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  • 151.
    Cameron, David Lansing
    et al.
    Department of Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Persson, Bengt
    Department of Education and Behavioural Sciences, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    School district administrators' perspectives on special education policy and practice in Norway and Sweden2012Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 212-231Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine special education policy and practice from the perspective of school district administrators in Norway and Sweden. Administrators from 266 Norwegian and 262 Swedish municipalities completed a survey concerning: (a) reasons children need special education, (b) common and desired organizational solutions, and (c) the influence of policy on practice. Despite a number of clear differences, findings suggest that Swedish and Norwegian administrators share similar attitudes regarding the provision of special education support. It appears that in both countries inclusive practices are seen as the ideal, yet, Norwegian administrators appear to have a stronger preference for categorical or segregated solutions. However, this finding must be viewed in light of current practices in each country. In particular, we take into consideration data indicating that 17% of Swedish students receive special educational support, as compared to approximately 6% in Norway.

  • 152.
    Carlberg, Louise
    et al.
    Hälsa och Habilitering, Region Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Achievement and participation in schools for young adolescents with self-reported neuropsychiatric disabilities: A cross-sectional study from the Southern part of Sweden2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 199-206Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Schools are expected to be an environment where children can reach their fullest potential and develop their talents, personality, as well as their mental and physical abilities. Children with disabilities often have restricted participation and lower achievement in school. The aim is to investigate if there are any differences in participation and achievement in school between adolescents, with and without self-reported neuropsychiatric disabilities, and to explore the relations between achievement and participation. 

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out based on data collected from 1520 adolescents in the sixth and seventh grade, from the south of Sweden. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to explore the relationship between having a neuropsychiatric disability, with participation and achievement, and how different factors affected this relationship. 

    Results: Having a self-reported neuropsychiatric disability increases the likelihood of having restricted participation (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.99–4.23) and lower achievement in school (AOR: 2.94; 95% CI: 2.06–4.24). These adolescents were also more likely to have negative relationships to their teachers, be bullied, have poorer connectedness to their parents, come from families with less money, be trying drugs and be male, in comparison to the adolescents without a neuropsychiatric disability. The odds of having lower achievement increased with lower engagement and absenteeism from class. 

    Conclusions: Adolescents with self-reported neuropsychiatric disabilities have a disadvantaged situation in school, and are exposed to factors that could have long-term negative effects. More longitudinal research is required to conclude what factors are causing restricted participation and low achievement.

  • 153. Carlhed, Carina
    et al.
    Björck-Åkesson, Eva
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Parent Perspectives on Early Intervention: The Paradox of Needs and Rights2003Ingår i: British Journal of Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0969-7950, Vol. 49, nr 97, s. 69-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article was to discuss conceptions of support in relation to needs and rights based models in early intervention in Sweden, as perceived by parents of young children with disabilities. The discussion is illustrated with data collected by in-depth interviewing of eight parents and analysing the results using a qualitative approach. The theoretical frame is based on empowerment and the data are discussed in relation to this theory. The paradoxical effects of need fulfilment and empowerment that arise in parent-professional interaction are highlighted. This indicates a need for future research about the sometimes conflicting tasks of fulfilling needs and providing proactive support which professionals find in their encounters with parents of children with disabilities. Collaboration in the intervention process based on expertise of both parents and professionals is discussed in relation to these conflicts.

  • 154.
    Castro, Susana
    et al.
    School of Education, University of Roehampton, London, UK.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Lärandepraktiker i och utanför skolan (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU). School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    The relationship between classroom quality-related variables and engagement levels in Swedish preschool classrooms: a longitudinal study2017Ingår i: European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, ISSN 1350-293X, E-ISSN 1752-1807, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 122-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Child engagement has been defined as active participation in classroom routines, appropriate interactions with the environment and it also predicts academic achievement. Therefore, it is necessary to identify predictors of engagement over time. Moreover, cross-cultural data is needed to provide a global picture of the quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) across countries. This study aims to describe the quality of Swedish preschool classrooms and its relationship with students’ engagement over time. Data was collected from 165 preschool teachers in 55 preschool units in Sweden. Results show that all classroom-related variables (Emotional Support, Instructional Support and Classroom Organisation) have increased levels over time, while engagement remained stable. Three groups of preschool classroom units were identified with similar patterns of classroom quality over time (higher emotional support and lower instructional practice) and similar differences in level. Emotional Support was found to be the best predictor of student engagement over time.

  • 155.
    Celic, Katarina
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Teacher and parents implemented interventions targeting symbolic play of preschool aged children with Autism spectrum disorder2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The estimated prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in 2007 was approximately 6,5-6,6 per 1000 children. Symbolic play is, one of the diagnostic criteria in the cases of ASD. In preschool, symbolic play is predominant form of play. However, children with ASD show lower levels of symbolic play. It takes them more time to start with symbolic play and have problems in performance of it. Nevertheless, they might even never develop symbolic play skills. The need for interventions targeting symbolic play of children with ASD is increasing. Generally speaking, there appear to be very limited number of symbolic play interventions for children with ASD. Even if done, most have been performed in laboratory conditions. The interventions that have been undertaken to support symbolic play have taken form of being child centered, peer mediated or adult mediated, with emphasized role of caregivers as interventionists. The aim of this systematic literature review is to address parents and teachers implemented interventions targeting symbolic play of preschool aged children with ASD, with an emphasis on characteristics of these interventions and pretend play sequences. Findings reveal that interventions implemented by either parents or teachers in natural environment give positive outcomes in terms of symbolic play and its instances of preschool aged children with ASD. The review presented a limited number of studies dealing with this kind of interventions. Since all interventions show that symbolic play can be facilitated in this population, special attention should be payed to the methods used to improve symbolic play behaviours and defining and dividing symbolic play. More focus should be put on implementing interventions targeting symbolic play of children with ASD by caregivers, i.e. parents and teachers, in natural context. Inclusion of peers in these kinds of interventions emerges as possible and potentially successful as well.The estimated prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in 2007 was approximately 6,5-6,6 per 1000 children. Symbolic play is, one of the diagnostic criteria in the cases of ASD. In preschool, symbolic play is predominant form of play. However, children with ASD show lower levels of symbolic play. It takes them more time to start with symbolic play and have problems in performance of it. Nevertheless, they might even never develop symbolic play skills. The need for interventions targeting symbolic play of children with ASD is increasing. Generally speaking, there appear to be very limited number of symbolic play interventions for children with ASD. Even if done, most have been performed in laboratory conditions. The interventions that have been undertaken to support symbolic play have taken form of being child centered, peer mediated or adult mediated, with emphasized role of caregivers as interventionists. The aim of this systematic literature review is to address parents and teachers implemented interventions targeting symbolic play of preschool aged children with ASD, with an emphasis on characteristics of these interventions and pretend play sequences. Findings reveal that interventions implemented by either parents or teachers in natural environment give positive outcomes in terms of symbolic play and its instances of preschool aged children with ASD. The review presented a limited number of studies dealing with this kind of interventions. Since all interventions show that symbolic play can be facilitated in this population, special attention should be payed to the methods used to improve symbolic play behaviours and defining and dividing symbolic play. More focus should be put on implementing interventions targeting symbolic play of children with ASD by caregivers, i.e. parents and teachers, in natural context. Inclusion of peers in these kinds of interventions emerges as possible and potentially successful as well.

