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  • 151. Dols, J.
    et al.
    Pardo, J
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Foerst, R.
    The TRAINER project: a new concept for novice drivers' training simulators2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 152. Dols, J.
    et al.
    Pardo, J.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Uneken, E.
    Verwey, W.
    The TRAINER project: a new simulator-based driver training curriculum2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 153. Donlau, Marie
    et al.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Independence in the toilet activity in children and adolescents with myelomeningocele - managing clean intermittent catheterization in a hospital setting2009In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 98, no 12, p. 1972-1976Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 154. Donlau, Marie
    et al.
    Imms, Christine
    Glad Mattsson, Gunilla
    Mattsson, Sven
    Sjörs, Anna
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Children and youth with myelomeningocele’s independence in managing clean intermittent catheterization in familiar settings.2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 3, p. 429-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  To examine the ability of children and youth with myelomeningocele to independently manage clean intermittent catheterization.

    Methods:  There were 50 participants with myelomeningocele (5–18 years); 13 of them had also participated in a previous hospital-based study. Their abilities and interest in completing the toilet activity were examined at home or in school using an interview and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Actual performance was observed and rated. Background variables were collected from medical records and KatAD+E tests.

    Results:  In total, 48% were observed to perform the toilet activity independently, in comparison with 74% who self-reported independence. Univariate analyses found KatAD+E could predict who was independent. COPM failed to do so. Ability to remain focused and ambulation were predictors of independence, but age, sex and IQ were not. Multivariable analysis found time to completion to be the strongest predictor of independence. Four children were independent in their familiar environment, but not in the hospital setting, and six of 13 children maintained focus only in their familiar environment.

    Conclusions:  Interviews were not sufficiently accurate to assess independence in the toilet activity. Instead, observations including time to completion are recommended. The execution of the toilet activity is influenced by the environmental context.

  • 155.
    Donohue, Dana
    et al.
    Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Bornman, Juan
    Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Household size is associated with unintelligible speech in children who have intellectual disabilities: A South African study2015In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 402-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether four socioeconomic factors, namely caregiver age, caregiver education, family income and/or household size were related to the presence of motor delays or unintelligible speech in South African children with intellectual disabilities. Methods: Caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities completed a biographical questionnaire regarding their home environments. Other items on the questionnaire queried whether their children experienced co-occurring developmental impairments of motor delays or unintelligible speech. Results: A total of 145 caregivers were included in the analyses. Two logistic regressions were run with the set of four socioeconomic factors as predictors, and motor delays and intelligible speech as the outcome variables. Household size was a statistically significant predictor of whether children evidenced intelligible speech. Conclusion: Children living in dwellings with more people were less likely to have intelligible speech. The processes through which large household size might influence children’s language are discussed.

  • 156.
    Donohue, Dana K.
    et al.
    University of Pretoria, SA.
    Bornman, Juan
    University of Pretoria, SA.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Examining the rights of children with intellectual disability in South Africa: Children's perspectives2014In: Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 55-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Human rights provide fundamental conditions for people to maintain dignity and self-determination and protect a nation's most vulnerable citizens. In South Africa, children with intellectual disability who experience socioeconomic disadvantage may be particularly vulnerable due to their cognitive impairments and inability to garner needed resources.

    Method The perceptions of children with intellectual disability regarding their access to basic amenities in their home environments were examined to determine whether their positive human rights were met. Risk factors were examined in relation to these perceptions.

    Results The results suggested that participants generally reported high degrees of access to basic resources. Logistic regressions suggested socioeconomic risk factors (e.g., income, education, household size, relationship status) were negatively related to children's reports of access to food and their own beds and positively related to having someone available to explain confusing concepts to them.

    Conclusions The positive human rights of children living in high-risk environments should be monitored to ensure all South Africans have their rights met.

