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  • 151.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Peng, S.Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Information and communication technologies policies and practices2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume serves as an international forum focusing on the information and communication technology policies and practices which have led to the rapid and remarkable record of high and sustained economic growth of Asian countries since the middle of the second half of the 20th century. It aims to provide an up-to-date and in-depth analysis of five factors crucial to the success of the ICT industry and technology transfer in some specific countries in Asia. These factors include: the development of ICT policy, the contribution of ICT sectors to the economy, the productivity and efficiency of ICT sectors, E-government utilization in the provision of public services, and the effectiveness of globalization and technology transfer. ©2010 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 152.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Peng, S.
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Preface2011In: Information and communication technologies policies and practices / [ed] Almas Heshmati and Sun Peng, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. vii-xiChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology East Building, Room 217, Korea University, Anam-dong Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-713, Korea.
    Peng, Sun
    LiaoNing Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine, Bureau of P.R. China, No. 81 RenMin Rode Dalian City, LiaoNing Province 116001, China.
    International Trade And Its Effects On Economic Performance In China2012In: China Economic Policy Review, ISSN 1793-9690, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 35-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As China exhibited unprecedented rapid economic growth ever since its reform and opening, the development and sources of labor productivity has gradually come to the forefront. This paper studies the development and the source of labor productivity in 31 Chinese provinces during 2000–2009. The labor productivity is investigated through an examination at both the levels and the growth rate. Particularly, we first look at the production function relationship, to see the contribution of labor and other production factors to the gross domestic product. Then, a number of possible determinants are defined. They are regressed on the level and the growth rate of labor productivity to shed light on their relationships. Controlled for unobserved time-specific and province-specific effects, the fixed effects model with heteroskedasticity robust adjustments have been used for the estimation of three functions. Regional breakdown shows severe disparity in the economy where three municipal cities have the highest labor productivity among other regions. Subsequently, we summarize the different sources and their contributions to labor productivity and provide several policy suggestions.

  • 154.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Rashidghalam, Masoomeh
    Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Labour productivity in Kenyan manufacturing and service industries2018In: Determinants of economic growth in Africa, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, p. 259-286Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 155.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea.
    Rashidghalam, Masoomeh
    Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Nilsson, Pia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Measurement and analysis of multidimensional well-being in Rwanda2018In: Rwanda Handbook of Economic and Social Policy: Volume 1 / [ed] A. Heshmati, Jönköping: Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School , 2018, p. 291-325Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The well-being of families and their children is given high priority in development goals. Children’s well-being in Africa is important since the growing number of children is the greatest resource of this continent. Rwanda was one of the first countries that ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The country, despite its very low GDP per capita, also has one of the best child well-being indicators in Africa. In the recent past the country has also had two important achievements: protection of children by establishing the National Commission for Children and launching a Strategy for National Child Care Reform. The measures aim to protect children’s rights and integrate children into families that are supported to provide needed care to them. These achievements are largely the result of strong laws and policies many of which have been developed with support from UNICEF. Investments in children’s well-being will help in addressing many persistent difficulties that society may have to face in the future. What happens during the early years is of crucial importance for every child’s development. This period offers great opportunities, but children are also vulnerable to negative influences. The objective of this research is to estimate multidimensional well-being of children and their families in Rwanda. The aim is to compute an overall well-being index decomposed into its underlying main components. The households are ranked by the level of well-being and by various household and community characteristics. The results shed light on the state and changes in the well-being of children and their families in Rwanda indicating which provinces and districts offer relatively better conditions for them. This can serve as a model for public policies aimed at improving general well-being in the country.

  • 156.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea.
    Rashidghalam, Masoomeh
    Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Nilsson, Pia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Measurement and analysis of multidimensional well-being in Rwanda2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 157.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, South Korea.
    Rudolf, Robert
    Division of International Studies, Korea University, South Korea.
    Income versus Consumption Inequality in Korea: Evaluating Stochastic Dominance Rankings by Various Household Attributes2014In: Asian Economic Journal, ISSN 1351-3958, E-ISSN 1467-8381, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 413-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using four rounds (1999, 2002, 2005 and 2008) of the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study, the present paper examines determinants of household income and consumption levels and inequalities. Unconditional as well as conditional stochastic dominance tests are performed by year, by household heads' characteristics (age, education, gender, health, marital status and occupation) and by household characteristics (household type, household size and degree of urbanization). Mean least squares regression techniques are used to predict conditional expectations. The residuals containing effects for each characteristic conditional on the remaining characteristics are then used for the stochastic dominance analysis employing extended Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests of first-order and second-order dominance in distribution of income and consumption. The results provide a detailed and up-to-date picture of inequality and poverty by subgroup in Korea, which helps in targeting particularly vulnerable groups. While inequality in disposable income is found to be substantial, consumption inequality is less substantial. Households headed by the elderly, the uneducated, the divorced, the widowed, females, and those with health problems are found to be the most vulnerable groups.

  • 158.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Sogang University.
    Rudolf, Robert
    Korea University.
    Income vs. Consumption Inequality in South Korea: Evaluating Stochastic Dominance Rankings by Various Household Attributes2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using four rounds (1999, 2002, 2005, 2008) of the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS), this article examines determinants of household income and consumption levels and inequalities. Unconditional as well as conditional stochastic dominance (SD) tests are performed by year, by household heads' characteristics (age, education, gender, health, marital status and occupation) and by household characteristics (household type, household size, degree of urbanization). Mean least squares regression techniques are employed to predict conditional expectations. The residuals containing effects for each characteristic conditional on the remaining characteristics are then used for the SD analysis employing extended Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests of first- and second-order dominance in distribution of income and consumption. The results provide a detailed and up-to-date picture of inequality and poverty by subgroup in South Korea which helps targeting particularly vulnerable groups. Overall, while inequality in disposable income is found to be often substantial, strong savings preferences of richer households lead to relatively low consumption inequality. Households headed by elderly, uneducated, divorced or widowed, females and those with health problems are found to be the most vulnerable groups in Korea.

