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  • 12851.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Koch, Göran
    Thirty year trends in the prevalence and distribution of dental caries in Swedish adults (1973-2003)2008In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 57-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present investigation is to report on the trends in the prevalence and severity of dental caries and dental status in an adult Swedish population over a 30-year period (1973-2003). Four cross-sectional epidemiological studies in 1973, 1983, 1993, and 2003 were performed in Jönköping, Sweden.A random sample of individuals aged 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 years were examined clinically and radiographically, a total of 2521 individals. Diagnostic variables were edentulousness, number of teeth, initial and manifest caries lesions, restorations, fissure sealants, and quality of restorations (secondary caries and overhangs). The percentage of edentulous 40- to 70-year-old individuals decreased during the 30-year period from 16% to 1%. The distribution of individuals by DFS in the age groups 20-50 years showed a gradual shift towards a positively skewed distribution between the years 1973 to 2003. There was a steady decrease in mean number of DFS in the age groups 20-50 years. In the 20-year-olds the mean number of DFS decreased by 72% and for 50-year-olds, by 37%. In conclusion there has been a marked decrease in DFS in adults up to middle age and a marked reduction in edentulousness over a thirty year period. This shows that the decrease in caries levels in children and adolescents is also occurring among adults.

  • 12852.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Koch, Göran
    Göthberg, Catharina
    Helkimo, Anna Nydell
    Lundin, Sven-Ake
    Norderyd, Ola
    Sjödin, Bengt
    Sjödin, Katarina
    Oral health of individuals aged 3-80 years in Jönköping, Sweden during 30 years (1973-2003): II. Review of clinical and radiographic findings.2005In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 139-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this epidemiological study was to analyze various clinical and radiographic data on oral health and compare the results to those of three cross-sectional studies carried out in 1973 and 1983, and 1993. In 1973, 1983, 1993, and 2003 a random sample of 1,000; 1,104; 1,078; and 987 individuals, respectively, were studied. The individuals were evenly distributed in the age groups 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 years. In 1973 80-year-olds were not included. All subjects were inhabitants of the City of Jönköping, Sweden. The clinical and radiographic examination assessed edentulousness, removable dentures, implants, number of teeth, caries, restorations and overhangs, oral hygiene, calculus, periodontal status, endodontic treatment, and periapical status. The number of edentulous individuals in the age groups 40-70 years was reduced from 16 per cent in 1973 to 8 per cent in 1993, and to 1 per cent in 2003. The mean number of teeth increased, and up to the age of 60 years, individuals had more or less complete dentitions. During the 30-year period,the number of carious lesions and restorations decreased in general. In the 15-year-olds the decrease in number of restored tooth surfaces was 900 per cent and the corresponding figure for 30-year-olds was 79 per cent. The age groups 60-800 years showed an increase in number of restored tooth surfaces and had as a mean 50 filled tooth surfaces. The oral health among 3-5-year-olds improved markedly between 1973 and 1993. In 2003, however, there was no further improvement in 3- and 5-year-olds compared to 1993. Generally, restorations in 2003 exhibited a high quality and 90-95 per cent had no proximal overhangs. In 1973 this figure was about 60 per cent. In the age groups 20-50 years there were continuously fewer teeth fitted with crowns or bridges during the 30-year period. In 1973 the 50-year-olds had a mean of 24.5 per cent of the teeth crowned and in 2003 6.8 percent. Compared to data from 1973 there was a reduction by half concerning occurrence of plaque and gingivitis in 2003. The frequency of individuals with one or more periodontal pockets (> or = 4 mm) increased with age. In 2003 the bone level at the age of 60 years corresponded to the bone level at the age of 40 years in 1973. The percentage of endodontically treated teeth was lower in 2003 in all age groups compared to 1973, 1983, and 1993. The percentage of endodontically treated teeth with periapical orjuxtaradicular destructions was generally lower in 2003 than in the earlier surveys, about 20 per cent in 2003 compared to 25-30 per cent in 1973,1983, and 1993. The comparison of the four studies shows that there has been a great overall improvement in oral health over this 30-year period.

  • 12853.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Koch, Göran
    Göthberg, Catharina
    Helkimo, Anna Nydell
    Lundin, Sven-Ake
    Norderyd, Ola
    Sjödin, Bengt
    Sondell, Katarina
    Oral health of individuals aged 3-80 years in Jönköping, Sweden during 30 years (1973-2003): I. Review of findings on dental care habits and knowledge of oral health2005In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 125-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to compare data on dental care habits and knowledge of oral health in four cross-sectional epidemiological studies carried out in 1973,1983,1993, and 2003. The 1973 study constituted a random sample of 1,000 individuals evenly distributed in the age groups 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 years. The same age groups with addition of a group of 80-year-olds were included in the 1983, 1993 and 2003 studies, which comprised 1,104, 1,078, and 987 individuals, respectively. A questionnaire about dental care habits and knowledge of oral health was used in connection with a clinical and radiographic examination. The same questions were used in all the four studies. An addition to the 1993 and 2003 investigations were questions concerning ethnic background. In 2003 approximately 90-95 per cent of all individuals were visiting the dentist on a regular basis every or every second year. The 30- and 40-yea r-olds, however, did not visit a dentist as regularly in 2003 as in 1993. In these age groups 21-24 per cent of the individuals, respectively, reported that they had not visited a dentist in the last 2 years. Almost all children 3-15 years old received their dental care within the Public Dental Service (PDS). During the period 1973-2003 an increase in percentage of individuals aged 20-50 years treated by the PDS was seen compared to private practice, while among 60-80 year-olds there were only minor changes. Most so-year-olds and older received their dental care by private practitioners. About 70-80 per cent of all adults in 2003 were enrolled in a recall system on the dentist's initiative while in 1973 most appointments were based on the patient's own initiative. The number of individuals who were frightened, 5-17 per cent, or felt discomfort at the prospect of an appointment with the dentist was more or less the same during the whole period. The knowledge of the etiology of dental diseases did not changed much between 1973 and 2003. The frequency of toothbrushing increased since 1973 and in 2003 more than 90 per cent of all individuals brushed their teeth twice or once a day. The use of dental floss and toothpicks decreased in 2003 compared to 1983 and 1993. Almost all individuals in 2003 used fluoride toothpaste. It was obvious that the dental team constituted the main source of dental health information. For the age groups 20 and 30 years information from friends and relatives was also important. In the age groups 3-20 years up to 45 per cent of the individuals were consuming soft drinks every day or several times a week.

  • 12854.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Koch, Göran
    Helkimo, Anna Nydell
    Lundin, Sven-Ake
    Caries prevalence and distribution in individuals aged 3-20 years in Jönköping, Sweden, over a 30-year period (1973-2003)2008In: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, ISSN 0960-7439, E-ISSN 1365-263X, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 18-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Oral health status of individuals aged 3-80 years in the city of Jönköping, Sweden, has been assessed in a series of epidemiological studies over a 30-year period. AIM: To analyse the changes in caries prevalence and caries distribution in child population sample groups, based on studies performed in 1973, 1978, 1983, 1993, and 2003. DESIGN: Each time point included 500 randomly sampled individuals, divided into age groups of 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years. Results. Thirty-five per cent of 3-year-olds were caries free in 1973, compared with 69% 30 years later. Decayed and filled primary (dfs) and permanent surfaces (DFS) were reduced by 50-80% between 1973 and 2003. Adolescents aged 10 and 15 years exhibited the most pronounced reduction in DFS on the occlusal surfaces. By 2003, 90% of the proximal carious lesions in 15-year-olds were initial carious lesions. In 2003, about 60% of 15-year-olds had a DFS of < or = 5, while about 7% exhibited a DFS of > or = 26. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the dramatic decline in the prevalence of caries, caries remains a health problem among children, particularly those of preschool age. Continuous epidemiological studies are recommended to evaluate preventive measures.

