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  • 151. Braungart Fauth, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Zarit, Steven H.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Johansson, Boo
    Physical, Cognitive, and Psychosocial Variables From the Disablement Process Model Predict Patterns of Independence and the Transition Into Disability for the Oldest-Old2007In: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 613-624Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 152.
    Bravell, M-E
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Boström, Martina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Inflytande och delaktighet vid flytt till äldreboende2013In: Äldre i centrum, ISSN 1653-3585, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Brismar, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nilsson, Sven E
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Interrelations and associations of serum levels of steroids and pituitary hormones with markers of insulin resistance, inflammatory activity, and renal function in men and women aged >70 years in an 8-year longitudinal study of opposite-sex twins.2009In: Gender Medicine, ISSN 1550-8579, Vol. 6, no Suppl 1, p. 123-136Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 154. Bylund, PO
    et al.
    Wretstrand, A
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Petzäll, J
    Lövgren, A
    Injuries in special transportation services for elderly and disabled: a multi methodology approach to estimate incidence and societal costs.2007In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 180-188Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 155.
    Bångsbo, Angela
    et al.
    FoU Sjuhärad Välfärd, University of Borås.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Professional Views on Patient Education in Osteoporosis2010In: Archives of Osteoporosis, ISSN 1862-3514, Vol. 5, no 1-2, p. 101-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary

    The aim of this study was to investigate patient education in osteoporosis, with a consensus-building Delphi survey. The results showed that the purposes of osteoporosis schools are to reduce the risk of falling, facilitate empowerment, increase levels of function and activity and teach participants to master or reduce pain.

    Introduction

    According to the World Health Organization, osteoporosis is a major health problem. The morbidity is caused by fractures associated with pain and decreased physical function, social function and well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate and reach consensus about how so-called osteoporosis schools are run by professionals in Sweden with a focus on intervention and evaluation.

    Method

    The study design was a consensus-building, three-round Delphi survey. Questionnaires were sent by web and post to an expert panel comprising 15 nurses, occupational therapists and physiotherapists. In round 1, they were asked to write descriptions within the frame of eight domains related to intervention and evaluation. In the second and third rounds, the Delphi panel was asked to mark on a Likert scale the importance of 40 statements within these domains.

    Results

    The answers showed that the purposes of osteoporosis schools are to reduce the risk of falling, facilitate empowerment, increase levels of function and activity and teach participants to master or reduce pain. The schools comprise theoretical elements as well as practical exercises. Patients with fractures related to osteoporosis are offered participation. There is a lack of a theoretical basis, as well as of evidence, for present treatment models. Evaluation ought to be done systematically, and for this purpose, different questionnaires are used. Experts assert that evaluations show that patients gain increased activity levels, function, knowledge about osteoporosis, empowerment and pain reduction.

    Conclusions

    Consensus was reached in 29 of 40 items.

