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  • 12751. Honig, B.
    et al.
    Davidsson, Per
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Karlsson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Learning strategies of nascent entrepreneurs2005In: A Focused Issue on Managing Knowledge Assets and Organizational Learning, Amsterdam: Elsevier , 2005Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This research utilizes a longitudinal methodology to study the entrepreneurial learning strategies of a representative sample (n= 173) of nascent entrepreneurs in Sweden. We examine Sarasvathy’s theory of effectuation with respect to six different learning strategies and their effect on the progression of start-up processes. The results show that the progression of the start-up process, as represented by the number of gestation activities undertaken during each time period, is systematically related to the nascent entrepreneur’s learning strategy. The analysis covers 24 months, and findings indicate that learning strategies associated with effectuation processes have positive effects on the progression of the start-up process. We also found positive effects from persistent learning strategies in the progression of the start up process.

  • 12752.
    Honig, Benson
    University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.
    Human capital and structural upheaval: A study of manufacturing firms in the west bank2001In: Journal of Business Venturing, ISSN 0883-9026, E-ISSN 1873-2003, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 575-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms in various worldwide locations are repeatedly subjected to radical political, economic, and social upheavals, including changes in administrative governance, new economic paradigms, natural disasters, and warfare. Perhaps because of the difficulty of conducting research in these environments, little is known regarding the unique requirements of entrepreneurs and their business organizations in such troubled locations. Reliable research and information is necessary in order to design and assess methods of providing institutional support both during, and after, such turmoil. Based on data collected from field interviews over a six-month period, this article examines the characteristics of the owners of 64 small manufacturing businesses that have undergone or were experiencing radical political and economic upheaval in the West Bank town of Ramallah in the Palestinian Territories. The objective of the study is to examine characteristics that influence and assist an entrepreneur's resource allocation decision-making processes. This was done by comparatively assessing the effects on profitability of both firm and individual assets in a highly constrained rapidly changing environment. Understanding this allocation process will lead to more effective targeted assistance in regions experiencing or exiting environmental transitions and upheavals. Human capital theory is utilized in this study as a framework for understanding the comparative response of owners to reallocate resources under the stressful environment of the pre- and post-intifada West Bank territories. While human capital has been well studied in literature examining resource allocation in "typical" competitive environments, our understanding of the influence of human capital in transitional environments is quite limited. This study provides some useful, and perhaps surprising results, from both theoretical and practical perspectives. Owner's human capital (coded from formal education) was found to impact profitability only with the micro firms studied (those with three or fewer employees), however, it is possible that this finding reflects dilution of human capital in comparatively larger small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). One interesting departure from similar studies is that experience was not found to affect the profitability of the firm. Plant capital, on the other hand, was found to be associated with the profitability of only larger SMEs, controlling for business age and experience of the owner. This finding is significant because, presently, institutions such as the World Bank, NGOs and national development agencies focus their efforts primarily on providing credit to small businesses, whereas training and education currently are somewhat out of favor. A model is proposed in this study comparing resource requirements according to both the size and the productivity/technological level of the firm. The object is to explain the reduced importance of human capital and experience in environments of radical transition, specifically the arbitrary nature and lack of predictability of transitional governance, and the increased importance of financial capital only with large SMEs. It is argued that skills acquired in functional expertise do not necessarily prepare an entrepreneur for the abrupt environmental transformations characteristic of tumultuous political events. This research suggests that owners are in a better position to maximize their cognitive skills in decision making within smaller organizations. However, these skills are naturally diffused and so less effective at influencing the outcomes of somewhat larger organizations. Larger SMEs are necessarily more capital intensive and more bureaucratic, and so the cumulative human capital at the organizational level may be more important to allocative efficiency than the human capital of the individual firm owner. Further, larger SMEs require organizational expertise that may not be captured in the individual level characteristics of entrepreneurs. This research suggests that efforts to support such environments should carefully consider the size of the firms in question before designing and implementing programs of assistance, differentiating microenterprises from small businesses. In particular, the findings of this study suggest that smaller firms experiencing rapid environmental upheaval will benefit most from formal education, training and advice. Larger firms, in contrast, appear to benefit most from loans providing traditional capital support, and from advice across the entire firm's human capital base, particularly regarding organizational management and delegation skills. © 2001 Elsevier Science Inc.

  • 12753.
    Honig, Benson
    DeGroote School of Business, McMaster University, Canada.
    Institutionalization of the field and its impact on both the ethics and the quality of entrepreneurship research in the coming decades2015In: Rethinking Entrepreneurship: Debating Research Orientations, Taylor & Francis, 2015, p. 123-136Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12754.
    Honig, Benson
    DeGroote School of Business, McMaster University, Canada.
    Planning For Entrepreneurial Finance And Capital: A Critical Review Of The Importance Of Teaching Business Planning2012In: The Oxford Handbook of Entrepreneurial Finance / [ed] Douglas Cumming, Oxford University Press, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article broadly reviews the history of planning, its successes and failures, existing research on planning, and the theoretical and cultural underpinnings by which planning takes place. It reflects the profound and ubiquitous triumph of the planning paradigm in the twentieth (and now twentyfirst) century. It provides material adjudicating the validity of using, or not using, one or another planning technique, and suggests alternative procedures to eliminate possible time-wasting bureaucratic routines, constraints on organizational action, and losses resulting from myopia frequently introduced by the planning process. The objective of this article is to illuminate an area of human activity that, to date, has been largely ignored by scholarly study.

  • 12755.
    Honig, Benson
    Tel Aviv International School of Management, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    What determines success?: Examining the human, financial, and social capital of Jamaican microentrepreneurs1998In: Journal of Business Venturing, ISSN 0883-9026, E-ISSN 1873-2003, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 371-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research examines the performance of 215 informal microenterprises in Jamaica, studying the influence of human capital, social capital, and financial capital of the owners on their business profitability. Understanding the importance of particular relationships that result in successful micro-businesses is important for a number of reasons. First, among many developing countries, the growth of microenterprise provides the most visibly vibrant and growing economic activity. Although considerable effort and resources are being directed toward microenterprise promotion schemes, empirical research on the subject is quite limited. Second, economies in developing countries mirror many of the social and institutional problems existent in urban economically disadvantaged areas of the United States and other developed countries. For these areas, microenterprise may be an essential component of urban renewal and community development. This study helps in identifying important characteristics of social and individual attributes that may be relevant to those attempting to strengthen this subsector. Finally, this study seeks to provide insight into a dimension of microbusiness research for which there are limited data, specifically, the role that social capital plays among practicing entrepreneurs and owners. This research found that different structural environments, even within a singular and small economy, may considerably alter the rates of return to human, social, and financial capital. As a result, the analysis of enterprises includes segmentation according to both the usage, or not, of employees, and the sophistication of the technologies used. Several factors were determined to enhance the profitability of the businesses in all categories. Vocational training, for example, demonstrated consistently strong and positive effects. Mother's high occupational status (a proxy for socioeconomic status) and years of experience in the business were also consistently positive and strongly associated with increasing profits. Although additional starting capital played an important role for both the businesses with and without employees, increasing amounts failed to differentiate the success of those firms that were already operating in the higher technological tier. Obtaining a small business loan acted in a similar manner, enhancing the profitability of all firms, except those segmented into a high technological tier. One interpretation of this finding is that the role of technological choice is extremely important, and appears to dwarf that of varying amounts of starting capital. Social capital, as operationalized by frequent church attendance and marital status of the owner, was found generally to increase the profitability of the business. The data demonstrate that social networks play an important role in the success of these businesses, and that conditions in the highest tier utilize social capital in a somewhat unique manner.