  • 12855.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Laurell, L
    Lundgren, D
    Frequency distribution of individuals aged 20-70 years according to severity of periodontal disease experience in 1973 and 1983.1992In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 227-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare changes in periodontal status of a Swedish population over a 10-year period expressed as frequency distributions of individuals according to severity of periodontal disease experience. The study involved 600 randomly selected individuals evenly distributed into age groups 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 years, examined in 1973 and another randomly selected group of 597 individuals similarly age distributed and examined in 1983. Based on clinical data and full mouth intraoral radiographs all individuals were classified into 5 groups according to severity of periodontal disease experience. In 1983, 23% of the individuals were classified as having healthy periodontal tissues, group 1, compared to 8% in 1973. The changes were most pronounced in the age groups 20 and 30 years, among whom 58% and 35%, respectively, were registered as having healthy periodontium in 1983. The prevalence of individuals with gingivitis without signs of lowered periodontal bone level, group 2, was 22% in 1983 compared to 41% in 1973. In all, 49% of the dentate population in 1973 and 45% in 1983 showed no marginal alveolar bone loss. Moderate periodontal bone loss, group 3, was found in 41% of the population in 1983 compared to 47% in 1973. Among 30-, 40-, and 50-year-olds, there were more, and among 60- and 70-year-olds, fewer individuals in this group in 1983 compared to 1973. 96% of the dentate population were classified as belonging to groups 1, 2 or 3 in 1973 compared to 86% in 1983.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  • 12856.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Ljungquist, B
    Breivik, T
    The relationship of some negative events and psychological factors to periodontal disease in an adult Swedish population 50 to 80 years of age2002In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 247-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Clinical observations and epidemiological studies suggest that experiences of negative life events, especially those manifested as depression, may contribute to an increased susceptibility to periodontal disease. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the prevalence of some negative life events and psychological factors and their relation to periodontal disease were investigated. The sample consisted of individuals 50-80 years of age from an extensive cross-sectional epidemiological study performed in 1993 in the city of Jönköping, Sweden. METHOD: 298 dentate individuals from the Jönköping study were randomly selected. Clinical and radiographic examinations included registration of the number of existing teeth, plaque index, gingival index, pocket depth, and alveolar bone loss. In addition, a questionnaire about socioeconomic status, life events, and psychological and stress-related factors was used. RESULTS: The results revealed that, in addition to the well-documented periodontal disease risk factors such as increased age, oral hygiene status, and smoking, the loss of a spouse (being a widow or widower) and the personality trait of exercising extreme external control were also associated with severe periodontal disease. CONCLUSION: The findings support recent studies suggesting that traumatic life events such as the loss of a spouse may increase the risk for periodontal disease. Above all, the present results indicate that an individual's ability to cope with stressful stimuli (coping behavior), as measured by the beliefs of locus of control of reinforcements may play a role in the progression of periodontal disease.

  • 12857.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Lundgren, Dan
    Asklöw, Barbro
    Borgklint, Gun
    Effect of three different dental health preventive programmes on young adult individuals: a randomized, blinded, parallel group, controlled evaluation of oral hygiene behaviour on plaque and gingivitis.2007In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 407-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To evaluate, in young adults, the effect of different preventive programmes on oral hygiene and to determine whether the variables investigated are predictors of gingival health. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This randomized, blinded, parallel, controlled clinical study examined the effectiveness of three dental health programmes. Four hundred subjects aged 20-27 years, 211 males and 189 females, participated in the study. They were recruited from a Public Dental Service clinic and from a private dental practice in Jönköping, Sweden. The effect of the programmes on plaque and gingivitis was evaluated over a 3-year period. The programmes included activities that were adapted for individuals as well as for groups. The plaque indices (PLI) and gingival indices (GI) were used to evaluate the programmes. RESULTS: All programmes resulted in a decrease in PLI and GI. The greatest decrease was found in the group that was followed-up every 2 months. Professional tooth cleaning was non-significant for the clinical result. Gingival health at baseline, participation in any of the test programmes, and knowledge of the dental diseases caries, gingivitis or periodontitis were significant predictors of good gingival health. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirms the efficacy of three different preventive programmes in reducing supragingival plaque and gingival inflammation. Professional tooth cleaning provided no clinical benefit beyond that derived from individual and group-based health education.

  • 12858.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Lundgren, Dan
    Asklöw, Barbro
    Borgklint, Gun
    The effect of different dental health programmes on young adult individuals: A longitudinal evaluation of knowledge and behaviour including cost aspects2003In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 115-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study was to report the long-term effect of different dental health programmes on young adult individuals' knowledge and behaviour relative to oral health. Over a 3 years period, the effect of three different dental health programmes on caries, gingivitis/periodontitis, and knowledge and behaviour concerning oral health in 400 Swedish young adults was evaluated. During the following 2 years, additional prophylactic measures--now based on the individual's symptoms and the prophylaxis previously received--were conducted and evaluated. Five years later still one follow-up was made. The evaluations were based on clinical and radiographic examinations and on a questionnaire survey whose purpose was to study the short- and long-term effects of the different preventive measures, including cost aspects. At the end of the 3 years period, the three test groups exhibited better knowledge and significantly improved behaviour compared with the control group concerning approximal cleaning, from approximately 50% of the individuals at the baseline examination to approximately 90% at the end of the period. Improvement was observed as early as the first year. There were no differences between the test groups. The intensified, individual-related prophylaxis carried out in the following 2 years did not significantly increase knowledge in the test groups; a significant increase in approximal cleaning, however, was found in the control group during this time. At the 10-year follow-up, the individuals' knowledge was undiminished while behaviour concerning approximal cleaning had sunk from 90% to approximately 70% of the individuals. A slight behavioural change concerning number of snacks was found in the course of the study with a shift towards fewer snacks per day. In conclusion, it can be said that simple prophylactic models have an effect on and maintain young adult individuals' knowledge and behaviour concerning oral health and that new knowledge is remembered for long periods of time while changes in behaviour are maintained less well. Moreover, it was found that the scope of the prophylactic programme measured in time and cost had little effect on the long-term result.