  • 156. Carlsson, M
    et al.
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Wenestam, C-G
    The oldest old: Patterns of adjustment and dependence1991In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 93-100Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 157.
    Carlsson, Margareta
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Wenestam, C-G
    Family patterns of the oldest old1992In: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1594-0667, E-ISSN 1720-8319, Vol. 4, p. 293-300Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 158.
    Carlsson, Margareta
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Wenestam, C-G
    Hur upplever och anpassar sig äldre till sitt åldrande1988Report (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 159.
    Carlsson, Margareta
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Wenestam, C-G
    The daily life of the oldest old1992In: Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, ISSN 0191-5096, E-ISSN 1949-7652, Vol. 19, p. 109-124Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 160.
    Carlsson, Margareta
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Wenestam, C-G
    The oldest old: Patterns of adjustment and life experiences1991In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 203-210Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 161. Castiello, Mayte
    et al.
    del Barrio, Élena
    Castejon, Penélope
    Tortosa, Maria
    Sundström, Gerdt
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Johansson, Lennarth
    Family care for elders in Europe: Policies and practices.2008In: Caregiving Contexts: Cultural, familial and societal implications., New York: Springer , 2008, p. 235-267Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Cedersund, Elisabet
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Review of M. K. Nielsen (2006) Et godt liv som gammel, Odense: Syddansk universitetsforlag,2007In: GeroNord, ISSN 0806-0304, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 4-5Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 163.
    Cedersund, Elisabet
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Lundborg, Katarina
    Anbäcken, Els-Marie
    Garnisonen - ett steg på väg!: Om starten av ett korttidsboende för äldre personer på väg hem från sjukhus. Rapport om de första årens verksamhet på Garnisonens vårdboende i Linköping2009Report (Other academic)
  • 164.
    Cedersund, Elisabet
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Samtal i äldreomsorgen: samspelet mellan omsorgspersonal och äldre med Alzheimers sjukdom2000Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 165.
    Cedersund, Elisabet
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Olaison, Anna
    Kommunikation i livet på äldre dagar: Om användningen av samtalsanalys i forskning om äldreomsorgens vardag2009In: Åldrande, åldersordning, ålderism / [ed] Jönson, Håkan, Linköping: Nationella institutet för forskning om äldre och åldrande, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Linköpings universitet , 2009, 1, p. 176-190Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Cedersund, Elisabet
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Olaison, Anna
    Positioning and identity construction in home care assessment talk2007In: 10th International Pragmatics Conference (IPrA),: Göteborg, 8-13 July 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 167. Cherfan, Pierre
    et al.
    Tompa, Andrea
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Wikby, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Löfgren, Sture
    Jonasson, Lena
    Effects of simvastatin on human T cells in vivo2007In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 193, no 1, p. 186-192Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 168.
    Christensson, Lennart
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Individuellt anpassade åtgärder till äldre som vid inflyttning till kommunalt äldreboende är bedömnda som undernärda2004In: Konferens Nutrition i äldrevården, Institutionen för Kompetensutveckling, Stockholm (föredrag med skriftlig dokumentation), 2004Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 169.
    Christensson, Lennart
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Malnutrition in Elderly People in Need of Municipal care2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 170.
    Christensson, Lennart
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Så blir den individanpassade nutritionsplanen ett effektivt verktyg mot malnutrition2004In: Konferensen Nutrition 2004, Centrum för kompetensutveckling (föredrag med skriftlig dokumentation), 2004Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 171.
    Christensson, Lennart
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Åhnby, Ulla
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work.
    Henriksson, Marlene
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Joakimsson, Daga
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    Henning, Cecilia
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work.
    Attitudes of Different Professionals Toward the Well-being of Older Adults Living at Home2010In: Journal of Allied Health, ISSN 0090-7421, E-ISSN 1945-404X, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 293-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Negative attitudes in society toward working in eldercare constitute a challenge to educators and care providers. The purpose of this study was to explore, describe, and compare the attitudes of different professional groups toward factors that are important for the well-being of older adults.

    Methods: A randomized sample of 210 respondents that included registered nurses (RNs), registered occupational therapists (OTRs), personal benefit advisors (PBAs), and home help assistants (HHAs) was collected from social service agencies in 10 Swedish municipalities. A scale was developed in a six-step process to measure attitudes toward factors influencing elder wellbeing, and the final 22-item Likert-type scale was called the “Staff Attitudes toward the Well-being of Older Adults” scale.

    Results: Thirty-three percent of staff responded with positive attitudes <toward working with elders>, and the remaining were uncertain or negative. The attitudes of RNs, OTRs, and PBAs were significantly more positive than those of HHAs.

    Discussion: The scale is practical for use in different professional groups with the aim of exploring existing attitudes, identifying areas with a low degree of prevailing positive attitudes and differences between groups, and evaluating whether attitudes change after staff training.