  • 12756.
    Honig, Benson
    Department of Management, St. Andrews University, St. Katharine's West The Scores, St. Andrews, Fife, United Kingdom.
    Who gets the goodies?: An examination of microenterprise credit in Jamaica1998In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 313-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research examines the lending decisions made by microenterprise credit support programmes in Jamaica, focusing on what types of owners of firms successfully obtain loans. Utilizing agency theory, human capital and social capital theories, the study examines what types of borrowers successfully navigate the credit market nurtured by non-governmental organizations (NGOs). It is based on field research comparing five organizations, evaluating the loan process and characteristics of each lender, with a study of their market, utilizing interviews conducted with entrepreneurs of 254 informal sector firms. The study first describes and examines the organizational character of the loan agencies, to discern their effect on the loan granting process. Subsequent analysis examines the characteristics of those individuals who received loans, and compares them with those who did not. The research shows that the behaviour of NGO microenterprise credit institutions in Jamaica conform closely to predictions based on agency theory, behaving very differently from banks, credit unions, informal lending associations and families. Although the bureaucratic mechanisms and organizational goals and objectives were found to be quite similar among the five different NGO credit agencies studied, each lender varied considerably in their tacit selection criteria of their clientele. The research underscores the importance of social capital and human capital on the lending process. 

  • 12757.
    Honig, Benson
    et al.
    McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Acquaah, Moses
    University of North Carolina at Greensboro, United States.
    Sustainable management and managing sustainability: The continued challenges of the African continent2016In: Canadian Journal of the Administrative Sciences, ISSN 0825-0383, E-ISSN 1936-4490, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 177-181Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12758.
    Honig, Benson
    et al.
    McMaster University, United States.
    Bedi, A.
    Bishop's University, United States.
    The fox in the hen house: A critical examination of plagiarism among members of the academy of management2012In: Academy of Management Learning & Education, ISSN 1537-260X, E-ISSN 1944-9585, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 101-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on academic plagiarism has typically focused on students as the perpetrators of unethical behaviors, and less attention has been paid to academic researchers as likely candidates for such behaviors. We examined 279 papers presented at the International Management division of the 2009 Academy of Management conference for the purpose of studying plagiarism among academics. Results showed that 25% of our sample had some amount of plagiarism, and over 13% exhibited significant plagiarism. This exploratory study raises an alarm regarding the inadequate monitoring of norms and professional activities associated with Academy of Management members.

  • 12759.
    Honig, Benson
    et al.
    School of Business and Economics, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Canada.
    Black, Elizabeth Leslie
    The University of St Andrews, St Andrews, United Kingdom.
    The industrial revolution and beyond: Two hundred years of entrepreneurship and "dis-entrepreneurship" in a small Scottish town2007In: Journal of Management History, ISSN 1751-1348, E-ISSN 1758-7751, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 269-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To examine empirically a previously overlooked aspect of entrepreneurship: community "dis-entrepreneurship". Through the lens of political and historical theory, the authors propose learning from unusual circumstances of failure in order to inform social policy regarding factors that facilitate community entrepreneurship.

    Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on political and economic theory, formulating propositions that are tested using interpretive methods.

    Findings: Strong patron-client relations were found to negatively impact the formation of diversity and meritocracy necessary for entrepreneurial environments to thrive. They also account for an inward orientation that negatively influenced investments in infrastructure. Path dependent processes were found to hold sway regarding the stability of political/social norms.

    Originality/value: This is the first paper of which the authors are aware that considers issues related to community dis-entrepreneurship. The paper highlights the importance of effective community leadership.

  • 12760.
    Honig, Benson
    et al.
    Stanford University, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Drori, Israel
    College of Management, Rishon Le Zion, Israel.
    A review of related streams of immigration and global entrepreneurship research2010In: Transnational and Immigrant Entrepreneurship in a Globalized World / [ed] B. Honig, I. Drori & B. Carmichael, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010, p. 224-235Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12761.
    Honig, Benson
    et al.
    Stanford University, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Drori, IsraelCollege of Management, Rishon Le Zion, Israel.Carmichael, BarbaraWilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, Canada.
    Transnational and immigrant entrepreneurship in a globalized world2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transnational entrepreneurs are individuals who migrate from one country to another, concurrently maintaining business-related linkages with their countries of origin and their adopted countries and communities. Once thought of as contributing primarily to ethnic enterprise and small business, they are recognized now as playing a leading role around the world in important start-ups and high technology ventures. Transnational and Immigrant Entrepreneurship in a Globalized World brings together leading international scholars from a cross-disciplinary basis to examine the economic, social, regulatory, technological, and theoretical issues related to the impact of transnational entrepreneurs on business and economic development. Drawing on the work of French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu and other international perspectives, the scholars in this volume examine both theory and case studies to discuss how entrepreneurial activity relates to international business, economic development, and the institutional and regulatory implications of globalization. 

  • 12762.
    Honig, Benson
    et al.
    Stanford University, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Drori, Israel
    College of Management, Rishon Le Zion, Israel.
    Ginsberg, A.
    New York University, United States.
    Researching transnational entrepreneurship: An approach based on the theory of practice2010In: Transnational and Immigrant Entrepreneurship in a Globalized World, University of Toronto Press, 2010, p. 28-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12763.
    Honig, Benson
    et al.
    McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Hopp, Christian
    RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    New venture planning and lean start-up activities: A longitudinal empirical study of entrepreneurial success, founder preferences and venture context2016In: Models of start-up thinking and action: Theoretical, empirical and pedagogical approaches / [ed] Jerome A. Katz , Andrew C. Corbett, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016, p. 75-108Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we examine two theorized approaches to entrepreneurial activity: experiential versus prediction based strategies. We empirically assess the comparative performance of several commonly recommended approaches researching customer needs, researching the competitive landscape, writing a business plan, conceptually adapting the business plan or experimentally adapting the primary business activity. We foundthat the majority of nascent entrepreneurs began with a business plan, but only about a third adapted their plan in later stages. We also found that talking with customers and examining the competitive landscape were normative activities. Those who started a plan were more likely to create a venture, although the effects much stronger for those who changed their plan later on, as well as for those who researched customer needs. Our results show that the selection of these activities is both ubiquitous and driven by pre-start-up experience and new venture characteristics. The activities themselves do not robustly link with successful new venture foundation. Hence, pre-start-up experiences, venture characteristics, and the institutional environment are more important in explaining successful performance than recommended activities. Implications for research, practice, and pedagogy are discussed.

  • 12764.
    Honig, Benson
    et al.
    Graduate School of Business, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.
    Karlsson, Tomas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Institutitonal forces and the written business plan2004In: Journal of Management, ISSN 0149-2063, E-ISSN 1557-1211, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 29-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examined factors that led nascent organizations to write business plans, following 396 nascent entrepreneurs during a two-year period. We examined both the production and the outcomes of written business plans produced in nascent organizations. Our findings show that institutional variables, such as coercion and mimetic forces, are important predictors influencing the propensity of new organizations to write business plans. Our results are contrary to rationalist predictions of planning-performance, and are more in line with institutional predictions. Interestingly there was no evidence to support positive outcomes, in terms of profitability, for those nascent organizations that produced business plans during a two-year initial period. We discuss the implications for institutional theory and studies of nascent businesses, as well as for the literature on business planning.

