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  • 101.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Korea University, Seoul, South Korea, and Soran University, Iraq.
    Dilani, A.
    International Academy for Design and Health, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Baban, S. M. J.
    University of Kurdistan Hawler, Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq.
    Introduction to and summary of the contributions2012In: Perspectives on Kurdistan's economy and society in transition / [ed] Heshmati, A., Dilani, A., Baban, S.M.J., New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012, p. 1-6Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 102.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Korea University, Seoul, South Korea, and Soran University, Iraq.
    Dilani, A.International Academy for Design and Health, Stockholm, Sweden.Baban, S. M. J.University of Kurdistan Hawler, Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq.
    Perspectives on Kurdistan’s economy and society in transition2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The First World Kurdish Congress was held in October 2011 at Rotterdam with the theme of researching science and culture towards increased progress in Kurdistan. The papers presented focused on various important aspects of health, education, economy, culture and political science in Kurdistan. The objective was to create a network of academicians to exchange and develop knowledge on how to further enhance the progress within the Kurdish society. This book is a collection of 20 studies presented at the Congress. The presentation topics are diverse, covering several areas pertinent to the current Kurdish situation. The studies are divided into eight areas including: human rights and freedom; greater Kurdistan, education and nation building; diaspora; politics and international relations; corruption; health care and trauma; and economy, business and science and technology. ©2012 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 103.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Korea University, Seoul, South Korea, and Soran University, Iraq.
    Dilani, A.
    International Academy for Design and Health, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Baban, S. M. J.
    University of Kurdistan Hawler, Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq.
    Preface2012In: Perspectives on Kurdistan's economy and society in transition / [ed] Heshmati, A., Dilani, A., Baban, S.M.J., New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012, p. ix-xChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 104.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    El-Rhinaoui, Rachid
    Commerce and New Technologies of Morocco.
    Effects of Ownership and Market Share on Performance of Mobile Operators in MENA Region2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of telecommunication liberalization and increased competition evolves fast and as a result the market competition and the structure of mobile industry changes heterogeneously across the Middle East and North African (MENA) countries. This study attempts to analyze the effects of foreign ownership and the market share on the traffic and financial performance of mobile operators in MENA region. To achieve these objectives, we analyze the mobile industry¡¯s performances using an unbalanced panel data of 13 mobile operators observed over the period from 2002 to 2007. The empirical results showed that both foreign ownership and a higher market share have a significant positive impact on traffic, revenues, returns on sales and returns on investment of mobile operators in the MENA region.

  • 105.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    The United Nations University, WIDER, Katajanokanlaituri 6B, Helsinki Fin-00160, Finland, and Centre d'Etudes du Developpement, TEAM MSE, Universite Paris Pantheon-Sorbonne, Paris cedex 13 75647, France.
    Haouas, I.
    The United Nations University, WIDER, Katajanokanlaituri 6B, Helsinki Fin-00160, Finland, and Centre d'Etudes du Developpement, TEAM MSE, Universite Paris Pantheon-Sorbonne, Paris cedex 13 75647, France.
    The effects of union wage-settings on firms’ production factor decisions2004In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 415-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is concerned with the development of a theoretical model of the interaction between firms and trade union in determining wages and employment. In a two-step process the union and firm determine wages and capital stock, conditional on which the firm decides on production factors of employment, working hours and capital operating time. This paper suggests the use of a panel data approach applied to manufacturing data. A dynamic model is specified in which the optimal levels of the variables of interest and the speed of their adjustments are modelled in terms of observable policy variables. ©2004 Taylor and Francis Ltd.

  • 106.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Korea University.
    Haouas, Ilham
    Abu Dhabi University.
    Economies of Scale in the Tunisian Industries2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, empirical investigations of trade liberalization under the conditions of increasing returns to scale (IRS) and imperfect competition (IC) have either assumed or imposed the market and productive structures necessary for such a model. However, of the recent IRS/IC models used to simulate the effects of trade liberalization none have empirically tested for the presence of increasing return to scale prior to the analysis. With Tunisian data (1971-2004) and rigorous test procedures, we investigate evidence of IRS at the industry level. Using an econometric approach based on the estimation of the translog cost function and its associated cost share equations, we identify the sectors characterized by increasing returns to scale. Analysis of the results shows that specification of the model is sensitive to inclusion of time trend representing technology. The model accounting for technology did not fit the data well for most sectors. The estimation results without time trend interactions are different. Here most of the sectors show signs of increasing returns to scale.