  • 172.
    Christensson, Lennart
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Unosson, Mitra
    Individually adjusted meals for older people with protein-energy malnutrition: a single-case study2001In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 10, p. 491-502Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 173.
    Christensson, Lennart
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Unosson, M
    Ek, A C
    Evaluation of nutritional assessment techniques in elderly people newly admitted to municipal care2002In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 56, no 9, p. 810-818Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 174.
    Christensson, Lennart
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Attitudes of nursing staff towards nutritional nursing care2003In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 223-231Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 175.
    Christensson, Lennart
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Individually adjusted meals for elderly with protein-energy malnutrition1998In: Poster, Third International Conference on Dietary Assessment Methods, Arnhem, The Netherlands, 1998Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 176.
    Christensson, Lennart
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Malnutrition in elderly people newly admitted to a community resident home.1999In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, ISSN 1279-7707, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 133-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 177.
    Christensson, Lennart
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Malnutrition in old adults admitted to community resident home1998In: 9th Biennial Conference of the Workgroup of European Nurse Researshers, Helsinki, Finland. (föredrad med skriftlig dokumentation), 1998Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 178.
    Christensson, Lennart
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Measuring health problems in order to identify elderly people at risk of malnutrition2004In: 12th Biennial Conference of the Workgroup of European Nurse Researshers (föredrag med skriftlig dokumentation), 2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 179.
    Christensson, Lennart
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Wikby, Kerstin
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    A nutritional nursing care model introduced to elderly people admitted to resident homes2007In: 11th International Nursing Research Conference, Madrid, November 14th-16th, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    11th INTERNATIONAL NURSING RESEARCH CONFERENCE

    Madrid, November 14th – 16th 2007

    PAPER TITLE: A Nutritional Nursing Care Model introduced to Elderly People admitted to Resident Homes

    AUTHOR/S: Lennart Christensson, RN, PhD and Kerstin Wikby, RN PhD.

    WORK PLACE: School of Health Sciences, Department of Nursing, Jönköping University.

    ADDRESS: Box 1026, 551 11 Jönköping, Sweden

    TELEPHONE: +46 36 101249 FAX: +46 36 101250

    E-MAIL: lennart.christensson@hhj.hj.se

    Malnutrition among the elderly is a multidimensional concept, involving medical, psychological and social factors. Fulfilling nutritional requirements in residents with eating problems is often a challenge for both the person in need of help and for the care giver.

    Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether educating care givers have effects on the improvement of nutritional status among elderly people, newly admitted to resident homes.

    Methods: The study was based on an earlier single-case study, where a model for nutritional nursing care was developed. In this study a pre-post test design was used, including 62 residents in the experimental (20 men, 42 women) and 53 in the control group (14 men, 39 women). The residents were newly admitted to a resident home and were consecutively included in the study. Mean age was 85 years. At admission and after four months protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) was assessed, using a combination of anthropometry (weight index, arm muscle circumference and triceps skinfold thickness) and biochemical measurements (serum protein and transthyretin). Functional capacity and overall cognitive function were also assessed. In the experimental unit, a nutritional nursing care model was introduced and the staff received education about nutritional needs, and how to individualise nutritional care.

    Findings: Twenty residents in the experimental and 17 in the control group were assessed as PEM at admission. After four months the number of residents assessed as PEM decreased to seven in the experimental (p=0.004), and to ten in the control group (p=0.1). Motor activity (p=0.006) and cognitive function (p=0.02) increased in the experimental group, while motor activity decreased in the control group (p=0.02). The care givers in the experimental group estimated the extra work, caused by the changed way of work during the meals, to 11/2 minute per resident and day.

    Discussion: Individualised actions directed towards PEM residents are in line with the recommendation by the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) and with the Swedish goals of nursing action. Nursing actions towards nutritional problems include more than merely to offer a standard care plan, such as giving oral supplementation. As the nutritional problems often demands a deeper analysis of the underlying causes, individualized nursing actions may be a more optimal approach. This study shows that implementing an individualised nutritional programme increase nutritional status, motor activity and cognitive function in PEM residents. The nutritional care programme was implemented with a minimum of extra work.