  • 156.
    Celic, Katarina
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Through the parents' and educators' eyes: Play of preschool aged children in need of special support2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Play is the primary activity of childhood. It is connected to other areas of child’s development, therefore through play, children improve skills and abilities. The most common categorization of play is into the developmental and social aspect of play. The highest level of play is achieved when the true social play occurs. The ideal setting for social play to occur is early childhood education and care (ECEC) institutions. ECEC in Croatia is striving for inclusion of children with difficulties/special needs, as stated in Croatian ECEC leading documents. In this study, these children will be referred to as children in need of special support since is perceived that name reflects the bio-psycho-social model of disability that recognizes issues in child´s functioning, apart from the child itself, coming from the environment. All the services, for children in need of special support, including ECEC are disability-based. It has been found that children in need of special support experience problems during play which affects other domains of development.

    The purpose of the study is to investigate play of children in need of special support and the factors, i.e., facilitators and barriers for their play. Play of the children in need of special support is chosen to be explored through the perception of their parents and educators with the use of the grounded theory approach. After collecting data through interviews and preformed data analysis, characteristics of play children in need of special support display together with the factors that affect play positively or negatively emerged. Factors were found to affect children’s play directly or indirectly. The most outstanding facilitators for children’s play were found to be the parents’ and educators’ actions and attitudes regarding the importance of play. The most substantial barriers were found to lie in the children’s characteristics concerning play which were tended to be perceived as consequences of their difficulties and diagnosis-based educational and social systems. Furthermore, the schooling system forcing ECEC institutions to focus on early preparedness for academic success, putting play aside emerged as a notable barrier for the play.

  • 157.
    Chee, Derserri Yan-Ting
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia , Australia.
    Lee, Hoe Chung-yeung
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia , Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Barnett, Tania
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia , Australia.
    Falkmer, Olov
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University & Pain.
    Siljehav, Jessica
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University & Pain.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Viewpoints on driving of individuals with and without autism spectrum disorder2015Ingår i: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 26-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Understanding the viewpoints of drivers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is crucial in the development of mobility support and driver training that is responsive to their needs. Methods: Fifty young adults with ASD and fifty seven typically developed adults participated in the study to form a contrasting group. Q-methodology was used to understand viewpoints on driving as a main mode of transportation. Data were analysed using a PQ by-person varimax rotation factor analysis. Results: Although some ASD participants perceived themselves as confident and independent drivers, others preferred other modes of transportation such as public transport and walking. Anxiety was also found to be a barrier to driving. The contrast group revealed consistent viewpoints on their driving ability. They preferred driving as their main mode of transportation and believed that they were competent, safe and independent drivers. Conclusion: These results are important in the planning of transport policies and driver training for individuals with ASD. Driver training manuals can be developed to address anxiety issues, hazard perception and navigation problems in the ASD population. Their use of public transport could be further facilitated through more inclusive transport policies.

  • 158.
    Clement, Jill
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Support strategies that promote parenting skills for parents with intellectual disabilities: A systematic literature review2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 159.
    Clemente, Isabel
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity for children with disabilities.: A systematic literature review2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with disabilities need physical activity in order to correctly develop, however, finding an adequate type of physical activity for children with disabilities can be a very complicated issue. Furthermore, trying to include them in an ordinary physical education class is even more difficult. We come across several barriers that impede their proper inclusion in physical activity. In order to enhance children with disabilities´ participation, it is important to know the barriers and facilitators that exist and take them into account. Therefore, the aim of the study is to explore what facilitators and barriers children with all kinds of disabilities can come across in order to get involved in physical activity. By doing a systematic review of articles that explain perceived barriers and facilitators, this paper is addressed to find out the barriers and facilitators children with all kind of disabilities can have. The results show that each kind of disability has different barriers and facilitators. While some disabilities focus more on physical facilitators and barriers, others find more important the logistical ones or the psychological aspects. Answers given from professionals, children and parents are very different and therefore shows a lack of communication between them as well as a need for cooperation and working.

  • 160.
    Clemente, Isabel
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Children's involvement in Physical Education lessons: Differences between children with high grades and children with disabilities2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with disabilities need physical activity in order to promote development and health, and this can be fulfilled in their physical education lessons. However, adapting lessons for children with disabilities can be a very complicated task as there are many factors that affect, both positively and negatively, the child´s general self-efficacy, their self-efficacy in their physical education lesson and their aptitude to participate. In a previous descriptive quantitative study teachers self-rated teacher skill were positively correlated to self-efficacy for students with high grades but negatively correlated to self-efficacy for students with disabilities. Therefore, the aim of the study is to test two hypothesis concerning the relations between teacher´s teaching skills, environmental prerequisites and climate and the student´s general self-efficacy, self-efficacy in physical education and aptitude to participate for with high grades and with disabilities respectively. With the help of a quantitative study with questionnaire data the hypotheses were tested for children with disabilities and children with high grades within PE lessons in regular Swedish mainstream schools. The results show that teaching skills are negatively correlated to general self-efficacy, self-efficacy in physical education and aptitude to participate for children with disabilities. For children with high grades the same relations were positive. Regarding prerequisites for physical education and climate in class both were positively related to general selfefficacy, self-efficacy in physical education and aptitude to participate for both children with high grades and children with disabilities. The importance of having an individually adapted lesson planning and grading criteria are discussed.

  • 161.
    Cowan, Georgia
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Perth, Australia.
    Earl, Robyn
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Girdler, Sonya
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Perth, Australia.
    Morris, Susan L.
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Perth, Australia.
    Fixation patterns of individuals with and without Autism Spectrum disorder: Do they differ in shared zones and in zebra crossings?2018Ingår i: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 8, s. 112-122Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Shared zones are a contemporary traffic zone that promotes equality between multiple road users and efficiently utilizes available space, while simultaneously maintaining safety and function. As this is a relatively new traffic zone, it is important to understand how pedestrians navigate a shared zone and any potential challenges this may pose to individuals with impairments. The aim of this study was to utilize eye-tracking technology to determine fixations and fixation duration on traffic relevant objects, non-traffic relevant objects, and eye contact, in 40 individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a shared zone and a zebra crossing. It was assumed that individuals with ASD would make less eye contact in the shared zone compared to the group of typically developing adults. A total of 3287 fixations across the shared zone and zebra crossing were analysed for areas of interest that were traffic relevant, non-traffic relevant, and eye contact, and for fixation duration. Individuals with ASD did not display any difference in terms of eye contact in the shared zone and the zebra crossing when compared to the controls. All pedestrians were more likely to look at traffic relevant objects at the zebra crossing compared to the shared zone. Individuals with ASD had an overall shorter fixation duration compared to the control group, indicating people with ASD either process information quickly, or they do not process it for long enough, although these findings require further investigation. While shared zones have many benefits for traffic movement and environmental quality, it appeared that pedestrians displayed safer road crossing behaviours at a zebra crossing than in a shared zone, indicating that more education and environmental adaptations are required to make shared zones safe for all pedestrians. 

