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  • 151.
    Larsson, Helena
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Lundberg, Catarina
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Johansson, Kurt
    A Swedish Survey of Occupational Therapists' Involvement and Performance in Driving Assessments2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 215-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which occupational therapists (OTs) are involved in driving assessments in Sweden and how these assessments are performed. A questionnaire was sent to 154 geriatric, rehabilitation, and neurological clinics, and additionally directly to 19 OTs who had purchased a test battery specifically used for driving assessments. The response rate was 60%. Of those responding, 57% reported being involved in fitness-to-drive assessments. However, such assessments were carried out in various manners and diverse methods were used, ranging from unstandardized activity assessments to a test developed specifically for driving assessments. Only 19% used on-road driving tests as a complement to the clinical assessments. Apart from the lack of appropriate methods, the respondents said that they did not have sufficient knowledge to perform driving assessments and expressed a need for further education. In the future it seems necessary for OTs in Sweden to undergo specialized training and perform the assessments on a regular basis to maintain a high level of competence as driving assessors.

  • 152.
    Lee, H
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Cordell, R
    Granger, A
    Vieira, B
    Lee, A
    Validity of driving Simulator in Assessing Drivers with Parkinson Disease2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 153. Lee, H
    et al.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Rosenwax, L
    Cordell, R
    Granger, A
    Vieria, B
    Lee, A
    Validity of Driving Simulator in Assessing Drivers with Parkinson's Disease2007In: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. Special issue, p. 81-90Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 154.
    Lee, Hoe Chung-Yeung
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Flavell, Helen
    Faculty of Health Science, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Parsons, Dave
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Developing agentic learners for 21st century practice: A pedagogic approach in occupational therapy2016In: Journal of Allied Health, ISSN 0090-7421, E-ISSN 1945-404X, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 8-13aArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an approach to teaching occupational therapy students how to create orthoses, whilst at the same time developing higher-order critical thinking, reflective, and clinical reasoning skills is described. The scaffolded nature of the learning activities, incorporating Kolb's reflective learning cycle, was used to support students' capacity for clinical reasoning and better prepare them for clinical placement. The peer-assessment element was also designed to support the experiential learning by allowing students to test their evaluation of hand orthoses, compare their assessment with an expert's, and identify areas for improvement. Students who demonstrated higher grades for the written reflection assessment showed better agreement with the experts (smaller bias, p<0.01). This study concluded there was a correlation between students' capacity for reflective thinking and the development of clinical reasoning. Furthermore, the reflective writing exercise encouraged students to generalise their skills beyond the classroom. The approach and findings of this study are relevant to a range of allied health professions through providing a process to support the development of higherorder critical thinking, reflection, and reasoning skills. Furthermore, the study provides an evidence base to demonstrate that higher reflective skill capacity and critical thinking are crucial to creating agentic learners.

  • 155.
    Lee, Wee Lih
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, AustraliaDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Works, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Leung, Yee Hong
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Single-trial event-related potential extraction through one-unit ICA-with-reference2016In: Journal of Neural Engineering, ISSN 1741-2560, E-ISSN 1741-2552, Vol. 13, no 6, article id 066010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. In recent years, ICA has been one of the more popular methods for extracting event-related potential (ERP) at the single-trial level. It is a blind source separation technique that allows the extraction of an ERP without making strong assumptions on the temporal and spatial characteristics of an ERP. However, the problem with traditional ICA is that the extraction is not direct and is time-consuming due to the need for source selection processing. In this paper, the application of an one-unit ICA-with-Reference (ICA-R), a constrained ICA method, is proposed.

    Approach. In cases where the time-region of the desired ERP is known a priori, this time information is utilized to generate a reference signal, which is then used for guiding the one-unit ICA-R to extract the source signal of the desired ERP directly.

    Main results. Our results showed that, as compared to traditional ICA, ICA-R is a more effective method for analysing ERP because it avoids manual source selection and it requires less computation thus resulting in faster ERP extraction.

    Significance. In addition to that, since the method is automated, it reduces the risks of any subjective bias in the ERP analysis. It is also a potential tool for extracting the ERP in online application.

  • 156.
    Leung, Denise
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Ordqvist, Anna
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University & Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, UHL, County Council, Linköping, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Parsons, Rickard
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Facial emotion recognition and visual search strategies of children with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome2013In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 833-844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adults with high functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger syndrome (AS) are often less able to identify facially expressed emotions than their matched controls. However, results regarding emotion recognition abilities in children with HFA/AS remain equivocal. Emotion recognition ability and visual search strategies of 26 children with HFA/AS and matched controls were compared. An eye tracker measured the number of fixations and fixation durations as participants were shown 12 pairs of slides, displaying photos of faces expressing anger, happiness or surprise. The first slide of each pair showed a face broken up into puzzle pieces. The eyes in half of the puzzle piece slides were bisected, while those in the remaining half were whole. Participants then identified which of three alternative faces was expressing the same emotion shown in the preceding puzzle piece slide. No differences between the participant groups were found for either emotion recognition ability or number of fixations. Both groups fixated more often on the eyes and performed better when the eyes were whole, suggesting that both children with HFA/AS and controls consider the eyes to be the most important source of information during emotion recognition. Fixation durations were longer in the group with HFA/AS, which indicates that while children with HFA/AS may be able to accurately recognise emotions, they find the task more demanding.

  • 157.
    Lim, Yi Huey
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe C.
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Allison, Garry T.
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Lee, Wee Lih
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Morris, Susan L.
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Effect of optic flow on postural control in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder2018In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 393, p. 138-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been associated with sensorimotor difficulties, commonly presented by poor postural control. Postural control is necessary for all motor behaviors. However, findings concerning the effect of visual motion on postural control and the age progression of postural control in individuals with ASD are inconsistent. The aims of the present study were to examine postural responses to optic flow in children and adults with and without ASD, postural responses to optic flow in the central and peripheral visual fields, and the changes in postural responses between the child and adult groups. Thirty-three children (8–12 years old) and 33 adults (18–50 years old) with and without ASD were assessed on quiet standing for 60 seconds under conditions of varying optic flow illusions, consisting of different combinations of optic flow directions and visual field display. The results showed that postural responses to most optic flow conditions were comparable between children with and without ASD and between adults with and without ASD. However, adults with ASD appeared more responsive to forward-moving optic flow in the peripheral visual field compared with typically developed adults. The findings suggest that children and adults with ASD may not display maladaptive postural responses all the time. In addition, adults in the ASD group may have difficulties prioritizing visual information in the central visual field over visual information in the peripheral visual field when in unfamiliar environments, which may have implications in understanding their motor behaviors in new surroundings. 