  • 180.
    Christensson, Lennart
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Ödlund Olin, Ann
    Unosson, Mitra
    Kvalitetsindikatorer för prevention av undernäring2007In: Kvalitetsindikatorer inom omvårdnad, Stockholm: Gothia , 2007, p. 155-165Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 181.
    Dahl, Anna
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Body mass index, cognitive ability, and dementia: prospective associations and methodological issues in late life2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the association between overweight and cognitive ability and dementia, and to evaluate the usefulness of self-reported body mass index (BMI) in late life and various data sources commonly used in epidemiological studies to identify persons with dementia. Data were drawn from three population-based studies: the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA), Aging in Women and Men: A Longitudinal Study of Gender Differences in Health Behaviour and Health among Elderly (the Gender Study), and the Finnish Lieto Study. In Study I, the agreement between self-reported and measured BMI over time was evaluated among 774 men and women, ages 40 to 88 years at baseline (mean age 63.9) participating in both the questionnaire phase and in-person testing of SATSA. Latent growth curve (LGC) modeling showed a small but significant increase between self-reported and measured BMI (0.02 kg/m2/y) over time, which would probably not affect the results if self-reported BMI were used as a continuous variable in longitudinal research. In Study II, the agreement between dementia diagnoses from various sources and dementia diagnoses set at a consensus conference was evaluated. Among the 498 elderly people ages 70 to 81 at baseline (mean age 74.5) enrolled in the Gender Study, 87 were diagnosed with dementia during an eight-year period. Review of medical records and nurse evaluations yielded the highest sensitivity (0.83 and 0.80, respectively) and a high specificity (0.98 and 0.96), indicating that these sources might be good proxies of dementia, while data extraction from the Swedish Inpatient Discharge Registry underestimated the prevalence of dementia (sensitivity 0.26). In Study III, the association between being overweight in midlife and cognitive ability in late life was examined in SATSA. The 781 participants ages 25 to 63 at baseline (mean age 41.6) in 1963 or 1973 self-reported their height and weight. From 1986 until 2002, they were assessed five times using a cognitive test battery. LGC models showed that people with higher midlife BMI scores had significantly lower cognitive ability and a significantly steeper decline than their thinner counterparts, an association that persisted when those who developed dementia during the study period were excluded from the analysis. This finding indicates that being overweight might affect cognitive ability independently of dementia. In Study IV, the association between BMI and dementia risk in older persons was described among 605 persons without dementia and ages 65 to 92 at baseline (mean age 70.8) in the Lieto Study. Among these, 86 persons were diagnosed with dementia during eight years of follow-up. Cox regression analyses indicated that for each unit increase in BMI score, the risk of dementia decreased 8% (hazard ratio = 0.92, 95% confidence interval = 0.87–0.97) and the association remained significant when individuals who developed dementia during the first four years of follow-up were excluded from the analyses. This result suggests that low BMI scores are present almost a decade before clinical dementia onset.

  • 182.
    Dahl, Anna
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Kan man undvika demens genom en sund och aktiv livsstil?2008In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 3, p. 22-26Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En vanlig föreställning om åldrandet är att de flesta äldre för eller senare blir glömska. Även om hög ålder är en av de största riskfaktorerna för sämre minnesfunktioner, så har merparten av den åldrande befolkningen väl fungerande minne och andra intellektuella funktioner. Faktum kvarstår dock att det finns stora individuella skillnader, en del äldre har mycket gott minne, medan andra inte minns namnen på sina barn eller ens att de har barn. Hur kommer det sig? Beror det på gener, livsstil, eller är det slumpen som avgör vem som drabbas av glömska på ålderns höst?