  • 162. Dada, S
    et al.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Alant, E
    A discussion of individual variability, in activity-based interventions, using the niche concept2007Ingår i: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 33, nr 4, s. 424-431Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 163.
    Darcy, Laura
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Björk, Maria
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. SALVE (Socialt arbete, Livssammanhang, Välfärd).
    Enskär, Karin
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    ICF applications in health care for children with cancer in Sweden2017Ingår i: An emerging approach for education and care: Implementing a worldwide classification of functioning and disability / [ed] S. Castro & O. Palikara, London: Routledge, 2017, s. 178-186Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and its version for children and youth, the ICF-CY, can contribute to the present knowledge on the lives of young children with cancer, with an international and interdisciplinary language. In this context, the term health can be seen as a multidimensional concept in which both illness and non-illness/well-being are dimensions that can be present at the same time, rather than two opposite concepts. Health is the result of a continuous process rather than something that one individual has; it is a resource for everyday life rather than the objective of living (WHO, 1986). The ICF was developed to classify different dimensions on individuals’ health as a unified standardised common language and framework, to be used across disciplines (WHO, 2007). It acknowledges that health and illness are complex concepts and promotes a biopsychosocial model of health, in which the context is as important as the individual and his/her needs. The view of health as functioning in everyday life can be operationalised using the ICF model of body structure, body function, activities and participation and environmental factors (Rosenbaum & Gorter, 2012).

  • 164.
    Darcy, Laura
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Björk, Maria
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Knutsson, Susanne
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete.
    Enskär, Karin
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Following young children's health and functioning in everyday life through their cancer trajectory2016Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1043-4542, E-ISSN 1532-8457, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 173-189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Knowledge of living with childhood cancer, through the trajectory, is sparse.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to follow young children’s health and functioning in everyday life through their cancer trajectory.

    Methods: Data were gathered longitudinally from a group of 13 young children and their parents connected to a pediatric oncology unit in Sweden. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth structure was used to identify difficulties in health and functioning in everyday life, in interview and questionnaire data. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed to show patterns of difficulty over a 3-year period from diagnosis.

    Results: Difficulties experienced by children declined and changed over time. An increase in difficulties with personal interactions with others and access to and support from health care professionals was seen 2 to 3 years after diagnosis and start of treatment. Similar patterns are seen within individual children’s trajectories in relation to diagnosis but individual patterns were seen for each child.

    Conclusions and Clinical Implications: Health care professionals need to plan for ongoing contact with school services and information and support pathways, beyond the treatment period. A person-centered philosophy of care is required throughout the cancer trajectory.

  • 165.
    Darcy, Laura
    et al.
    Institution of Health Science, University College Borås.
    Enskär, Karin
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Simeonsson, Rune J
    Petersson, Christina
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Björk, Maria
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Health and functioning in the everyday lives of young children with cancer: documenting with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY).2015Ingår i: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 475-482Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Health care focus is shifting for children from surviving childhood cancer to living with it on a daily basis. There is a need to document health and function in the everyday lives of young children with cancer using the multidimensional framework and language of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY).

    AIMS: The aims of this study were (1) to document health and functioning in the everyday lives of young children with cancer using ICF-CY codes and (2) to identify a comprehensive code set that can aid clinical assessment.

    METHOD: Interviews with children diagnosed with cancer and their parents, were transcribed, reviewed for content and coded to the ICF-CY using linking procedures.

    RESULTS: A comprehensive code set (n = 70) for childhood cancer was identified. The majority of content identified to codes was related to activity and participation describing social relations with family, peers and professionals, preschool attendance and play, as well as issues related to support and independence.

    CONCLUSIONS: The ICF-CY can be used to document the nature and range of characteristics and consequences of cancer experienced by children. The identified comprehensive code set could be helpful to health care professionals, parents and teachers in assessing and supporting young children's health and everyday life through the cancer trajectory. The comprehensive code set could be developed as a clinical assessment tool for those caring for young children with cancer. The universal language of the ICF-CY means that the utility of a clinical assessment tool based on identified codes can have wide reaching effects for the care of young children with cancer.

  • 166.
    De Beule, Kiara
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    The use of communication aids with children in health care and the outcomes for the child’s functioning based on the ICF-CY: A systematic literature review2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Participation in every life situation is a basic child’s right. Within health care, participation is achieved by effective patient-provider communication. Increased participation is shown to be beneficial for the well-being of the child. To achieve this, augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) could be implemented during the care.  Aim: To explore the use of communication aids with children in health care settings and to see what the outcomes are for a child’s functioning based on the ICF-CY.  Method: A systematic literature review was conducted. The databases MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL and Dentistry and Oral Sciences Source were searched and nine articles were included for review. Results: It was found that both typically developing children and children with a variety of disabilities have been studied, as well as a wide age range. Low-tech aids have been practised most often, particularly visual picture schedules. Five studies measured ‘Activity and participation’ outcomes and the results showed improvement of patient-provider communication and enhanced completion of a medical procedure. Six studies measured outcomes that could be identified as ‘Body functions’ and results showed a decrease in anxiety, stress or pain at some point of the medical procedure.  Conclusion: This systematic literature review shows that AAC is still an emerging concept within health care with children, but the first results suggest that it has benefits for different child populations and for different aspects of a child’s functioning. However, it is not clear what the outcomes are for participation in particular. The limited amount of studies on this topic could be due to several barriers to achieve participation and use of AAC. Future research should focus more on using specific measures for participation. Also, researchers need to explore ways to overcome the barriers to implement AAC. Finally, new technologies such as tablet devices could be studied.

  • 167.
    de la Peña Aguilera, Cristina
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Resilience in young children at risk: A systematic literature review on the studies conducted to date and their outcomes2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Children living in risk environments can experience traumatic events that could affect their future life. Providing these children with the necessary strategies to cope with adversity and to develop in an optimal way is needed in order to avoid trauma or being damaged for the rest of their lives. Because of this reason, a systematic literature review was performed with the aim to examine how resilience is defined and implemented in studies focusing on young children at risk. The search was done through five electronic databases and conducted during the spring semester of 2016. During the research process, inclusion and exclusion criteria were taken into account and different search words were used for each database. According to the inclusion/exclusion criteria a title/abstract screening was performed. Thereafter, for the articles which were not excluded a full text review screening was conducted, which led to the inclusion of 14 articles in total. Articles were analysed using a data extraction tool (protocol). All the articles were about resilience, aimed at children between 0 and 12 years old. Eight out of the fourteen were studies that evaluated the resilience degree in young children, while seven were aimed at developing resilience with specially designed intervention programmes. A range of definitions of the term resilience were found, showing that resilience can be understood as a process or as ability. On this basis, studies focused on resilience were found to be mainly of two kinds: related to observation or intervention, using different methodologies and tools to measure or develop resilience in children. The outcomes found were in line with previous research, showing the great importance of supportive relationships, developing within a certain environment and having a positive self-perception as facts that can influence the development of resilience.