  • 159.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    Seng, Bory
    Seoul National University.
    Digital Divide and its Variations amongst OECD, NIE and ASEAN Countries2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has developed rapidly in the recent decades. The industrial nations are the derivations of the development and use of new communication technologies. As such today industrial nations have a continuously higher communications technology standard. As a result the digital divide between the developing and industrial nations is large and growing with time. Knowledge is expected to be easily shared across geographical boundaries by using ICT technologies. Thus ICT is a powerful tool providing developing countries with opportunities to meet vital developmental goals such as basic health care, education and governance related reforms. However, many people in developing countries have neither the opportunity nor the necessary skills to use the technology. Therefore, this paper aims at computing parametric and non parametric composite indices of ICT across countries and over time. The indices will help to quantify the countries' status of distribution of communication technologies and the need for basic infrastructure for their development. The focus is on measuring the countries¡¯ readiness to participate in the technological innovations and in utilization of ICT based services and to rank the countries to quantify the overall digital divide and its development.

  • 160.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea .
    Su, Biwei
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea .
    Analysis of gender wage differential in China’s urban labor market2017In: Singapore Economic Review, ISSN 0217-5908, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 423-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates the gender wage gap and its composition in China's urban labor market. The traditional Blinder–Oaxaca (1973) decomposition method with different weighing systems is employed. To correct for potential selection bias caused by women's labor force participation, we employ the Heckman's two-step procedure to estimate the female wage function. A large proportion of the gender wage gap is unexplained by differences of productive characteristics of individuals. Even though women have higher level of education attainments on average, they receive lower wages than men. Both facts suggest a potential discrimination against women in China.

  • 161.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Room K526, 35 Baekbeom-ro (Sinsu-dong #1), Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742, Korea.
    Su, Biwei
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.
    Development and Sources of Labor Productivity in Chinese Provinces2013In: China Economic Policy Review, ISSN 1793-9690, Vol. 2, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As China exhibited unprecedented rapid economic growth ever since its reform and opening, the development and sources of labor productivity has gradually come to the forefront. This paper studies the development and the source of labor productivity in 31 Chinese provinces during 2000–2009. The labor productivity is investigated through an examination at both the levels and the growth rate. Particularly, we first look at the production function relationship, to see the contribution of labor and other production factors to the gross domestic product. Then, a number of possible determinants are defined. They are regressed on the level and the growth rate of labor productivity to shed light on their relationships. Controlled for unobserved time-specific and province-specific effects, the fixed effects model with heteroskedasticity robust adjustments have been used for the estimation of three functions. Regional breakdown shows severe disparity in the economy where three municipal cities have the highest labor productivity among other regions. Subsequently, we summarize the different sources and their contributions to labor productivity and provide several policy suggestions.

  • 162.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Sun, M.
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Oh, J. E.
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Utilization of E-government in delivery of public services in Asia2011In: Information and communication technologies policies and practices / [ed] Almas Heshmati and Sun Peng, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. 207-231Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to compare the capacity or potential of governments inEast and Southeast Asia in their utilization of E-government as an instrument to deliverpublic services to their citizens. The principal component analysis methodology is used tocompute the E-government index. The index is used as a benchmark to compare theperformance of developing and newly industrialized economies in delivery of publicservices. The overall index is compromised of three main components: ICTinfrastructure, development information and finances indices. The E-government indexlevel shows the capacity of each country’s governments to deliver public services. Theresult is useful for identifying the weaknesses and strengths in their service provision. Anattempt is made to suggest alternative approaches to achieve the goals and progresstowards an advanced E-government-based service provision that enhances equality inopportunities. ©2010 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 163.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Sun, P.
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Introduction to information and communication technology policies and practices2011In: Information and communication technologies policies and practices / [ed] Almas Heshmati and Sun Peng, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. 1-8Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 164.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, University of Sogang, South Korea.
    Tausch, Arno
    Department of Economics, University Budapest and Innsbruck, Austria.
    An empirical reflection on ‘Smart Social Justice’, its measurement and possible drivers and bottlenecks2018In: Sociology International Journal, E-ISSN 2576-4470, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 142-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research, we present a first empirical reflection on ‘smart social justice’, its measurement and possible ‘drivers’ and ‘bottlenecks’. The very idea of ‘smart development’ was first proposed by Meadows1 and has not been really followed up to now in social science ever since. We first provide data on how much ecological footprint is used in the nations of the world system to ‘deliver’ a given amount of democracy, economic growth, gender equality, human development, research and development, and social cohesion. To this end, we first developed UNDP-type performance indicators from current standard international comparative, cross-national social science data on these six main dimensions of development and on the combined performance on the six dimensions (‘human development index plus’). We then show the non-linear standard OLS regression trade-offs between ecological footprints per capita and their square on these six components of development and the overall super-UNDP development performance index, derived from them. The residuals from these regressions are our new measures of smart development: a country experiences smart development, if it achieves a maximum of development with a minimum of ecological footprint. We then look at the cross-national drivers and bottlenecks of this smart social justice and development, using standard cross-sectional data, which operationalize standard economic, sociological and political science knowledge in international development accounting. Finally, we take up income inequality which has been very prominent in recent global public health debate due to its very detrimental effect on life quality.