  • 107.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Korea University.
    Haouas, Ilham
    Employment Efficiency and Production Risk in the Tunisian Manufacturing Industries2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper specifies a flexible model of labor demand in the manufacturing sector. The model is further extended to incorporate a risk function part which allows identifying the determinants of both level and variations in the employment. The risk function is particularly important when designing public policies that are geared at reducing the variance of employment or those policies that seek to increase employment in manufacturing. Since the variance of the function is both industry- and time-specific, it allows for the identification of industries that are from the perspective of vulnerable employment and design of policies targeting specific segment of the industry. In addition the paper looks at the time variant efficiency of the manufacturing industry in the choice of the level of employment that is technically necessary to produce a given level of output to satisfy the market demand. In applying this model to Tunisian manufacturing sector we add another dimension to the development of the literature on the estimation of a labor demand relationship.

  • 108.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, Sogang University, South Korea.
    Hartvigson, Lars
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    An evaluation of the collaborative coursework-based Phd program in economics and management among East African national universities2018In: Africa Journal of Management, ISSN 2332-2373, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 177-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid economic growth in many sub-Saharan African countries and the consolidation of the lower education sector implies that it is becoming increasingly important to meet the demand for higher education institutions. The expansion of existing national research institutions is facing challenges related to a shortage of faculties with up-to-date skills. There is also a shift in donor countries’ allocation of development aid from production to education, training and research. Many development agencies are now looking at developing higher education sectors in emerging developing economies with increasing interest. Given the institutional and contextual constraints in developing sustainable national research institutions in several sub-Saharan countries, there is a need to discuss new and innovative approaches and mechanisms to speed up the process. This article describes a program intended to develop stronger and sustainable national research institutions through a regional collaboration for a coursework-based PhD program. The program addresses the disciplines of economics and management and involves several institutions. It is an attempt to see whether a regional collaboration between prominent national research institutions in sub-Saharan Africa based on the new model of collaboration and a broader understanding of the actions needed can speed up the establishment of sustainable national research institutions.

  • 109.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, East Building 217, Anam-dong Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701, South Korea.
    Johansson, D.
    The Ratio Institute, P.O. Box 3203, SE - 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjuggren, C. M.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE - 581 83 Linköping, Sweden.
    Effective Corporate Tax Rates and the Size Distribution of Firms2010In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 297-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the effects of effective corporate tax rates on the size distribution of firms. In modelling this relationship we account for conditional variables as well as unobservable time and industry effects. A number of hypotheses are tested concerning heterogeneity in the impact of effective corporate tax rates on the size distributions of firms with regard to firm size class, industry and time. The results are based on data covering the whole Swedish economy for the period 1973-2002. The descriptive results suggest that effective corporate tax rates differ by firm size, industry and over time. Application of t-tests demonstrate inequality in mean and variance of effective corporate tax rates between major size classes but not within major size classes: smaller firms report a higher effective corporate tax rate than larger firms. The t-tests also demonstrate inequality in mean and variance of effective corporate tax rates between industrial sectors: service sector reports a higher effective corporate tax rate than production sector. The regressions show effective corporate tax rates to have: a negative effect on the size distribution of large firms, negative effect on transportation, financing and service sector and a positive effect on manufacturing, electricity and on production sector. We conclude that effective corporate tax rates affect the size distribution of firms as well as the composition of industries. ©2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 110.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    Johansson, Dan
    The Ratio Institute.
    Bjuggren, Carl Magnus
    Linköping University.
    Effective Corporate Tax Rates and the Size Distribution of Firms2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the effects of effective corporate tax rates on the size distribution of firms. In modelling this relationship we account for conditional variables as well as unobservable time and industry effects. A number of hypotheses are tested concerning heterogeneity in the impact of effective corporate tax rates on the size distributions of firms with regard to firm size class, industry and time. The results are based on data covering the whole Swedish economy for the period 1973-2002. The descriptive results suggest that effective corporate tax rates differ by firm size, industry and over time. Application of t-tests demonstrate inequality in mean and variance of effective corporate tax rates between major size classes but not within major size classes: smaller firms report a higher effective corporate tax rate than larger firms. The t-tests also demonstrate inequality in mean and variance of effective corporate tax rates between industrial sectors: service sector reports a higher effective corporate tax rate than production sector. The regressions show effective corporate tax rates to have: a negative effect on the size distribution of large firms, negative effect on transportation, financing and service sector and a positive effect on manufacturing, electricity and on production sector. We conclude that effective corporate tax rates affect the size distribution of firms as well as the composition of industries.