  • 168.
    de Schipper, Elles
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lundequist, Aiko
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Coghill, David
    University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UK.
    de Vries, Petrus J.
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Holtmann, Martin
    Ruhr University Bochum, Hamm, Germany.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Karande, Sunil
    Seth G.S. Medical College & K.E.M. Hospital, Mumbai, India.
    Robison, John E.
    US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.
    Shulman, Cory
    Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
    Singhal, Nidhi
    Action for Autism, New Delhi, India.
    Tonge, Bruce
    Monash University, Victoria, Australia.
    Wong, Virginia C. N.
    The University of Hong Kong, China.
    Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie
    University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Bölte, Sven
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ability and disability in autism spectrum disorder: A systematic literature review employing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version2015Ingår i: Autism Research, ISSN 1939-3792, E-ISSN 1939-3806, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 782-794Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study is the first in a series of four empirical investigations to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The objective was to use a systematic review approach to identify, number, and link functional ability and disability concepts used in the scientific ASD literature to the nomenclature of the ICF-CY (Children and Youth version of the ICF, covering the life span).

    Methods: Systematic searches on outcome studies of ASD were carried out in Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC and Cinahl, and relevant functional ability and disability concepts extracted from the included studies. These concepts were then linked to the ICF-CY by two independent researchers using a standardized linking procedure. New concepts were extracted from the studies until saturation of identified ICF-CY categories was reached.

    Results: Seventy-one studies were included in the final analysis and 2475 meaningful concepts contained in these studies were linked to 146 ICF-CY categories. Of these, 99 categories were considered most relevant to ASD (i.e., identified in at least 5% of the studies), of which 63 were related to Activities and Participation, 28 were related to Body functions, and 8 were related to Environmental factors. The five most frequently identified categories were basic interpersonal interactions (51%), emotional functions (49%), complex interpersonal interactions (48%), attention functions (44%), and mental functions of language (44%).

    Conclusion: The broad variety of ICF-CY categories identified in this study reflects the heterogeneity of functional differences found in ASD—both with respect to disability and exceptionality—and underlines the potential value of the ICF-CY as a framework to capture an individual's functioning in all dimensions of life. The current results in combination with three additional preparatory studies (expert survey, focus groups, and clinical study) will provide the scientific basis for defining the ICF Core Sets for ASD for multipurpose use in basic and applied research and every day clinical practice of ASD.

  • 169.
    de Schipper, Elles
    et al.
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundequist, Aiko
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wilteus, Anna Löfgren
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Coghill, David
    University of Dundee, UK.
    de Vries, Petrus J.
    University of Cape Town, South Africa .
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Holtmann, Martin
    Ruhr University Bochum, Hamm, Germany.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karande, Sunil
    Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M. Hospital, Mumbai, India.
    Levy, Florence
    Prince of Wales Hospital and University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Al-Modayfer, Omar
    College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Rohde, Luis
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Tannock, Rosemary
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Tonge, Bruce
    Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Bölte, Sven
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Stockholm, Sweden.
    A comprehensive scoping review of ability and disability in ADHD using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY)2015Ingår i: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, nr 8, s. 859-872Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first in a series of four empirical investigations to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The objective here was to use a comprehensive scoping review approach to identify the concepts of functional ability and disability used in the scientific ADHD literature and link these to the nomenclature of the ICF-CY. Systematic searches were conducted using Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC and Cinahl, to extract the relevant concepts of functional ability and disability from the identified outcome studies of ADHD. These concepts were then linked to ICF-CY by two independent researchers using a standardized linking procedure. Data from identified studies were analysed until saturation of ICF-CY categories was reached. Eighty studies were included in the final analysis. Concepts contained in these studies were linked to 128 ICF-CY categories. Of these categories, 68 were considered to be particularly relevant to ADHD (i.e., identified in at least 5 % of the studies). Of these, 32 were related to Activities and participation, 31 were related to Body functions, and five were related to environmental factors. The five most frequently identified categories were school education (53 %), energy and drive functions (50 %), psychomotor functions (50 %), attention functions (49 %), and emotional functions (45 %). The broad variety of ICF-CY categories identified in this study underlines the necessity to consider ability and disability in ADHD across all dimensions of life, for which the ICF-CY provides a valuable and universally applicable framework. These results, in combination with three additional preparatory studies (expert survey, focus groups, clinical study), will provide a scientific basis to define the ICF Core Sets for ADHD for multi-purpose use in basic and applied research, and every day clinical practice.

  • 170.
    de Schipper, Elles
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mahdi, Soheil
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Coghill, David
    University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, United Kingdom.
    de Vries, Petrus J.
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
    National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Holtmann, Martin
    Ruhr University Bochum, Hamm, Germany.
    Karande, Sunil
    Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M. Hospital, Mumbai, India.
    Levy, Florence
    School of Psychiatry, Prince of Wales Hospital and University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Almodayfer, Omar
    Psychiatry Section, King Abdulaziz Medical City, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Rohde, Luis
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Tannock, Rosemary
    The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Canada.
    Bolte, Sven
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Towards an ICF core set for ADHD: a worldwide expert survey on ability and disability2015Ingår i: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, nr 12, s. 1509-1521Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the second in a series of four empirical studies designed to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF and Children and Youth version, ICF-CY) core sets for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of this stage was to gather the opinions from international experts on which ability and disability concepts were considered relevant to functioning in ADHD. An email-based survey was carried out amongst international experts in ADHD. Relevant functional ability and disability concepts were extracted from their responses and linked to the ICF/-CY categories by two independent researchers using a standardised linking procedure. 174 experts from 11 different disciplines and 45 different countries completed the survey. Meaningful concepts identified in their responses were linked to 185 ICF/-CY categories. Of these, 83 categories were identified by at least 5 % of the experts and considered the most relevant to ADHD: 30 of these were related to Body functions (most identified: attention functions, 85 %), 30 to Activities and Participation (most identified: school education, 52 %), 20 to Environmental factors (most identified: support from immediate family, 61 %), and 3 to Body structures (most identified: structure of brain, 83 %). Experts also provided their views on particular abilities related to ADHD, naming characteristics such as high-energy levels, flexibility and resiliency. Gender differences in the expression of ADHD identified by experts pertained mainly to females showing more internalising (e.g. anxiety, low self-esteem) and less externalising behaviours (e.g. hyperactivity), leading to a risk of late- and under-diagnosis in females. Results indicate that the impact of ADHD extends beyond the core symptom domains, into all areas of life and across the lifespan. The current study in combination with three additional preparatory studies (comprehensive scoping review, focus groups, clinical study) will provide the scientific basis to define the ADHD ICF/-CY core sets for multi-purpose use in basic and applied research and every day clinical practice.