  • 12859.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Norderyd, O
    Slotte, C
    Thorstensson, H
    Distribution of periodontal disease in a Swedish adult population 1973, 1983 and 1993.1998In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 542-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare changes in periodontal status in a Swedish population over a period of 20 years. Cross-sectional studies were carried out in Jönköping County in 1973, 1983, and 1993. Individuals were randomly selected from the following age groups: 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 years. A total of 600 individuals were examined in 1973, 597 in 1983, and 584 in 1993. The number of dentate individuals was 537 in 1973, 550 in 1983, and 552 in 1993. Based on clinical data and full mouth intra-oral radiographs, all individuals were classified into 5 groups according to the severity of the periodontal disease experience. Individuals were classified as having a healthy periodontium (group 1), gingivitis without signs of alveolar bone loss (group 2), moderate alveolar bone loss not exceeding 1/3 of the normal alveolar bone height (group 3), severe alveolar bone loss ranging between 1/3 and 2/3 of the normal alveolar bone height (group 4), or alveolar bone loss exceeding 2/3 of the normal bone height and angular bony defects and/or furcation defects (group 5). During these 20 years, the number of individuals in groups 1 and 2 increased from 49% in 1973 to 60% in 1993. In addition, there was a decrease in the number of individuals in group 3, the group with moderate periodontal bone loss. Groups 4 and 5 comprised 13% of the population and showed no change in general between 1983 and 1993. The individuals comprising these groups in 1993, however, had more teeth than those who comprised these groups in 1983; on the average, the individuals in disease group 4 had 4 more teeth and those in disease group 5, 2 more teeth per subject. In 1973, these 2 groups were considerably smaller, probably because of wider indications for tooth extractions and fewer possibilities for periodontal care which meant that many of these individuals had become edentulous and were not placed in a group. Individuals in groups 3, 4, and 5 were subdivided according to the number of surfaces (%) with gingivitis and periodontal pockets (> or =4 mm). In 1993, 20%, 42%. and 67% of the individuals in groups 3, 4, and 5 respectively were classified as diseased and in need of periodontal therapy with >20% bleeding sites and >10% sites with periodontal pockets > or =4 mm. In conclusion, an increase in the number of individuals with no marginal bone loss and a decrease in the number of individuals with moderate alveolar bone loss can be seen. The prevalence of individuals in the severe periodontal disease groups (4, 5) was unchanged during the last 10 years; however, the number of teeth per subject increased.

  • 12860.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Norderyd, O
    Slotte, C
    Thorstensson, H
    Oral hygiene and gingivitis in a Swedish adult population 1973, 1983 and 1993.1998In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 807-812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The periodontal condition of the inhabitants of Jönköping County, Sweden was followed for 20 years by means of 3 cross-sectional investigations performed in 1973, 1983, and 1993. The study comprised individuals in the age groups 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 years. The number of dentate individuals was 537 in 1973, 550 in 1983, and 552 in 1993. All individuals participating in the studies were examined clinically and radiographically. They also filled out a questionnaire about dental care habits, socio-economic status, and general health. A clear reduction in the plaque score was seen between 1973 and 1983 in all age groups. With one exception, no further significant change in plaque levels was found between 1983 and 1993: the increase in plaque among the 20-year-olds was significant. In 1993 the mean % of surfaces with plaque was between 30% and 40% in all age groups. Gingivitis values corresponded well with the values of dental plaque; the same pattern with a clear reduction in gingivitis score was seen in all age groups between 1973 and 1983, and an increase in the mean frequency of gingival inflammation between 1983 and 1993 was seen in the 20-year age group. 30% of the individuals in this age group had more than 50% gingivitis in 1993 compared with 9% of the individuals in 1983. The 20-year-olds were further analyzed in a linear regression model using gingivitis as a dependent variable against some socio-economic, general health, and dental care variables associated with poor oral hygiene and gingivitis. In 1993, the most important explanatory variable was gender: significantly more males than females had higher gingivitis scores. The second most important explanatory variable was toothbrushing habits. Together they explained 10.9% of the variance. The multivariate analysis did not reveal approximal cleaning habits to be significant, probably due to their strong connection to gender and toothbrushing habits. In the 1983 sample, no significant explanatory variables were found. It was concluded from this data that it is important not only to renew but also to direct preventive guidelines more towards young adults who have no previous extensive experience of oral disease so that they will not be excluded from dental care and their dental health thereby jeopardised. In addition to preventive programmes aimed at the population as a whole, individual programmes based on risk targeting are also necessary to reduce the number of people developing dental disease and to increase the quality of dental care.

  • 12861.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Norderyd, Ola
    Has the prevalence of periodontitis changed during the last 30 years?2008In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 35, no 8 Suppl, p. 338-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This paper reviews global trends in the change in prevalence of periodontitis over the last 30 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The epidemiology of periodontal disease is briefly reviewed together with the current classification system and the clinical and radiographic diagnostic methodology in periodontal disease. RESULTS: This review identifies the very limited number of studies that provide prevalence data over time, and this data is discussed in comparison with those stemming from a few corresponding studies from countries outside Europe. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate a possible trend of a lower prevalence of periodontitis in recent years.

  • 12862.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health.
    Ravald, N
    Fornell, J
    Johard, G
    Teiwik, A
    Gottlow, J
    Treatment of class II furcation involvements in humans with bioresorbable and nonresorbable guided tissue regeneration barriers: A randomized multi-center study1995In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 66, no 7, p. 624-634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this multi-center study 38 patients with contralateral molar Class II furcation defects were treated with GTR therapy using a bioresorbable matrix barrier (test) and a nonresorbable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) barrier (control). Following flap elevation, scaling, root planing, and removal of granulation tissue, each device was adjusted to cover the furcation defect. The flaps were repositioned and sutured to complete coverage of the barriers. A second surgical procedure was performed at control sites after 4 to 6 weeks to remove the nonresorbable barrier. Before treatment and 12 months postsurgery all patients were examined and probing depths, clinical attachment levels, and position of the gingival margin were recorded. The primary response variable was the change in clinical attachment level in a horizontal direction (CAL-H change). Both treatment procedures reduced the probing depths (P < or = 0.001). Statistically significant gain of clinical attachment level in both horizontal and vertical direction was found at the test sites. At control sites gain of attachment in horizontal direction was statistically significant. The gain of CAL-H was 2.2 mm at test sites compared to 1.4 mm at control sites (P < or = 0.05). At test sites, the gingival margin was maintained close to the pre-surgical level (0.3 mm), whereas at control sites gingival recession was evident (0.9 mm), the difference being statistically significant (P < or = 0.01). Postsurgical complications, such as swelling and pain were more frequent following the control treatment (P < or = 0.05).

  • 12863.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Rolandsson, Margot
    Periodontal disease in relation to smoking and the use of swedish snus: epidemiological studies covering 20 years (1983-2033)2011In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 38, no 9, p. 809-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine how deleterious current smoking and the use of Swedish moist snuff (snus) is for periodontal health compared with non-tobacco users. Materials and Methods: The studies comprised three epidemiological cross-sectional studies, in 1983, 1993 and 2003, of stratified random samples aged 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 years. The numbers of dentate participants were 550, 552 and 523, respectively. The participants were examined clinically and radiographically. Diagnostic criteria were the number of teeth, plaque, gingival status, probing pocket depth (PPD)4 mm, height of the alveolar bone level and classification by periodontal disease experience. In addition, participants were asked about their tobacco habits. Results: Multiple logistic regression shows, after adjusting for age, gender and sociodemographic variables, that relative to non-tobacco users, cigarette smokers had statistically significant less gingivitis, a higher frequency of PPD4 mm and a higher incidence of severe periodontitis. There was no significant association between gingivitis, frequency of PPD4 mm and periodontal disease experience and snus use. Conclusions: Cigarette smokers were found to have a statistically significant higher risk of severe periodontitis than non-tobacco users and users of snus. Using snus did not seem to be a risk factor for periodontitis.