  • 157.
    Dzidic, Majda
    et al.
    Department of Health and Genomics, Center for Advanced Research in Public Health, Valencia, Spain.
    Collado, Maria C.
    Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), Department of Biotechnology, Unit of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Probiotics, Valencia, Spain.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Pediatrics, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Artacho, Alejandro
    Department of Health and Genomics, Center for Advanced Research in Public Health, Valencia, Spain.
    Stensson, Malin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Jenmalm, Maria C.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Autoimmunity and Immune Regulation, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mira, Alex
    Department of Health and Genomics, Center for Advanced Research in Public Health, Valencia, Spain.
    Oral microbiome development during childhood: an ecological succession influenced by postnatal factors and associated with tooth decay2018In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 2292-2306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information on how the oral microbiome develops during early childhood and how external factors influence this ecological process is scarce. We used high-throughput sequencing to characterize bacterial composition in saliva samples collected at 3, 6, 12, 24 months and 7 years of age in 90 longitudinally followed children, for whom clinical, dietary and health data were collected. Bacterial composition patterns changed through time, starting with “early colonizers”, including Streptococcus and Veillonella; other bacterial genera such as Neisseria settled after 1 or 2 years of age. Dental caries development was associated with diverging microbial composition through time. Streptococcus cristatus appeared to be associated with increased risk of developing tooth decay and its role as potential biomarker of the disease should be studied with species-specific probes. Infants born by C-section had initially skewed bacterial content compared with vaginally delivered infants, but this was recovered with age. Shorter breastfeeding habits and antibiotic treatment during the first 2 years of age were associated with a distinct bacterial composition at later age. The findings presented describe oral microbiota development as an ecological succession where altered colonization pattern during the first year of life may have long-term consequences for child's oral and systemic health. 

  • 158.
    Earl, Robyn
    et al.
    Curtin University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Rehnberg, Anette
    The Swedish Transport Administration.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University.
    Visual search strategies of pedestrians with and without visual and cognitive impairments in a shared zone: A proof of concept study2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 57, p. 327-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shared zones have gained increasing popularity in urban land use and design as a means of incorporating the needs of multiple modes of transport, while at the same time promoting social interaction between users. Interactions within shared zones are based on a set of informal social protocols, communicated via eye contact and social cues. This proof of concept study utilised eye-tracking technology to examine the visual search strategies of individuals, with and without visual and cognitive impairments as they navigated a strategically chosen shared zone. In total 3960 fixations were analysed and the fixations were distributed across the shared zone and a pedestrian crossing. Those with impairments were more likely to fixate on traffic specific areas and objects compared to those without, suggesting that they required more input ascertaining when and where it was safe to perform tasks. However, the duration of fixation was not significantly different for an object whether it was traffic related or not, indicating a global need for increased processing time of the surrounding environment. Shared zones are claimed to increase driver awareness and safety and reduce congestion, but the implications on participation and safety for those with visual and cognitive impairments is yet to be extensively explored.

  • 159.
    Earl, Robyn
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia and Linköping University & Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Morris, Susan L.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Viewpoints of pedestrians with and without cognitive impairment on shared zones and zebra crossings2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 9, article id e0203765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Shared zones are characterised by an absence of traditional markers that segregate the road and footpath. Negotiation of a shared zone relies on an individual’s ability to perceive, assess and respond to environmental cues. This ability may be impacted by impairments in cognitive processing, which may lead to individuals experiencing increased anxiety when negotiating a shared zone.

    Method

    Q method was used in order to identify and explore the viewpoints of pedestrians, with and without cognitive impairments as they pertain to shared zones.

    Results

    Two viewpoints were revealed. Viewpoint one was defined by “confident users” while viewpoint two was defined by users who “know what [they] are doing but drivers might not”.

    Discussion

    Overall, participants in the study would not avoid shared zones. Pedestrians with intellectual disability were, however, not well represented by either viewpoint, suggesting that shared zones may pose a potential barrier to participation for this group.

  • 160. Edbom, T
    et al.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Lichtenstein, P
    Larsson, J-O
    Long-term relationship between symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and self-esteem in a prospective longitudinal study of twins2006In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 95, no 6, p. 650-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To study the long-term relationship between symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the developing self-esteem in a population-based sample of twins. Methods: The cohort is all twin pair families born in Sweden between May 1985 and December 1986 (n = 1.480). Wave 1 took place in 1994 when the twins were 8 years old and wave 2 in 1999 when the children were 13 years old. In wave 1 and 2 the parents completed questionnaires regarding ADHD-symptoms about their children. In wave 2 the twins completed a questionnaire about self-esteem and Youth Self Report (YSR). ADHD-symptoms and self-esteem were analyzed in the total study group. Results: There was a long-term relationship between high scores of parental-reported ADHD-symptoms at 8 and 13 years of age and low scores in measures of self-reported self-esteem at 13 years of age. In the cotwin control method controlling for YSR internalizing problem, paired comparisons within the twin pairs revealed that a high score of ADHD-symptoms at age 8 was related to significantly lower scores at age 13 in the self-esteem. Conclusions: The long-term relationships between ADHD-symptoms and a low self-esteem in a population-based sample were confirmed by the co-twin analyses.