  • 171. de Schipper, Elles
    et al.
    Mahdi, Soheil
    de Vries, Petrus
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Holtman, Martin
    Karande, Sunil
    Almodayfer, Omar
    Shulman, Cory
    Tonge, Bruce
    Wong, Virginia V. C. N.
    Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie
    Bölte, Sven
    Functioning and disability in autism spectrum disorder: A worldwide survey of experts2016Ingår i: Autism Research, ISSN 1939-3792, E-ISSN 1939-3806, Vol. 9, nr 9, s. 959-969Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study is the second of four to prepare International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF; and Children and Youth version, ICF(-CY)) Core Sets for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).The objective of this study was to survey the opinions and experiences of international experts on functioning and disability in ASD.

    Methods: Using a protocol stipulated by the World Health Organization (WHO) and monitored by the ICF Research Branch, an email-based questionnaire was circulated worldwide among ASD experts, and meaningful functional ability and disability concepts were extracted from their responses. These concepts were then linked to the ICF(-CY) by two independent researchers using a standardized linking procedure.

    Results: N  = 225 experts from 10 different disciplines and all six WHO-regions completed the survey. Meaningful concepts from the responses were linked to 210 ICF(-CY) categories. Of these, 103 categories were considered most relevant to ASD (i.e., identified by at least 5% of the experts), of which 37 were related to

    Activities and Participation, 35 to Body functions, 22 to Environmental factors, and 9 to Body structures. A variety of personal characteristics and ASD-related functioning skills were provided by experts, including honesty, loyalty, attention to detail and creative talents. Reported gender differences in ASD comprised more externalizing behaviors among males and more internalizing behaviors in females.

    Conclusion: The ICF(-CY) categories derived from international expert opinions indicate that the impact of ASD on functioning extends far beyond core symptom domains

  • 172.
    Deen, Ellemieke
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Psychotherapies that improve self-concept in children and adolescents with a minority status2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 173.
    Deramore Denver, Belinda
    et al.
    Australian Catholic University, Australia.
    Adolfsson, Margareta
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Froude, Elspeth
    Australian Catholic University, Australia.
    Rosenbaum, Peter
    McMaster University, Canada.
    Imms, Christine
    Australian Catholic University, Australia.
    Methods for conceptualising ‘visual ability’ as a measurable construct in children with cerebral palsy2017Ingår i: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 17, nr 46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Vision influences functioning and disability of children with cerebral palsy, so there is a growing need for psychometrically robust tools to advance assessment of children’s vision abilities in clinical practice and research. Vision is a complex construct, and in the absence of clarity about this construct it is challenging to know whether valid, reliable measures exist. This study reports a method for conceptualising ‘visual ability’ as a measurable construct. Methods: Using the items from 19 assessment tools previously identified in a systematic review, this study used a two-phase process: first, deductive content analysis linked items to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Child and Youth version (ICF-CY), and second, vision-specific ‘Activity’-level items were explored using inductive thematic analysis. Results: The linking and content analysis identified that existing assessment tools are measuring vision across the ICF-CY domains of Body Functions, Activities and Participation, and Environmental and Personal Factors. Items specifically coded to vision at the Activity level were defined as measuring ‘how vision is used’, and these items form the basis of the conceptualisation that ‘visual ability’ is measurable as a single construct. The thematic analysis led to the identification of 3 categories containing 13 themes that reflect a child’s observable visual behaviours. Seven abilities reflect how a child uses vision: responds or reacts, initiates, maintains or sustains looking, changes or shifts looking, searches, locates or finds, and follows. Four interactions reflect the contexts in which a child uses their vision to purposefully interact: watches and visually interacts with people and faces, objects, over distance, and with hands. Finally, two themes reflect a child’s overall use of vision in daily activities: frequency of use, and efficiency of use. Conclusions: This study demonstrates an approach to exploring and explaining a complex topic utilising World Health Organization language and building on existing research. Despite the complexity of vision, the concept of ‘how vision is used’ can be clearly defined as a measurable construct at the Activity level of the ICF-CY. This study has identified observable visual behaviours that may be developed into items assessing how vision is used in daily activities.

  • 174.
    Dijkshoorn, Anna
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Inclusive Education for Refugees and Asylum Seeking Children: A Systematic Literature Review2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of children with a refugee background in the Netherlands. All of these children who are under 18 years of age must go to school, but they face many barriers towards inclusion. Appropriately educating this diverse group of children presents schools with challenges. Supportive programs are needed to overcome these barriers and challenges. AIM The aim of this paper was to explore what supports are put in place to foster refugee students’ inclusion in school. METHOD A systematic literature review was conducted to synthesize research on school-based programs and practices. RESULTS A broad range of supports were identified. Most studies addressed access barriers to learning by offering emotional and educational support, while fewer studies focused on opportunity barriers such as negative attitudes and lack of parental involvement. CONCLUSION It was concluded that schools can play an important role in supporting the inclusion of refugee children and their families because of their accessibility, but that more high quality research is necessary in order to assess the effectiveness of supports that minimize barriers towards learning and promote their inclusion in school.

  • 175.
    Donohue, Dana
    et al.
    Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Bornman, Juan
    Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Household size is associated with unintelligible speech in children who have intellectual disabilities: A South African study2015Ingår i: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 402-406Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether four socioeconomic factors, namely caregiver age, caregiver education, family income and/or household size were related to the presence of motor delays or unintelligible speech in South African children with intellectual disabilities. Methods: Caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities completed a biographical questionnaire regarding their home environments. Other items on the questionnaire queried whether their children experienced co-occurring developmental impairments of motor delays or unintelligible speech. Results: A total of 145 caregivers were included in the analyses. Two logistic regressions were run with the set of four socioeconomic factors as predictors, and motor delays and intelligible speech as the outcome variables. Household size was a statistically significant predictor of whether children evidenced intelligible speech. Conclusion: Children living in dwellings with more people were less likely to have intelligible speech. The processes through which large household size might influence children’s language are discussed.

  • 176.
    Donohue, Dana K.
    et al.
    University of Pretoria, SA.
    Bornman, Juan
    University of Pretoria, SA.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Examining the rights of children with intellectual disability in South Africa: Children's perspectives2014Ingår i: Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 55-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Human rights provide fundamental conditions for people to maintain dignity and self-determination and protect a nation's most vulnerable citizens. In South Africa, children with intellectual disability who experience socioeconomic disadvantage may be particularly vulnerable due to their cognitive impairments and inability to garner needed resources.

    Method The perceptions of children with intellectual disability regarding their access to basic amenities in their home environments were examined to determine whether their positive human rights were met. Risk factors were examined in relation to these perceptions.

    Results The results suggested that participants generally reported high degrees of access to basic resources. Logistic regressions suggested socioeconomic risk factors (e.g., income, education, household size, relationship status) were negatively related to children's reports of access to food and their own beds and positively related to having someone available to explain confusing concepts to them.