  • 158.
    Lim, Yi Huey
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe C.
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Allison, Garry T.
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Lee, Wee Lih
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Morris, Susan L.
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Effect of visual information on postural control in adults with autism spectrum disorder2018In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensory processing difficulties affect the development of sensorimotor skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the effect of sensory information on postural control is unclear in the ASD adult population. The present study examined the effect of visual information on postural control as well as the attentional demands associated with postural control in fourteen adults with ASD and seventeen typically developed adults. The results showed that postural sway and attention demands of postural control were larger in adults with ASD than in typically developed adults. These findings indicate that visual processing used for postural control may be different in adults with ASD. Further research in visual field processing and visual motion processing may elucidate these sensorimotor differences.

  • 159. Lövgren, A.
    et al.
    Rydh, C.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Peters, B.
    The Role of Occupational Therapists in the Automobility Process2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 160.
    McAuliffe, Tomomi
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Thomas, Yvonne
    Allied Health and Social Sciences, Institute of Health & Society, University of Worcester, Worcester, UK.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Quality of Life, Coping Styles, Stress Levels, and Time Use in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Comparing Single Versus Coupled Households2017In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 47, no 10, p. 3189-3203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to examine the influence of differences in household status on the parental stress, coping, time use and quality of life (QoL) among mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders. Forty-three single and 164 coupled mothers completed the survey. Data were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. We found that single mothers were 1.05 times more likely to report lower levels of environmental QoL. Whilst they were 1.73 times more likely to use acceptance coping style, this association did not persist after adjusting for total number of children, household income and employment status. There was no difference in time use and stress between these mothers. Possible environmental issues for single mothers and implications for future research are discussed.

  • 161.
    McAuliffe, Tomomi
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila Vaz
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    A comparison of families of children with autism spectrum disorders in family daily routines, service usage, and stress levels by regionality2017In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, no 8, p. 483-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To explore whether family routines, service usage, and stress levels in families of children with autism spectrum disorder differ as a function of regionality.

    Methods: Secondary analysis of data was undertaken from 535 surveys. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate differences between families living in densely populated (DP) areas and less densely populated (LDP) areas.

    Results: Families living in LDP areas were found to: (1) have reduced employment hours (a two-parent household: Exp (B) = 3.48, p < .001, a single-parent household: Exp (B) = 3.32, p = .011); (2) travel greater distance to access medical facilities (Exp (B) = 1.27, p = .006); and (3) report less severe stress levels (Exp (B) = 0.22, p = .014).

    Conclusions: There were no differences in family routines; however, flexible employment opportunities and travel distance to medical services need to be considered in families living in LDP areas. 

  • 162. Middelton, H
    et al.
    Breker, SM
    Henriksson, P
    Rothermel, S
    Falkmer, T
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    The situation of ageing drivers: what older drivers tell us and what accident data reveal.2006In: Geriatrica Y Gerontologica, Vol. 38, no Supp 1, p. 139-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 163.
    Middleton, H
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Breker, S
    Rothermel, S
    Henriksson, P
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    The situation of ageing: what older persons tell us and accident data reveal2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 164. Middleton, H
    et al.
    Westwood, D
    Robson, J
    Henriksson, P
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Sirén, A
    Inventory of assessment and decision criteria for elderly drivers, including particular age-related disabilities2003Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 165.
    Milbourn, Ben
    et al.
    Curtin Univ, CHIRI, Sch Occupat Therapy & Social Work, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Curtin Univ, CHIRI, Sch Occupat Therapy & Social Work, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Black, Melissa H.
    Curtin Univ, CHIRI, Sch Occupat Therapy & Social Work, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin Univ, CHIRI, Sch Occupat Therapy & Social Work, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin Univ, CHIRI, Sch Occupat Therapy & Social Work, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Horlin, Chiara
    Curtin Univ, CHIRI, Sch Occupat Therapy & Social Work, Perth, WA, Australia.
    An exploration of the experience of parents with children with autism spectrum disorder after diagnosis and intervention2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, E-ISSN 2245-8875, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 104-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delays and difficulties in both diagnosis and access to services can compound existing stressors experienced by families with children with autism spectrum disorder Early and accurate diagnosis and appropriate intervention may not only improve child-specific outcomes but may also mitigate some of the stressors impacting family relationships and quality of life. We aimed to understand the experience of over 500 families that had sought autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and intervention, their perceptions of the efficacy of these services, and the impact that this process had on their family life. Parents overwhelmingly described frustration with access to a timely diagnosis, specialized intervention services, and funding that impacted their family life and relationships. However, parents simultaneously reported positive perceptions of change as a consequence of diagnosis and effective intervention.

  • 166.
    Murray, Nina
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Hatfield, Megan
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Evaluation of career planning tools for use with individuals with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review2016In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 23, p. 188-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This systematic review aimed to identify tools published in peer reviewed journals that could be utilised in career planning for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and to describe their clinical utility and psychometric properties. Due to limited results for ASD-specific tools, the search was broadened to career planning tools for individuals with a cognitive or developmental disability, which could be used by individuals with ASD. Six databases were electronically searched. Main search terms used were 'disability', 'young adult', 'assessment' and 'employment'. Boolean operators expanded the search strategy. Two independent reviewers undertook data extraction and quality assessment. Electronic searches located 2348 literature items; 14 articles met inclusion criteria covering 10 career planning tools. Identified tools were of a predictive nature; however, none of the studies assessed all the psychometric properties necessary for evaluating a sound predictive tool. Only one addressed all three components of clinical utility. None of the identified tools had strong reliability or validity and their clinical utility remains unexplored. 