  • 183.
    Dahl, Anna
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Psykologiskt åldrande.2011In: Äldre och åldrande.: Grundbok i gerontologi. / [ed] Marie Ernsth Bravell, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB , 2011, p. 168-189Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 184.
    Dahl, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Does Swedish health care recognize and clinically evaluate cognitive impairments?2007In: Advances in health care science research, Stockholm, 7-8 nov, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 185.
    Dahl, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Nilsson, Sven
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Health factors and cognitive functioning in old age2006In: 18. Nordiska Kongressen i Gerontologi, Jyväskylä, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 186.
    Dahl, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Hassing, Linda
    Fransson, Eleonor
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Pedersen, Nancy
    Is self-reported Body Mass Index a valid and reliable measure in old age?: Findings from the Longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging2009In: 62nd Annual Scientific Meeting of Gerontological Society of America, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 187.
    Dahl, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Hassing, Linda
    Fransson, Eleonor
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Reynolds, Chandra
    Gatz, Margaret
    Pedersen, Nancy
    Body Mass Index across midlife and cognitive change in late life: delayed and cumulative effects2011In: 64th Annual Scientific Meeting of Gerontological Society of America, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 188.
    Dahl, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Hassing, Linda
    Fransson, Eleonor
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Reynolds, Chandra
    Gatz, Margaret
    Pedersen, Nancy
    Midlife Body Mass Index and Longitudinal Trajectories of Cognitive Change in Late Life: findings from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging2009In: 62nd Annual Scientific Meeting of Gerontological Society of America, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 189.
    Dahl, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Hassing, Linda
    Löppönen, Minna
    Isoaho, Raimo
    Sirkka-Liisa, Kivelä
    Gatz, Margaret
    Johansson, Boo
    Pedersen, Nancy
    Overweight and dementia: a time-varying effect2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The negative effects of overweight on cardiometabolic health is well-known. An increasing body of evidence extends the negative effects of midlife overweight to dementia. However, a different picture emerge when overweight is assessed in late life. The time-varying effect of weight status on dementia was evaluated in two prospective Nordic population-based studies.

    Methods: The participants included in the Swedish Twin Registry self-reported their height and weight in 1963 (mean age 52.5 years). About 25 years later these twins were either included in the SATSA study (50 years and older) or the OCTO-Twin study (80 years and older). Dementia was consequently screened for and diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria presently used at the time of diagnoses. The participants weight and height was assessed at baseline of the Finnish Lieto Study (mean age 70.8) and dementia was screened for and diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria eight years later.

    Results: Logistic regression analyses indicated that midlife overweight was associated with a greater risk of all cause dementia, odds ratio 1.55 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18-2.04), when demographic and cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases were controlled for. However, Cox regression analyses indicated that for each unit increase in BMI score in late life, the risk of dementia decreased 8% (hazard ratio = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87–0.97), when demographic and cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases were controlled for. The association remained significant when individuals who developed dementia during the first four years of follow-up were excluded from the analyses.

    Conclusions: Our results indicate there might be a time-varying effect of weight status on dementia. Preclinical dementia might blur the association between weight status and dementia in late life. This needs to be further analysed in studies following the same sample over the life course.

  • 190.
    Dahl, Anna K
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Hassing, Linda B
    Fransson, Eleonor I
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Pedersen, Nancy L
    Is Self-reported Body Mass Index Less Reliable in Late Life?  2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Self-reported Body Mass Index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight is a widely used measure of adiposity in epidemiological research. Knowledge about the accuracy of these measures in late life is scarce, and especially if there is intra-individual changes over time.

    Methods: Seven hundred seventy-four men and women, aged 40 to 88 at baseline (mean age 63.9), in The Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging self-reported and had their height and weight measured by experienced research nurses five times during a twenty year period. BMI was calculated as weight (kilos)/height (meter)2.

    Results: There was significant correlation between self-reported and measured height (0.97-0.98), weight (0.97-0.98), and BMI (0.93-0.95) at each measurement occasion, and substantial agreement for BMI as a categorical variable (Kappa coefficient 0.72-0.81). Latent growth curve modeling showed an increase in the mean difference between self-reported and measured values over time for height (0.04 cm/year) and BMI (0.02 kg/m2/year), but not for weight.

    Conclusions: There is a very small significant increase in the mean difference between self-reported and measured BMI with aging, mainly due to unawareness of changes in height, which probably would not affect the results when self-reported BMI is used as a continuous variable in longitudinal studies.