  • 161. Edbom, T
    et al.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Lichtenstein, P
    Larsson, J-O
    Self concepts in children with attention - deficit - hyperactive disorder: a person oriented approach2003In: Developmental medicine and child neurology. Supplement 97, Volume 45: Abstracts: European Academy of Childhood Disability, 15th annual meeting, Oslo, 2003, London: MacKeith , 2003, p. 22-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Edbom, T
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Malmberg, K
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Lichtenstein, P
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Larsson, J-O
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    High sense of coherence in adolescence is a protective factor in the longitudinal development of ADHD symptoms2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 541-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The key feature of salutogenesis is that good health can be directly sustained by positive factors. The Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale was developed by Antonovsky as a measure related to the concept of salutogenesis including aspects of comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness.

    Aim:  The aim was to investigate whether Sense of Coherence can serve as a salutogenetic factor modifying the long-term development of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms.

    Subjects and methods:  Twin study of Child and Adolescent Development (TCHAD) is a longitudinal study of all twin pairs born in Sweden between May 1985 and December 1986. The present project is a sub-sample of 312 individuals (135 boys and 177 girls). At 16 years of age, the young persons and their parents were interviewed with K-SADS especially symptoms of ADHD. The young person also completed the SOC questionnaire. At 21 years of age, the young person completed a questionnaire about symptoms of ADHD.

    Findings:  Higher (worse) ADHD scores at 16 years of age were associated with higher (worse) ADHD scores at 21 years of age. However, this relationship was stronger for lower (worse) SOC. A higher (better) SOC at 16 years was associated with lower (better) ADHD at 21 years and this relationship was stronger for higher (worse) ADHD at 16 years.

    Conclusion:  A high Sense of Coherence in adolescence was a protective factor for the long-term development of ADHD.

  • 163. Edbom, Tobias
    et al.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Liechtenstein, Paul
    Larsson, Jan-Olov
    ADHD Symptoms Related to Profiles of Self-Esteem in a Longitudinal Study of Twins: A person-oriented approach2008In: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, ISSN 1073-6077, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 228-237Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Efvergren, Rickard
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Nordqvist, Emelie
    Glatz, Terese
    Elgmark, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Uppfylls behoven av habilitering/rehabilitering hos brukare som tillhör LSS personkrets?2007Report (Other academic)
  • 165.
    Egonsdotter, Gunilla
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Bengtsson, Staffan
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Israelsson, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Borell, Klas
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work.
    Child protection and cultural awareness: Simulation-based learning2018In: Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work, ISSN 1531-3204, E-ISSN 1531-3212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social work educators have long struggled with the challenge of finding appropriate strategies for fostering cultural awareness among their students. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a computer-based simulation, SimChild, can be used in teaching about child protection to enhance cultural awareness among students and expand their insight into how personal biases can affect professional practice. In SimChild, individual students can assume the role of social worker and then collectively discuss the patterns emerging after their individual assessments have been aggregated. This study, based primarily on focus group data, reflects testing conducted at three Swedish universities.

  • 166.
    Einberg, Eva-Lena
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    To promote health in children with experience of cancer treatment2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to develop knowledge about how to promote health in children treated for cancer and how health promotion interventions based on such knowledge can be evaluated. In this thesis, a descriptive and explorative design has been used, comprising both qualitative (Papers I-III) and quantitative (Papers I and IV) methods. A nationwide cohort of 144 childhood cancer survivors (24-42 years) answered a questionnaire about the support they had received from health care services (Paper I). Fifteen children (8-12years), with experience of cancer treatment, participated in five focus groups with two sessions per group (Paper II and III). The focus group methodology was combined with participatory and art-based techniques, such as draw and tell and photography. The children discussed what promotes health and what friendship is about. A methodological design was used to psychometrically test the Swedish version of the Minneapolis-Manchester Quality of Life instrument (MMQL) (Paper IV). The study included 950 pupils in grade 6 and 9 from seven primary schools. In addition to this, a comparison of the MMQL instrument with the health-promoting factors described by children in the focus groups was performed.