  • 167. Nalmpantis, D
    et al.
    Naniopoulos, A
    Bekiaris, A
    Panou, M
    Gregersen, NP
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    "TRAINER" project: pilot applications for the evaluation of new driver training technologies.2005In: Traffic and transport psychology: theory and application : proceedings of the ICTTP 2004, Amsterdam, London: Elsevier , 2005, p. 141-156Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 168. Nilsson, L
    et al.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Samuelsson, S
    Drivers' ability to acquire in-car information presented in the peripheral field of view without fixating: a simulator study1999In: Vision in Vehicles VII, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science , 1999, p. 83-91Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Ordqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Rehabilitation Medicine Department of Medicine and Health Sciences Linköping University and Pain and Rehabilitation Centre Linköping, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    Shipping and Marine Technology Human Factors Chalmers University of Technology Göteborg, Sweden.
    Leung, Denise
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Department of Education, Municipality Council of Norrköping.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Fleischer, Håkan
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Teaching and Learning Language, Literature and Media. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work Curtin University, Australia Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. La Trobe University School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Information and repetition change children's visual strategies when viewing magic tricks with and without gaze cues2013In: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 116, no 1, p. 144-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaze cues and direct gaze attract visual attention. However, few studies have explored visual cues in children within realistic contexts. The effect of information and repetitive stimulus presentation has not been thoroughly studied with dynamic stimuli. The aim of the present study was to investigate how information affects the visual strategies of children measured by the number of fixations on certain areas of interest and their durations. Furthermore, this study examined the effect of gaze cues and direct gaze. In two consecutive experiments, children’s visual strategies when viewing magic tricks were measured by an eye tracker. Gaze cues were only present in Experiment 1.The results showed that repetitive stimulus presentation and information caused children to change their visual strategies when viewing magic tricks with and without gaze cues. However, the effect was larger when the gaze cues were not present. These findings in children were similar to those in adults.

  • 170.
    Palmer, Kristy
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Associations between exposure to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and reported discomfort among adolescents2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 165-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are common among adolescents in their daily activities. Exposure to ICT has been associated with discomfort and musculoskeletal disorders in adults, with growing concern about the potential risks to children and adolescents' physical health. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to (i) quantify self-reported discomfort and exposure to ICT among adolescents; and (ii) determine if associations exist between discomfort and levels of exposure. PARTICIPANTS: The participant group comprised 33 Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. METHODS: The study used self-reports by participants for a one week period. Intensity and location of discomfort was reported via a written discomfort log. ICT exposure and physical activity were reported through an electronic time-use diary. RESULTS: The most common ICT types reported by participants were television, mobile phones and desktop and laptop computers. Discomfort was reported by 86% of participants. The most frequently reported areas were the legs, head/neck, back and shoulders. There was no statistical association found between ICT exposure and discomfort. The majority of participants exceeded the recommended 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: High exposure to ICT and high prevalence of low level discomfort was reported by the participants. Participating in regular physical activity may have some protective effect against ICT-related discomfort.

  • 171. Panou, M.
    et al.
    Bekiaris, E.
    Dols, J. F
    Knoll, C.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Novice drivers' training in ADAS HMI: the TRAINER results.2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 172. Peters, B
    et al.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Bekiaris, A
    Sommer, S
    Stankus, S
    Varoneckas, G
    Consensus networking for assessment of fitness to drive for drivers with disabilities in the European Union2004In: Sveikatos mokslai, ISSN 1392-6373, Vol. 6, no 37, p. 19-23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 173. Petzäll, J
    et al.
    Albertsson, P
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Björnstig, U
    Wind Forces and Aerodynamics: Contributing Factors to Compromise Bus and Coach Safety2005In: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 435-444Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 174. Petzäll, J
    et al.
    Torlund, P-Å
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Albertsson, P
    Björnstig, U
    Aerodynamic design of high-sided coaches to reduce cross-wind sensitivity, based on wind tunnel tests2008In: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 185-194Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 175.
    Rogerson, Jessica M.
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
    Cuomo, Belinda M.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
    Whitehouse, Andrew Jo
    Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia.
    Granich, Joanna
    Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
    Parental experiences using the Therapy Outcomes by You (TOBY) application to deliver early intervention to their child with autism2019In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 219-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSEAs computer-based interventions become commonplace for parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders, this study sought to understand the experience of using a parent-delivered supplementary early intervention therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder grounded in a variety of behavioral, sensory, developmental, and relationship-based approaches and delivered via a tablet device.

    METHODSParental experiences using the 'Therapy Outcomes by You' (TOBY) application were collected through semi-structured interviews with 17 parents.

    RESULTSParents reported TOBY facilitated parent-child engagement, provided ideas for therapeutic activities, created feelings of empowerment, and positively impacted their child's development. Barriers to use included preparation time, execution of the intervention, and individual strengths and weaknesses of their child.

    CONCLUSIONThe overall parental experience of TOBY was positive when use of the application aligned with parental proficiency, opportunities for use, and importantly, the needs of the child.

  • 176.
    Scott, Melissa
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Girdler, Sonya
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Evaluating the effectiveness of an autism-specific workplace tool for employers: A randomised controlled trial2018In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 3377-3392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A randomised controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of the Integrated Employment Success Tool (IEST™) in improving employers’ self-efficacy in modifying the workplace for individuals on the autism spectrum. Employers (N = 84) were randomised to the IEST™ or support as usual groups. Measurements of self-efficacy, knowledge and attitudes towards disability in the workplace were obtained at baseline and post-test. Results revealed a significant improvement in self-efficacy within the IEST™ group between baseline and post-test (p = 0.016). At post-test, there were no significant differences between groups in relation to self-efficacy in implementing autism-specific workplace modifications and employer attitudes towards disability in the workplace. Given the lack of significant outcomes, further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of the IEST™ for employers. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry #ACTRN12614000771651, registered 21/7/2014. Trial URLhttps://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=366699. 

