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  • 151. Rugina, S.
    et al.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Feminist progress or capitalist backlash?2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 152.
    Rugina, Sanita
    et al.
    Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    A discourse analysis of 30 years of research on women’s entrepreneurship in (post)transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Abstract
  • 153.
    Rugina, Sanita
    et al.
    Department of Health Services Research, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    How research positions Central and Eastern European women entrepreneurs: A 30-year discourse analysis2023In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 35, no 3-4, p. 241-263Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses how research on women's entrepreneurship conducted in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) constructs and positions women entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship was illegal under the socialist regimes that governed this area and only began to develop after independence was obtained in the early 1990s. Consequently, research on entrepreneurship, including women's entrepreneurship, is somewhat new to the region. Our discourse analysis of existing research in this area reveals that, despite different historical pathways towards entrepreneurship, normative premises that exist in Western studies on women's entrepreneurship also prevail in scholarship produced in CEE. These normative premises impose dominant constructs and methodologies on entrepreneurship policy and the scholarly community. The discourse analysis identified five positioning constructs of women entrepreneurs, all of which stem from the assumption that women are (essentially) inadequately equipped for entrepreneurship. We discuss the discursive practices that produce these results and suggest ways forward for research on women's entrepreneurship in CEE.

  • 154.
    Rugina, Sanita
    et al.
    Center for Baltic and East European Studies, Södertörn University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Patriarchy repackaged: how a neoliberal economy and conservative gender norms shape entrepreneurial identities in Eastern Europe2024In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 36, no 3-4, p. 266-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using positioning analysis we examine how women entrepreneurs construct their entrepreneurial identities in conversations with journalists. The data consists of every interview with women entrepreneurs in every Latvian monthly women’s magazine over a 30-year period. Eleven countries in Eastern Europe, including Latvia, broke away from the communist regime in the 1990s and embraced neoliberal and entrepreneurial values that rely on the use of agency in a free market and where individuals were considered autonomous agents, no longer constrained by gender inequalities and power imbalances. However, an analysis shows that identity constructions by women entrepreneurs have been built on neo-conservative assumptions regarding gender. The default option expressed in the magazines reveals that entrepreneurship is normatively masculine, and the entrepreneurial identity that is on offer for women is either as a ‘secondary entrepreneur’ or a ‘failed woman’. The post-feminist conception of a woman who can have it all, i.e. both a successful business career and a traditional feminine identity with a happy family life, is absent in the interviews. When neoliberalism entered Latvia and merged with neo-conservative gender roles, a specific Eastern European postfeminist regime emerged where neither entrepreneurship nor structural change can be seen as challenging the prevailing patriarchal gender order.

  • 155.
    Rugina, Sanita
    et al.
    Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Women’s entrepreneurship in Central and Eastern Europe: a 30-year research review and analysis2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 156. Sköld, B.
    et al.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, H.
    Pettersson, K.
    Kvinnors företagande i landsbygdskommuner med fokus på Småland och Öland2018Report (Other academic)
  • 157.
    Tillmar, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Translating feminism in the neoliberal era: Comparing differing Context2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neoliberal political ideas, management methods and ‘entrepreneurialism’ spread globally but are translated differently and have different implications due to contextual variations. This paper sets out to explore contextual variations in implications for women and their entrepreneurship from a feminist perspective. We compare the highly differing contexts of Sweden, known for consistently high rankings on gender equality indices much due to a family- and women friendly welfares state system, and the patriarchal context of East Africa. A mixed methods approach is used including theoretical and policy studies as well as ethnographic and interactive research. The local translations of feminism and entrepreneurialism in the respective contexts are discussed, as well as the relation between feminism and entrepreneurialism. In a stepwise analysis we draw three main conclusions. First, we argue that cut-backs in public spending in the public sector in Sweden have implied a set-back for feminism. Second, we find that entrepreneurialism more clearly empowers women in the studied East African countries, than in Sweden. Our third argument is that the differing outcomes can be traced back to the existence or non-existence of a benevolent, non-corrupt and ‘women-friendly’ state.

  • 158.
    Tillmar, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agriculture.
    Neo-liberalism translated into preconditions for women entrepreneurs – two contrasting cases2022In: Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, ISSN 1750-6204, E-ISSN 1750-6212, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 603-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Contrasting two countries with different gender regimes and welfare states, Sweden and Tanzania, we analyse how the institutional context affects the ways in which a neo-liberal reform agenda is translated into institutional changes and propose how such changes impact the preconditions for women’s entrepreneurship.