  • 12864.
    Hugoson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Oral health.
    Sjödin, Bengt
    Norderyd, Ola
    Trends over 30 years, 1973-2003, in the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease.2008In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 405-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The present investigation presents findings of the prevalence and distribution of gingivitis and periodontitis in a Swedish population over the 30 years 1973-2003. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four cross-sectional epidemiological studies in 1973, 1983, 1993, and 2003 were performed in Jönköping, Sweden. Random samples of individuals aged 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 years were examined clinically and radiographically. Diagnostic criteria were edentulousness, number of teeth, plaque, gingival status, probing pocket depth, gingival recession, alveolar bone level, and classification according to periodontal disease status. RESULTS: In all age groups, the number of edentulous individuals decreased dramatically and the number of teeth increased. Oral hygiene improved considerably. Over the 30 years, the proportion of periodontally healthy individuals increased from 8% in 1973 to 44% in 2003 and the proportion of individuals with gingivitis and moderate periodontitis decreased. There was a non-significant trend for the proportion of individuals with severe periodontal disease experience (Group 4) to decrease, while the proportion of individuals with advanced periodontitis (Group 5) remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Oral hygiene and periodontal health improved significantly in the 20-80-year age groups over the 30 years 1973-2003.

  • 12865.
    Hugoson, Mats-Åke
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Johansson, Björn
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Financial Model for analysis of the value from IT-spending – Final Report2006Report (Other academic)
  • 12866.
    Hugoson, Mats-Åke
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics. Informatik.
    Johansson, Björn
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics. Informatik.
    Löwenadler-Davidsson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics. Informatik.
    Seigerroth, Ulf
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics. Informatik.
    Creating a Model for IT-investments Evaluation2006In: 13th European Conference on Information Technology Evaluation, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a model for evaluating IT-investments and the development of that model. The model aims at giving decision-makers in organizations a clear and precise picture of IT-investments. The model has been developed with an action-research approach, which means that researchers have cooperated closely with practitioners during the development. The development has been heavily influenced by the organizations taking part in the project. In a number of workshops intermediate results have been presented and reactions from practitioners have influenced the work, until the model is tested and considered to be useful. A Swedish Governmental organization has headed the project. A number of agricultural organizations within the European Union have provided the project with feedback. The participating representatives from different countries are directly concerned with IT investment problems. This action-research approach has resulted in a model that from participants is considered to have a potential to make an impact in their organizations on the decision-making processes for IT investments. The model also has potential to be used in academic teaching about how organizations can manage IT-investments.

    The model differs from other investment models in three distinct ways:

    - it adopts a lifetime perspective for different types of IT related investments

    - the concept of delayed investment is introduced

    - different calculation practices can be used, and the model supports different decision alternatives, also with consideration to non monetary benefits.

    The overall objective for the model is to support management of IT investments in a lifetime perspective.

    Even if the model is developed within governmental organizations it is judged to be general enough for use in every type of organization.

  • 12867.
    Hugoson, Mats-Åke
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Johansson, Björn
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Seigerroth, Ulf
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Information Engineering.
    Financial Model for analysis of the value from IT-spending – Executive Summary2006Report (Other academic)
  • 12868.
    Hugoson, Mats-Åke
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Johansson, Björn
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Seigerroth, Ulf
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Information Engineering.
    Manual and cases – Prototype tool for IT-spending2006Report (Other academic)
  • 12869.
    Hugoson, Mats-Åke
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Johansson, Björn
    Copenhagen Business School.
    Seigerroth, Ulf
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    The Total Picture: A Framework for Control of IT-Investments2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of IT-investments is a hard and tricky question. The paper presents a framework for control of IT-investments, which aims at providing decision-makers with a clear picture of, both individual IT-investments as well as an aggregated level where all IT-investments are compiled into a total picture. The framework has been developed with an action-research approach. In a number of workshops intermediate results have been presented and reactions from practitioners have influenced the development. Participants in the project come from different EU countries all directly concerned with IT-investments. The framework that is tested in authorities in different EU countries is from participants considered to have a potential to improve the decision-making processes. The framework also has potential to be used in academic teaching in IT economics. The framework is based on a lifetime perspective, where established investment models can be applied. A main dimension is to consider interrelations between different IT- investments through compilation into a total picture, in order to control the total spending on IT in organizations.

  • 12870.
    Hugoson, Mats-Åke
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Larsson, Ulf
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Tarasov, Vladimir
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Information Engineering. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics, JTH, Jönköping AI Lab (JAIL).
    Interaction between Heterogeneous Autonomous Systems: Principles and Practice2010In: Business Information Systems Workshops. BIS 2010 International Workshops, Berlin, Germany, May 3-5, 2010. Revised Papers / [ed] Witold Abramowicz, Robert Tolksdorf, Krzysztof Wecel, Springer Berlin Heidelberg , 2010, Vol. 57, p. 119-130Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, many enterprises use information systems to support their activities but as a rule these systems are heterogeneous and incompatible. When enterprises need to cooperate with each other, they have to overcome this heterogeneity and establish interaction between their information systems. Based on a case study from international business development, this paper analyzes principles and conditions for creating interaction between autonomous systems. Furthermore, an approach to interaction between heterogeneous information systems in the case study is presented, which is based on a service-oriented architecture and Web services. In this context, a business process model describes how the distributed autonomous systems should be used by companies in different countries to support establishment of business relationships. These systems have different data models, and use different industrial classifications. Our main contribution to research in the field of interaction between autonomous systems are (1) a proposal for principles to be taken into account when federating autonomous systems and (2) an experience report when putting these principles into practice in the case study presented.

  • 12871.
    Hugoson, Peter
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Interregional Business Travel and the Economics of Business Interaction2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of five individual essays, and a common introduction. The main theoretical focus of the study is to show that a firm’s choice to carry out a business interaction is based on its set of perceived business opportunities. Differences in domestic regional business attraction in Sweden are investigated within the framework of new spatial econometric tools, assuming that interregional business trips can be used as a proxy for regional business attraction. If a region has a growing number of new innovations and/or a number of entrepreneurs with profitable business opportunities, then more firms will establish business contacts with that region.

    A decision to make a business contact is related to the perceived profitability of such a contact and the profitability is correlated with the form of interaction chosen, where the choice is between an face-to-face (FTF) contact and a mediated contact. The arguments put forward are that the choice of FTF business contacts is associated with non-standardised information exchange and high transaction costs (net of travel costs). This implies that market and renewal activities are associated with a greater willingness to make an FTF contact than other activities.

    The empirical part of the study examines the generation and attraction of interregional FTF business interaction for a set of functional regions and for the Jönköping airport market area. The empirical part is based on two unique surveys with over 165 000 respondents. The empirical exercises show that the generation of interregional business trips is primarily market oriented. In addition, the analysis shows that the willingness to make a trip increases with the size of the establishment and is greater for the manufacturing industry than for other industries.

    A spatial interaction model between origin and destination pairs is also outlined and estimated. It is shown that the share of knowledge and service-handling professions in a labour market region influences both the generation and attraction of interregional FTF business contacts. The empirical analysis also shows that regions with high employment shares for growing industries tend to exert a positive attraction and to some extent also a generation of business trips. As a consequence, growing regions tend to attract more business trips than similar but stagnating regions.

  • 12872. Hugoson, Peter
    et al.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Business trips between functional regions: economic characteristics as generators and attractors1998Report (Other academic)
  • 12873.
    Hugosson, Beatrice
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Dinh, Donna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Esmerson, Gabriella
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Why you should care: Ethical AI principles in a business setting: A study investigating the relevancy of the Ethical framework for AI in the context of the IT and telecom industry in Sweden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The development of artificial intelligence (AI) is ever increasing, especially in the telecom and IT industry due to its great potential competitive advantage. However, AI is implemented at a fast phase in society with insufficient consideration for the ethical implications. Luckily, different initiatives and organizations are now launching ethical principles to prevent possible negative effects stemming from AI usage. One example is the Ethical Framework for AI by Floridi et al., (2018) who established five ethical principles for sustainable AI with inspiration from bioethics. Moreover, Sweden as a country is taking AI ethics seriously since the government is on a mission to be the world leader in harnessing artificial intelligence.

