairments in a shared zone: A proof of concept study2016Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 57, s. 327-334Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Shared zones have gained increasing popularity in urban land use and design as a means of incorporating the needs of multiple modes of transport, while at the same time promoting social interaction between users. Interactions within shared zones are based on a set of informal social protocols, communicated via eye contact and social cues. This proof of concept study utilised eye-tracking technology to examine the visual search strategies of individuals, with and without visual and cognitive impairments as they navigated a strategically chosen shared zone. In total 3960 fixations were analysed and the fixations were distributed across the shared zone and a pedestrian crossing. Those with impairments were more likely to fixate on traffic specific areas and objects compared to those without, suggesting that they required more input ascertaining when and where it was safe to perform tasks. However, the duration of fixation was not significantly different for an object whether it was traffic related or not, indicating a global need for increased processing time of the surrounding environment. Shared zones are claimed to increase driver awareness and safety and reduce congestion, but the implications on participation and safety for those with visual and cognitive impairments is yet to be extensively explored.

  • 195.
    Earl, Robyn
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia and Linköping University & Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Morris, Susan L.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Viewpoints of pedestrians with and without cognitive impairment on shared zones and zebra crossings2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 9, artikel-id e0203765Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Shared zones are characterised by an absence of traditional markers that segregate the road and footpath. Negotiation of a shared zone relies on an individual’s ability to perceive, assess and respond to environmental cues. This ability may be impacted by impairments in cognitive processing, which may lead to individuals experiencing increased anxiety when negotiating a shared zone.

    Method

    Q method was used in order to identify and explore the viewpoints of pedestrians, with and without cognitive impairments as they pertain to shared zones.

    Results

    Two viewpoints were revealed. Viewpoint one was defined by “confident users” while viewpoint two was defined by users who “know what [they] are doing but drivers might not”.

    Discussion

    Overall, participants in the study would not avoid shared zones. Pedestrians with intellectual disability were, however, not well represented by either viewpoint, suggesting that shared zones may pose a potential barrier to participation for this group.

  • 196.
    Earl, Robyn
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Morris, Susan
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Cowan, Georgia
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Visual search strategies in a shared zone in pedestrians with and without intellectual disability2019Ingår i: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 94, artikel-id 103493Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    People with intellectual disability (ID) may find shared zones troublesome to negotiate because of the lack of the traditional clearly defined rules and boundaries. With the built environment identified as a barrier to active travel and community access, it is vital to explore how pedestrians with ID navigate shared zones to ensure that this group is not placed in harm's way or discouraged from active travel because of the implications of shared zones. This study investigated the visual strategies of 19 adults with ID and 21 controls who wore head mounted eye trackers in a Shared Zone and at a zebra crossing (as a contrast traffic environment). In total 4750 valid fixations were analysed. Participants with ID fixated on traffic relevant objects at a rate of 68 percent of the control participants. Furthermore, the males with ID were 9(4.4–18.7) times more likely to fixate on non-traffic relevant objects compared with traffic relevant objects, much higher odds than that of females with ID 1.8(0.4–1.7). Zebra crossings appeared to act as a cue, drawing pedestrians' visual attention to the traffic environment, with both groups more likely to look at traffic relevant objects on/at the zebra crossing (66%: 34%). Future implementation of shared zones needs to be carefully considered in relation to the safety of road users with ID and their capacity to identify and assess salient environmental information.

  • 197.
    Eberli, Ramona
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. -.
    Enhancement of academic engagement of students with  intellectual disability using peer support interventions: A systematic literature review2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with intellectual disabilities (ID) in inclusive classrooms differ in ways of processing information and learning speed compared to their peers without disabilities. Therefore teaching methods must be adapted to their individual needs. Peer support is seen as an additional form of improving students’ academic engagement. This systematic review focuses on peer supported interventions which facilitate academic engagement of children and youth with mild to profound ID. It contains six studies, which met pre-determined inclusion criteria focusing specifically on academic engagement. The studies were analysed to examine (a) different types of peer support, (b) peer support characteristics, (c) definition of academic engagement of students with ID and (d) if a change in academic engagement as an outcome can be evaluated after a peer support intervention. In this review, the data of 18 students with mild to profound ID and their peers in the age of 8 to 17 years, were included. Four different types of peer support intervention were identified, which included different characteristics mostly focussing on supporting students’ communication, access to information and active participation in class. The different definitions of academic engagement which were found hindered comparison of results. Nevertheless, all studies had a positive effect on the academic engagement of students with ID. Future research is needed to investigate the long-term impact of different types of peer support on academic engagement of students with ID and their need in relation to specific forms of ID. 

  • 198. Edbom, T
    et al.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Lichtenstein, P
    Larsson, J-O
    Long-term relationship between symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and self-esteem in a prospective longitudinal study of twins2006Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 95, nr 6, s. 650-657Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To study the long-term relationship between symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the developing self-esteem in a population-based sample of twins. Methods: The cohort is all twin pair families born in Sweden between May 1985 and December 1986 (n = 1.480). Wave 1 took place in 1994 when the twins were 8 years old and wave 2 in 1999 when the children were 13 years old. In wave 1 and 2 the parents completed questionnaires regarding ADHD-symptoms about their children. In wave 2 the twins completed a questionnaire about self-esteem and Youth Self Report (YSR). ADHD-symptoms and self-esteem were analyzed in the total study group. Results: There was a long-term relationship between high scores of parental-reported ADHD-symptoms at 8 and 13 years of age and low scores in measures of self-reported self-esteem at 13 years of age. In the cotwin control method controlling for YSR internalizing problem, paired comparisons within the twin pairs revealed that a high score of ADHD-symptoms at age 8 was related to significantly lower scores at age 13 in the self-esteem. Conclusions: The long-term relationships between ADHD-symptoms and a low self-esteem in a population-based sample were confirmed by the co-twin analyses.

  • 199.
    Edbom, T
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Malmberg, K
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Lichtenstein, P
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Larsson, J-O
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    High sense of coherence in adolescence is a protective factor in the longitudinal development of ADHD symptoms2010Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 541-547Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The key feature of salutogenesis is that good health can be directly sustained by positive factors. The Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale was developed by Antonovsky as a measure related to the concept of salutogenesis including aspects of comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness.

    Aim:  The aim was to investigate whether Sense of Coherence can serve as a salutogenetic factor modifying the long-term development of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms.

    Subjects and methods:  Twin study of Child and Adolescent Development (TCHAD) is a longitudinal study of all twin pairs born in Sweden between May 1985 and December 1986. The present project is a sub-sample of 312 individuals (135 boys and 177 girls). At 16 years of age, the young persons and their parents were interviewed with K-SADS especially symptoms of ADHD. The young person also completed the SOC questionnaire. At 21 years of age, the young person completed a questionnaire about symptoms of ADHD.

    Findings:  Higher (worse) ADHD scores at 16 years of age were associated with higher (worse) ADHD scores at 21 years of age. However, this relationship was stronger for lower (worse) SOC. A higher (better) SOC at 16 years was associated with lower (better) ADHD at 21 years and this relationship was stronger for higher (worse) ADHD at 16 years.

    Conclusion:  A high Sense of Coherence in adolescence was a protective factor for the long-term development of ADHD.

  • 200. Edbom, Tobias
    et al.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Liechtenstein, Paul
    Larsson, Jan-Olov
    ADHD Symptoms Related to Profiles of Self-Esteem in a Longitudinal Study of Twins: A person-oriented approach2008Ingår i: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, ISSN 1073-6077, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 228-237Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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