  • 191.
    Dahl, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Löppönen, Minna
    Isoaho, Raimo
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa
    Overweight and obesity in old age is not associated with increased risk of dementia2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 192.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Starr, John M.
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh.
    Pattie, Alison
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh.
    Deary, Ian
    Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh.
    Cognitive consequences of overweight and obesity in the ninth decade of life?2015In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 59-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: the association between late-life obesity and late-life cognitive abilities is poorly understood. We studied the association between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive change in longitudinal population-based study spanning over the ninth decade of life.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: in total, 475 participants free of dementia at baseline from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (mean age: 79.1 years, SD: 0.6) were included. Height and weight were assessed at baseline. BMI was calculated as kg/m(2). Cognitive abilities were assessed at age ∼11 years and at age ∼79, ∼83, ∼87 and ∼90 years.

    RESULTS: latent growth models showed that men being overweight and obese had a 0.65 (SD: 0.3) and 1.10 (SD: 0.5) points less steep decline in general cognitive ability (as measured by the Moray House Test) for each year than people of normal weight. These associations were to some extent confounded by childhood intelligence. No other association between BMI and cognition was significant, either for men or women. People who were obese in old age had significantly lower childhood intelligence (m = 43.6, SD: 1.3) than people who were normal in weight (m = 47.0, SD: 0.8) and persons being overweight (m = 47.5, SD: 0.8), F (472, 3) = 3.2, P = 0.043.

    CONCLUSIONS: the current study shows weak or no evidence for an association between BMI in old age and cognitive function, especially not when childhood intelligence is controlled for. Lower intelligence at the age of 11 years predicted obesity at the age of 79 years.

  • 193.
    Dahl, Anna
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Response letter to Dr. Hazzard2009In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 57, no 7, p. 1316-1317Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 194.
    Dahl, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Nilsson, Sven
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Identification of dementia in epidemiological research: A study on the usefulness of various data sources2007In: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1594-0667, E-ISSN 1720-8319, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 381-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Prevalence and incidence ratios of dementia in epidemiological studies vary according to the data source used. Medical records, cognitive tests, and registry information are sources frequently used to differentiate dementia from normal aging. The aim of the present study was to compare the identification of dementia from these different sources with that from consensus diagnosis. 

    Methods: 498 elderly people (age range 70–81 at baseline) enrolled in a Swedish population-based longitudinal twin study (Gender) were evaluated on physical and mental health and interviewed for their socio-demographic background three times during an eight-year period. Reviews of medical records and the Swedish Discharge Registry (DR) were conducted. The 10th percentile was used to differentiate between dementia and non-dementia in all cognitive tests. Scores of 24 or below on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (range 1–30) indicated dementia. A consensus conference diagnosed dementia on the basis of total information. The consensus diagnosis was used as the gold standard. 

    Results: MMSE scores (sensitivity 64%, specificity 96%, kappa 0.65) and the review of medical records (sensitivity 57%, specificity 99%, kappa 0.65) were good sources for dementia identification. The precision of medical records increased when recordings of cognitive impairment were included (sensitivity 83%, specificity 98%, kappa 0.84). The discharge registry had low sensitivity (26%) and kappa coefficient (0.31). 

    Conclusions: The present study shows that both review of medical records and MMSE scores are good although not perfect identifiers of dementia. The discharge registry is an uncertain source of dementia identification.

  • 195.
    Dahl, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Fauth, Elizabeth
    Department of Family, Consumer, and Human Development, Utah State University, Logan, Utah.
    Ernsth-Bravell, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Hassing, Linda
    University of Gothenburg.
    Ram, Nilam
    Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennysylvania.
    Gerstorf, Denis
    Department of Psychology, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
    Body Mass Index, Change in Body Mass Index, and Survival in Old and Very Old Persons2013In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 512-518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Current recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO) are that individuals should seek to maintain a body mass index (BMI) between 18.5-25 kg/m2, independent of age. However, there is an ongoing discussion whether the WHO recommendations apply to old (70 ≥ 80 years) and very old persons (80+ years). In the present study we examine how BMI status and change in BMI are associated with mortality among old and very old individuals.

    Design: Pooled data from three multidisciplinary prospective population-based studies OCTO-twin, GENDER, and NONA.