    Problem: The research in the field of ethical artificial intelligence is increasing but is still in its infancy where the majority of the academic articles are conceptual papers. Moreover, the few frameworks that exist for responsible AI are not always action-guiding and applicable to all AI applications and contexts.

    Purpose: This study aims to contribute with empirical evidence within the topic of artificial intelligence ethics and investigate the relevancy of an existing framework, namely the Ethical Framework for AI by Floridi et al., (2018), in the IT and telecom industry in Sweden.

    Method: A qualitative multiple-case study of ten semi-structured interviews with participants from the companies EVRY and Ericsson. The findings have later been connected to the literature within the field of artificial intelligence and ethics.

    Results: The most reasonable interpretation from the findings and analysis is that some parts of the framework are relevant, while others are not. Specifically, the principles of autonomy and non- maleficence seem to be applicable, meanwhile justice and explicability appear to only be partially supported by the participants and beneficence is suggested to not be relevant due to several reasons.

  • 12874.
    Hugosson, Olle
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Matthys, Carolina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Phung, Linda
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Perception of the Celebrity Endorser: A study of how age and gender influences the consumer perception2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The concept of celebrity endorsement is a constantly growing marketing communication tool. A recent example of when the usage of celebrities within advertising has been successful is the case of Zlatan Ibrahimovic endorsing Volvo. Because of the expansive usage of celebrities in advertising as well as the ongoing increase of competition, the development for further efficiency in celebrity endorsement is essential for creating efficient advertisements. The foundation of this thesis relies upon the meaning transfer model (McCracken, 1989) as well as the source effects model (Ohanian, 1990).

    Purpose

    This thesis intends to investigate how the different source effects within celebrity endorsement are appealing to the various consumers based on their age and gender. To be able to further investigate into the nature of the differences between genders, we will observe how gender stereotypical- and gender neutral products are perceived by the consumers and the role that the gender of the endorser plays in celebrity endorsement.

    Method

    In order to fulfill the purpose of this thesis, an abductive study was conducted by the usage of both quantitative and qualitative data. The data was collected through a questionnaire, both among the members of Bryngfjorden GK and students at Jönköping International Business School, and focus groups with participants representing the overall population of Sweden.

    Conclusion

    We have identified numerous of different characteristics of the consumers that will influence their perception of celebrity endorsers in advertisements, thus depending on age and gender. Mainly we have found is that younger consumers put a large emphasis on the attractiveness effect of the celebrity endorser compared to older people who rather emphasize on the credibility effects of the endorser. Further we have found explanations for how different product types are dependent on the gender of the consumer, as well as the gender of the endorser, for creating an effective advertising message.

  • 12875.
    Hugosson, Olle
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Sundberg Alvarsson, Pontus
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Selecting Advertising Agencies: Understanding the influencing criteria2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Commonly companies do not produce their own advertising material, but instead acquire the knowledge from advertising agencies. While purchasing advertising services, it was found through past studies that there are multiple criteria in which clients evaluate their alternatives of advertising, however few studies have investigated why and how these specific criteria are influential. Knowing this would increase the understanding of the client- advertising agency relationship and thus increase the potential for successful relationships.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this research is to explore the criteria that influence the selection of adver- tising agencies. As a result of this purpose, two research questions were developed in order to better target suitable findings.

    Method

    To best answer the research questions, an interpretive, abductive and exploratory research were conducted in order for the researchers to find further knowledge upon the previous existing theory. With this, nine semi-structured interviews were done with experienced deci- sion makers of selecting advertising agencies. The data retrieved was then analysed through categories and then cross-referenced to find emerging relational patterns.

    Conclusion

    What this study found was that the most important criteria, while evaluating advertising agencies, was criteria surrounding the need for personal chemistry, competency, references, referrals, past experience, size of agency and geographical proximity. 

  • 12876.
    Huhnstock, Nikolas Alexander
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Riveiro, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics, JTH, Jönköping AI Lab (JAIL). University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Steinhauer, H. Joe
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    An Infinite Replicated Softmax Model for Topic Modeling2019In: Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: 16th International Conference, MDAI 2019, Milan, Italy, September 4–6, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Vicenç Torra, Yasuo Narukawa, Gabriella Pasi, Marco Viviani, Springer, 2019, p. 307-318Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe the infinite replicated Softmax model (iRSM) as an adaptive topic model, utilizing the combination of the infinite restricted Boltzmann machine (iRBM) and the replicated Softmax model (RSM). In our approach, the iRBM extends the RBM by enabling its hidden layer to adapt to the data at hand, while the RSM allows for modeling low-dimensional latent semantic representation from a corpus. The combination of the two results is a method that is able to self-adapt to the number of topics within the document corpus and hence, renders manual identification of the correct number of topics superfluous. We propose a hybrid training approach to effectively improve the performance of the iRSM. An empirical evaluation is performed on a standard data set and the results are compared to the results of a baseline topic model. The results show that the iRSM adapts its hidden layer size to the data and when trained in the proposed hybrid manner outperforms the base RSM model.

  • 12877.
    Huhnstock, Nikolas Alexander
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Riveiro, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Steinhauer, H. Joe
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    On the behavior of the infinite restricted boltzmann machine for clustering2018In: SAC '18 Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing / [ed] Hisham M. Haddad, Roger L. Wainwright, Richard Chbeir, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) , 2018, p. 461-470Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clustering is a core problem within a wide range of research disciplines ranging from machine learning and data mining to classical statistics. A group of clustering approaches so-called nonparametric methods, aims to cluster a set of entities into a beforehand unspecified and unknown number of clusters, making potentially expensive pre-analysis of data obsolete. In this paper, the recently, by Cote and Larochelle introduced infinite Restricted Boltzmann Machine that has the ability to self-regulate its number of hidden parameters is adapted to the problem of clustering by the introduction of two basic cluster membership assumptions. A descriptive study of the influence of several regularization and sparsity settings on the clustering behavior is presented and results are discussed. The results show that sparsity is a key adaption when using the iRBM for clustering that improves both the clustering performances as well as the number of identified clusters.

  • 12878. Hull, Chris
    et al.
    Hjern, Benny
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Political Science.
    Policy Analysis in Mixed Economy: An Implementation Approach1983In: Policy and politics (Print), ISSN 0305-5736, E-ISSN 1470-8442, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 295-312Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12879. Hull, Christopher J
    et al.
    Hjern, Benny
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Political Science.
    Helping Small Firms Grow: An Implementation Approach1987Book (Other academic)
  • 12880.
    Hult, Amanda
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Income inequality and economic growth: An investigation of the OECD countries2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Income inequality is in a majority of earlier studies more or less affirmatively agreed to be negatively related to economic growth. The underlying complexity of the connection lacks well-tried backing in the modern time. The main purpose of this research is to identify the relationship between income inequality and economic growth, but also the effects of other factors, such as human capital and investment. This is conducted with a panel data approach on 34 OECD countries with data over the period 1990-2010. Aggregate income inequality, represented by the Gini coefficient is used in the empirical estimation, together with two other variables to control for the income inequality at the bottom and top end of the income distribution. The results indicate the aggregate inequality level to be significantly and positively related to growth, while bottom end and top end inequality is seen to have a significant and negative relationship with growth. The level of GDP per capita, education and population growth is also seen to have an impact on economic growth.