    The findings showed that there is a need for health-promoting factors, such as knowledge and psychosocial support, from health care services for childhood cancer survivors. Their family and friends may contribute with support and then serve as health-promoting factors. Health-promoting factors, according to children 8-12 years of age and with experience of cancer treatment, are meaningful relationships, recreational activities and a trustful environment. The children expressed a holistic view of what promotes their health. Friendship, from the perspective of the children, is a process of equal and mutual commitment that develops over time and with interactions occurring face-to-face and digitally. The MMQL instrument may be valid and reliable in a sample of healthy children. However, less than one-third of the items in the MMQL instrument could be linked to the health-promoting factors that the children participating in the focus groups highlighted. In conclusion, the findings in this thesis contribute knowledge from a participant perspective regarding the needs and the experiences of health-promoting factors for those who have received treatment for cancer. This knowledge could form a basis for development of health promotion interventions aimed at children who have received treatment for cancer. It is suggested that if the MMQL instrument is used to evaluate health promotion among children who have received treatment for cancer, the MMQL should be complemented with items that capture aspects of health that are important to the children.

  • 167.
    Einberg, Eva-Lena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Hamlstad.
    Kadrija, Ibadete
    School of Social and Health Sciences, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Brunt, David
    School of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Psychometric evaluation of a Swedish version of Minneapolis-Manchester quality of life-youth form and adolescent form2013In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 11, no 79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    It has become important to measure long-term effects and quality of life in survivors of childhood cancer. The Minneapolis- Manchester Quality of Life (MMQL) instrument has been proven to better capture the quality of life (QoL) perspective of health than other instruments. The instrument has age appropriate versions and is therefore favourable for longitudinal studies of QoL of children surviving from cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of MMQL-Youth Form and the Adolescent Form focusing on: 1) face and content validity 2) the internal consistency and 3) the test-retest reliability.

    Methods

    The sample consisted of 950 pupils (11–16 years old) from 7 schools in the western Sweden who completed the questionnaire. For the test-retest evaluation 230 respondents completed the questionnaire two weeks later.

    Results

    Face and content validity was supported and internal consistency was found to be acceptable for the total scale for both the MMQL-Youth Form (8–12 years of age) and the Adolescent Form (13–20 years of age). Test-retest reliability for the MMQL-Youth Form was moderate for 50% of the items and good for the remaining. For the MMQL-Adolescent Form the test-retest showed moderate or good agreement for 80% of the items and fair for 20%.

    Conclusions

    The result indicated that the Swedish version of the MMQLYouth Form and Adolescent Form was valid and reliable in a sample of healthy children in a Swedish context. It is recommended to test the instrument among diverse samples of children such as survivors of childhood cancer in order to validate its usefulness in research and clinical settings.

  • 168.
    Einberg, Eva-Lena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Lidell, Evy
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Clausson, Eva K.
    Högskolan i Kristianstad.
    Awareness of demands and unfairness and the importance of connectedness and security: Teenage girls' lived experiences of their everyday lives2015In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 10, no 27653Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 169.
    Einberg, Eva-Lena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Nygren, Jens
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Petra
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    'Through my eyes': Health-promoting factors described by photographs taken by children with experience of cancer treatment2016In: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 76-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Health promotion for children with cancer should be based on the children's own needs and desires. Because there is a lack of knowledge in this area, the aim of this study was to explore what promotes health from the perspective of children with experience of cancer treatment.

    Methods

    Fifteen children between 8 and 12 years of age participated in focus groups with three children in each group. The children were given a camera and instructions to photograph subjects that promote their health. Focus group discussions were based on the photographs and the children's own description of those photographs. The analysis of focus group discussions and photographs was conducted using inductive content analysis.

    Results

    According to the children, health-promoting factors are defined as meaningful relationshipsrecreational activities and a trustful environment. Meaningful relationships include togetherness within the familyaffection for pets and friendship with peers. Recreational activities include engagement in play and leisurewithdrawal for relaxation and feeling enjoyment. Trustful environment includesconfidence in significant others and feeling safe.