  • 177.
    Scott, Melissa
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Jacob, Andrew
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Hendrie, Delia
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Benefits and costs of employing an adult with Autism Spectrum Disorder2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 178.
    Selander, Helena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Bolin, Ingrid
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Does Automatic Transmission Improve Driving Behavior in Older Drivers?2012In: Gerontology, ISSN 0304-324X, E-ISSN 1423-0003, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 181-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Most older drivers continue to drive as they age. To maintain safe and independent transport, mobility is important for all individuals, but especially for older drivers.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate whether automatic transmission, compared with manual transmission, may improve the driving behavior of older drivers.

    Method: In total, 31 older drivers (mean age 75.2 years) and 32 younger drivers – used as a control group (mean age 39.2 years) – were assessed twice on the same fixed route; once in a car with manual transmission and once in a car with automatic transmission. The cars were otherwise identical. The driving behavior was assessed with the Ryd On-Road Assessment driving protocol. Time to completion of left turns (right-hand side driving) and the impact of a distraction task were measured.

    Results: The older group had more driving errors than the younger group, in both the manual and the automatic transmission car. However, and contrary to the younger drivers, automatic transmission improved the older participants’ driving behavior as demonstrated by safer speed adjustment in urban areas, greater maneuvering skills, safer lane position and driving in accordance with the speed regulations.

    Conclusion: Switching to automatic transmission may be recommended for older drivers as a means to maintain safe driving and thereby the quality of their transport mobility.

  • 179. Selander, Helena
    et al.
    Johansson, Kurt
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Catarina
    Karolinska University Hospital, Traffic Medicine Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    The Nordic Stroke Driver Screening Assessment as predictor for the outcome of an on-road test.2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 10-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of the cognitive test battery Nordic Stroke Driver Screening Assessment (NorSDSA) has increased, sometimes as a stand-alone test to evaluate fitness to drive, also for non-stroke patients such as patients suffering from cognitive deficits/dementia, approaches that may be questioned. The objective of the study was to determine whether the NorSDSA could predict an on-road test result, for large sets of stroke ( n=74) and cognitive deficits/dementia participants ( n=116), respectively. The percentage of correctly classified was 62% for the stroke group and 50% for the cognitive deficits/dementia group. A discriminant analysis with pass/fail on the on-road test as grouping variable could classify 62% of the stroke participants and the cognitive deficit/dementia participants. Hence, the NorSDSA could not predict the outcome of the on-road test. Therefore, NorSDSA should not be used as a stand-alone test to determine the fitness to drive of individual participants. Also, its use with participants suffering from cognitive deficits/dementia appears to be less successful than for clients with stroke.

  • 180.
    Selander, Helena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Lee, Hoe
    Johansson, Kurt
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Older drivers: On-road and off-road test results2011In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 1348-1354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eighty-five volunteer drivers, 65–85 years old, without cognitive impairments impacting on their driving were examined, in order to investigate driving errors characteristic for older drivers. In addition, any relationships between cognitive off-road and on-road tests results, the latter being the gold standard, were identified. Performance measurements included Trail Making Test (TMT), Nordic Stroke Driver Screening Assessment (NorSDSA), Useful Field of View (UFOV), self-rating driving performance and the two on-road protocols P-Drive and ROA. Some of the older drivers displayed questionable driving behaviour. In total, 21% of the participants failed the on-road assessment. Some of the specific errors were more serious than others. The most common driving errors embraced speed; exceeding the speed limit or not controlling the speed. Correlations with the P-Drive protocol were established for NorSDSA total score (weak), UFOV subtest 2 (weak), and UFOV subtest 3 (moderate). Correlations with the ROA protocol were established for UFOV subtest 2 (weak) and UFOV subtest 3 (weak). P-Drive and self ratings correlated weakly, whereas no correlation between self ratings and the ROA protocol was found. The results suggest that specific problems or errors seen in an older person's driving can actually be “normal driving behaviours”.

  • 181.
    Sim, Angela
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Perth, Western Australia, Australia and La Trobe University, Australia and Linköping University, Sweden.
    Relationship Satisfaction and Dyadic Coping in Couples with a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder2017In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 47, no 11, p. 3562-3573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dyadic coping strategies may play a pivotal role in relationship satisfaction and explain why some couples adapt positively to the challenges associated with raising a child with ASD and others do not. Survey data from 127 caregivers of a child with ASD were used in generalized estimating equation analyses to investigate the factors associated with relationship satisfaction, including socio-demographics, parenting stress and dyadic coping. Results showed that over two-thirds of the sample reported satisfaction, which was associated with low parenting stress, increased use of positive and decreased use of negative dyadic coping strategies. Positive dyadic coping was found to have a greater influence than negative dyadic coping, supporting a strengths-based approach to interventions promoting family resilience.

  • 182.
    Sim, Angela
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Relationship satisfaction in couples raising a child with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review of the literature2016In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 31, p. 30-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Couples raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face challenges that may impact on their relationship. The purpose of this review was to compare relationship satisfaction in couples raising children with and without ASD and to identify factors associated with satisfaction in couples with a child with ASD.

    Methods Thirteen databases were searched and studies were systematically screened against predetermined inclusion criteria. Twenty six articles, ranging from good to strong methodological quality, met the criteria for inclusion. Of these, seven were included in a meta-analysis comparing relationship satisfaction in couples raising a child with ASD with couples raising children without disabilities.

    Results The meta-analysis showed that couples raising a child with ASD were found to experience less relationship satisfaction than couples raising a child without a disability (Hedges's g = 0.41, p < 0.001); however, evidence from the narrative synthesis was mixed when compared with couples raising children with other disabilities. The most consistent evidence implicated challenging child behaviours, parental stress and poor psychological wellbeing as risk factors, and positive cognitive appraisal and social support as protective factors.

    Conclusion Findings demonstrate that couples raising a child with ASD would benefit from support to assist them in maintaining satisfaction in their relationship with their partner. However, further studies are needed to gain a greater understanding of the risk and protective factors and how these co-vary with relationship satisfaction over time. A theoretical framework has been developed to scaffold future research. 