    Conclusions The positive human rights of children living in high-risk environments should be monitored to ensure all South Africans have their rights met.

  • 177.
    Dreaver, Jessica
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Thompson, Craig
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Adolfsson, Margareta
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Black, Melissa H.
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Success Factors Enabling Employment for Adults on the Autism Spectrum from Employers' Perspective2019Ingår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Employment outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are poor and there is limited understanding on how best to support individuals with ASD in the workplace. Stakeholders involved in the employment of adults with ASD, including employers and employment service providers have unique insights into the factors influencing employment for this population. Organisational and individual factors facilitating successful employment for adults with ASD across Australia and Sweden were explored, including the supports and strategies underpinning employment success from an employers' perspective. Three themes including Knowledge and Understanding of ASD, Work Environment and Job Match emerged, suggesting that a holistic approach was key to supporting success, with employer knowledge and understanding of ASD underpinning their ability to facilitate employment.

  • 178.
    Earl, Robyn
    et al.
    Curtin University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Rehnberg, Anette
    The Swedish Transport Administration.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University.
    Visual search strategies of pedestrians with and without visual and cognitive impairments in a shared zone: A proof of concept study2016Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 57, s. 327-334Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Shared zones have gained increasing popularity in urban land use and design as a means of incorporating the needs of multiple modes of transport, while at the same time promoting social interaction between users. Interactions within shared zones are based on a set of informal social protocols, communicated via eye contact and social cues. This proof of concept study utilised eye-tracking technology to examine the visual search strategies of individuals, with and without visual and cognitive impairments as they navigated a strategically chosen shared zone. In total 3960 fixations were analysed and the fixations were distributed across the shared zone and a pedestrian crossing. Those with impairments were more likely to fixate on traffic specific areas and objects compared to those without, suggesting that they required more input ascertaining when and where it was safe to perform tasks. However, the duration of fixation was not significantly different for an object whether it was traffic related or not, indicating a global need for increased processing time of the surrounding environment. Shared zones are claimed to increase driver awareness and safety and reduce congestion, but the implications on participation and safety for those with visual and cognitive impairments is yet to be extensively explored.

  • 179.
    Earl, Robyn
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia and Linköping University & Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Morris, Susan L.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Viewpoints of pedestrians with and without cognitive impairment on shared zones and zebra crossings2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 9, artikel-id e0203765Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Shared zones are characterised by an absence of traditional markers that segregate the road and footpath. Negotiation of a shared zone relies on an individual’s ability to perceive, assess and respond to environmental cues. This ability may be impacted by impairments in cognitive processing, which may lead to individuals experiencing increased anxiety when negotiating a shared zone.

    Method

    Q method was used in order to identify and explore the viewpoints of pedestrians, with and without cognitive impairments as they pertain to shared zones.

    Results

    Two viewpoints were revealed. Viewpoint one was defined by “confident users” while viewpoint two was defined by users who “know what [they] are doing but drivers might not”.

    Discussion

    Overall, participants in the study would not avoid shared zones. Pedestrians with intellectual disability were, however, not well represented by either viewpoint, suggesting that shared zones may pose a potential barrier to participation for this group.

  • 180.
    Eberli, Ramona
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. -.
    Enhancement of academic engagement of students with  intellectual disability using peer support interventions: A systematic literature review2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with intellectual disabilities (ID) in inclusive classrooms differ in ways of processing information and learning speed compared to their peers without disabilities. Therefore teaching methods must be adapted to their individual needs. Peer support is seen as an additional form of improving students’ academic engagement. This systematic review focuses on peer supported interventions which facilitate academic engagement of children and youth with mild to profound ID. It contains six studies, which met pre-determined inclusion criteria focusing specifically on academic engagement. The studies were analysed to examine (a) different types of peer support, (b) peer support characteristics, (c) definition of academic engagement of students with ID and (d) if a change in academic engagement as an outcome can be evaluated after a peer support intervention. In this review, the data of 18 students with mild to profound ID and their peers in the age of 8 to 17 years, were included. Four different types of peer support intervention were identified, which included different characteristics mostly focussing on supporting students’ communication, access to information and active participation in class. The different definitions of academic engagement which were found hindered comparison of results. Nevertheless, all studies had a positive effect on the academic engagement of students with ID. Future research is needed to investigate the long-term impact of different types of peer support on academic engagement of students with ID and their need in relation to specific forms of ID. 

  • 181. Edbom, T
    et al.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Lichtenstein, P
    Larsson, J-O
    Long-term relationship between symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and self-esteem in a prospective longitudinal study of twins2006Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 95, nr 6, s. 650-657Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To study the long-term relationship between symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the developing self-esteem in a population-based sample of twins. Methods: The cohort is all twin pair families born in Sweden between May 1985 and December 1986 (n = 1.480). Wave 1 took place in 1994 when the twins were 8 years old and wave 2 in 1999 when the children were 13 years old. In wave 1 and 2 the parents completed questionnaires regarding ADHD-symptoms about their children. In wave 2 the twins completed a questionnaire about self-esteem and Youth Self Report (YSR). ADHD-symptoms and self-esteem were analyzed in the total study group. Results: There was a long-term relationship between high scores of parental-reported ADHD-symptoms at 8 and 13 years of age and low scores in measures of self-reported self-esteem at 13 years of age. In the cotwin control method controlling for YSR internalizing problem, paired comparisons within the twin pairs revealed that a high score of ADHD-symptoms at age 8 was related to significantly lower scores at age 13 in the self-esteem. Conclusions: The long-term relationships between ADHD-symptoms and a low self-esteem in a population-based sample were confirmed by the co-twin analyses.

  • 182.
    Edbom, T
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Malmberg, K
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Lichtenstein, P
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Larsson, J-O
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    High sense of coherence in adolescence is a protective factor in the longitudinal development of ADHD symptoms2010Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 541-547Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The key feature of salutogenesis is that good health can be directly sustained by positive factors. The Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale was developed by Antonovsky as a measure related to the concept of salutogenesis including aspects of comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness.

    Aim:  The aim was to investigate whether Sense of Coherence can serve as a salutogenetic factor modifying the long-term development of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms.

    Subjects and methods:  Twin study of Child and Adolescent Development (TCHAD) is a longitudinal study of all twin pairs born in Sweden between May 1985 and December 1986. The present project is a sub-sample of 312 individuals (135 boys and 177 girls). At 16 years of age, the young persons and their parents were interviewed with K-SADS especially symptoms of ADHD. The young person also completed the SOC questionnaire. At 21 years of age, the young person completed a questionnaire about symptoms of ADHD.

    Findings:  Higher (worse) ADHD scores at 16 years of age were associated with higher (worse) ADHD scores at 21 years of age. However, this relationship was stronger for lower (worse) SOC. A higher (better) SOC at 16 years was associated with lower (better) ADHD at 21 years and this relationship was stronger for higher (worse) ADHD at 16 years.