  • 12765.
    Honig, Benson
    et al.
    DeGroote School of Business, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
    Katongole, Celestine
    Makerere University Business School, Kampala, Uganda.
    Perry, Maya
    University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, United States.
    Entrepreneurial promotion and sustainability: The community as a unit of analysis2014In: Advancing research methodology in the African context: Techniques, methods, and designs / [ed] D. B. Zoogah, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2014, p. 167-188Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - To introduce researchers to useful techniques and methodologies that are effective in the African environment that reflect both the unique context, challenges, and opportunities of community-based research.

    Methodology/approach - We argue that strategic research methods should be utilized that reflect the variation that is found environmentally and geographically. Because the field of strategy emerged in the United States followed by Europe, it lacks an adequate methodology to examine comparative underdevelopment by communities in Africa and the developing world. We provide a case study example of an action research project that highlights an effective way to introduce strategic change at the community level in an African context - a small rural town in Uganda.

    Research limitations - Our example is based on a single case study in Uganda and may or may not have generalizable implications.

    Originality/value - We explain the necessity and the process by which the action research takes place, longitudinally, providing a strategic solution to the problem of behavioral poverty. We introduce our process of community entrepreneurship as an alternative to strategic methods based primarily on existing organizations reflecting resource munificence. We demonstrate the importance of extensive community debate, collaborative decision making, and solidarity in supporting positive action-research outcomes.

  • 12766.
    Honig, Benson
    et al.
    McMaster University, Canada.
    Lampel, J.
    City University London, United Kingdom.
    Siegel, D.
    Drnevich, P.
    Ethics in the production and dissemination of management research: Institutional failure or individual fallibility?2014In: Journal of Management Studies, ISSN 0022-2380, E-ISSN 1467-6486, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 118-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past 50 years, we have witnessed considerable growth in business education, increased competition among business schools, and higher expectations for faculty scholarship. Increasing competition among scholars for limited publication opportunities in top-tier journals and the proliferation of bottom-tier journals has given rise to a variety of systemic ethical issues and dilemmas, for scholars and their institutions. In this article, we critically examine the current state of normative publishing activities and expectations, including doctoral education, promotion and tenure processes and research expectations, editorial and peer review processes, academic freedom, acceptable breadth, depth, and accuracy or legitimacy of research designs and methodologies, academic integrity, replication, and data availability concerning the trends and implications of contemporary and future management scholarship. We also provide recommendations for additional research and discussion on these issues.

  • 12767.
    Honig, Benson
    et al.
    DeGroote School of Business, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Lampel, JosephCass Business School, City University London, United Kingdom.Drori, IsraelSchool of Business, College of Management, Academic Studies, Rishon LeZion, Israel.
    Handbook of organizational and entrepreneurial ingenuity2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The editors of this Handbook, Benson Honig, Joseph Lampel and Israel Drori, define organizational ingenuity as 'the ability to create innovative solutions within structural constraints using limited resources and imaginative problem solving'. They and the authors examine the dichotomy between organizational freedom and necessity in order to better understand the role of ingenuity in the success of an organization.

  • 12768.
    Honig, Benson
    et al.
    School of Business and Economics, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., Canada.
    Lerner, M.
    Raban, Y.
    Social capital and the linkages of high-tech companies to the military defense system: Is there a signaling mechanism?2006In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 27, no 4-5, p. 419-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates linkages of new Israeli high-tech companies to the military and defense system. We examine the impact of social capital, signaling, and learning spillovers on resource acquisition in terms of investments and the financial performance of companies with and without linkages. Social capital, signaling, and learning spillovers are examined as they impact individual and organizational resource acquisition and performance of 200 new Israeli high-tech companies. The study contributes to the existing literature of entrepreneurship by suggesting the relevance of knowledge spillovers, signaling theory and social capital to the context of the interface between defense and civilian spheres.

  • 12769.
    Honig, Benson
    et al.
    DeGroote School of Business, McMaster University, Canada.
    Martin, Bruce
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Entrepreneurship education2014In: Handbook of research on entrepreneurship: What we know and what we need to know / [ed] A. Fayolle, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, p. 127-146Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12770.
    Honig, Benson
    et al.
    School of Business and Economics, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Canada.
    Paul Dana, Leo
    College of Business and Economics, University of Canterbury, Sumner, New Zealand.
    Communities of disentrepreneurship: A comparative crossnational examination of entrepreneurial demise2008In: Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, ISSN 1750-6204, E-ISSN 1750-6212, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 5-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To examine communities that temporarily demonstrated successful social and economic success, but regressed, or may have cycled through periods marked by unusual success and unusual failure.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The authors analyse events in two communities that have experienced disentrepreneurship.

    Findings

    The authors attribute three main forces accountable for community disentrepreneurship: a failure in community leadership that allows the continuation of path dependent patron-client relationships, peripheralisation resulting from both geographical and infrastructure constraints, and failure to adequately diversify the economic environment. It is believed that further study of communities that have experienced such cycles is both warranted, and essential.

    Practical implications

    A useful source of information for academics as well as for town planners, policy-makers and economists. Originality/value This paper addresses a largely overlooked area of the landscape.

  • 12771.
    Honig, Benson
    et al.
    McMaster University, DeGroote School of Business, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Samuelsson, M.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Data replication and extension: A study of business planning and venture-level performance2014In: Journal of Business Venturing Insights, ISSN 2352-6734, Vol. 1, no 1-2, p. 18-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We longitudinally examine outcomes of entrepreneurial business planning to assess effectiveness. Both data replication and extension are used to examine previously published research. Our sample consists of 623 nascent ventures that we follow for more than ten years - from 1998 to 2010. Our findings highlight the importance of data replication, data extension, and sample selection bias. We not only add to the debate regarding the merits or liabilities of planning, but also contribute to evaluating normative research and publication standards by reexamining past research using more comprehensive data and an extended time frame.

  • 12772.
    Honig, Benson
    et al.
    DeGroote School of Business, McMaster University, Canada.
    Samuelsson, M.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Planning and the Entrepreneur: A Longitudinal Examination of Nascent Entrepreneurs in Sweden2012In: Journal of small business management (Print), ISSN 0047-2778, E-ISSN 1540-627X, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 365-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied 623 nascent entrepreneurs during a six-year period, examining how their planning decisions impact venture-level performance. Our study is unique in that we tracked nascent ventures, examining their planning behavior, including changes to plans. Relying on the theory of legitimacy, this paper adds to the scholarly debate over the merits of business planning by examining, longitudinally, the impact of planning during a six-year period, accounting for both pre-emergent nascent activity and post-emergent success factors. We found that neither formal planning nor changes in the business plan increased venture-level performance over the six-year study period.

  • 12773. Honig, Benson
    et al.
    Samuelsson, Mikael
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Replication in entrepreneurship research: A further response to Delmar2015In: Journal of Business Venturing Insights, ISSN 2352-6734, Vol. 3, p. 30-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper continues our debate examining pertinent issues related to scholarship, in particular, whether matters related to technical rigor eclipse the importance of causality, replicability, or that of underlying statistical and methodological assumptions. We report on specific data findings to further stimulate discussion of these important matters.