  • 165.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Sogang University.
    Tausch, Arno
    Vienna University.
    Asabiyya: Re-Interpreting Value Change in Globalized Societies2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reflects the renewed interest of economics and the social science discipline in value systems and religion. The World Values Survey provided a data framework of global value change, whose quantitative results led members of the economic profession, most notably, Barro, 2004 to analyze the connections between some dimensions of recent sociological religious value research (like the strength of the belief in hell) with economic growth. The present essay starts from this methodological position, and, like Barro links value systems with economic performance. The belief in or the fear of hell is part and parcel of a larger set of traditional values. With the free available country-wide data from the World Values Survey, we re-interpret Barro’s thesis in a much wider and macro-sociological framework. We further develop the well-known Inglehart/Welzel, 2003, 2003 map of global values, and develop the idea of “Asabiyya” (“social cohesion”), inherent in classic Arab historiography, first described by Ibn Khaldun (1332 to 1406) in his work “Muqaddimah,” as a counter-model to both Barro and Inglehart/Welzel, 2003, 2003. A frequently asked question is whether “modernization” without “spiritual values” in a globalized world economy and world society possible in the long run. Starting from our multivariate analysis of the World Values Survey data (principal component analysis), it is shown that rather two factors are decisive in understanding global value change: a continuum of “traditional versus secular,” and a continuum “cheating versus active society.” Asabiyya is defined then empirically by the residuals from the two factor scores. Asabiyya in the 21st Century, as a way out from the modernization trap of societies, characterized by large-scale social anomaly, is a high secularism combined with a high active society score, thus avoiding the “modernization trap” of an increasingly secular society, which accepts cheating on taxes; accepts government benefits fraud and taking bribes. This re-discovery of the “active society paradigm,” inherent in Etzioni’s sociological theory, for cross-national research on religion and economic growth also shows that the “active society” of volunteer organization work is the best societal medicine against this kind of value decay, which is so common, according to our study, in countries like France, Brazil, or most of East Central Europe and the former USSR. An active form of religious or non-religious humanism, which provides a noble motivation for such activities as volunteer social services, is a very necessary precondition for social cohesion in the 21st Century. Finally, we show on the basis of these data and with very recent IMF data and prognoses (2009) about economic growth in the world system for 2009 and 2010 that economic growth in the current world crisis is far more connected with these dimensions than with the belief in hell, as stipulated by Barro. We also control for the negative effects of Kearney’s globalization index on current and future economic growth in our equations. We conclude that not a society based on fear is needed in the first place, but an active society of volunteer social work.

  • 166.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    TEMEP, College of Engineering - Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
    Tausch, Arno
    Innsbruck University, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Bajalan, Chemen S.J.
    Queens University, Belfast, North Ireland.
    Measurement and Analysis of Child Well-Being in Middle and High Income Countries2008In: The European Journal of Comparative Economics, ISSN 1824-2979, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 187-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting from the recent UNICEF publications on child poverty in the developed countries, which received a wide audience in the political and scientific world, in this paper we further analyze the UNICEF study data base and present three composite indices that are multidimensional and quantitative measures of child well-being. While the original UNICEF studies simply added together the ranks on different measurement scales, we present a much more sophisticated approach, with the first of our indicators being a non-parametric measure, while the remaining two are parametric. In the non-parametric index of child welfare, the well-being indicators are given the same weights in their aggregation to form different components from which an overall index is being constructed. Two different forms of the parametric index are estimated by using principal component analysis. The first model uses a pool of all indicators without classification of the indicators by type of well-being, while the second model estimates first the sub-components separately and then uses the share of variance explained by each principal component to compute the weighted average of each component and their aggregation into an index of overall child well-being. The indices indicate which countries have the best system of child welfare and show how child well-being varies across countries and regions. The indices are composed of six well-being components including material, health and safety, educational well-being, family and peer relationships, behaviours and risks and subjective well-being. Each of the components is generated from a number of well-being sub-indicators.

  • 167.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Engn, TEMEP 37-306-1,San 56-1 Shinlim Dong, Seoul 151742, South Korea.
    Yang, Wanshan
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Engn, TEMEP 37-306-1,San 56-1 Shinlim Dong, Seoul 151742, South Korea.
    Contribution of ICT to the economic growth of China2010In: Business, finance and economics of China / [ed] Guo, L; Zong, F, Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2010, p. 67-91Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The view of the systematic irrationality of investors and investment managers in reference to investment in information and communication technology (ICT) despite ICT’s apparent lack of effect on productivity growth is called the productivity paradox. Research suggests that ICT investment return is significant and positive in developed nations but not in developing nations. This chapter challenges the above conclusion by examining the contribution of ICT to the economic growth of China. We investigate the relationship between total factor productivity (HP) growth and ICT capital and provide estimation of the returns on ICT investment. The contribution of ICT to economic growth has not yet been studied for developing countries like China. The empirical results suggest that China has reaped the benefits of ICT investment. The policy implications for Chinese ICT investment and development are also discussed. The results add to our understanding of how ICT affects growth in the context of economic development.

  • 168.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Yeo, Meeyoung
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Healthy Residential Environments for the Elderly in Japan, Korea and Sweden2013In: World Health Design, ISSN 1654-9694, no January, p. 58-65Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 169.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Sogang Univ, Dept Econ, Seoul, South Korea.
    Yoon, HaeyeonSogang Univ, Dept Econ, Seoul, South Korea.
    Economic Growth and Development in Ethiopia2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume is a collection of selected empirical studies on determinants of economic growth and development in Ethiopia.The core argument for editing this book is to provide an up-to-date picture of the state and patterns of growth and development in Ethiopia. Ethiopia has been under focus in the past due to draughts, war, famine, development changes and the effects of global economic crisis in the country. A main contribution of this volume is that it helps identify selected important determinants of growth and development in Ethiopia and provides an estimation of their effects using up-to-date data, modelling and methods. Taken together the studies provide a comprehensive picture of the state of growth and development, their measurements, causal relationships and evaluation of efficient policies and practices in achieving progress in Ethiopia. The issues covered represent major challenges to the government and development organizations who are aiming at achieving higher growth and alleviating poverty in the country. The studies cover transition from rural agriculture to urban industry and the development of services.