    Setting: Sweden.

    Participants: 882 individuals aged 70 to 95 years.

    Measurements: Body Mass Index was calculated from measured height and weight as kg/m2. Information about survival status and time of death was obtained from Swedish Civil Registration System

    Results: Mortality hazard was 20% lower for the overweight group relative to the normal/underweight group (RR = 0.80, p < .05), and the mortality hazard for the obese group did not differ significantly from the normal/underweight group (RR = 0.93, > .10), independent of age, education, and multimorbidity. Furthermore, mortality hazard was 141% higher for the BMI loss group relative to the BMI stable group (RR = 1.65, p < .05); and 178% higher for the BMI gain group relative to BMI stable group (RR = 1.53, p < .05).  However, the BMI change differences were moderated by age, i.e. the higher mortality risks associated with both loss in BMI and BMI gain were less severe in very old age.

    Conclusion: Old persons who were overweight had a decreased mortality risk compared to old persons having a BMI below 25, even after controlling for weight change and multimorbidity. Compared to persons who had a stable BMI those who increased or decreased in BMI had a higher mortality risk, particularly among people aged 70 to 80. This study lends further support for the opinion that the WHO guidelines are overly restrictive in old age.

  • 196.
    Dahl, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Hassing, Linda
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Obesity and cognitive aging2013In: Epidemiologic reviews, ISSN 0193-936X, E-ISSN 1478-6729, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 22-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is a health problem that has reached epidemic proportions. Given the high prevalence of obesity, even a small adverse impact of obesity on cognitive aging might have a serious effect on public health. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the relation between obesity and cognitive function in late life among persons not diagnosed with dementia and to evaluate the evidence for a causal association. Medline was used to search for the following terms: obesity, overweight, cognition, cognitive, age, and aged. To be included, studies must have had a population-based, dementia-free sample and a 5-year minimum interval between measurement of the predictor and the outcome. Only 11 studies met the criteria. Of these, 7 studies assessed obesity in midlife and cognitive function in later life, and 4 studies assessed obesity and cognitive function in late life. The reviewed studies showed clear evidence that midlife obesity was associated with cognitive aging, whereas this association was weaker in late life; thus, no firm conclusions could be drawn. The findings of this review suggest that, although there is evidence for an association between midlife obesity and low cognitive abilities in late life, the direction of the association and the causality remain to be clarified.

  • 197.
    Dahl, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Hassing, Linda B.
    Fransson, Eleonor
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Berg, Stig
    Reynolds, Chandra A.
    Gatz, Margrete
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Being overweight in midlife is associated with lower cognitive ability and steeper cognitive decline in late life2010In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 65A, no 1, p. 57-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although an increasing body of evidence links being overweight in midlife with an increased risk for dementia in late life, no studies have examined the association between being overweight in midlife and cognitive ability in late life. Our aim was to examine the association between being overweight in midlife as measured by body mass index (BMI) and cognitive ability assessed over time. METHODS: Participants in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study Aging were derived from a population-based sample. The participants completed baseline surveys in 1963 or 1973 (mean age 41.6 years, range 25-63 years). The surveys included questions about height, weight, diseases, and lifestyle factors. Beginning in 1986, the same individuals were assessed on neuropsychological tests every 3 years (except in 1995) until 2002. During the study period, 781 individuals who were 50 years and older (60% women) had at least one complete neuropsychological assessment. A composite score of general cognitive ability was derived from the cognitive test battery for each measurement occasion. RESULTS: Latent growth curve models adjusted for twinness showed that persons with higher midlife BMI scores had significantly lower general cognitive ability and significantly steeper longitudinal decline than their thinner counterparts. The association did not change substantially when persons who developed dementia during the study period were excluded from the analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Higher midlife BMI scores precede lower general cognitive ability and steeper cognitive decline in both men and women. The association does not seem to be mediated by an increased risk for dementia

  • 198.
    Dahl, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Hassing, Linda
    Fransson, Eleonor
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Margaret, Gatz
    Reynolds, Chandra
    Pedersen, Nancy
    Body mass index across midlife and cognitive change in late life2013In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 296-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High midlife body mass index (BMI) has been linked to a greater risk of dementia in late life, but few have studied the effect of BMI across midlife on cognitive abilities and cognitive change in a dementia-free sample.