  • 183.
    Sim, Angela
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Netto, Julie
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Perth, Western Australia, Australia and La Trobe University, Australia and Linköping University, Sweden.
    Factors associated with negative co-parenting experiences in families of a child with autism spectrum disorder2017In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 83-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify key factors associated with negative co-parenting experiences in parents raising a child with autism spectrum disorder. Methods: Questionnaires were sent to families with one or more children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Parents of 142 children with autism spectrum disorder indicated that the diagnosis had a very negative impact on their co-parent relationship. A multivariate logistic regression model was run to analyze the association of these experiences with various demographic, family and community factors. Results: Three factors were associated with negative co-parenting relationships: (1) family stress due to the child’s diagnosis, (2) effects of the diagnosis on parents’ relationship with their other children and (3) distance travelled to the nearest medical facility. Conclusions: Findings highlight the need to further explore family dynamics, particularly the relationships between the co-parenting alliance, other family members and the extra-familial environment.

  • 184.
    Sim, Angela
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Fristedt, Sofi
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. IMPROVE (Improvement, innovation, and leadership in health and welfare).
    Cordier, Reinie
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Kuzminski, Rebecca
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Viewpoints on what is important to maintain relationship satisfaction in couples raising a child with autism spectrum disorder2019In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 65, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Despite the challenges associated with raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), many couples maintain satisfying relationships. However, it is not clear which factors couples prioritise as most important to this positive adaptation. Methods This study used Q-methodology to explore the viewpoints on factors most important to maintaining relationship satisfaction from the perspective of those experiencing it. Data from 43 caregivers raising a child with ASD were analysed using by-person varimax rotation factor analysis. Results Two key viewpoints were identified: 1) Building effective communication through openness, honesty and conflict resolution, and 2) Building a strong partnership by sharing parenting responsibilities. Conclusion Couples should be supported to strengthen communication processes and work in partnership to raise their child with ASD through family-centred interventions aimed at promoting relationship satisfaction.

  • 185.
    Sim, Angela
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Joosten, Annette
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Parsons, Dave
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Smith, Cally
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Perth, Western Australia, Australia and La Trobe University, Australia and Linköping University, Sweden.
    Factors associated with stress in families of children with autism spectrum disorder2018In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify key factors associated with severe stress in families raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Questionnaires were mailed to families with one or more children with a diagnosis of ASD. Data from 543 surveys were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Forty-four percent (n = 241) of the caregivers reported severe family stress related to raising a child with ASD. Severe family stress was associated with (1) reduced ability to socialize; (2) not having accessed individual therapy; (3) negative co-parent relationships; and (4) high out of pockets costs due to the child’s ASD. The specific ASD diagnosis, comorbid conditions, socio-demographic variables, and social support were not associated with severe family stress. Conclusion: The findings of the current study highlight the importance of a systemic approach to family stress, whereby individual, family, and ecological factors are investigated.

  • 186.
    Sjödin, Linda
    et al.
    Paediatric Clinic, Landstinget Kronoberg, SE, Ljungby, Sweden.
    Buchanan, Angus
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Mundt, Beate
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Karlsson, Emelie
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Do vehicle grants and vehicle adaptations grants promote transport mobility and community access for children with disabilities in Sweden?2012In: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, ISSN 0045-0766, E-ISSN 1440-1630, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 10-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/AIM: A vast majority of the journeys made by children with disabilities in Sweden are in the family car, which usually is bought and adapted for the child with governmental subsidies. Despite the important philosophical views about accessible vehicles, little is known about the impact of vehicle adaptations on families' lives. The aim of the study was to investigate parent views about the impact of vehicle grants and vehicle adaptation grants on their children's transport mobility and community access.

    METHODS: In total, 434 parents of children with disabilities in Sweden who had received vehicle grants and/or vehicle adaptation grants between 1998-2007 responded to a questionnaire comprising questions with both pre-selected and open-ended answers. A non-responder analysis was performed.

    RESULTS: Children with disabilities were found to increase their transport mobility and community access in society as vehicle grants and/or vehicle adaptation grants were given to their parents. Their travel patterns and their travel priorities with their family car indicated that family friends and relatives and leisure activities were frequently visited and prioritised destinations. The grants were linked to access to social and family activities, provided environmental gains and led to increased experienced security. The results also showed that the potential to make spontaneous trips had increased substantially and that families experienced feelings of freedom and enhanced community access. The non-responder analysis confirmed these results.

    CONCLUSIONS: According to parents, vehicle grants and vehicle adaptation grants for children with disabilities have a positive impact on the children's transport mobility and community access.

  • 187. Sjörs, Anna
    et al.
    Larsson, Britt
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Physiological responses to low-force work and psychosocial stress in women with chronic trapezius myalgia.2009In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 10, p. 63-78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 188. Sommer, S M
    et al.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Bekiaris, A
    Panou, M
    Toward a Client-Centred Approach to Fitness-to-Drive Assessment in Elderly Drivers.2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 62-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 189. Sun, Q.
    et al.
    Xia, J.
    Foster, J.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Australia.
    Lee, H.
    Pursuing Precise Vehicle Movement Trajectory in Urban Residential Area Using Multi-GNSS RTK Tracking2017In: Transportation Research Procedia, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 25, p. 2361-2376Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Close-to-reality vehicle movement trajectory data can be useful in many transport and geography studies when precise vehicle localization or timing is required in the application. Vehicle kinematic tracking by GPS (Global Positioning System) varies in the data accuracy depending on some factors such as the receiver capability, satellites availability. Nevertheless, advanced positioning techniques offer possibilities to enhance the tracking data quality. In this paper, the high performance of multi-GNSS (multiple Global Navigation Satellite Systems) with Real-time Kinematic (RTK) solution was investigated aiming to pursue precise vehicle movement trajectory in an urban residential area of Australia. We systematically compared vehicle kinematic recordings between different positioning solutions by multi-GNSS and GPS-only approaches. Different elevation cut-off angles ranging from 5 - 35° were applied to simulate satellites' availability in different sky view conditions. The results showed that the multi-GNSS approach outperformed conventional GPS positioning in availability and positioning accuracy, and RTK solution at 10Hz generated ideal vehicle movement trajectory suitable for driving behaviours studies.