  • 12881.
    Hult, Caroline
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Wallstål, Jenny
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Lång vistelsetid i förskolan: En kvalitativ studie utifrån nio förskollärare2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    LENGTH OF STAY IN PRESCHOOL

    A qualitative study based on nine pre-school teachers

  • 12882.
    Hult, Daniel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Law.
    Det reglerade fjärrvärmeavtalet: Etapp ett2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarises the results of the research I have conducted during the time from the 1th of March 2010 until 28th of February 2011. The research project has been financed by granting of the application no. 164: Det reglerade fjärrvärmeavtalet – En studie i regleringsteknik med utgångspunkt i fjärrvärmebranschens rättsliga förutsättningar. The project is divided into three stages; this report concerns the first stage. The first stage has had two objectives The first objective was to investigate how the supervisory authority, by executing its supervisory function, may affect the contractual relationship between a district heating supplier and a commercial district heating customer The second objective was to identify and structure problems for thenext two stages of the project. On the question of how the supervisory function of the supervisory authority may affect the contractual relationship between the district heating supplier and commercial district heating customer, first, the legal competence of the supervisory authority was analysed and, secondly, an investigation was conducted regarding the types of contracts to which the supervisory authority may and shall direct its supervision. It was concluded that the answer to the first question is that the supervisory authority shall supervise the informational content of the district heating contract as stated in sec. 6 of the Swedish District Heating Act. Further, it was concluded that the supervisory authority may possibly have the competence to supervise also the substantive content of the district heating contract with a view to ensuring that the substantive rules of the District Heating Act are followed which embody the informational requirements sec. 6 of the District Heating Act. Regarding the second question above, it has been concluded that the supervisory authority probably is bound to direct its supervision toward so-called standard forms of contracts, but not toward individually negotiated contracts. As concerns the task of identifying and structuring problems for the next two stages of the project, work has been focused on (1) identifying and describing the legislator’s manner of problematising the district heating industry and (2) presenting alternative and complementing perspectives to the legislator’s view. The legislator’s view on the district heating industry is that it is desireable that more people choose district heating sold in a market, although the district heating suppliers are deemed to enjoy an almost monopolistic position. This view of the legislator has been contrasted to, and discussed from, five alternative perspectives. From the first perspective, the district heating industry is understood as an industry dependent of an infrastructural network. From the second perspective, district heating is understood as a primary need. The third perspective assumes a critical standpoint on the legal definition of a “consumer” in the light of the reality of the contractual relations between supplier and customer in the district heating industry. The fifth, and last, perspective examines the legal historical context of the district heating industry. As regards the communication of the research results, this has been effected by my participation in two legal academic conferences, one conference arranged by Svensk Fjärrvärme, one publication of an academic article as a chapter of a book, and through a research proposal seminar open to the public.

  • 12883.
    Hult, Daniel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Det reglerade fjärrvärmeavtalet: Etapp två2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The question of trust and district heating has been topical for many years. The legislator has taken the position that the trust in the district heating industry is at risk due to the supposedly close to monopolistic position which the district heating companies have in relation to the district heating customers when they are connected to a district heating distribution net. The legislator deems district heating positive from an environmental perspective and therefore reckon the potentially declining trust as a problem since a decline in trust might make potential customers disinterested in district heating and might make current customers inclined to change heating method to a less environmentally positive one. In order to strengthen the position of the customers vis-à-vis the district heating companies and to increase the transparency of

    the district heating companies, and thereby increase the customers trust in district heating, the Swedish District Heating Act was enforced in 2008. My research is divided into three stages which together shall form my dissertation in law. The overarching purpose of the dissertation is to investigate if the Swedish District Heating Act will have the intended effect with which it was motivated, i.e. if the Swedish District Heating Act will increase trust in district heating. In this report I will present the tentative results from stage two. During stage two I have investigated and described the concept of trust. The investigation and description has been structured in accordance with three perspectives:

    1. The ontology of trust

    2. The emergence of trust

    3. The function of trust

    The description of the concept of trust is supposed to form the basis for the analysis of the Swedish District Heating Act which will be conducted during the third stage of the research project. During stage two I have also investigated and tried to establish what view the legislator has taken on trust within the context of the Swedish District Heating Act. This investigation took as its starting point three fundamental question:

    1. Who or what is the trustor according to the Swedish District Heating Act?

    2. Who or what is the trustee according to the Swedish District Heating Act?

    3. Which are the actions the trust is concerned with according to the Swedish District Heating Act?

    The trustor is defined as whom or what that shall have trust is someone or something whereas the trustee is defined as who or what the trustor shall trust. The action with which the trust is concerned is defined as the actions the trustor shall trust the trustee to perform. This far, my analysis shows that the trustor according to the Swedish District Heating Act is the potential and current district heating customers. The analysis also shows that it is uncertain who or what is the trustee according to the Swedish District Heating Act. The reason is that the preparatory work of the act are ambiguous on the question whether the trust of the potential and current customers is related to the district heating companies as such or if it is related to the abstract institution of district heating as a form of heating. Furthermore, my analysis shows that the actions with which the trust is concerned are as follows: the district heating companies shall deliver district heating to the customers in accordance with reasonable contractual terms, especially regarding pricing terms. Taken all together, one can conclude that the Swedish District Heating Act should increase the trust of the potential and current customers in either the district heating companies themselves or in district heating as a way of heating regarding the delivery of district heating in accordance with reasonable contractual terms and especially regarding the pricing terms. Finally, some words concerning the upcoming research in stage three. All the details are not yet set but the general idea is that I, during stage three, will analyze the Swedish District Heating Act using the description of the ontology, emergence and function of trust which has been presented in stage two. It is probable that I will limit my analysis to those provisions which are intended to affect the potential and current customers’ contractual relations, i.e. the provisions which are directed at the relationship between the district heating companies and their potential and current customers. The systematic core of these provisions is the regulatory technique used in the Swedish District Heating Act which is based on a supervisory authority monitoring the compliance of both public law and private law provisions. The idea is that I will analyze the substantive content of the provisions together with the monitoring function of the supervisory authority in order to conclude on the question whether the Swedish District Heating Act fulfills its purpose of creating trust.

  • 12884.
    Hult, Daniel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Fjärrvärmelagens disposivitet i förhållande till näringsidkare2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the dominant position district heating companies are presumed to have in relation to their customers, the Swedish legislator has not deemed the situation on the district heating market to be fully satisfactory. In order to remedy this shortcoming, and to promote confidence in the district heating business, on 1 July 2008, the District Heating Act entered into force.

    This paper aims to clarify the extent to which the private law provisions contained in the Act are mandatory in contractual relationships between district heating companies and their business (non-consumer) customers. This question is not unambiguously answered in either the Act itself, or its preparatory works, thus necessitating a fuller analysis of the problem.

    Viewing the relevant provisions of the District Heating Act in light of its overall purpose, it becomes clear that they are non-mandatory in the relationships in question. However, this is true only in a formal perspective. Practically, the provisions are not entirely at the disposal of the parties.

    The regulatory authority charged with supervising the implementation of the District Heating Act has, among other things, the task of making sure that the private law provisions of the Act are observed, thereby counteracting the non-mandatory character of the provisions relevant in this paper.

    Furthermore, general rules of contract and competition law may – but do not necessarily have to – inform the provision in such a way as to indirectly make them mandatory. The provisions, therefore, ought to be viewed as semi-mandatory, rather than non-mandatory.