  • 12774.
    Honkala, Siv
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Berterö, Carina
    Hälsouniversitetet i Linköping. Division of Nursing Science, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, Linköping University .
    Living with an ostomy: Women`s long term experiences2009In: Vård i Norden, ISSN 0107-4083, E-ISSN 1890-4238, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 19-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12775.
    Hooshmand, Babak
    et al.
    Center for Alzheimer Research–Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mangialasche, Francesca
    Center for Alzheimer Research–Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, and Department of Neurology, Klinikum Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany.
    Kalpouzos, Grégoria
    Center for Alzheimer Research–Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Solomon, Alina
    Center for Alzheimer Research–Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Center for Alzheimer Research–Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Smith, David
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Refsum, Helga
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK, and Institute of Nutrition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Wang, Rui
    Center for Alzheimer Research–Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mühlmann, Marc
    Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximillian University Hospital, Munich, Germany.
    Ertl-Wagner, Birgit
    Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximillian University Hospital, Munich, Germany.
    Jonsson, Erika
    Center for Alzheimer Research–Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Center for Alzheimer Research–Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Center for Alzheimer Research–Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Center for Alzheimer Research–Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Association of vitamin B12, folate, and sulfur amino acids with brain magnetic resonance imaging measures in older adults: A longitudinal population-based study2016In: JAMA psychiatry, ISSN 2168-6238, E-ISSN 2168-622X, Vol. 73, no 6, p. 606-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance 

    Vitamin B12, folate, and sulfur amino acids may be modifiable risk factors for structural brain changes that precede clinical dementia.

    Objective 

    To investigate the association of circulating levels of vitamin B12, red blood cell folate, and sulfur amino acids with the rate of total brain volume loss and the change in white matter hyperintensity volume as measured by fluid-attenuated inversion recovery in older adults.

    Design, Setting, and Participants 

    The magnetic resonance imaging subsample of the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen, a population-based longitudinal study in Stockholm, Sweden, was conducted in 501 participants aged 60 years or older who were free of dementia at baseline. A total of 299 participants underwent repeated structural brain magnetic resonance imaging scans from September 17, 2001, to December 17, 2009.

    Main Outcomes and Measures 

    The rate of brain tissue volume loss and the progression of total white matter hyperintensity volume.

    Results 

    In the multi-adjusted linear mixed models, among 501 participants (300 women [59.9%]; mean [SD] age, 70.9 [9.1] years), higher baseline vitamin B12 and holotranscobalamin levels were associated with a decreased rate of total brain volume loss during the study period: for each increase of 1 SD, β (SE) was 0.048 (0.013) for vitamin B12 (P < .001) and 0.040 (0.013) for holotranscobalamin (P  = .002). Increased total homocysteine levels were associated with faster rates of total brain volume loss in the whole sample (β [SE] per 1-SD increase, –0.035 [0.015]; P = .02) and with the progression of white matter hyperintensity among participants with systolic blood pressure greater than 140 mm Hg (β [SE] per 1-SD increase, 0.000019 [0.00001]; P = .047). No longitudinal associations were found for red blood cell folate and other sulfur amino acids.

    Conclusions and Relevance 

    This study suggests that both vitamin B12 and total homocysteine concentrations may be related to accelerated aging of the brain. Randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the importance of vitamin B12 supplementation on slowing brain aging in older adults.

  • 12776.
    Hooshmand, Babak
    et al.
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Refsum, Helga
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Smith, A. David
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Kalpouzos, Grégoria
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mangialasche, Francesca
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    von Arnim, Christine A. F.
    Department of Neurology, Ulm University Hospital, Ulm, Germany.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Association of methionine to homocysteine status with brain magnetic resonance imaging measures and risk of dementia2019In: JAMA psychiatry, ISSN 2168-6238, E-ISSN 2168-622X, Vol. 76, no 11, p. 1198-1205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance  Impairment of methylation status (ie, methionine to homocysteine ratio) may be a modifiable risk factor for structural brain changes and incident dementia.

    Objective  To investigate the association of serum markers of methylation status and sulfur amino acids with risk of incident dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), and the rate of total brain tissue volume loss during 6 years.

    Design, Setting, and Participants  This population-based longitudinal study was performed from March 21, 2001, to October 10, 2010, in a sample of 2570 individuals aged 60 to 102 years from the Swedish Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen who were dementia free at baseline and underwent comprehensive examinations and structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on 2 to 3 occasions during 6 years. Data analysis was performed from March 1, 2018, to October 1, 2018.

    Main Outcomes and Measures  Incident dementia, AD, and the rate of total brain volume loss.

    Results  This study included 2570 individuals (mean [SD] age, 73.1 [10.4] years; 1331 [56.5%] female). The methionine to homocysteine ratio was higher in individuals who consumed vitamin supplements (median, 1.9; interquartile range [IQR], 1.5–2.6) compared with those who did not (median, 1.8; IQR, 1.3–2.3; P < .001) and increased per each quartile increase of vitamin B12 or folate. In the multiadjusted model, an elevated baseline serum total homocysteine level was associated with an increased risk of dementia and AD during 6 years: for the highest homocysteine quartile compared with the lowest, the hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.60 (95% CI, 1.01-2.55) for dementia and 2.33 (95% CI, 1.26-4.30) for AD. In contrast, elevated concentrations of methionine were associated with a decreased risk of dementia (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.36-0.81) for the highest quartile compared with the lowest. Higher values of the methionine to homocysteine ratio were significantly associated with lower risk of dementia and AD: for the fourth methionine-homocysteine quartile compared with the first quartile, the HR was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.27-0.71) for incident dementia and 0.43 (95% CI, 0.23-0.80) for AD. In the multiadjusted linear mixed models, a higher methionine to homocysteine ratio was associated with a decreased rate of total brain tissue volume loss during the study period (β [SE] per 1-SD increase, 0.038 [0.014]; P = .007).

    Conclusions and Relevance  The methionine to homocysteine status was associated with dementia development and structural brain changes during the 6-year study period, suggesting that a higher methionine to homocysteine ratio may be important in reducing the rate of brain atrophy and decreasing the risk of dementia in older adults.

  • 12777. Hooshmand, Babak
    et al.
    Solomon, Alina
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Rusanen, Minna
    Hänninen, Tuomo
    Leiviskä, Jaana
    Winblad, Bengt
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Soininen, Hilkka
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Associations between serum homocysteine, holotranscobalamin, folate and cognition in the elderly: a longitudinal study2012In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 271, no 2, p. 204-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine the associations between serum homocysteine (tHcy), holotranscobalamin (holoTC, the biologically active fraction of vitamin B12) and folate and cognitive functioning in a longitudinal population-based study of Finnish elderly subjects.

    Subjects and design: tHcy, holoTC and folate were measured at baseline in 274 dementia-free subjects aged 65-79years from the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia study. Subjects were re-examined 7years later, and global cognition, episodic memory, executive functioning, verbal expression and psychomotor speed were assessed.