  • 170.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Sogang Univ, Dept Econ, Seoul, South Korea.
    Yoon, Haeyeon
    Sogang Univ, Dept Econ, Seoul, South Korea.
    Introduction to Economic Growth and Development in Ethiopia and summary of the contributions2018In: Economic Growth and Development in Ethiopia / [ed] Almas Heshmati, Haeyeon Yoon, Springer, 2018, p. 1-9Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustained and inclusive economic growth has gained much attention in recent years (Acemoglu in Introduction to modern economic growth. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 2009; Barro in Determinants of growth: a cross country empirical study. MIT Press, Cambridge MA, 1997; Barro and Sala-i-Martin in Economic growth. MIT Press, Cambridge MA, 2004; Griffin in World hunger and the world economy. Springer, Singapore, 1987; Heshmati et al. in Poverty reduction policies and practices in developing Asia. Springer, Singapore, 2015; Kim and Heshmati in Economic growth: the new perspectives for theory and policy. Springer, Singapore, 2014; Tausch and Heshmati in Globalization, the human condition and sustainable development in the 21st century: cross-national perspectives and European implications. Anthem Press, London, 2012; and others).

  • 171.
    Hjalmarsson, L.
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Göteborg University, Vasagatan 1, S-411 80 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Kumbhakar, S. C.
    Department of Economics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1172, United States.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Göteborg University, Vasagatan 1, S-411 SO Göteborg, Sweden.
    DEA, DFA and SFA: A comparison1996In: Journal of Productivity Analysis, ISSN 0895-562X, E-ISSN 1573-0441, Vol. 7, no 2-3, p. 303-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nonparametric data envelopment analysis (DEA) model has become increasingly popular in the analysis of productive efficiency, and the number of empirical applications is now very large. Recent theoretical and mathematical research has also contributed to a deeper understanding of the seemingly simple but inherently complex DEA model. Less effort has, however, been directed toward comparisons between DEA and other competing efficiency analysis models. This paper undertakes a comparison of the DEA, the deterministic parametric (DFA), and the stochastic frontier (SFA) models. Efficiency comparisons across models in the above categories are done based on 15 Colombian cement plants observed during 1968-1988. ©1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  • 172.
    Iman-Santoso, H.
    et al.
    PT. POS, Indonesia.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    The impact of IT on efficiency of postal services in Indonesia2011In: Information and communication technologies policies and practices / [ed] Almas Heshmati and Sun Peng, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. 191-206Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information technology (IT) is a factor that has led to an improvement in theproductivity and efficiency of the postal services organizations. This study aims toexplain the degree of efficiency gained by the use technology of ICT and governmentsupport programs. These are used to test the hypothesis about the effect of technologyand government support programs. The study is divided into two steps: the first step is ananalysis of efficiency by using DEA, while the second step is a "Tobit Model" analysisused to estimate the influence of the determinant factors on the efficiency of postaloffices. The empirical results show that IT capital investment has a positive impact on theefficiency of the service organization. The efficiency of postal services over time hasbeen decreasing. The government and top management should be concerned about thenecessary improvement in postal services management. ©2010 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 173.
    Jeong, K. -I
    et al.
    Defense Acquisition Program Administration, Seoul, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    University of Kurdistan Hawler, Hawler, Federal Region of Kurdistan, Kurdistan, Iraq.
    Efficiency of the Korean defense industry: A stochastic frontier approach2009In: Productivity, efficiency, and economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region, Heidelberg: Physica Verlag, 2009, p. 217-254Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The defense market, which is composed of a sole demander and few suppliers, is generally regarded as a monopolistic market. In this sense, it has its own characteristics that are different from other common competitive markets. High precision technology and a huge amount of capital investment in the initial stage of production are essential in the defense industry, and this necessitates subsidy policy of the government. Most of the supplies are produced in an order-based manner due to the special specification requirements and this hampers the market-driven pricing mechanism. The price is determined based on negotiations between the two parties, considering the cost of production, retrieval of the investment, and efficient allocation of the government budget. This study is organized as follows. The history of the Korean defense industry and policies are summarized in Sect. 10.2. The data is described in Sect 10.3. In Sect 10.4, this study sets out the stochastic frontier production function for the analysis of efficiency and the model for decomposition of TFP. The results of the estimation of the stochastic frontier model are presented in Sect 10.5, where technical efficiency, testing results on factors affecting efficiency and decomposition of TFP are discussed. Lastly, Sect 10.6 presents the conclusions of this study. ©2009 Physica-Verlag Heidelberg.

  • 174. Kang, H.J.
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    An Evaluation of the Korean M&A Policy in the Post Asian Crisis2007In: ICFAI Journal of Mergers and Acquisitions, ISSN 0972-9232, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 21-42Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 175.
    Kang, J. W.
    et al.
    Technology Strategy and Planning Division, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology Evaluation and Planning, 13F KOTECH Bldg. 701-7, Yeoksam-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-080, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Economics and Finance, University of Kurdistan Hawler, Hawler, Iraq.
    Effect of credit guarantee policy on survival and performance of SMEs in Republic of Korea2008In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 445-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the effect of credit guarantee on SMEs at the firm level. To estimate the effect of credit guarantee, we analyze relations between credit guarantee, the survival of guaranteed firms, and their productive performance. The result indicates that credit guarantee frequency enabled guaranteed firms to achieve good performances in general. On the contrary, the effect of guarantee amounts is ambiguous in that there is difference between the contemporary effect and the lagged effect. Therefore, we conclude that credit guarantee satisfied partially its goal to alleviate SMEs’ difficulty in acquiring finance and to stabilize employment. ©2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 176.
    Kang, J. W.
    et al.
    Technology Strategy and Planning Division, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology Evaluation and Planning, 13F KOTECH Bldg. 701-7, Yeoksam-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-080, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Economics and Finance, University of Kurdistan Hawler, Hawler, Iraq.
    Choi, G. -G
    Department of Management, International Programs and Education, Dongguk University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Effect of credit guarantee policy on survival and performance of SMEs in Republic of Korea (Small Business Economics DOI 10.1007/s11187-007-9049-y) [Erratum]2008In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 443-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 177.
    Karlson, Nils
    et al.
    The RATIO Institute.
    Box, Marcus
    The RATIO Institute.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    Generality, State Neutrality and Unemployment in the OECD2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Buchanan and Congleton (1998), the generality principle in politics blocks special interests. Consequently, the generality principle should thereby promote economic efficiency. This study tests this hypothesis on wage formation and labor markets, by investigating whether generality defined as state neutrality could explain employment performance among OECD countries during 1970-2003. We identify three types of non-neutrality as concerns unemployment. These include the level or degree of government interference in the wage bargaining process over and above legislation which facilitate mutually beneficial wage agreements, the constrained bargaining range (meaning the extent to which the state favors or blocks certain outcomes of the bargaining process), and the cost shifting (which relates to state interference shifting the direct or indirect burden of costs facing the parties on the labor market). Our overall hypothesis is that non-neutrality or non-generality increases unemployment rates. The empirical results from the general conditional model suggest that government intervention and a constrained bargaining range clearly increase unemployment, while a few of the cost shifting variables have unexpected effects. The findings thus give some, but definitely not unreserved, support for the generality principle as a method to promote economic efficiency. One implication may be that the principle should be amended by other requirements if the political process indeed shall be able to promote economic efficiency.