    Conclusion:  A high Sense of Coherence in adolescence was a protective factor for the long-term development of ADHD.

  • 183. Edbom, Tobias
    et al.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Liechtenstein, Paul
    Larsson, Jan-Olov
    ADHD Symptoms Related to Profiles of Self-Esteem in a Longitudinal Study of Twins: A person-oriented approach2008Ingår i: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, ISSN 1073-6077, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 228-237Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 184.
    Efvergren, Rickard
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering.
    Nordqvist, Emelie
    Glatz, Terese
    Elgmark, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Uppfylls behoven av habilitering/rehabilitering hos brukare som tillhör LSS personkrets?2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 185.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Björk, Maria
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. School of Life Science, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Susanne
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Darcy, Laura
    Department of Health Science, University College Borås, Sweden.
    Huus, Karina
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    A Swedish perspective on nursing and psychosocial research in paediatric oncology: A literature review2015Ingår i: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 310-317Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: A dramatic improvement in outcomes of survival rates of childhood cancer has been seen. Caring science research is central in providing skills and knowledge to the health care sector, but few overviews of the content of published research have been carried out. The aim of this review was to investigate the content and methodology of published studies in paediatric oncology relevant to caring science, and also to compare possible differences in content and method of the published studies from the nursing and psychosocial perspectives.

    METHOD: A systematic literature review was performed of 137 published articles on paediatric oncology relevant to caring science in Sweden.

    RESULTS: The results show that most of the studies were descriptive or comparative ones with a quantitative design. Most of them focused on parents (43%) or children (28%). Most of the studies investigated wellbeing (88%), using questionnaires (54%) or interviews (38%). Several different measurement instruments had been used. While the results were often clearly presented, the clinical implications were more diffuse. The most acknowledged research fund was the Swedish Childhood Foundation (75%).

    CONCLUSIONS: To reflect the children' perspectives in paediatric oncology require that future researchers take on the challenge of including children (even young ones) in research. The use of a limited number of agreed measurement instruments is desirable. The biggest challenge for the future is to make a shift from explorative to intervention studies. There is an urgent need to transform research results into clinical practice.

  • 186.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad.
    Huus, Karina
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad.
    Björk, Maria
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. School of Life Science, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Darcy, Laura
    Institution of Health Science, University College of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Susanne
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Institution of Health Science, University College of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    An analytic review of clinical implications from nursing and psychosocial research within Swedish pediatric oncology2015Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children and Families, ISSN 0882-5963, E-ISSN 1532-8449, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 550-559Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 187.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Knutsson, Susanne
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Huus, Karina
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Darcy, Laura
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Björk, Maria
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad.
    A literature review of the results from nursing and psychosocial research within Swedish pediatric oncology2014Ingår i: Journal of Nursing & Care, ISSN 2167-1168, Vol. 3, nr 6, s. 1-8Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The body of research-based knowledge in paediatric caring science has been increasing leading to dramaticimprovements in treatment. The purpose of this manuscript was to analyze results as stated by the researchers', inrecently published articles on nursing and psychosocial research, within Swedish pediatric oncology setting. Thiswas done through a review of 137 published articles about paediatric oncology related to caring science in Sweden.The result shows that the illness has affected, in both positive and negative ways, the wellbeing of everyone cominginto contact with the child. The cancer also causes distress related to all aspects of life including physical,psychological, existential and social. Mediating factors for the experience of distress and wellbeing are: disease andtreatment severity, age, gender and ethnicity of the participant, time since diagnosis, the use of internal and externalsupport, and the identity of the person reporting the data. Health promoting aspects frequently reported are: familytogetherness, coping strategies, engaging in normal life and activities, and quality of care which includes emotionalsupport, information and family participation in care. The hospital staff has to be aware of the psychosocial issuesexperienced by children with cancer and their families, and they have to acknowledge the value of formalinterventions, reporting benefits for children, families, and themselves.

  • 188.
    Eriksson Gustavsson, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Inledning2011Ingår i: Specialpedagogisk verksamhet i grundskolan / [ed] Anna-Lena Eriksson Gustavsson, Kerstin Göransson, Claes Nilholm, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, s. 13-32Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 189.
    Eriksson, Lilly
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Welander, J
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Participation in everyday school activities for children with and without disabilities2007Ingår i: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, ISSN 1056-263X, E-ISSN 1573-3580, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 485-502Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with disabilities attending regular school often need more support than other children in order to participate in different school activities. Are children with disabilities included and do they participate in the same activities as their peers? During one school day, 66 children, 33 children with disabilities, were observed at school. After school the children were interviewed about participation in school activities and their social networks and they self-rated their autonomy. The results showed that children with disabilities have lower participation both in structured and unstructured activities. In structured activities differences existed primarily in math, practical subjects, and science. Children with disabilities had fewer friends and rated their autonomy lower. The difference in participation for children with and without disabilities is context specific; it indicates that professionals need to consider context specificity in developing interventions to increase participation.

  • 190.
    Eriksson, Lilly
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för samhälls- och beteendevetenskap.
    Welander, Jonas
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för samhälls- och beteendevetenskap.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för samhälls- och beteendevetenskap.
    Comparing engagement in everyday school activities in children with and without disabilities2006Ingår i: Abstracts 2006: Australasian Academy of Cerebral Palsy & Developmental Medicine Conference 2006, AusACPDM, London: MacKeith Press , 2006, s. 10-11Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 191.
    Eriksson, Lilly
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för matematik och fysik.
    Welander, Jonas
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för samhälls- och beteendevetenskap.
    Granlund, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för socialt arbete. Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för samhälls- och beteendevetenskap.
    Elevers delaktighet i skolaktiviteter: En jämförelse av elever med och utan funktionshinder2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 192.
    Eriksson-Gustavsson, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Göransson, KerstinMälardalens högskola.Nilholm, ClaesHögskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Specialpedagogisk verksamhet i grundskolan2011Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 193.
    Evaldsson, Ann-Carita
    et al.
    Pedagogiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Övrig skolnära forskning. Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Evidensbaserat skolarbete och demokrati: Mobbning som exempel2009Ingår i: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 65-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 194.
    Evaldsson, Ann-Carita
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Evidensbasering - ett hot?2009Ingår i: Magasin 360, nr 1, s. 5-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 195.
    Evans, Kiah L.
    et al.
    Curtin University and Edith Cowan University.
    Millsteed, Jeannine
    Edith Cowan University.
    Richmond, Janet E.
    Edith Cowan University.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University.
    Working Sandwich Generation Women Utilize Strategies within and between Roles to Achieve Role Balance2016Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 6, artikel-id e0157469Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasingly, women simultaneously balance the roles of mother, parental carer and worker. However, individual role balance strategies among these working ‘sandwich’ generation women have not been thoroughly explored. Eighteen women combining these three roles were interviewed about their individual role balance strategies. Findings were identified through the framework analysis technique, underpinned by the Model of Juggling Occupations. Achieving and maintaining role balance was explained as a complex process accomplished through a range of strategies. Findings revealed the women used six within-role balance strategies: living with integrity, being the best you can, doing what you love, loving what you do, remembering why and searching for signs of success. The women also described six between-role balance strategies: maintaining health and wellbeing, repressing perfectionism, managing time and energy, releasing responsibility, nurturing social connection and reciprocating. These findings provide a basis for health care providers to understand and potentially support working ‘sandwich’ generation women.