    Results: Higher baseline tHcy levels were associated with poorer performance in global cognition, relative difference: 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-0.99]; episodic memory: 0.87 (95% CI 0.77-0.99); executive functions: 0.86 (95% CI 0.75-0.98); and verbal expression: 0.89 (95% CI 0.81-0.97) at follow-up. Increased holoTC levels were related to better performance on global cognition: 1.09 (95% CI 1.00-1.19); executive functions: 1.11 (95% CI 1.01-1.21); and psychomotor speed: 1.13 (95% CI 1.01-1.26). After excluding 20 cases of incident dementia, increased tHcy remained associated with poorer performance in episodic memory, execution functions and verbal expression. Higher holoTC levels tended to be related to better performance in executive functions and psychomotor speed, while elevated serum folate concentrations were significantly related to higher scores in global cognition and verbal expression tests.

    Conclusions: tHcy, holoTC and folate levels are related to cognitive performance 7years later even in nondemented elderly subjects. Randomized trials are needed to determine the impact of vitamin B12 and folate supplementation on preventing cognitive decline in the elderly.

  • 12778.
    Hoppe, Margarete
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Perceived Social Support of Children with Severe Chronic Physical Health Conditions: A Systematic Literature Review2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 12779.
    Hopstadius, Sofie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Ottosson, Elina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Sexualitet och långvarig smärta.  Ett arbetsområde för arbetsterapeuter?: Kvantitativ studie som beskriver om och i vilken utsträckning arbetsterapeuter som arbetar med långvarig smärtproblematik arbetar med sexualitet i Sverige.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Beskriva om och i vilken utsträckning arbetsterapeuter som arbetar med långvarig smärtproblematik arbetar med sexualitet i Sverige. Metod: Kvantitativ enkätstudie med induktiv ansats. Deltagarna rekryterades genom ett bekvämlighetsurval och bestod av 35 arbetsterapeuter som arbetade inom olika smärtverksamheter i Sverige. Resultat: 25 deltagare ansåg sexualitet som ett arbetsområde inom arbetsterapi och att de kände sig bekväma att diskutera sexualitet med sina patienter. 25 deltagare hade relativt sällan tagit upp frågor relaterat till sexualitet med sina patienter och det var vanligare att patienterna själva tog upp frågor gällande sexualitet. 22 deltagare upplevde att de inte hade tillräckligt med kunskap för att arbeta med sexualitet. Det var 20 deltagare som aldrig utfört någon intervention och 15 stycken som någon gång utfört intervention relaterat till sexualitet. Slutsats: För att främja arbetsterapeuters arbete kring sexualitet hos patienter med långvarig smärtproblematik behövs mer kunskap i ämnet, implementering av riktlinjer, introducering av verktyg, ett multiprofessionellt arbete samt användning av bedömningsmodeller som PLISSIT modellen, ALARM- bedömningsmodell och Schovers värderingsmetod.

  • 12780.
    Horlin, Chiara
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Albrecht, Matthew A.
    School of Psychology & Speech Pathology, CHIRI, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Leung, Denise
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Ordqvist, Anna
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University & Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden.
    Tan, Tele
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Lee, Wee Lih
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Visual search strategies of children with and without autism spectrum disorders during an embedded figures task2014In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 463-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with ASD often demonstrate superior performance on embedded figures tasks (EFTs). We investigated visual scanning behaviour in children with ASD during an EFT in an attempt replicating a previous study examining differences in visual search behaviour. Twenty-three children with, and 31 children without an ASD were shown 16 items from the Figure-Ground subtest of the TVPS-3 while wearing an eye tracker. Children with ASD exhibited fewer fixations, and less time per fixation, on the target figure. Accuracy was similar between the two groups. There were no other noteworthy differences between children with and without ASD. Differences in visual scanning patterns in the presence of typical behavioural performance suggest that any purported differences in processing style may not be detrimental to cognitive performance and further refinement of the current methodology may lead to support for a purported advantageous cognitive style.

  • 12781.
    Horlin, Chiara
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Black, Melissa
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Proficiency of individuals with autism spectrum disorder at disembedding figures: A systematic review2016In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 54-63Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This systematic review examines the proficiency and visual search strategies of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) while disembedding figures and whether they differ from typical controls and other comparative samples.

    Methods: Five databases, including Proquest, Psychinfo, Medline, CINAHL and Science Direct were used to identify published studies meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria.

    Results: Twenty articles were included in the review, the majority of which matched participants by mental age. Outcomes discussed were time taken to identify targets, the number correctly identified, and fixation frequency and duration.

    Conclusions: Individuals with ASD perform at the same speed or faster than controls and other clinical samples. However, there appear to be no differences between individuals with ASD and controls for number of correctly identified targets. Only one study examined visual search strategies and suggests that individuals with ASD exhibit shorter first and final fixations to targets compared with controls.

  • 12782.
    Horlin, Chiara
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Fitzgerald, Patrick
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Ordqvist, Anna
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University & Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    The influence of static versus naturalistic stimuli on face processing in children with and without Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism2013In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 1617-1624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions regarding the use of static or dynamic facial stimuli in experimental studies investigating facial processing of individuals with AS/HFA raises issues of both ecological validity and the applicability of experimental findings to clinical or everyday practice. Children with and without AS/HFA (n = 38) were fitted with a head-mounted eye-tracker and exposed to either static or interactive dynamic facial stimuli. Average fixation duration, the proportion of fixations in areas of interest and a comparative index that was independent of differences in presentation length between stimuli types were calculated. Visual scanning patterns of individuals with AS/HFA were not affected by stimuli type. However, control participants exhibited different scanning patterns between dynamic and static stimuli for certain regions of the face. Visual scanning patterns in children with AS/HFA are consistent regardless of the stimuli being a static photo or dynamic in the form of a real face. Hence, information from experimental studies with static photos of faces provide information that is valid and can be generalised to “real world” interactions.

  • 12783.
    Horlin, Chiara
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Albrecht, Matthew A.
    School of Psychology, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    The cost of autism spectrum disorders2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, article id e106552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    A diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorders is usually associated with substantial lifetime costs to an individual, their family and the community. However, there remains an elusive factor in any cost-benefit analysis of ASD diagnosis, namely the cost of not obtaining a diagnosis. Given the infeasibility of estimating the costs of a population that, by its nature, is inaccessible, the current study compares expenses between families whose children received a formal ASD diagnosis immediately upon suspecting developmental atypicality and seeking advice, with families that experienced a delay between first suspicion and formal diagnosis.

    Design

    A register based questionnaire study covering all families with a child with ASD in Western Australia.

    Participants

    Families with one or more children diagnosed with an ASD, totalling 521 children diagnosed with an ASD; 317 records were able to be included in the final analysis.

    Results

    The median family cost of ASD was estimated to be AUD $34,900 per annum with almost 90% of the sum ($29,200) due to loss of income from employment. For each additional symptom reported, approximately $1,400 cost for the family per annum was added. While there was little direct influence on costs associated with a delay in the diagnosis, the delay was associated with a modest increase in the number of ASD symptoms, indirectly impacting the cost of ASD.

    Conclusions

    A delay in diagnosis was associated with an indirect increased financial burden to families. Early and appropriate access to early intervention is known to improve a child's long-term outcomes and reduce lifetime costs to the individual, family and society. Consequently, a per symptom dollar value may assist in allocation of individualised funding amounts for interventions rather than a nominal amount allocated to all children below a certain age, regardless of symptom presentation, as is the case in Western Australia.