  • 178.
    Khayya, Nabaz T.
    et al.
    College of Engineering, TEMEP, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shilim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, East Building Room 217, Anam-dong Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713, Korea.
    Determinants Of Mobile Phone Customer Satisfaction In The Kurdistan Region2012In: Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology, ISSN 2069-5934, Vol. 2, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the customer satisfaction of the telecommunications service in Kurdistan region of Iraq. The purpose is to identify the key factors that determine the customer satisfaction of the telecommunications services. A conceptual model is specified and a number of hypotheses are tested with a sample of 1,458 Kurdish mobile phone users in 2010. Discrete choice methodology is used to test the three models for user satisfaction: Binomial logit model for overall satisfaction, and multinomial logit model for brand use and for handset preferred features. Overall the findings show that the Kurdish customers are generally satisfied with the purchased mobile telecommunication services. The findings have implications for competition in the market and the flows of investment resources to the targeted market segments for potential expansion.

  • 179.
    Khayyat, Nabaz T.
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    Determinants of Mobile Phone Customer Satisfaction in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the customer satisfaction of telecommunication service in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The purpose is to identify the key factors determining the customer satisfaction of telecommunication service. A conceptual model is specified and a number of hypotheses tested with a sample of 1,458 Kurdish mobile phone users in 2010. Discrete choice methodology is used to test three models of user satisfaction: Binomial logit model for overall satisfaction, and multinomial logit model for brand use and for handset preferred features. Overall the findings show that the Kurdish customers are generally satisfied with purchased mobile telecomm-unication service. The findings have implications for competition in the market and flows of investment resources to targeted market segments with potential expansion.

  • 180.
    Khayyat, Nabaz T.
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    Determinants of Mobile Telecommunication Adoption in Kurdistan2013In: International Journal of Communication, ISSN 1932-8036, E-ISSN 1932-8036, Vol. 7, p. 2285-2311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes Kurdistan’s potential for effectively using mobile telecommunication. It identifies key factors determining the adoption of mobile telecommunication service. A conceptual model is specified, and several hypotheses are tested with a sample of 1,458 Kurdish mobile phone users in 2010. A discrete choice methodology is used to test two models of mobile telecommunication acceptance: choice of service providers and usage pattern. The results indicate that Korek is the favorite service provider in the Kurdistan region of Iraq, and the subscribers mostly use the service for work purposes. The findings have implications for competition in the market and flows of investment resources to targeted market segments with potential expansion.

  • 181.
    Khayyat, Nabaz T.
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Korea University.
    Determinants of Mobile Telecommunication Adoption in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study attempts to analyze Kurdistan Region's potentials in the effective usage of mobile telecommunication. The purpose is to identify the key factors determining the adoption of mobile telephony service. A conceptual model is specified and a number of hypotheses tested with a sample of 1,458 Kurdish mobile phone users in 2010. Discrete choice methodology is used to test two models of mobile telephony acceptance: Choice of Service Providers and Usage Pattern. The results show that Korek is the most favorite service provider in Kurdistan Region and the subscribers are mostly using the service for their work. The finding has implications for competition in the market and flows of investment resources to targeted market segments with potential expansion.

  • 182.
    Khayyat, Nabaz T.
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Sogang University.
    Production Risk, Energy Use Efficiencyand Productivity of Korean Industries2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Korea imports all of its primary energy, which leads to high dependency and vulnerability related to its energy supply. Efficiency in the use of energy is a way to reduce dependency and emissions. This study provides empirical results of the stochastic production process in energy use. Special attention is given to the factors that increase the risk or variation of using more of the energy input in production. A dynamic panel model is specified and applied to 25 Korean industrial sectors over the period 1970-2007. The determinants of energy use are identified and their effects in the form of elasticities of energy use are estimated. Stochastic production technology is applied to estimate an energy demand model based on an inverted factor demand.The findings reveal that: first, there are large variations in the degree of overuse or inefficiency in energy use among the individual industries as well as over time; second, information and communication technology (ICT) capital and labor are substituting for energy; and third, ICT capital input decreases the variability of energy demand while non-ICT capital, material and labor increase the variability of energy demand. The results suggest that technical progress contributes more to the increase in the mean energy demand than to the reduction in the level of risk. It is recommended that industries increase their level of ICT capital as well as digitalize and invest more in R&D activities and value added services to reduce the uncertainty related to their demand for energy.