    Conclusions

    Knowledge from this study can contribute to health promotion interventions and quality improvements in the health care of children with experience of cancer treatment. Children's experiences with what promotes health in their everyday lives provide a better understanding of the type of support children prefer when promoting their own health.

  • 170.
    Einberg, Eva-Lena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Petra
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Nygren, Jens M.
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Friendship Relations From the Perspective of Children With Experience of Cancer Treatment: A Focus Group Study With a Salutogenic Approach2015In: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1043-4542, E-ISSN 1532-8457, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 153-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Friendships are significant to child development and health but diseases such as cancer can interrupt the contact with friends. The purpose of this study was to describe perceptions of friendship from the perspective of children undergoing cancer treatment, in order to build knowledge that can be used in a health promotion intervention for these children. Fifteen children between 8 and 12 years of age participated in focus groups, where a mixture of informative and creative techniques were used. The focus group discussions were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in three generic categories, "Common interests and experiences," "Mutual empathic actions." and "Mutual trust and understanding," incorporating seven subcategories. Based on children's descriptions from a salutogenic perspective, friendship emerged as An equal and mutual commitment that evolves over time and with interactions face-to-face and digitally, a child perspective on friendship should be central to the development of health promotion interventions designed to support friendship relations of children treated for cancer.

  • 171.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Children with and without mild intellectual disability2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 172.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Hur påverkas livet efter hjärnskakning?2006In: Vågor på haVet: Tio texter om arbete och funktionshinder, Jönköping: Hälsohögskolan , 2006, p. 292-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Mapping of CHILD Research – Meta Theory. Participation of Children with and without Mild Intellectual Dysfunction2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Mild head injury; incidences, symptoms, 3 weeks, 3 and 12 months post injury.2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 175.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Mild head injury: incidences, symptoms, 3 weeks, 3 and 12 months post injury1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 176.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Mild traumatic brain injuries: The impact of early intervention on late sequelae: A randomised controlled trial2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 177.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Mild traumatic brain injuries: The impact of early intervention on late sequelae. A randomised controlled trial.2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 178.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Mild traumatic brain injuries: The impact of early intervention on late sequelae. A randomised controlled trial. Traumatic Brain Injury2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Mild traumatic brain injuries: The impact of early intervention on late sequelae. A randomised controlled trial. Traumatic Brain Injury2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Mild traumatic brain injuries. The impact of early intervention on late sequele2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 181.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Polisens fysiska och psykosocial arbetsmiljö för uniformerad polis i yttre tjänst2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 182.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Psychosocial working conditions of Swedish police2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Quantifying post-concussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury2006In: Quantifying post-concussion symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 184.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    The new Swedish post-concussion symptoms questionnaire and its concurrent validity and inter-raterreliability2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 185.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Bedics, Beate Kärrdahl
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries: A 10-year follow-up2011In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 43, p. 323-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective and design: Long-term consequences of mild traumatic brain injuries were investigated based on a 10-year follow-up of patients from a previously published randomized controlled study of mild traumatic brain injuries. One aim was to describe changes over time after mild traumatic brain injuries in terms of the extent of persisting post-concussion symptoms, life satisfaction, perceived health, activities of daily living, changes in life roles and sick leave. Another aim was to identify differences between the intervention and control groups.

    Patients: The intervention group comprised 142 persons and the control group 56 persons.

    Methods: Postal questionnaires with a response rate of 56%.

    Results: No differences over time were found for the intervention and control groups in terms of post-concussion symptoms. In the intervention group some variables in life satisfaction, perceived health and daily life were decreased. Some roles had changed over the years for both groups. No other differences between the intervention and control groups were found. However, in both groups sick leave decreased.

    Conclusion: Early individual intervention by a qualified rehabilitation team does not appear to impact on the long-term outcome for persons with symptoms related to mild traumatic brain injuries. The status after approximately 3 weeks is indicative of the status after 10 years.