  • 12784.
    Hornbrink, Viktoria
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Eleverna kan vägleda om de får chansen: Elevers syn på relationsskapande och fritidslärares ledarskap i fritidshemmet2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie handlar om fritidslärares ledarskap och syftet är att ur elevernas perspektiv beskriva hur fritidslärare bör vara i fritidshemmet för att eleverna ska trivas och må bra. Eleverna beskriver viktiga egenskaper fritidslärare bör ha samt vikten av relationsskapande mellan fritidslärare och elever.

    Frågeställningarna som studien har som utgångspunkt är följande:

    1. Hur beskriver eleverna fritidslärares ledarskap i fritidshemmet?
    2. Vad är det som möjliggör relationsskapande mellan elever och fritidslärare?

    Studien är kvalitativ och inspirerad av etnografi. De metodiska verktyg som använts för att få svar på studiens frågor är observation, fokusgruppsamtal och semistrukturerade intervjuer. Undersökningen har gjorts på ett fritidshem med elever i årskurs 3. De teoretiska utgångspunkterna som ligger till grund för studien är elevers perspektiv samt sociokulturellt perspektiv.

    Studiens resultat visar att eleverna har en önskan om att fritidslärare ska engagera sig i relationen till dem genom interaktion genom deltagande i aktiviteter. Elevernas berättelser visar även på att många tillgängliga fritidslärare skapar trygghet.

  • 12785.
    Horndahl, Charles
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Maric, Kristian
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    WLAN: Oskyddad och okontrollerad datakommunikation2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master’s thesis investigates the technology and security awareness associated with wireless networks (WLAN). It has been stated by the media and theories that many wireless networks are unprotected. This has sparked an interest to investigate the phenomenon in the Jonkoping region. The study is based on the following research questions:

    - What security weaknesses are present with the WLAN-technology and how can these be avoided?

    - How does the wireless infrastructure in the Jonkoping region look like?

    - Why do companies implement the WLAN-technology?

    - Are the companies aware of the risks involved with WLAN?

    We conducted this study in three steps; the first step was to hack a wireless network in a controlled environment in order to investigate the weaknesses of the commonly used security measures. The second step of the study was to scan the wireless networks in Jonkoping, Gnosjo and Nassjo in order to create a picture of the wireless infrastructure of the region. The third step of the study was to contact companies that we found in the second step for interviews to investigate their awareness of the technology and its weaknesses.

    We found that WLANs and their security measures have weaknesses. The commonly used WEP encryption can quite easily be broken and can lure users into a false sense of security. The study shows that companies are aware of this weakness, but use the encryption be-cause it offers a good level of usability and security. It is a compromise between usability and security. Usability is one of the major factors for companies when implementing wireless networks, companies strive for mobility, easy access and ease of use, which the WLAN technology offers. This has lead to an extended wireless infrastructure in cities within the region where one, with ease, can find wireless networks outside buildings. We have noticed an increase in the security awareness as our empirical findings differ from earlier research conducted in other cities. When these studies are compared you can see a trend where the number of unprotected networks decreases. Our contribution to increased wireless security is a checklist of possible security measures to minimize the security threats.

  • 12786.
    Horndahl, Ludvig
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Product Development.
    Andersson, Emil
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Product Development.
    Utvärdering av featurebaserad modellering och direktmodellering2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits of using feature-based CAD methodology and direct modelling are discussed inthe thesis. An experimental CAD study has been performed in which three different cases hasbeen modelled to get an overview of how direct modelling works in Solid Edge ST10 and to determine how the methodology could be integrated into product development. These two ways of modelling in Solid Edge are evaluated using previous research and data from thestudy to do a SWOT analysis and a Pugh matrix. Further on a comparison is made to find respective methodologies’ area of use.The experimental CAD study explores three cases in which each uses one type of product thatis investigated. The CAD models used as reference for the experiment are originally created using feature-based modelling, in the ordered module of Solid Edge. The intent is to recreate the models using direct modelling. The products of interest are created using different manufacturing processes which enables most tools in the Synchronous module to be put tothe test. Points of interests for the study is the workflow of direct modelling, to define the useand limits of Synchronous and investigate the synergy between the tools of the modules.It is concluded that direct modelling excels in certain area of operations where precision engineering can be ignored. When developing concepts for a new product, time could be savedby using the swift surface editing tool of direct modelling. When the CAD user does not need to rely on already set dimensions and is free to explore different shapes to create a 3D-model,direct modelling will come in handy due to its ability to model without taking history data into account. Direct modelling can also be used as a tool for creating redesigns of products containing complex feature trees. Cooperation between different CAD software could be strengthened using direct modelling where the need to redesign imported CAD files featuring “dead geometries” and empty history trees. These types of 3D-models, step, Parasolid’s etc can be easily modified using directmodelling in Solid Edge. Further research can be made to determine in which areas direct modeling can be applied and excel compared to the standard feature-based CAD methodology.

  • 12787. Horttana, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Ahlström, Gerd
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health.
    Fahlström, Gunilla
    Patterns of and reasons for relocation in dementia care2007In: Geriatric Nursing, ISSN 0197-4572, E-ISSN 1528-3984, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 193-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because dementia is a progressive disease, the need for care in municipal shelter accommodations might change over time, raising the crucial question whether to relocate an individual. The aim of the study was to investigate the number of relocations between municipal dementia housing units and to examine the patterns and reasons for relocation, together with the various municipal prerequisites for carrying out relocation. Thirty-three managers of 101 dementia care units in 12 municipalities in Sweden were interviewed, and records of persons who had moved into or out of the dementia care units during the year 2002 were reviewed retrospectively. The results showed that turnover occurred in 35% of the 865 rooms during the year. Of those relocations, 78 (9%) were persons who moved to another accommodation-either into (59), between (13), or out of (6) a dementia care unit. This finding indicates that there are situations in which remaining in place was considered less appropriate than relocating a single individual with dementia to other accommodations with or without dementia specialization. The most common reason for relocation within the municipal shelters was an increased need for care.

  • 12788.
    Horvath Antonsson, Elin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    The vulnerable boy-child: A qualitative study of the sitution for the rural boys in Kenya2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This minor field study describes the situation for the boy-child in rural Kenya and thepossible effects that can be seen after years of focus directed mostly on the girl-child,both in school and through non-governmental organizations (NGO). This study is doneby going in to the field of rural Kenya and meeting people who can give their opinion onwhat is going on for the boy-child in Kenya. This is a qualitative study based on semistructuredinterviews with six social workers. The method of using open ended questionswill give a hint of what is going on in the day-to-day life in the social worker´s context.During the analysis of the interviews it became evident that there is a need to payattention to the boy-child. There is also a slight difference in focus depending onwhether the informant is a woman or a man. Furthermore all social workers have spokenabout the risks that the boy-child and young teenaged boys are facing. The social workersin this study express their perception that the boy-child is vulnerable. Three major areascould be recognized: vulnerable by the neglect of professionals, vulnerable by the Africanculture and vulnerable by exposure to hazards. At the end of this study there will be adiscussion around the findings and analysis of the interviews. The discussion will alsobring up the aspects of manhood, masculinity and the importance of language as a way toconstruct perceptions as well as how the general construction of gender can be a part ofwhat makes the boy-child vulnerable.