  • 183.
    Khayyat, Nabaz T.
    et al.
    TEMEP, Seoul National University.
    Lee, Jongsu
    TEMEP, Seoul National University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Sogang University.
    How ICT Investment and Energy Use Influence the Productivity of Korean Industries2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This empirical study examines changes in industrial productivity in Korea between 1980 and 2009, focusing on how investment in information and communication technology (ICT) and energy use, influence productivity levels. A dynamic factor demand model is applied in order to link inter-temporal production decisions by explicitly recognizing that the level of certain factors of production cannot be changed without incurring so-called adjustment costs, defined in terms of forgone output from current production. In particular, we investigate how the ICT–energy relationship affects total factor productivity growth in 30 industrial sectors. Describing industry-specific productivity levels is important for policymakers when the allocation of public investment and support is limited. The results presented herein show that ICT/non-ICT capital investment are substitutes for labor and energy use. We also find a high output growth rate in the sampled sectors, and increasing returns to scale, whose effects on the TFP component are higher than those of technological progress.

  • 184.
    Khraief, Naceur
    et al.
    Tunis Business School, Université de Tunis, Tunisia.
    Shahbaz, Muhammad
    Montpellier Business School, Montpellier, France.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Azam, Muhammad
    Department of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, Abdul Wali Khan, University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
    Are unemployment rates in OECD countries stationary?: Evidence from univariate and panel unit root tests2018In: The North American journal of economics and finance, ISSN 1062-9408, E-ISSN 1879-0860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper revisits the dynamics of unemployment rate for 29 OECD countries over the period of 1980–2013. Numerous empirical studies of the dynamics of unemployment rate are carried out within a linear framework. However, unemployment rate can show nonlinear behaviour as a result of business cycles or some idiosyncratic factors specific to labour market (Cancelo, 2007). Thus, as a testing strategy, we first perform Harvey, Leybourne, and Xiao (2008) linearity unit root test and then apply the newly ESTAR nonlinear unit root test suggested by Kruse (2011). This test has higher power than conventional unit root tests when time series exhibits nonlinear behaviour. Our empirical findings provide significant evidence in favour of unemployment rate stationarity for 25 countries. For robustness purpose, we have also used panel unit root tests without and with structural breaks. The empirical results show that unemployment hysteresis hypothesis is strongly rejected, when taking into account the cross-sectional and structural break assumptions. Thus, unemployment rate is expected to return back to their natural levels without executing any costly macroeconomic labour market policies by the OECD's governments. 

  • 185.
    Kim, H.
    et al.
    School of Economics, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    University of Kurdistan Hawler, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Aoun, D.
    University of Kurdistan Hawler, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Dynamics of capital structure: The case of Korean listed manufacturing companies2006In: Asian Economic Journal, ISSN 1351-3958, E-ISSN 1467-8381, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 275-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we develop a model of dynamic capital structure choice based on a sample of Korean manufacturing firms and estimate the unobservable optimal capital structure using a wide range of observable determinants. Unbalanced panel data of Korean listed firms for the period 1985-2002 is used. In addition to identifying and estimating the effects of the determinants of capital structure, we take into consideration some Korea-specific features, such as the structural break before and after the financial crisis and firms’affiliation to chaebol business groups. Our results indicate that the optimal capital structure has been affected by the financial crisis. Although the results suggest that chaebol-affiliated firms have higher optimal level of leverage and adjust their capital structure faster than non-chaebol firms, firms’leverage might be associated with factors other than chaebol-affiliation, such as size, profitability and growth opportunity. ©2006 East Asian Economic Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  • 186.
    Kim, K.
    et al.
    Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    University of Kurdistan Hawler, Federal Region of Kurdistan, Kurdistan, Iraq.
    Analysis on the technical efficiency and productivity growth of the Korean cable SOs: A stochastic frontier approach2009In: Productivity, efficiency, and economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region / [ed] Jeong-Dong Lee, Almas Heshmati, Heidelberg: Physica Verlag, 2009, p. 315-339Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cable TV in Korea started in 1995 to provide service of multi-channel broadcasting and this marked the beginning of the new media era as well as the initial launching of video subscription services in Korea. Thereafter, new multimedia broadcasting such as digital satellite broadcasting (DSB) in 2001 and digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB) in 2005 were subsequently introduced. At the early stage of development of the Korean Cable TV industry, operators were separately permitted as program provider (PP), system operator (SO) and network operator (NO). In order to minimize the negative structural effects from belonging to specific companies such as the Press, large conglomerates and so on, they were not allowed to have cross-ownership. As first and second SO licensees, 53 metropolitan-centered SOs and 24 provincial-centered SOs were licensed in 1994 and 1997 respectively. Thereafter, Relay Operator (RO) were two times switched to SO for the revitalization of Cable TV through the unification of the laws and regulations in this industry. ©2009 Physica-Verlag Heidelberg.

  • 187.
    Kim, T. -Y
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742, South Korea.
    Park, J.
    Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742, South Korea.
    Decelerating agricultural society: Theoretical and historical perspectives2010In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 479-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In general, societies are divided into agricultural and industrial types. This study presents theoretical and historical perspectives on decelerating agricultural societies. Agricultural demand and supply play major roles in society development. Three descriptions of an agricultural society and theories of its deceleration patterns are presented: the neo-classical production function, stage theory, and induced innovation. Two important cases of decelerating agricultural societies and their ultimate replacement by industrial societies, medieval Europe and nineteenth- and twentieth-century United States, are examined. The limitations of decelerating agricultural societies with a focus on structural problems, impacts of industrial structure, and problems of agriculture in market and non-market areas, are also discussed. The position of agriculture as described by economic development theory is established by analyzing the stages of economic development, the theory of structural change, and the theory of leading industry. Finally, the transition from an agricultural to a commercial society is described with a focus on the formation, development, value creation, and structural limitations of a commercial society. ©2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 188.
    Kim, Tai-Yoo
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering/Technology Management Economics and Policy Program (TEMEP), Colleage of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of South Korea.
    Economic Growth: The New Perspectives for Theory and Policy2014Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book shows that the existing theories on economic growth have clear limitations in terms of how much they can effectively contribute to actual economic growth. Therefore, this book presents a more effective theory on economic growth for countries and leaders looking to promote economic growth. It is essentially centered around the theory of economic growth and theory of national development, written for agricultural developing countries pursuing industrialization and late-starting industrialized countries pursuing their own development. Nevertheless, it also makes a significant contribution to the very development of human civilization through the growth of developing countries, late-starting industrialized countries and early industrialized countries throughout the world.