  • 111.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    School of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Karlson, N.
    RATIO Institute, SE-103 64 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Box, M.
    RATIO Institute, SE-103 64 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Generality, state neutrality and unemployment in the OECD2013In: Global Economy Journal, ISSN 1524-5861, Vol. 13, no 3-4, p. 333-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Buchanan and Congleton (1998. Politics by Principle, Not Interest: Towards Nondiscriminatory Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), the generality principle in politics blocks special interests. Consequently, the generality principle should thereby promote economic efficiency. This study tests this hypothesis on wage formation and labor markets, by investigating whether generality defined as state neutrality could explain employment performance among OECD countries during 1970-2003. We identify three types of non-neutrality concerning unemployment. These include the level or degree of government interference in the wage bargaining process over and above legislation which facilitates mutually beneficial wage agreements, the constrained bargaining range (meaning the extent to which the state favors or blocks certain outcomes of the bargaining process), and the cost shifting (which relates to state interference shifting the direct or indirect burden of costs facing the parties on the labor market). Our overall hypothesis is that non-neutrality or non-generality increases unemployment rates. The empirical results from the general conditional model suggest that government intervention and a constrained bargaining range clearly increase unemployment, while a few of the cost shifting variables have unexpected effects. The findings thus give some, but definitely not unreserved, support for the generality principle as a method to promote economic efficiency. One implication may be that the principle should be amended by other requirements if the political process shall indeed be able to promote economic efficiency. © 2013 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston.

  • 112.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Sogang University.
    Karlson, Nils
    The RATIO Institute.
    Box, Marcus
    The RATIO Institute.
    Generality, State Neutrality and Unemployment in the OECD2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 113.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Khayyat, Nabaz T.
    College of Engineering, Seoul National University.
    Analysis of Landmine Fatalities and Injuries in the Kurdistan Region2015In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 30, no 15, p. 2591-2615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes landmine victim data in the Kurdistan Region during the period 1960 to 2005. A regression analysis is used to identify the determinants and impact of the probability of getting killed by mines and unexploded ordnances. The rates of killed/injured victims are explained using a set of socioeconomic variables. As the data are a repeated cross-section in which the individuals are observed when they are subjected to landmine incidents, and to account for the dynamic aspect of the process and heterogeneity by location as well as to control for unobserved location and time effects, a pseudo panel data are created where districts are observed over the entire time period forming a panel data. The results show that (a) males, children, and the elderly are more susceptible to a higher level of landmine risks; (b) landmine training and awareness programs do not reduce the rate of landmine mortality; and (c) the rate of incidents are declining over time. This result can be used in the planning, monitoring, and resource allocation for mine action, as well as labor market programs and rehabilitation activities.

  • 114.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Korea University.
    Khayyat, Nabaz T.
    Socio-economic impacts of landmines in southern Kurdistan2013Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kurdistan Region of Iraq has been massively contaminated by landmines and unexploded ordnances disposals. This will continue to be a major obstacle for development and economic growth mainly in the rural border communities. The landmines were used systematically by the central Baathist government in its efforts to de-populate the Kurdistan Region and to weaken the Kurds demands for regional self-determination. This work investigates the magnitude of the mines problem in the Region, and the mine action activities undertaken to rehabilitate, reconstruct, and develop the region. In addition to that, this work emphasizes on the social, health, education, and economic impacts of mines and its legal consequences. In order to achieve the abovementioned objectives, this work is divided into fifteen chapters. After providing an introduction and background to the mines problem, the authors discuss the international and the Kurdistan Regions' scope of the mines problem. The methods of dealing with mines and its consequences have been reviewed. The issues of mines action and impact survey, and factors influencing the survey process and mine actions activities are discussed. A comprehensive review of the outcome of mines problem in the Kurdistan Region is conducted. The nature of the problems faced by the Kurds and its characteristics are discussed in more detailed form by looking at some case studies. Here the economic, social, and health impacts of landmines in the region are assessed. The issues of human, security, and political impacts of landmines are further addressed followed by an assessment of mine action resources and its progress, education, and various preventive measures. Finally a number of policy recommendations are provided to prevent their future use and to take legal actions against landmines users for clearance, rehabilitation, and compensation issues.