  • 12789.
    Hoshmand, Omar
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Commercial Law.
    Sekretessavtal: Kan ett sekretessavtal i kommersiella förhållanden som gäller för all evig tid jämkas med stöd av 36 § avtalslagen?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When a company is part of an agreement there is a risk that one of the collaborators pursues similar business and takes up competition with the partner or chooses to reveal information about their partner to other parties. To avoid this, companies establish a confidentiality agreement that prohibits the parties to reveal any information. Confidentiality agreements that are eternal have become more common in Swedish contract law in commercial relations. As a result, disputes between collaborators have occurred regarding the unreasonable length and validity of the agreement at a later stage.

    When a confidentiality agreement is considered to be unreasonable, 36 § of the Swedish contract law (AvtL) can be applicable. The paragraph deals with the legitimacy and the opportunities of re-adjustment of the unreasonable contract. The question is, can a confidentiality agreement that is eternally valid in commercial relations be modified with the support of 36 § AvtL?

    Pacta sunt servanda is an important principle in Swedish contract law and the confidentiality agreement is no exception. Hence, the duty of fulfilling a contractual obligation is important. The 36 § of AvtL can be applied when an obligation can be considered to be unreasonable. Confidentiality agreements in commercial relations that are eternal can be seen as unreasonable if a partner is inferior or if later occurred relations changes the meaning of an agreement.

    If information is considered to be an industrial secret it should be classified according to Act on the Protection of Business Secrets (FHL). However, when the information is not any longer regarded as an industrial secret, it can be unreasonable to have a eternal confidentiality agreement. An example of this can be a patent that expires after a certain period of time. Hence the confidentiality agreement should be able to modify, with the support of 36 § AvtL.

  • 12790.
    Hoskisson, Robert E.
    et al.
    Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Zyung, Jinyong D.
    Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Gambeta, Eni
    Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Managerial risk taking: A multi-theoretical review and future research agenda2017In: Journal of Management, ISSN 0149-2063, E-ISSN 1557-1211, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 137-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managerial risk taking is a critical aspect of strategic management. To improve competitive advantage and performance, managers need to take risks, often in an uncertain environment. Formal economic assumptions of risk taking suggest that if the expected values for two strategies are similar but one is a greater gamble (uncertain), managers will choose the strategy with a more certain outcome. Based on these assumptions, agency theory assumes that top managers should be compensated or monitored to achieve better outcomes. We review the theory and research on agency theory and managerial risk taking along with theories that challenge this basic assumption about risk taking: the behavioral theory of the firm, prospect theory, the behavioral agency model and the related socioemotional wealth perspective, and upper echelons theory. We contribute to the literature by reviewing and suggesting research opportunities within and across these theories to develop a comprehensive research agenda on managerial risk taking.

  • 12791.
    Hossain, Ibteesam
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Investment Performance of Swedish Family Firms: A study of how management, control and ownership impact Swedish family firms investment performance2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Denna magister uppsats undersöker huruvida ledarskap, ägarstruktur och kontroll påverkar svenska familjeföretags investerings prestation på marknaden. I undersökningen har 90 svenska företag analyserats inom en 15 års period (1990-2005).

    Ledarskap har delats upp i tre olika strukturer, den första strukturen står för grundar ledarskap. Regressionsanalysen i denna uppsats visade att en grundare har en positiv påverkan på företagets investerings prestation då grundaren agerade som Verkställande Direktör (VD), Styrelseordförande (SO) eller båda. Detta kan förklaras utifrån teorier som gör tydligt att en grundare äger entreprenörskaps anda och utmärkande kunskaper inom området ifråga. Resultatet för den andra strukturen, ättlings ledarskap visade att då ättlingar till grunderaren verkade som antingen VD, SO eller båda i företaget förekom en negativ påverkan på företagets finansiella prestation. Detta kan förklaras utifrån teorier som menar att en ättling inte har samma kunskap eller ambitioner som grundaren till företaget. Ättlingar har oftast ärvt högre poster inom företagen på grund av sina familjerelationer till grundaren snarare än på grund av sina kunskaper inom området. Den tredje ledarskapsstrukturen är externa ledare. Externa ledare är antingen en VD, SO eller båda som har blivit inhyrda till företaget av ägarfamiljen. Regressionsanalysen visade ett insignifikant resultat.

    När resultaten för ägarstruktur och andel röster av ägare analyserades i både företag med röstdifferensiering och utan röstdifferensiering visade det sig att när grundaren agerade som VD, SO eller båda i företag utan röstdifferensiering förekom ingen minoritets expropriation eller principal-agent konflikter inom företaget, vilket betyder att företagets finansiella prestation påverkades positivt. Liknande resultat hittades även för företag med röstdifferensiering som hade externa ledare i sin ledning.

  • 12792.
    Hossain, Mohammad
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Cao, Shuang
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Influencing Factors on the Selection Process of Enterprise System(s): A study on the client and vendor perspectives2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise system (ES) is being considered an important phenomenon in the corporate use of information technology, enhancing organizational cross functional efficiency and effectiveness through the integration of all the information flowing through a company. The implementation and use of this system involve high expenditure and risk and it has a great impact in every aspect of an adopting organization. The wrong selection of this system would have an adverse effect on the company performance. So the selection of this system deserves considerable attention from the practitioner and researcher.

    In this study, our objective is to identify the influencing factors on the ES selection process from the existing theory and investigate them in real life situation from the client and vendor’s perspectives.

    To fulfil the first objective of the study, we have made a comprehensive review on ES literature and synthesized an integrated framework of influencing factors on the ES selection process. To fulfil the other objective, we have made a qualitative empirical study through multiple case study approach. To collect necessary in-depth information, we have used purposive sampling and general interview guide approach. The integrated framework has guided us in empirical study and the cross case analysis of empirical data has been performed on the basis of this framework from the view point of client and vendor.

    The result of this study shows that there exists a good fit between client and vendor views about the influencing factors on the ES selection process, in spite of insignificant imbalance between them. The result also reveals that most of the influencing factors of integrated framework have been recognized both by client and vendor with some diversity. Three new influencing factors: geographical proximity, requirement specification and sales skill of vendor have emerged from the study.

  • 12793.
    Hourani, Rayan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    Helander, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    How industry change has affected European airlines: Development of profitability and capital structure year 2000-20082009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The airline industry of today functions in a very intense and competitive market and is also very sensitive to change. Over the last years the airline industry has changed and been affected drastically. Factors like sudden shocks, such as the terrorist attacks of September 11th in 2001 and the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) phenomenon in China 2003, change in macroeconomic factors, such as GDP growth in different regions, changes in the oil price and fluctuations in exchange rates, and also by the fact that the airline industry have experienced a general change in structure and trends. A consequence of these shocks and general industry changes, also made worse by the ongoing financial crisis and escalation of fuel price many airlines have lost a significant part of their market value. The fact that during a normal year around eight airlines in the world go bankrupted but that Sterling became the 31st in 2008 strengthens this statement.

    Problem: All these incidents the airline industry has been exposed to, combined with the overall industry change in structure and trends, have given the European airline industry the shape that it has today, and the change is not over. This emphasizes the importance and interest to map out the airline industry of today with the most recent and major events in consideration and also the curiosity for the fact that differences in how the different airlines have been affected should exist.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how industry change has affected the profitability and capital structure of European airlines, individually and in comparison with each other.