     

     

  • 186.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. HHJ. CHILD.
    Björklund, Ragnhild
    Emanuelson, Ingrid
    Stålhammar, Daniel A
    Lätta traumatiska hjärnskador, betydelsen av tidig uppföljning vid rehabiliteringsklinik: En randomiserad kontrollerad studie2005In: Arbetsterapeutsikt Forum, Stockholm, 2005, 2005Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 187.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Emanuelson, Ingrid
    Björklund, Ragnhild
    Stålhammar, Daniel A
    Mild traumatic brain injuries: the impact of early intervention on late sequelae. A randomized controlled trial.2007In: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 149, no 2, p. 151-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Positive results from early clinical intervention of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients by rehabilitation specialists have been reported. Various treatments have been used, but few controlled studies are published. We hypothesised that early rehabilitation of selected MTBI patients would reduce long term sequelae.

    Method: A randomised controlled trial with one year follow-up. Among 1719 consecutive patients with MTBI, 395 individuals, 16-60 years of age, met the MTBI definition. Exclusion criteria were: previous clinically significant brain disorders and/or a history of substance abuse. The control group (n = 131) received regular care. The intervention group (n = 264) was examined by a rehabilitation specialist. 78 patients were mainly referred to an occupational therapist. The problems were identified in daily activities and in terms of post-concussion symptoms (PCS), an individualised, tailored treatment was given. Primary endpoint was change in rate of PCS and in life satisfaction at one-year follow-up between the groups.

    Findings: No statistical differences were found between the intervention and control groups. Patients who experienced few PCS two to eight weeks after the injury and declined rehabilitation recovered and returned to their pre-injury status. Patients who suffered several PCS and accepted rehabilitation did not recover after one year. Interpretation. In this particular MTBI sample, early active rehabilitation did not change the outcome to a statistically-significant degree. Further studies should focus on patients with several complaints during the first 1-3 months and test various types of interventions.

  • 188.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Emanuelson, Ingrid
    Olsson, Margareta
    Stålhammar, Daniel
    Starmark, Jan-Erik
    The new Swedish Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire: a measure of symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury and its concurrent validity and inter-rater reliability2006In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 26-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:To study the concurrent validity and the inter-rater reliability of the Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire. DESIGN:The approach was to study the concurrent validity of the Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire when used as an interview questionnaire compared with a self-report questionnaire administered by the patients. The inter-rater reliability was also studied when 2 different raters administered the Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire interview. PATIENTS: Thirty-five patients with mild traumatic brain injury were consecutively contacted by telephone and asked whether they would be willing to participate in a follow-up intervention. METHODS: The Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire was completed by the patients, who answered "Yes" or "No" to the standardized questions. The patients were then interviewed to check the certain "Yes" or "No" answers, 0-10 days after having completed the first Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire. The raters filled in their ratings independently. RESULTS: The concurrent validity of answers in the questionnaire compared with those in the interview ranged from 82% to 100% agreement. The inter-rater reliability results ranged from 93% to 100% agreement between the raters. CONCLUSION: The Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire with answers of "Yes" or "No" is a valid instrument. High reliability was found between the raters.

  • 189.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Sjöqvist, Michael
    Granlund, Mats
    Participation restriction is not equal to low frequency of participation in children with  mild intellectual DisabilityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 190.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Johansson, Lina
    Johansson, Sofie
    Mild traumatic brain injury: The impact of early intervention on job satisfactionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 191.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Jonsson, Cecilia
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Mild traumatic brain injury: A description of how children and youth between 16 and 18years of age perform leisure activities after 1 year.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 192.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Larsen, Louise B.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Ramstrand, Nerrolyn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    A modified Job Demand, Control, Support model for active duty police2017In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 361-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Job Demand Control Support model (JDCS) is one of the most widely used theoretical models relating job characteristics to health and wellbeing.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the predictive power of the JDCS model for determining job satisfaction and fatigue in uniformed Swedish police. An additional aim was to determine if predictive power of the model would be improved with the addition of two occupation specific items.

    METHODS: Questionnaire data, based upon the Swedish Work Environment Survey were collected from Swedish police (n = 4244). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was run to explore the predictive value of the model and to determine if the additional variables improved predictive power with respect to job satisfaction and fatigue.

    RESULTS: Regression analysis demonstrated that the JDSC model had high predictive power in relation to job satisfaction and fatigue. Job demands was the strongest predictor of fatigue (14%), while support was the strongest predictor of job satisfaction (12%). The addition of exposure to threats significantly improved predictive power for both job satisfaction and fatigue, while addition of shift work did not significantly affect predictive power of the model.