  • 115.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Korea University.
    Khayyat, Nabaz T.
    Ministry of Agriculture, Iraq.
    Statistical Analysis of Landmine Fatalities in Kurdistan2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) victim data in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq during the period of the 1960s to 2005. In addition to descriptive analysis of the data, we use regression analysis to identify the determinants of the probability of getting killed by a mine or UXO and to estimate the determinants impacts. The rates of killed and injured victims are explained using a set of socioeconomic variables. Since the data is repeated cross sections in which individuals are observed when they are subjected to accident and in order to account for the dynamic aspect of the process and heterogeneity by location, we create pseudo panel data where districts are observed over the entire study period forming almost a balanced panel data. This allows for analysis of both heterogeneity and dynamics across locations and over time, as well as to control for unobserved location and time effects. The result can be useful in planning, monitoring, and resource allocation for mine action and labor market programmes and rehabilitation activities.

  • 116.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, East Building #217, Anam-dong Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701, South Korea.
    Kim, H.
    Department of Political Science, University of Rochester, Harkness Hall, Rochester, NY 14627-0146, United States.
    The R&D and productivity relationship of Korean listed firms2011In: Journal of Productivity Analysis, ISSN 0895-562X, E-ISSN 1573-0441, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 125-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the relationship between R&D investment and the productivity of Korean R&D-engaged firms. An interdependent chain of equations including the propensity to invest, R&D investment and productivity are estimated in a multi-step procedure accounting for selectivity and simultaneity biases. Using Korean firm level panel data of listed firms from 1986 to 2002, we find four main empirical results. First, there is a two-way causal relationship between R&D investment and productivity for Korean listed firms. Second, Chaebol firms were associated with lower R&D growth as well as lower labor productivity growth in comparison to non-Chaebol firms. Third, there was a substantial reduction in growth rates both in R&D investment and labor productivity in 1997-1998, immediately following the Asian financial crisis. Fourth, considering the positive feedback effect from productivity growth to R&D growth, a decrease in R&D investment growth after the Asian financial crisis should have been harmful by further decreasing productivity growth. ©2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 117.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Sogang University.
    Kim, Jungsuk
    Sogang University.
    A Survey of the Role of Fiscal Policy in Addressing Income Inequality, Poverty Reduction and Inclusive Growth2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing concern on widening income gap between the rich and the poor, the policy mismatch in tackling the relative poverty and income inequality have invited increasing volumes of research focusing on the nexus between equity and efficient growth. Developed countries have experienced the critical challenges and trade-off between their generous welfares provisions and economic growth. Developing countries on the other hand, especially countries in Asia are in the process of shifting their policy direction toward more inclusive growth where most members are transforming themselves from a low-income country into a middle income country (ADB, 2014). This has stimulated the need to understand causes of inequality and poverty for better formulate policies of fostering inclusive growth. Economic growth itself is an important source of welfare distribution in most developing Asian countries. Asian governments used many forms of fiscal policy to mitigate income gaps and poverty because they will substantially undermine the economic growth if left unchecked (ADB, 2014). The objective of this study is to review the previous studies, particularly literatures related with inclusive growth of advanced economies, and to offer an efficient policy options for Asian countries. Major determinant factors of growing inequality, poverty and a range of fiscal policy tools are evaluated from both country and cross-country perspectives. The initiated policy measures are based on experiences of advanced welfare economies and the lessons derived from them will be a meaningful guideline for Asian countries to achieve their goals of inclusive growth.