    Design/methodology/approach

    We use document analysis and previous studies to describe and analyse the institutions and the institutional changes. We use Scandinavian institutional theory as our interpretative framework.

    Findings

    We propose that: 1) In well-developed welfare states with a high level of gender equality, consequences of neo-liberal agenda for the preconditions for women entrepreneurs are more likely to be negative than positive. 2) In less developed states with a low level of gender equality, the gendered consequences of neo-liberal reforms may be mixed and the preconditions for women’s entrepreneurship more positive than negative. 3) How neo-liberalism impacts preconditions for women entrepreneurs depends on the institutional framework in terms of a trustworthy women-friendly state and level of gender equality.

    Originality

    We demonstrate why any discussion of the impact of political or economic reforms on women’s entrepreneurship must take a country’s specific institutional context into account. Further, previous studies on neo-liberalism have rarely taken an interest in Africa.

    Research limitations/implications

    The study calls for bringing the effects on gender of the neo-liberal primacy of market solutions out of the black box. Studying how women entrepreneurs perceive these effects necessitates qualitative ethnographic data.

  • 159.
    Tillmar, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agriculture.
    The gendered effects of entrepreneurialism in contrasting contexts2022In: Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, ISSN 1750-6204, E-ISSN 1750-6212, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 808-828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Contrasting Sweden and Tanzania, we explore the experiences of women entrepreneurs affected by entrepreneurialism. We discuss the impact on their position in society and on their ability to take feminist action.

    Design/methodology/approach

    We analysed interviews conducted in the two countries over 15 years, using a holistic perspective on context, including its gendered dimensions.

    Findings

    Our results amount to a critique of entrepreneurialism. Women in Sweden did not experience much gain from entrepreneurship, while in Tanzania results were mixed. Entrepreneurialism seems unable to improve the situation for women in the relatively well-functioning economies in the global north, where it was designed.

    Originality

    The paper adds to the understanding of context in entrepreneurship studies: Africa is largely an underexplored continent, and contrasting North and South is an underexplored methodological approach. We further extend and develop the model of gendered contexts developed by Welter et al. (2014).

    Research implications

    In mainstream entrepreneurship studies, there is a focus on the institutional context. From our analysis, it is apparent that equal attention must be given to the social and spatial contexts since they may have severe material and economic consequences for entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship. The paper raises questions for further studies on the gendering of markets in different contexts, as well as questions on the urban-rural dimension.

    Policy implications

    In Sweden, marketisation of welfare services led to more women-owned businesses, but the position of women did not improve. Our results strongly convey the need for a careful analysis of the preexisting context, before initiating reforms.

  • 160.
    Tillmar, Malin
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Sköld, Birgitta
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversietet.
    Women’s businesses for rural economic growth and gender equality – data from a welfare state2019In: FALF Konferens 2019, Hållbar utveckling i organisationer: Book of abstracts, HELIX Competence Centre , 2019, p. 59-60Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 161.
    Tillmar, Malin
    et al.
    Organization and Entrepreneruship, School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Sköld, Birgitta
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Women's rural businesses: for economic viability or gender equality? – a database study from the Swedish context2022In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 323-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to explore and discuss to what extent and why women's entrepreneurship contributes to rural economic viability and gender equality in an advanced welfare state.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The authors use detailed register data to explore men's and women's rural businesses in the most common industries for rural women entrepreneurs in the Swedish welfare state. Based on a literature review, the authors develop hypotheses and analyse how family, business and industry factors influence earnings.

    Findings

    Women's rural entrepreneurship is important for rural viability, as women's businesses provide a wide range of services necessary for life in rural areas. Although women's rural businesses are not significantly smaller than those of men, women's income is lower and more sensitive to business and industry variables. Marriage has positive effects for the earnings of men but negative effects for the earnings of women. The authors argue that the results are contingent on the gendering of entrepreneurship and industries, as well as on the local rural gender contracts. For these reasons, the importance of women entrepreneurs for rural viability is not reflected in their own incomes. Hence, women's rural entrepreneurship does not result in (economic) gender equality.

    Originality/value

    Entrepreneurship scholars rarely explore women's rural entrepreneurship, and particularly not in the Global North or Western welfare states. Therefore, this empirical study from Sweden provides novel information on how the gender order on the business, industry and family levels influences the income of men and women entrepreneurs differently.

1234 151 - 161 of 161
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Cite
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  • nn-NO
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