  • 190.
    Sun, Qian C.
    et al.
    Geospatial Science, School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Xia, Jianhong C.
    School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Foster, Jonathan
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    A psycho-Geoinformatics approach for investigating older adults’ driving behaviours and underlying cognitive mechanisms2018In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Safe driving constantly challenges the driver’s ability to respond to the dynamic traffic scene under space and time constraints. It is of particular importance for older drivers to perform sufficient visual and motor actions with effective coordination due to the fact of age-related cognitive decline. However, few studies have been able to integrate drivers’ visual-motor behaviours with environmental information in a spatial-temporal context and link to the cognitive conditions of individual drivers. Little is known about the mechanisms that underpin the deterioration in visual-motor coordination of older drivers.

    Development: Based on a review of driving-related cognitive decline in older adults and the context of driver-vehicle-environment interactions, this paper established a conceptual framework to identify the parameters of driver’s visual and motor behaviour, and reveal the cognitive process from visual search to vehicle control in driving. The framework led to a psycho-geoinformatics approach to measure older drivers’ driving behaviours and investigate the underlying cognitive mechanisms. The proposed data collection protocol and the analysis and assessments depicted the psycho-geoinformatics approach on obtaining quantified variables and the key means of analysis, as well as outcome measures.

    Conclusions: Recordings of the driver and their interactions with the vehicle and environment at a detailed scale give a closer assessment of the driver’s behaviours. Using geoinformatics tools in driving behaviours assessment opens a new era of research with many possible analytical options, which do not have to rely on human observations. Instead, it receives clear indicators of the individual drivers’ interactions with the vehicle and the traffic environment. This approach should make it possible to identify lower-performing older drivers and problematic visual and motor behaviours, and the cognitive predictors of risky driving behaviours. A better targeted regulation and tailored intervention programs for older can be developed by further research. 

  • 191.
    Sun, Qian C.
    et al.
    School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University, Australia.
    Xia, Jianhong C.
    Department of Spatial Sciences, Curtin University, Australia.
    Foster, Jonathan
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Australia.
    Driving manoeuvre during lane maintenance in older adults: Associations with neuropsychological scores2018In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 53, p. 117-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older drivers experience difficulties in lane maintenance under challenging driving sections due to age-related cognitive declines, yet there is little comprehensive evidence on associations between cognitive functions and the lane maintenance in this population. In this study, fifty older drivers completed an on-road driving assessment and a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Mean Lane Position (MLP), Standard Deviation of Lane Position (SDLP) and manoeuvre time calculated from precise vehicle movement trajectories were used as the lane maintenance parameters. The GNSS tracking vehicle movement presents comprehensive and reliable vehicle position data, which is more sensitive for detecting subtle variations of lane maintenance in older drivers. Statistical analysis results show that lower visual attention (selective and divided attention) was associated with higher MLP and SDLP; MLP was also correlated to spatial abilities, executive function, and motor speed; manoeuvre time was negatively correlated with drivers’ risk-taking personality (all p <.01). Selective attention was found to be the best predictor of MLP in lane maintenance. A combined eight variables from three neuropsychological tests, UFOV 2 and 3, BD and BJLO, D-KEFS TMT 1, 2, 3, and 4, correctly classified 80.4% of participants with good versus low-performing lane maintenance. 

  • 192.
    Sun, Qian C.
    et al.
    School of Science, RMIT University, Australia.
    Xia, Jianhong C.
    School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Curtin University, Australia.
    Foster, Jonathan
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Unpacking older drivers’ mobility at roundabouts: Their visual-motor coordination through driver–vehicle–environment interactions2019In: International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, ISSN 1556-8318, E-ISSN 1556-8334, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 627-638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While mobility and safety of older drivers are challenged by age-related cognitive changes, the increasingly complex road environment has placed a higher demand on their adaptability. Older drivers experience difficulties in regulating their operational level behaviors which rely on the second-to-second decision-making, e.g., using the visuospatial information to guide their steering. The roundabout maneuver is one of the critical scenarios for older drivers which requires efficient visual and motor coordination. Understanding older drivers’ visual-motor coordination at roundabouts will provide insights into the mobility and safety of older driver population, which is important yet to be explored. This paper contributes to new measurements in driving behavior through quantitative examinations on driver–vehicle–environment interactions. The drivers’ visual-motor coordination is conceptualized as a sequence of eye fixations coupling with the vehicle trajectory in a space–time path. The experimental data were from 38 older adults’ on-road driving recorded using context and location-aware enabled eye tracking and precise vehicle movement tracking. A visual-motor coordination composite indicator (VMCCI) was developed to measure the efficiency of visual-motor coordination in GIS based on the aggregate multiple parameters of visual and motor behaviors at entry, circulating and exit stage of a roundabout. The results show that the VMCCI is a sensitive indicator for identifying risky drivers, problematic road sections, problematic behaviors. Older drivers’ VMCCI was associated with the angle of deviation at roundabouts, particularly at the entry stage. Findings of this study have implications for actual roundabout designing practice, which will contribute to improve the safety of older drivers behind the wheel. 

  • 193.
    Sun, Qian C.
    et al.
    School of Science, RMIT University, Australia.
    Xia, Jianhong C.
    School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Curtin University, Australia.
    Li, Yongfu
    Institute of Architectural Design, Shanghai University, China.
    Foster, Jonathan
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Australia.
    Unpacking older drivers’ maneuver at intersections: Their visual-motor coordination and underlying neuropsychological mechanisms2018In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 58, p. 11-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Negotiating intersections is one of the principal concerns for older drivers as it requires precision and efficiency in visual-motor coordination (VMC). The complex intersection manoeuvre places high demands on visual perception, attention, motor control and executive functioning. Understanding the relationship between VMC and cognitive abilities in older drivers is important, but yet to be systematically explored.