    Methods: We investigated the association between BMI, measured twice across midlife (mean age 40 and 61 years, respectively), and cognitive change in four domains across two decades in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging.

    Results: Latent growth curve models fitted to data from 657 non-demented participants showed that persons who were overweight/obese in early midlife had significantly lower cognitive performance across domains in late life and significantly steeper decline in perceptual speed, adjusting for cardio-metabolic factors. Both underweight and overweight/obesity in late midlife were associated with lower cognitive abilities in late life. However, the association between underweight and low cognitive abilities did not remain significant when weight decline between early and late midlife was controlled for.

    Conclusion: There is a negative effect on cognitive abilities later in life related to being overweight/obese across midlife. Moreover, weight decline across midlife rather than low weight in late midlife per se was associated with low cognitive abilities. Weight patterns across midlife may be prodromal markers of late life cognitive health.

  • 199.
    Dahl, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Hassing, Linda
    Fransson, Eleonor
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Pedersen, Nancy
    Agreement between self-reported and measured height, weight and body mass index in old age: a longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up2010In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 445-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: self-reported body mass index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight is a widely used measure of adiposity in epidemiological research. Knowledge about the accuracy of these measures in late life is scarce.

    Objective: the study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and changes in accuracy of self-reported height, weight and BMI calculated from self-reported height and weight in late life.

    Design: a longitudinal population-based study with five times of follow-up was conducted.

    Participants: seven hundred seventy-four community-living men and women, aged 40–88 at baseline (mean age 63.9), included in The Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging.

    Methods: participants self-reported their height and weight in a questionnaire, and height and weight were measured by experienced research nurses at an in-person testing five times during a 20-year period. BMI was calculated as weight (kilogramme)/height (metre)2.

    Results: latent growth curve modelling showed an increase in the mean difference between self-reported and measured values over time for height (0.038 cm/year) and BMI (0.016 kg/m2/year), but not for weight.

    Conclusions: there is a very small increase in the mean difference between self-reported and measured BMI with ageing, which probably would not affect the results when self-reported BMI is used as a continuous variable in longitudinal studies.

  • 200.
    Dahl, Anna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Löppönen, Minna
    Åbo University.
    Isoaho, Raimo
    Åbo University.
    Berg, Stig
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Kivelä, Sirkka-Lisa
    Åbo University.
    Overweight and obesity in old age are not associated with greater dementia risk2008In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 56, no 12, p. 2261-2266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between body mass index (BMI) and dementia risk in older persons.

    DESIGN: Prospective population‐based study, with 8 years of follow‐up.

    SETTING: The municipality of Lieto, Finland, 1990/91 and 1998/99.

    PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred five men and women without dementia aged 65 to 92 at baseline (mean age 70.8).

    MEASUREMENTS: Weight and height were measured at baseline and at the 8‐year follow‐up. Dementia was clinically assessed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria.

    RESULTS: Eighty‐six persons were diagnosed with dementia. Cox regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, education, cardiovascular diseases, smoking, and alcohol use, indicated that, for each unit increase in BMI score, the risk of dementia decreased 8% (hazard ratio (HR)=0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.87–0.97). This association remained significant when individuals who developed dementia early during the first 4 years of follow‐up were excluded from the analyses (HR=0.93, 95% CI=0.86–0.99). Women with high BMI scores had a lower dementia risk (HR=0.90, 95% CI=0.84–0.96). Men with high BMI scores also tended to have a lower dementia risk, although the association did not reach significance (HR=0.95, 95% CI=0.84–1.07).

    CONCLUSION: Older persons with higher BMI scores have less dementia risk than their counterparts with lower BMI scores. High BMI scores in late life should not necessarily be considered to be a risk factor for dementia.

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