    Method: Six actors in the airline industry were selected for a descriptive type of study that takes a deductive approach. Secondary numerical data from the airlines’ annual reports was used and analyzed and conclusions were drawn based on existing theories. Quantitative calculations for different financial ratios were made. To get analysts’ viewpoints and more depth and detailed description of the topic, a qualitative approach was used in the form of interviews. For a more structured analysis and to easier evaluate the development of the financial situation of the airlines an observational scheme was developed.

    Conclusions: For the three financial aspects studied, significant patterns were observed that could be explained by the shocks and trends that have changed the European airline industry. The strongest empirical findings indicating affects of this kind was for the levels of profitability, both for traditional airlines and Low Cost Carriers. The shocks of September 11th and SARS, with their respective consequences and aftermaths, were reflected in the findings and also the effects of the general industry trend of an increase in competition.

  • 12794.
    Hourmz, Nina
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Disciplinary Research.
    Migration och anpassningsprocess - En studie om hur ett samfund som Österns assyriska kyrka anpassar sig när den planteras i en ny miljö2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 12795.
    Hourmz, Walita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, School Based Research, Other School Based Research.
    Kan du läsa högt för mig?: En stuide om högläsningsstunden i förskoleklass genom observationer och intervjuer.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to examine the social interaction between teachers and children during oral reading activity in a preschool class. The focus in this study is on how the teacher communicates with the children during oral reading to get them involved in the story. Furthermore, the aim is to investigate what teachers believe that reading aloud can mean for the children.

    A qualitative method with a socio-cultural perspective based on three methods have been used to study the limited phenomenon, reading aloud. Two different observations in three preschool classes and four interviews with teachers have been implemented. The number of participating children is 54. The interviews were audio recorded. The empirical data was analyzed by a frequency table, conversation analysis and content analysis. These three data collection methods, increases the study's credibility.

    The result: interaction between teachers and children occurs in all three preschool classes. Teachers explain difficult words and ask several questions during the oral reading moments. The result of the study shows that teachers explains the oral reading activity as a part of the children 's language development and not least for the multilingual children. The four teachers consider oral reading as a social activity, where learning takes place in interaction with others, children develop their vocabulary, letter knowledge and imagination through the activity.

  • 12796.
    Hovander, Sebastian
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    The Distance to a University and Regional Output: A Study of how Distance to a University Impacts the Economic Productivity of a Municipality2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish population is rapidly increasing in educational level in the past two decades and educational level has long been a topic of interest for labor productivity. This increase in educational level brings up an interesting discussion of whether the remoteness of a university helps create productivity and if so by how much. This is a study that will try and explain the impact on regional productivity by having a university closer, using the distance to the closest university of each municipality in Sweden, and depending on what quality this university possess. Using simple OLS regressions results have shown some reasons for increased productivity, either positive or negative, while distance showed to not matter for regional productivity at all. This field is somewhat untouched, and with further research and by including other geographical economic theories, it could become an interesting study.

  • 12797. Hovbrandt, P
    et al.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Växjö universitet.
    Carlsson, G
    Very old people's experience of occupational performance outside the home: possibilities and limitations2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12798.
    Hove, Randi
    et al.
    Institute of Nursing, Department of Health and Social Sciences, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway.
    Fålun, Nina
    Institute of Nursing, Department of Health and Social Sciences, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Nurses’ experiences of using the Liverpool Care Pathway Plan in hospitalized patients with heart failure in the end-of-life stage: A qualitative content analysis2016In: Open Journal of Nursing, ISSN 2162-5336, E-ISSN 2162-5344, Vol. 6, no 8, p. 591-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The introduction of care pathway plans for end-of-life cares such as the Liverpool Care Pathway (LCP) reveals a unique possibility for inter professional collaboration. Knowledge of symptom relief and how to meet the patients’ needs at the last stage of the palliative phase are essential for the nurses’ approach and care actions, but the documentation of such implementations is still rare and sometimes criticized.

    Aim: To explore and describe nurses’ experiences of using the LCP plan with patients hospitalized with heart failure at the end-of-life stage. An explorative design was applied, using qualitative content analysis of 20 interviews with nurses practicing the LCP plan in two district hospitals in Norway.

    Results: The nurses found the LCP plan as quality assurance for treatment and care in patients with heart failure in the last hours and days of life. The use of the LCP plan implied: 1) individualized adjustment, 2) symptom relief and 3) a holistic approach.

    Conclusion: Nurses experienced that using the LCP plan as a comprehensive action plan contributed in the decision making process and improved inter professional communication. Using the LCP plan should be seen as a tool to practice individualized and holistic nursing to patients at the end-of-life and their families, as well as a purposeful relief of symptoms associated with heart failure.

  • 12799.
    Hovhanessian, Margaret
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Coordination Barriers between Humanitarian Organizations and Commercial Agencies in Times of Disaster2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research study is designed to analyze the vertical coordination barriers that are present between humanitarian organizations and commercial agencies in times of emergency situation when delivering aid. The main aim of this research study is to identify those barriers that hinder coordination between both entities.

    The methodology of this research study is based on a deductive theoretical approach. This research is qualitative and exploratory in nature. Primary data has been collected through interviews, and secondary data has been collected through libraries, and websites. Data gathered was analyzed in light of the literature review in the frame of reference.

    Conclusions arrived from this study reflect the answers from the humanitarian organizations and commercial agencies that have been interviewed.

    Research from the perspective of humanitarian organizations indicate that humanitarian agencies lag behind when it comes to managing their supply chains in times of disaster, whereas, literature from the commercial agencies indicate that commercial agencies manage their supply chains efficiently and effectively. Moreover, humanitarian organizations and commercial agencies have different organizational objectives and manage their supply chains differently and for different purposes. The research shows that humanitarian organizations speak a different language in the sense where humanitarian organizations are not concerned with making profit, as their main goal is to provide aid and assistance to beneficiaries in times of disaster, where this statement is not true for commercial agencies since their end aim is to generate profit. This can be the cornerstone of their main differences and causes of barriers when coordinating together and delivering aid in times of disaster.

    Based on the conducted interviews and literature review it becomes obvious that there are many vertical coordination barriers between humanitarian organizations and commercial agencies, thus hindering the process of efficient aid delivery to areas struck by disaster. Also, this research study findings suggest that there is an obvious and vast demand for humanitarian organizations to coordinate with commercial agencies and learn from their supply chain practices especially when it comes to logistical capabilities and services.

  • 12800.
    Hovhanessian, Margaret
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Trump, Kim Jong-un and Twitter: Audience reception of political communication in the era of social media2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on political communication mainly focuses on the perspectives of politicians. This study addresses the gap in the literature by focusing on the audience reception of political communication. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to collect and analyze audiences’ responses to US President Trump’s announcement to meet the North Korea’s leader Kim Jong-un.Through in-depth qualitative analysis of Twitter users’ comments, the study provides evidence on how audience receive political communication in the era of social media.The result of the study shows that audience decode political communication on social media in three ways, consistent with Hall’s (1973:1980) theory of audience reception. The ways in which audience decoded Trump’s message on twitter is modeled in Figure 1. The model shows that in reaction to Trump’s message on Twitter, (1) audience who support Trump echoed his message, (2) audience who opposed Trump rejected his message by pointing to flaws in his message and suspecting that he had ulterior motive, and (3) audience of diverse backgrounds viewed Trumps messages through the lens of their own biases.The study contributes to the literature by studying political communication from the perspective of the recipients.

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