    Methods: We recorded 38 older adults’ driving manoeuvre at intersections using eye tracking and advanced surveying positioning technologies. VCM performance of the participants were indexed using multiple parameters of visual and motor behaviors with a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. Participants also performed a battery of cognitive tests of visual attention, spatial abilities, visual-motor speed and executive functions.

    Results: Significant correlations were identified between VMC performance and eight cognitive measurements: UFOV 2 and 3, Block Design, Benton's JLO, D-KEFS TMT 1, 2, 3 and 4. Cognitive tests measuring selective attention, spatial ability and executive function were found to be the best predictors for VMC performance.

    Conclusions: Specific cognitive abilities in older drivers were associated with poorer VMC at intersections. VMC assessment can be used to identify risky older drivers and their problematic behaviors. In the future, tailored VMC evaluations and intervention programs may be developed to improve older drivers’ safety behind the wheel. 

  • 194.
    Sun, Qian (Chayn)
    et al.
    Department of Spatial Sciences, Curtin University, Australia.
    Odolinski, Robert
    School of Surveying, University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Xia, Jianhong (Cecilia)
    Department of Spatial Sciences, Curtin University, Australia.
    Foster, Jonathan
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Australia.
    Validating the efficacy of GPS tracking vehicle movement for driving behaviour assessment2017In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688, Vol. 6, p. 32-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle movement trajectory recorded by GPS maps the vehicle's lane position in time sequence, therefore theoretically can be used to assess driving behaviour. However, the data quality level which can be achieved for vehicle movement tracking by different GPS receivers and positioning techniques hasn't been fully explored and documented. This study systematically validated the efficacy of GPS recording vehicle movement using different types of receivers and positioning techniques. The receivers include both recreational and professional devices; the positioning techniques refer to Single Point Positioning (SPP), Differential GPS (DGPS) and Real-time kinematic (RTK) solutions. The field trials tested the positioning accuracy as well as the quality of trajectory tracking by comparing the recorded positions to benchmarks. The study findings indicate that vehicle movement trajectories recorded by recreational-grade GPS receivers can only match other spatial information at low resolution, which is limited to the assessment of wayfinding and navigation behaviour. In contrast, the SPP, DGPS and RTK techniques undertaken by professional receivers can raise horizontal accuracy to the metre, decimetre, and centimetre level respectively. For under open sky road driving, the RTK solution generated accurate and precise vehicle movement trajectories sufficient for extracting vehicle lane position, speed, acceleration/deceleration, so as to detect detailed driving events and quantitatively assess individual driver behaviour. This paper serves as a critical reference for other researchers on the different types of GPS receivers and solutions prior to engaging a GPS in their studies. © 2016 Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies.

  • 195.
    Sun, Qian (Chayn)
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Xia, Jianhong (Cecilia)
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Curtin University, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Investigating the spatial pattern of older drivers' eye fixation behaviour and associations with their visual capacity2016In: Journal of Eye Movement Research, E-ISSN 1995-8692, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual capacity generally declines as people age, yet its impact on the visual search patterns along sections of different road during actual driving still remains undocumented. This on-road driving study simultaneously recorded 30 older drivers' eye movement and precise vehicle movement trajectories. The vehicle positions were linked to every identified eye fixation for each individual driver, so that the locations of the driver's gaze origin in geo-spatial coordinates were obtained. Spatial distribution pattern of drivers' eye fixations were then mapped and analysed. In addition, the associations between older drivers' visual ca-pacity (processing speed, divided and selective attention) and their eye fixation patterns in various driving manoeuvres were investigated. The results indicate that driving scenarios have a significant impact on older drivers' visual patterns. Older drivers performed more frequent eye fixations at roundabouts, while they tended to fixate on certain objects for longer periods during straight road driving. The key findings show that the processing speed and divided attention of older drivers were associated with their eye fixations at complex right-turns; drivers with a lower capacity in selective attention performed less frequent eye fixations at roundabouts. This study has also demonstrated that visualisation and spatial sta-tistics are effective and intuitive approaches to eye movement analysis.

  • 196.
    Sun, Qian (Chayn)
    et al.
    Department of Spatial Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Xia, Jianhong (Cecilia)
    Department of Spatial Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Nadarajah, Nandakumaran
    Department of Spatial Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Foster, Jonathan
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Assessing drivers' visual-motor coordination using eye tracking, GNSS and GIS: a spatial turn in driving psychology2016In: Journal of Spatial Science, ISSN 1449-8596, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 299-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle-driving in real traffic can be considered as a human-machine system involving not only the attribute of the vehicle movement but also the human visual perception, cognition and motion of the driver. The study of driving behaviours, therefore, would integrate information related to driver psychology, vehicle dynamics and road information in order to tackle research questions concerning driving safety. This paper describes a conceptual framework and an integrated GIS data model of a visual-motor coordination model (VMCM) to investigate drivers' driving behaviour via the combination of vision tracking and vehicle positioning. The eye tracker recorded eye fixations and duration on video images to exhibit the drivers' visual search pattern and the traffic scenes. Real-time kinematic (RTK) post-processing of multi-GNSS (global navigation satellite system) tracking generated the vehicle movement trajectory at centimeter-level accuracy, which encompasses precise lateral positioning and speed control parameters of driving behaviours. The eye fixation data were then geocoded and linked to the vehicle movement trajectory to represent the VMCM on the GIS platform. An implementation prototype of the framework and the VMCM for a study of older drivers is presented in this paper. The spatial-temporal visualisation and statistical analysis based on the VMCM data-set allow for a greater insight into the inherent variability of older drivers' visual search and motor behaviours. The research framework has demonstrated a discriminant and ecologically valid approach in driving behaviour assessment, which can also be used in studies for other cohort populations with modified driving scenarios or experiment designs.