  • 189.
    Kim, Tai-Yoo
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul National University.
    Park, Jihyoun
    Seoul National University.
    The Faster Accelerating Knowledge-Based Society2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Economies in knowledge-based societies grow faster than in previous agricultural and industrial societies. This growth is based on the information and communications technology (ICT) development. The production function of ICT industries shows increasing returns to scale. The network effect of ICT development causes increasingly accelerated production and consumption values as the market gets larger in all supply and demand aspects. Thus, ICT development is the fundamental driving force of the faster economic growth, accelerated by increasing returns to scale and the network effect. Early investment in ICT achieves steep economic growth. The definition and characteristics of a knowledge-based society are given, and the nature, causes, and patterns of the faster acceleration of it are explained

  • 190. Kim, Tai-Yoo
    et al.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Park, Jihyun
    Perspectives on the Decelerating Agricultural society2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In general, societies are divided into agricultural and industrial societies. This study presents perspectives on decelerating agricultural societies. Agricultural demand and supply play major roles in the development of societies. Three theories that describe an agricultural society and its deceleration patterns are described: the neo-classical production function and those articulated by Johnston and Mellor as well as induced innovation by Hayami and Ruttan. Two important cases of decelerating agricultural societies, medieval England and the U.S., are investigated through an examination of the process of agricultural society deceleration and ultimate replacement by an industrial society. The limitations of decelerating agricultural societies, with a focus on structural problems,impacts on industrial structure, and problems of agriculture in market and non-market areas, are discussed. The position of agriculture as described by economic development theory is established by analyzing the stages of economic development, the theory ofstructural change, and the theory of leading industry. Finally, the transition from an agricultural to a commercial society is described with a focus on the formation,development, value creation, and structural limitations of a commercial society.

  • 191.
    Kim, Y.
    et al.
    Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, Colleague of Engineering, Seoul National University, Bldg # 37-305-1, 599 Gwanak-ro, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, East Building, 217, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701, South Korea.
    Analysis of Korean IT startups’ initial public offering and their post-IPO performance2010In: Journal of Productivity Analysis, ISSN 0895-562X, E-ISSN 1573-0441, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 133-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the financial crisis in Korea, by focusing on core technology, IT startups have played an important role in the recovery of Korea’s economy through innovating technologies and creating new jobs. Even though there are many startups, it is not very common to reach the point of the initial public offering (IPO) and the post-IPO performance of the firms is mostly declining. Since it is rather difficult to apply conventional performance measures to very young firms, IPO has been used as a tool for performance evaluation. This study adopts the IPO as an early-stage measure for the performance of high technology startups. It is important to find out whether an earlier IPO of firms leads to a better performance and capability of firms. We investigate the relationship between the time to IPO of firms and their post-IPO performance for 3 years after their IPO by adopting samples of 79 information technology hardware firms founded after 1996 and listed between 2000 and 2004 in the KOSDAQ. Four determinant factors, including entrepreneurs’ experience, venture capital investment, startups’ technology sourcing, and technology portfolios which determine the firm’s time lag to getting to the IPO, are identified. The findings contain several results. First, the patent has positive effects on the firms’ performance after an IPO and on the firms’ growth before the IPO. Second, a faster technology acquisition via technology alliance has a positive influence on the firms’ IPO regardless of internal technologies. Third, concentrating on core technology, instead of diversifying can mature the startup firms faster. These indicate that a startup’s efficient initial strategy is critical for its performance and it enhances the credit and confidence of the market. ©2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 192.
    Kim, Yunhee
    et al.
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Engn, Technol Management Econ & Policy Program TEMEP, Seoul 151742, South Korea.
    Lee, Jeong-Dong
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Engn, Technol Management Econ & Policy Program TEMEP, Seoul 151742, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Engn, Technol Management Econ & Policy Program TEMEP, Seoul 151742, South Korea.
    Analysis of Pay Inequality and its Impacts on Growth and Performance in Korean Industry2008In: 2008 KDI-KAEA Conference on Enhancing Productivity and Sustaining Growth, 2008, p. 281-307Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationship among pay inequality, economic growth and innovation in Korea. We estimate pay inequality in Korea’s manufacturing sector using panel-level data for the period 1993 to 2003. The objective is to estimate pay inequality by using Theil’s index and to identify the factors determining pay inequality and find the relationship with economic growth and innovation. We first review changes in industrial trend, production, and investment patterns over the period and how those changes led to the creation of a relative pay inequality between and within regions and sectors. We then compare the annual changes in manufacturing pay inequality and annual GDP growth, finding that the previously stable and negative relationship predicted by Kuznets broke down at the height of the period of structural reform in Korea, giving way to a positive relationship after 1998. On the basis of Theil’s T statistics, results show a positive relationship between firms’ pay inequality and size, location, R&D, export and business sectors. The relation holds even when we control for individual, time period and firm characteristics. The decomposability property of the Theil index enables us to show that manufacturing pay inequality in Korea has risen both across sectors and regions, though more strongly across industrial sectors. Despite controlling for changes in the level of real per capita income, the rise in inequality accelerates in the period following the introduction of reforms. It appears that a large part of rising pay inequality can be attributed to rising relative pay in the ICT sector. The findings support the hypothesis of an “augmented” Kuznets Curve according to which some developed countries are found on an upward-sloping addendum to Kuznets’original formulation.