    CONCLUSIONS: Workplace interventions to address issues related to job satisfaction and fatigue in police should focus on maintaining a bearable level of job demands and provision of adequate support.

  • 193.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Månsson, Josefine
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Lund, Josefine
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Mild traumatic brain injury in children between 7-12 years of age.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 194.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Sejdhage, Rebecka
    Smålandsstenar Care Centre, Smålandsstenar , Sweden.
    Wage, Victoria
    Primary Health Care, Tranemo, Sweden.
    Mild traumatic brain injuries in children between 0-16 years of age: A survey of activities and places when an accident occurs2012In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, ISSN ISSN 1751–8423 print/ISSN 1751–8431, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 26-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:

    The aim of this study was to identify what activities cause most mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) among boys and girls between 0–16 years of age.

    Methods:

    Based on a randomized controlled study, a retrospective analysis was conducted among 765 children.

    Result:

    The most common causes of injury were falls from a height and falls from the same level. The most common place where the accident occurred was at ‘home’ followed by ‘pre-school/school’. The highest incidence was ‘play’ followed by ‘hit by another person’, thereafter ‘baby nursing’. Boys are more often injured than girls, but with no difference between boys and girls in terms of which activities that cause MTBI.

    Conclusion:

    Supervision during play at home as well as better designed schoolyards and playgrounds are required to prevent accidents. Furthermore, well-documented medical records are necessary to identify activities causing MTBI among children.

     

  • 195. Emanuelson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Holmqvist Andersson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Björklund, Ragnhild
    Stålhammar, Daniel A
    Quality of life and post-concussion symptoms in adults after mild traumatic brain injury: a population-based study in western Sweden.2003In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 108, no 5, p. 332-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To study quality of life and subjective post-concussion symptoms in adults (16-60 years) with a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) 3 months and 1 year after injury.

    METHODS: Of a total of 489 patients 173 responded to questionnaires at 3 months and at 1 year, including the SF-36 health-related quality of life survey, which is a standardized measure validated for Swedish conditions. Post-concussion symptoms were rated as either existing or non-existing in a 21-item checklist [a modified version of Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS)].

    RESULTS: SF-36 showed impaired scores in all dimensions. Existing post-concussion symptoms were reported by 1545%. Significantly, more symptoms were present at 3 months than at 3 weeks after injury. Furthermore, a significant correlation between higher rates of post-concussion symptoms and lower SF-36 scores was found.

    CONCLUSIONS: The SF-36 results were significantly impaired compared with an age- and gender-matched normative control group and the rate of post-concussion symptoms was significantly higher at 3 months than at 3 weeks after injury. As a significant correlation between higher rates of symptoms and low SF-36 scores was also found we assume SF-36 to be a sensitive enough measure of MTBI-related effects.

  • 196.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Assessing the life situation of children and adolescents with cancer and their families.1997Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 197.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Being an expert nurse in pediatric oncology care: nurses' descriptions in narratives2012In: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1043-4542, E-ISSN 1532-8457, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 151-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pediatric oncology has become a highly specialized area, and the transition from novice nurse to expert can be complicated. The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of nurses in pediatric oncology regarding the role of an expert nurse in pediatric oncology. Nurses (n = 66) working in pediatric oncology participated by writing their narratives. The data were analyzed by means of content analysis, and 3 categories were found: an expert has confidence in his or her knowledge, an expert provides high-quality care, and an expert is given possibilities for professional growth. It can be concluded that when nurses are given possibilities for continuous education and reflection, and have a feeling of satisfaction at being able to fulfill a child and his or her family's needs, this enhances their possibility to become experts and maintain expert competence.

  • 198.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Commentary1999In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 13-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Could symptom distress and life situation be measured in children and adolescents with cancer?2003In: Medical and Pediatric Oncology Volume 41 Issue 4: International Society of Paediatric Oncology, SIOP XXXV Meeting, Cairo, Egypt, October 8-11, 2003. SIOP Abstracts, 2003, p. 245-246Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 200.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Education for Nurses in Pediatric Oncology Care2002In: NOBOS 2002 meeting, 26-28 may, Helsinki, Finland, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
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