    The conclusion of this paper, therefore, is that the design of the private law provisions of the District Heating Act has created a certain amount of legal uncertainty for both providers and business customers of district heating – an effect contrary to the overall purpose of the Act. A possible solution to this problem, it is suggested, is that business customers of district heating organise in a way similar to that of the providers’ organisation, Svensk Fjärrvärme AB. It should be possible to negotiate agreed documents between the parties that could be used as a standard of doing business. Such agreed documents could likely be accepted as reasonable and well-balanced by both providers and business customers of district heating, thus increasing trust in district heating without limiting the contractual freedom of the parties through legislation.

  • 12885.
    Hult, Daniel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Hyra av lös sak i kommersiella avtalsförhållanden: Behövs en ny lagstiftning2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna magisteruppsats har varit att undersöka både teoretiskt och praktiskt om det föreligger något behov i Sverige att lagstifta på området hyra av lös sak i kommersiella avtalsförhållanden. Den rättsdogmatiska metoden har tillämpats och gällande rätt har jämförts med det förslag till gemensam europeisk civillagstiftning som publicerats i början av år 2008. Vidare har olika hyresavtal granskats och djupintervjuer har genomförts med utvalda personer från yrken med relation till hyra av lös sak. Till sist har Hellnerns modell för lagstiftning inom förmögenhetsrätten tillämpats för att avgöra om det föreligger ett behov att lagstifta. Slutsatsen är att inget av ny lagstiftning finns men att alternativa lösningar vore önskvärda. De alternativa lösningar som diskuterats är ett nationellt standardavtal eller upprättandet av en checklista för för att underlätta kontraktsskrivandet för avtalsparterna.

  • 12886.
    Hult, Daniel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Law.
    Mötet mellan civilrättslig avtalsfrihet och offentligrättslig tillsyn över avtalets innehåll på fjärrvärmemarknaden2011In: Den nordiska välfärden och marknaden: Nordiska erfarenheter av tjänster av allmänt intresse i en EU-rättslig kontext / [ed] Tom Madell, Terjei Bekkedal,Ulla Neergaard, Uppsala: Iustus Förlag AB , 2011, p. 189-215Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den föreliggande artikeln ska jag diskutera hur förvaltningsrätt och civilrätt möts när två parter sluter avtal om fjärrvärme.[1] Mötet har sin grund i att lagstiftaren valt att ge en förvaltningsmyndighet i uppgift att kontrollera innehållet i avtalsparternas fjärrvärmeavtal.[2]

    Artikeln är begränsad till att behandla avtal som sluts mellan näringsidkare; således diskuteras konsumentförhållanden endast som jämförelseobjekt. Vidare ska framhållas att rättsläget i mångt och mycket är oklart. Det finns ännu ingen praxis på området – varken domstolspraxis eller myndighetspraxis – och fjärrvärmemarknaden har så vitt jag vet inte berörts i den svenska juridiska doktrinen. Mitt syfte med den här artikeln är därför tudelat: dels att beskriva fjärrvärmemarknadens speciella karaktär ur ett juridiskt perspektiv, dels att försöka tolka och problematisera den av lagstiftaren valda regleringstekniken.

    För att introducera läsaren till ämnet börjar jag med att i korthet beskriva fjärrvärmemarknadens tekniska förutsättningar och vilka problem som dessa anses orsaka. Härefter presenteras lagstiftarens åtgärder för att motverka de förmenta problemen genom att jag systematiserar de relevanta bestämmelserna. Avslutningsvis diskuteras och problematiseras reglernas närmare innebörd mot bakgrund av de ändamål som lagstiftningen på området ger uttryck för.

    [1] Ett stort tack ska här framföras till Jakob Heidbrink som trots semesterledighet tagit sig tid att läsa mina utkast och ge nyttig feedback.

    [2] 52 & 6 §§ fjärrvärmelag (2008:263) (fjärrvärmelagen)

  • 12887. Hult, H
    et al.
    Lindblad Fridh, Marianne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Lindh Falk, A
    Thörne, K
    Pedagogical processes in healthcare: an exploratory study of pedagogic work with patients and next of kin2009In: Education for Health, ISSN 1357-6283, E-ISSN 1469-5804, Vol. 22, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12888.
    Hult, Håkan
    et al.
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping university.
    Lindblad Fridh, Marianne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Thörne, Karin
    leader,Futurum, the Academy of Health and Care/Qulturum, County council of Jönköping.
    Lindh, Annika
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping university.
    Pedagogical Processes in Health Care.2007In: NERA (Nordic Educational Research Association) confererence in ÅBO , March 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12889.
    Hult, Marcus
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer and Electrical Engineering.
    Vinkelmätning med sensorfusion2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sensorfusion innebär att man kombinerar resultatet från två eller flera sensorersom mäter samma information. På så sätt kan man få ett bättre mätresultat än vadvarje enskild sensor kan ge. Ofta använder man olika typer av sensorer som harsina för och nackdelar, filtrerar bort ”nackdelarna” från varje sensor och slår sedanihop resultatet. Ett sådant filter kallas för komplementärfilter.Sensorfusion för vinkelmätning används främst i reglersystem för olikabalanseringssyften, t.ex. för att stabilisera luftburna fordon som helikopter ochflygplan, eller tvåhjuliga självbalanserande fordon som ”Segway PersonalTransporter”[1].I denna rapport beskrivs hur ett komplementärfilter för vinkelmätning med ettgyroskop och en accelerometer fungerar. Komplementärfiltret används sedan i entvåhjulig självbalanserande robot som insignal till dess PID-regulator, i ett försökatt få den att balansera helt själv utan yttre påverkan.

  • 12890.
    Hultberg, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Economic Measurements: An Examination of GDP and its Alternative2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 12891.
    Hultberg, Antonia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Nguyen, Sheila
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Can You Hear the Eco?: A Study of How Swedish Municipalities Can Market their CSR-Activities2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In an increasingly globalised world, municipalities more than ever have to compete with each other. Thus, the need to create a brand image has become vital for municipalities. Place branding is the tool that has enabled municipalities to create a brand image in order to attract stakeholders such as potential visitors, residents and businesses. The sustainability phenomenon Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has recently become an attractive factor within place branding. Although, the concept of CSR is most commonly implemented within the private sector, CSR initiatives within the public sector are recognised as an integral part. Therefore, the issue of how municipalities can market and communicate their CSR-actives has arisen. 

    Purpose: The aim of this research is to explore how Swedish municipalities can market their CSR-activities, in order to gain competitive advantages as attractive cities. In further details, this research focuses on how municipalities can use place branding to market their CSR-activities and how they can communicate this to current and potential stakeholders.

    Method: In order to fulfil this purpose, an interpretivist methodology was adopted with an abductive approach. In regard to this, an exploratory design was developed. More specifically, it was conducted with a mixed method, using a quantitative content analysis and qualitative indepth interviews with knowledgeable experts within CSR from the most relevant departments in the municipalities.

    Conclusion: The findings indicate that the use of place branding can help municipalities with a sustainable profile to gain competitive advantages. Furthermore, it became apparent that the use of place branding strategies, such as slogan, logotypes, events and cooperation with stakeholders, could enhance the brand image of municipalities and enable them to attract potential stakeholders. In regards to the communication channels, the findings suggest municipalities to communicate their CSR-activities through websites, social media, press conferences, seminars and events.