  • 193.
    Kumbhakar, S. C.
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Texas.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, and the Center for Public Sector Research (CEFOS), University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Efficiency measurement in Swedish dairy farms: an application of rotating panel data, 1976-881995In: American Journal of Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0002-9092, E-ISSN 1467-8276, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 660-674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a new specification of technical inefficiency in panel data models. First, the overall technical inefficiency is decomposed into a persistent component and a residual component. Second, a multistep procedure is used to estimate the parameters of the production function as well as persistent and residual technical inefficiency. The advantage of this multistep procedure is that the parameter estimates are robust to distributional assumptions on the error components. Distributional assumptions are required in the final stage to estimate the residual component of technical inefficiency. The model is used to examine technical efficiency in Swedish dairy farms during the period 1976 to 1988.

  • 194.
    Kumbhakar, S. C.
    et al.
    Department of Economics, State University of New York, Binghamton, NY 13902, United States.
    Heshmati, Almas
    United Nations University (UNU), World Inst. for Devmt. Econ. Res., Katajanokanlaituri 6B, Fin-00160 Helsinki, Finland.
    Hjalmarsson, L.
    Department of Economics, Göteborg University, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    How fast do banks adjust?: A dynamic model of labor-use with an application to Swedish banks2002In: Journal of Productivity Analysis, ISSN 0895-562X, E-ISSN 1573-0441, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 79-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with a dynamic adjustment process in which adjustment of a key variable input (labor) towards its desired level is modeled in a panel data context. The partial adjustment type model is extended to make the adjustment parameter both firm- and time-specific by specifying it as a function of firm- and time-specific variables. Desired level of labor use is represented by a labor requirement function, which is a function of outputs and other firm-specific variables. The catch-up factor is defined as the ratio of actual to desired level of employment. Productivity growth is then defined in terms of a shift in the desired level of labor use and the change in the catch-up factor. Swedish banking data is used as an application of the above model.

  • 195.
    Kumbhakar, S. C.
    et al.
    University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-1173, United States.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Stockholm School of Economics, SE-113 83 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hjalmarsson, L.
    University of Gothenburg, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Parametric approaches to productivity measurement: A comparison among alternative models1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 405-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with modeling total factor productivity (TFP) growth in a flexible manner using panel data. Several competing parametric models are used to explore whether there are any similarities in the estimates of TFP growth and technical change among these models. Using a primal approach, we decompose TFP growth into different components. The models are then used to measure productivity and technical change in the Swedish cement industry. In general, the results are found to be model dependent and often conflicting, although much less so for returns to scale and overall productivity growth.

  • 196.
    Kumbhakar, S. C.
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1172, United States.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economics, Goteborg University, Vasagatan 1, S-411 80 Goteborg, Sweden.
    Hjalmarsson, L.
    Department of Economics, Goteborg University, Vasagatan 1, S-411 80 Goteborg, Sweden.
    Temporal patterns of technical efficiency: Results from competing models1997In: International Journal of Industrial Organization, ISSN 0167-7187, E-ISSN 1873-7986, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 597-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years several models have been proposed to estimate time-varying technical efficiency. These models differ to a great extent in specification and estimation. This paper undertakes a comparison between different specifications proposed in earlier research. The models are used to estimate the technical efficiency of 15 Colombian cement plants observed in the period 1968-1988. The efficiency scores and the time path of efficiency are found to vary substantially across models. ©1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  • 197.
    Lee, J. -D
    et al.
    Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    University of Kurdistan Hawler, Federal Region of Kurdistan, Kurdistan, Iraq.
    Introduction productivity, efficiency, and economic growth in the asia-pacific region2009In: Productivity, efficiency, and economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region / [ed] Jeong-Dong Lee, Almas Heshmati, Heidelberg: Physica Verlag, 2009, p. 1-10Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Productivity growth enables an individual firm to raise profit and market share at the micro level, and it helps a country to counteract inflation, create jobs, and to force the necessary industrial restructuring at the macro level. There is widespread consensus among academic researchers in the field of growth theory, policy makers, and/or businessmen that productivity growth is indispensable to sustainable economic growth. There is no one-size-fits-all solution to improve the productivity, since the ways and means critically depend upon the context and the condition under which firms operate. For example, the strategy for productivity growth in 2000s should be different from that in 1990s, since the parameters forming the economic condition are different and changing. Cross-sectionally, the strategy for automobile industry should not be the same as that for financial institutions, mainly because the production process and industry structure are all different from each other. Thus, the decision maker who is in charge of productivity growth should learn the characteristics of the context, and track down the relevant studies and successful policies that tackle similar sector and/or period. ©2009 Physica-Verlag Heidelberg.

  • 198.
    Lee, J. -D.
    et al.
    Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Heshmati, AlmasUniversity of Kurdistan Hawler, Federal Region of Kurdistan, Kurdistan, Iraq.
    Productivity, efficiency, and economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region2009Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 199.
    Lee, Jeong-Dong
    et al.
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    University of Kurdistan Hawler, Erbil, Iraq.
    Introduction to Special issue on Manufacturing sector productivity growth in the Asia Pacific region2007In: Global Economic Review, ISSN 1226-508X, E-ISSN 1744-3873, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 301-303Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 200.
    Lenz-Cesar, F.
    et al.
    Ministry of Communications, Esplanada dos Ministérios, Bloco R #702, Brasília, DF, Brazil.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, East Building #217, Anam-dong Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713, South Korea.
    An econometric approach to identify determinants of cooperation for innovation among firms2012In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 227-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    R&D cooperation has received great attention among industrialists, decision-makers and researchers. This article introduces an econometric approach for identifying the factors that lead firms to cooperate in order to achieve innovation. The determining factors were defined according to empirical findings from the Korean Innovation Survey (KIS) 2005, captured in a multivariate probit regression model. The aim is to subsidize further research by applying agent-based modelling to simulate innovation networks in the Korean manufacturing sector. ©2012 Taylor & Francis.

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