  • 196.
    Evans, Kiah L.
    et al.
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Millsteed, Jeannine
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Richmond, Janet E.
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Girdler, Sonya J.
    Occupational Therapy Program, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    The complexity of role balance: Support for the Model of Juggling Occupations2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 334-347Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This pilot study aimed to establish the appropriateness of the Model of Juggling Occupations in exploring the complex experience of role balance amongst working women with family responsibilities living in Perth, Australia.

    Methods: In meeting this aim, an evaluation was conducted of a case study design, where data were collected through a questionnaire, time diary, and interview.

    Results: Overall role balance varied over time and across participants. Positive indicators of role balance occurred frequently in the questionnaires and time diaries, despite the interviews revealing a predominance of negative evaluations of role balance. Between-role balance was achieved through compatible role overlap, buffering, and renewal. An exploration of within-role balance factors demonstrated that occupational participation, values, interests, personal causation, and habits were related to role balance.

    Conclusions: This pilot study concluded that the Model of Juggling Occupations is an appropriate conceptual framework to explore the complex and dynamic experience of role balance amongst working women with family responsibilities. It was also confirmed that the case study design, including the questionnaire, time diary, and interview methods, is suitable for researching role balance from this perspective.

  • 197.
    Evans, Kiah L.
    et al.
    Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Millsteed, Jeannine
    Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Richmond, Janet E.
    Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Girdler, Sonya J.
    Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    The impact of within and between role experiences on role balance outcomes for working Sandwich Generation Women2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 184-193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Women combining paid employment with dual caring responsibilities for children and aging parents, otherwise known as the sandwich generation, experience both benefits and costs related to role participation and quality of life. However, previous literature is inconclusive regarding the impact of this role combination on role balance. In the context of these mixed findings on role balance for working sandwich generation women, this study aimed to explore how within role characteristics and between role interactions are related to role balance for these women. This aim was achieved through the use of a questionnaire administered to 18 Australian working sandwich generation women. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation coefficients, with findings suggesting the women studied tended to experience neither role balance or role imbalance. Within-role characteristics, particularly within the mother and family member roles, were related to role balance. In addition, between-role conflict and role interactions involving either the home maintainer or family member roles had the greatest impact on role balance.

  • 198.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    From Eye to Us: Prerequisites for and levels of participation in mainstream school of persons with Autism Spectrum Conditions2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are included and thus expected to participate in mainstream schools. However, ASC are characterized by poor communication and difficulties in understanding social information; factors likely to have negative influences on participation. Hence, this thesis studied body functions hypothesized to affect social interaction and both perceived and observed participation of students with ASC in mainstream schools.

    Case-control studies were conducted to explore visual strategies used for face identification and required for recognition of facially expressed emotions in adults with ASC. Consistency of these visual strategies was tested in static and interactive dynamic conditions. A systematic review of the literature explored parents’ perceptions of factors contributing to inclusive school settings for their children with ASC. Questionnaires were used to investigate perceived participation in students with ASC and their classmates. Correlations between activities the students wanted to do and reported to participate in were identified. Teachers’ accuracy in rating their students with ASCs’ perception of participation was investigated. Furthermore, correlations between the accuracy of teachers’ ratings and the teachers’ self-reported professional experience, support and personal interest were examined. Correlations between teachers’ ratings and their reported classroom actions were also analysed. The frequency and level of engagement in social interactions of students with ASC and their classmates were also observed. Correlations between observed frequencies and self-rated levels of social interactions were explored.

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Version for Children and Youth (ICF-CY) has been used as a structural framework, since ICF-CY enables complex information to be ordered and possible interactions between aspects in different components and factors to be identified. In regard to Body Functioning, difficulties identifying faces and recognizing basic facially expressed emotions in adults with ASC were established. The visual strategies displayed a high stability across stimuli conditions. Teachers’ knowledge about their students with ASC, in addition to their ability to implement ASCspecific teaching strategies, was emphasized as enhancing Environmental Factors for participation. Students with ASC reported less participation and fewer social interactions than their classmates, which could be interpreted as activity limitations and participation restrictions. However, in regard to some activities, they may have participated to the extent they wanted to. Compared with classmates, observations of students with ASC showed that they participated less frequently in social interactions, but were not less involved when they actually did. No correlations were found between perceived participation and observed social interactions in students with ASC.

    Teachers rated their students with ASCs’ perceived participation with good precision. Their understanding of the students with ASCs’ perception correlated with activities to improve the attitudes of classmates and adaptation of tasks. No such correlations were found in regard to reported activities aimed at enhancing social relations.

    The ability to process faces is usually well established in adults. Poor face processing can impact social functioning and the difficulties in face processing found in adults with ASC are probably the result of

    developmental deviations during childhood. Therefore, monitoring and assessing face processing abilities in students with ASC is important, in order to tailor interventions that aim to enhance participation in the social environment of mainstream schools.

    Since participation is a complex construct, interventions need to be complex, as well. In order to facilitate positive peer relations, teachers need to provide Activities adapted to the interests and social abilities of the students with ASC, and in which students with and without ASC can experience positive interactions. This requires that teachers assess all aspects that can affect Participation, including Environmental Factors, and the student’s functioning in regard to Activities and Body Functions. To enhance social interactions, interventions must be planned based on these assessments. If needed, interventions may require teaching students with ASC visual strategies, in order to enhance face processing and thereby the ability to recognize faces and facially expressed emotions. Observations together with self-reported information regarding the students’ preferences and their involvement constitute a basis for the planning and evaluating of such interventions. To include self-determination aspects could allow for possible interventions to be tailored in line with the students’ perceived needs and their own wishes, rather than primarily meeting a standard set by a control group. However, good insight into the students’ perception of Participation may not be enough. In order to adapt teaching instructions, communication and activities teachers also need ASC specific knowledge.

  • 199.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Inkluderande strategier för elever med Aspergers syndrom och andra autismspektrumtillstånd i grundskolan2009Ingår i: Skolan och Aspergers syndrom: Erfarenhet från skolpersonal och forskare / [ed] Staffan Engström, Stockholm: Skolverket , 2009, s. 64-85Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 200.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Skolan och Aspergers syndrom Erfarenheter från skolpersonal och forskare: Inkluderande strategier för elever med Aspergers syndrom och andra autismspektrumtillstånd i grundskolan2009Ingår i: Skolan och Aspergers syndrom Erfarenheter från skolpersonal och forskare: Inkluderande strategier för elever med Aspergers syndrom och andra autismspektrumtillstånd i grundskolan / [ed] Staffan Engström, Skolverket , 2009, s. 64-88Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
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