  • 12892.
    Hultberg, Emelie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Svensson, Malin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Psykologisk personalomsättning: En kvalitativ studie om medarbetares sociala representationer om bakomliggande faktorer till psykologisk personalomsättning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Personalomsättning är ett vanligt problem för dagens företag då arbetsmarknaden förändrats. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka vilka sociala representationer som ligger till grund för de anställdas intention att säga upp sig. Studien genomfördes som en fallstudie baserad på fem kategorier som var framträdande i tidigare forskning. Genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med åtta deltagare, varav tre kvinnor och fem män, uppenbarades de anställdas sociala representation kring psykologisk personalomsättning. Resultatet av en tematisk analys visade att upplevelsen av trivsel är viktigast och ökar när majoriteten av de bakomliggande faktorerna uppfylls. Några av de faktorerna var sociala relationer, utvecklingsmöjligheter och omständigheter i privatlivet. Vidare jämfördes dessa föreställningar mot Herzbergs tvåfaktorteori. Slutsatsen blev att vantrivsel är det som främst ligger bakom psykologisk personalomsättning enligt medarbetarnas gemensamma föreställningar. Detta utgör en utmaning för arbetsgivare eftersom inställningen till vantrivselns bakomliggande faktorer varierar.

  • 12893.
    Hultberg, Linda
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and communication science.
    Women Empowerment in Bangladesh: A Study of the Village Pay Phone Program2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this study is to find out how the mobile phone and the Village Pay Phone from Grameen Telecom have been implemented into women’s life in rural Bangladesh. It also aims to study how the women have become empowered by this program. The sample constitutes sixteen female owners. A purposeful cluster sampling was used to depict six villages from various parts of Bangladesh. When arriving in the villages a snowball sampling method was used to find female VPP owners. The sampling method was chosen to include a sample of various characteristics. The study has a hermeneutic phenomenological approach, which aims to find out how the women experience the VPP and what meaning the women put in it. To collect empirical data interviews with open questions were used that opened up for conversation and the possibility to understand a range of experiences and nuances of meanings. The findings indicate that the majority of the women handed over the VPP to their husband or a male relative. The reason why is the families’ pressure on them to adjust to Purdah and seclusion, too much domestic work, lack of education, or because of the attitude among men and women both that business is a male domain. The study shows that women mostly gained some prestige. Also, they got a greater self-esteem to meet strangers since the VPP made them meet more people. But it has also brought quarrels and broken some friendships. All women are now more able to call family and relatives when they needed or wanted to and said that they have full access to use the mobile phone for this purpose. Still many are put in a dependency relation to others as they need help to use it. The women, however, are no longer owners of a status symbol because the mobile phone is more available for others today, but they are still known by name. Their homes do no longer attract visitors as it once did during the initiation of the program. There has also been a significant decrease in demand for the VPP that has lessened the income much and some have become even poorer from the VPP and women seldom benefitted personally from the profit. A few of the women mentioned that the family atmosphere had improved but most of them did not say that they had gained influence in the family as a result of the VPP.

  • 12894. Hultberg, Victor
    et al.
    Tingestedt, Markus
    Human Capital Disclosure in Corporate Annual Reports - NASDAQ OMXS30 changes of reporting due to IR2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 12895.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Linköping.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    University of Linköping.
    Pediatric Tonsillotomy with Radiofrequency Technique: Less Morbidity and Pain2004In: The Laryngoscope, ISSN 0023-852X, E-ISSN 1531-4995, Vol. 114, no 5, p. 869-875Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12896.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Linköping.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    University of Linköping.
    Graf, Jonas
    University of Linköping.
    Intracapusaltonsillectomy with RF-surgery versus regular tonsillectomy: One year results2004In: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Volume 68, Issue 5: 6th International Conference on Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, Athens, Greece, 16-19 May 2004: Abstracts, 2004, Vol. 68, no 5, p. 702-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12897.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Avdelningen för Otorhinolaryngologi, Inst för Kliniks och Experimentell Medicin, Hälsouniversitetet, Linköping.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Hemlin, Claes
    Avdelningen för Otorhinolaryngologi, Aleris Sabbatsberg, Stockholm.
    Hessen Soderman, Anne-Charlotte
    Avdelningen för Otorhinolaryngologi, Karolinska Universitetssjukhus, Stockholm.
    Roos, Kristian
    Avdelningen för Otorhinolaryngologi, Capio Lundby, Göteborg.
    Stahlfors, Joacim
    Avdelningen för Otorhinolaryngologi, Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhus, Göteborg.
    Tonsillectomy or Tonsillotomy - Is a change of paradigm on-going? Data out of a new National Tonsil Surgery Register in Sweden2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES

    To study the current prevalence of different tonsil surgery techniques in children with obstructive symptoms in Sweden and the rates of primary and secondary bleeding as a function of the procedure and technique used.

    METHODS

    The new National Tonsil Surgery Register in Sweden was used; this registry was opened in March 2009.The data for patients aged 1–15 years operated for obstruction was analyzed. To the registry, age, sex,indication for surgery, surgical procedure and techniques is recorded prospectively, as is primary bleedings occurring during hospital stay. 30 days after surgery, complications such as secondary bleedings,uncontrolled pain and nosocomial infections are reported by parents in questionnaires collected using asecure internet-page.

    RESULTS

    A total of 3980 patients between 1–15 years were operated during the period covered, of whom 3172 for obstructive symptoms. Of the 1876 that have thus far answered the 30 day post-operative questionnaire 511 were operated with adenotonsillectomy (A+TE) and 943 with adenotonsillotomy (A+TT), 246 were operated with tonsillectomy (TE) and 174 with tonsillotomy (TT). Primary bleedings were reported in 55/3172 patients: 2.4% after A+TE, 1.8% after A+TT, 1.9% after TE and 0.35% after TT. Secondary bleedings were noted in 36/1876 patients: 3.3% after A+TE, 0.85% after A+TT, 4.1% after TE and 0.6% after TT. The used surgical techniques (TE/TT) were cold steel (455/17), radiofrequency (72/864), diathermy (39/2), ultracision (23/24) or laser (3/22).

    CONCLUSIONS

    TT for the indication, “obstruction” has become more common than TE. TT results in fewer both primary and secondary postoperative bleedings. Further analyzes

  • 12898. Hultegård, Å
    et al.
    Björck-Åkesson, Eva
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Manual för skattning av Tidig Social Kommunikation1997Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12899.
    Hulteke, Jennie
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Two Stars and a Wish: En studie om 11-åringars uppfattningar om återkoppling enligt Two Stars and a Wish2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 12900.
    Hulteke, Ricard
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Selimovic, Lejla
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Drömmar med vingesus: - en undersökning av gymnasisters förståelse av äldre ord i Luciasången2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work involves a quantitative study concerning secondary school students' understanding of older Swedish words in the lyrics in the Lucia song written by Elmfors way back in 1919th. The text has some old words and phrases that today's high school students do not really understand. The study includes surveys of two different classes in high school, a theoretical and a practical program. In some cases students can understand words by the context, but previous research shows results in general weakness in students' existing vocabulary. According to previous research, this is due, inter alia, that young people read and write less today.

    The results of all students are totally 38%, where the theoretical program has a slightly higher performance. Very few pupils on the Media Program have a somewhat understanding of what each word means and it is clear that many students in this class have little understanding of old words. The result shows that girls in the Media Program has a notably better word comprehension than boys in the Media Program, while boys in the Society is distinguished by markedly higher word comprehension of specific words.

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