  • 197.
    Tammimies, Kristiina
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Danyang
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rabkina, Ielyzaveta
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stamouli, Sofia
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Becker, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nicolaou, Veronika
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berggren, Steve
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Coco, Christina
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University, Australia.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Choque-Olsson, Nora
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bölte, Sven
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Association between rare copy number variation and response to social skills training in autism spectrum disorder2018In: bioRxivArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Challenges in social communication and interaction are core symptoms in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) for which social skills group training (SSGT) is a commonly used intervention. SSGT has shown modest but heterogeneous effects in clinical trials, and therefore identification of effect moderators could enable more precise intervention decisions. One of the major genetic risk factors in ASD are rare copy number variation (CNV). However, limited information exists whether rare CNVs profiles can be used to aid in intervention decisions. Therefore, we conducted the first study to date analyzing rare CNVs as genetic moderators in the outcome of SSGT in ASD. For this, we analyzed rare genic CNV carrier status of 207 children of which 105 received SSGT and 102 standard care as part of a recent randomized clinical trial for 12-weeks SSGT. We used mixed linear models to assess the association of being a CNV carrier, grouped by the effect and size of the CNVs and the primary response to SSGT, the parent-report Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) measured at post-intervention and 3-months follow-up. Additionally, we analyzed the secondary outcome assessments included parent-rated adaptive behaviors (ABAS-II) and trainer-rated clinical global impression (CGI). We show that being a carrier of any size rare genic CNV did not impact on the SSGT outcome. However, when stratifying the groups by size of the CNVs, we identified that carriers of large CNVs (>500 kb) showed inferior SRS outcomes at post-intervention (β = 15.35, 95% CI 2.86-27.84, P=0.017) and follow-up (β = 14.19, 95% CI 1.68-26.70, P=0.028). Similar results were shown for the parent-rated secondary outcome. In contrast, the carriers of small CNVs had better outcome at post-intervention (β = -1.20, 95 % CI -2.0 - -0.4 P = 0.003) but not at follow-up for the trainer-rated secondary outcome CGI. These results remained when we tested the specificity of the effect by including the standard care group and adjusting for IQ levels. While our study suggests that being a carrier of any size rare genic CNV did not impact the outcome, it provides preliminary evidence that carriers of high-risk CNVs might not benefit on SSGT as much as non-carriers. Our results indicate that genetic information eventually might help guide personalized intervention planning in ASD. We additionally highlight that more research is needed to understand the intervention needs of autistic individuals with specified molecular alterations.

  • 198.
    Tang, Julia
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Horlin, Chiara
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Face recognition and visual search strategies in autism spectrum disorders: Amending and extending a recent review by Weigelt et al.2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1-19, article id e0134439Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this review was to build upon a recent review by Weigelt et al. which examined visual search strategies and face identification between individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing peers. Seven databases, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, ERIC, Medline, Proquest, PsychInfo and PubMed were used to locate published scientific studies matching our inclusion criteria. A total of 28 articles not included in Weigelt et al. met criteria for inclusion into this systematic review. Of these 28 studies, 16 were available and met criteria at the time of the previous review, but were mistakenly excluded; and twelve were recently published. Weigelt et al. found quantitative, but not qualitative, differences in face identification in individuals with ASD. In contrast, the current systematic review found both qualitative and quantitative differences in face identification between individuals with and without ASD. There is a large inconsistency in findings across the eye tracking and neurobiological studies reviewed. Recommendations for future research in face recognition in ASD were discussed.

  • 199.
    Taylor, Susan
    et al.
    Faculty of Computing Health and Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.
    McLean, B.
    School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy and Social work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Carey, L.
    Neurorehabilitation and Recovery, The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Melbourne, Australia.
    Girdler, S.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Elliott, C.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Blair, E.
    Population Sciences, Telethon Kids Institute, Perth, Australia.
    Does somatosensation change with age in children and adolescents? A systematic review.2016In: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 809-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Somatosensory modalities, such as touch, proprioception and haptic ability, greatly influence the achievement of developmental milestones for children. Describing somatosensory impairment, natural variability and typical or expected developmental changes across age groups will help establish frameworks for intervention in clinical populations. This systematic review aimed to determine how different somatosensory modalities develop across childhood into adolescence to use as a point of reference for children at risk of somatosensory impairment.

    METHODS: Searches of five electronic databases were undertaken through EBSCO-host (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus and ERIC) for studies measuring at least one somatosensory modality in typically developing individuals between birth and 18 years and analysed by age. Characteristics of studies were collected including country of origin, sample size, demographics and outcome measure used. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed by two independent reviewers.

    RESULTS: Twenty three cross-sectional studies were included from a total of 188 articles retrieved: 8 examined aspects of touch, 5 proprioception and 10 haptic ability. Variability of study designs and variation in assessment tools precluded any formal meta-analysis.

    CONCLUSIONS: Somatosensation matures through childhood into adolescence; however, the present review found the pattern of somatosensory development varied depending on the assessment tool used and the aspect of somatosensation being measured, making it difficult to describe typical performance. There is a need for comprehensive assessment batteries to measure the somatosensation, including touch, proprioception and haptic ability, of children at risk of somatosensory impairment to aid in the development of effective interventions.

  • 200.
    Thompson, Craig
    et al.
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Long Pocket, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Bölte, Sven
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Long Pocket, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Long Pocket, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Long Pocket, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    To be understood: Transitioning to adult life for people with Autism Spectrum Disorder2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 3, article id e0194758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to explore the viewpoints of parents of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in relation to their child's transition to adulthood.

    Methods: Data were collected during four structured focus groups with 19 parents of young people with ASD with average to high intellectual capacities. Condensed meaning units were identified and checked during focus groups, and were subsequently linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    Results: Three major themes emerged: to be understood, to understand the world and to succeed. The ICF domains of activity and participation and environmental factors emerged as having the greatest potential to influence transition outcomes.

    Conclusions: Policies and services should focus on strengths to maximise participation in higher education, employment and independent living amongst young people with ASD. Interventions targeting environmental factors could be effective in improving participation in adult life. Person-centred and individualised approaches could further complement this approach supporting the transition to adulthood for people with ASD, ultimately improving outcomes in adulthood. 

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