  • 118.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Sogang University, South Korea.
    Kim, Jungsuk
    Institute of International and Areas Studies, Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Efficiency and competitiveness of international airlines2016Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book focuses on the factors that support the strengths of international airlines in general and the Asian airline carriers in particular. Defining the quality of human capital as the level of education and the competence of airline employees, it analyzes the efficiency of 39 airlines in various regions, both in terms of production and cost structures. It argues that, despite Asia’s well-developed and globally competitive manufacturing sector, aided by open market practices, its overall service sector still lags far behind more advanced economies. As this does not stop Asia-based carriers from generally being more efficient than their counterparts in Europe and North America, the book investigates how competitiveness analysis of the airline industry can help Asian policymakers better prepare for the liberalization of the service sector, given how crucial this aspect is for the future growth of the Asia-Pacific region. Efficiency and Competitiveness of International Airlines offers a valuable resource for policymakers, airline employees, and researchers and students of microeconomics.

  • 119.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Kim, Jungsuk
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea.
    The inclusive growth impacts of fiscal policies in developing Asia2014In: Economic growth in the 21st century: New research / [ed] Tara Abrahams, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2014, p. 159-184Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 120.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Sogang University, Republic of Korea.
    Kim, Jungsuk
    Institute of International and Areas Studies, Sogang University.
    Park, Donghyun
    Economics and Research Department of the Asian Development Bank.
    Fiscal policy and inclusive growth in advanced countries: Their experience and implications for Asia2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study seeks to draw relevant lessons from the advanced economies for developing Asia in using fiscal policy to tackle inequality. The experience of the advanced economies clearly shows the sizable equity-promoting potential of fiscal policy. At the same time, developing Asia’s pursuit of more inclusive fiscal policy must not come at the expense of economic growth or fiscal sustainability.

  • 121.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Sogang University.
    Kim, Jungsuk
    Sogang University.
    Park, Donghyun
    Economics and Research Department of the Asian Development Bank.
    Fiscal policy and inclusive growth in advanced countries: Their experience and implications for Asia2015In: Inequality, inclusive growth, and fiscal policy in Asia / [ed] Donghyun Park, Sang-Hyop Lee, Minsoo Lee, London: Routledge, 2015, p. 256-275Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study seeks to draw relevant lessons from the advanced economies for developing Asia in using fiscal policy to tackle inequality. The experience of the advanced economies clearly shows the sizable equity-promoting potential of fiscal policy. At the same time, developing Asia’s pursuit of more inclusive fiscal policy must not come at the expense of economic growth or fiscal sustainability.

  • 122.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, East Building, Room 217, Korea University, Anam-dong Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713, Korea.
    Kim, Yeonhak
    Department of Industrial Engineering, TEMEP, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shilim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea.
    Time series analysis of interdependent phases of the electricity industry in South Korea2012In: Opec Energy Review, ISSN 1753-0229, E-ISSN 1753-0237, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 319-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study specifies and estimates a model to investigate the relationship between different phases of the electricity industry and market. These include the generation, transmission, distribution and demand segments. Common variables that explain these segments are identified and their effects estimated. Korean time series data from the period 1961 to 2008 are considered for the empirical analysis. In the study, a series of steps is conducted. First, using cointegration and causality tests, the relationships between the variables of interest are established. Second, each phase is specified as a function of its determinants. Third, the phases are then estimated as an interdependent recursive system. By using the predicted values of variables from the previous phases, a possible endogeneity problem is avoided. Fourth, a model for the forecast is specified and estimated, and the future demand predicted. Finally, based on the results, policy guidelines are suggested to improve the market structure of the industry, and measures are proposed to achieve the stated goals of the industry and market.

  • 123.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea.
    Kim, Yunhee
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea.
    Analysis of Pay Inequality and its Impacts on Growth and Performance in the Korean Manufacturing Industry Post Asian Financial Crisis2017In: UKH Journal of Social Sciences, E-ISSN 2520-7806, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 9-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationship between pay inequality, economic growth, and performance in Korea. Pay inequality is estimated by using Theil’s index to identify the factors determining the level of pay inequality, and establish its relationship with economic growth and performance. For the empirical results we use panel data on the Korean manufacturing sector for the period 1993 to 2003. It appears that a large portion of rising pay inequality can be attributed to rising relative pay among the small-sized firms, outside the capital city area and in the ICT sectors which were affected by the economic structural reform since 1997. The findings support the hypothesis of an “augmented” Kuznets Curve, according to which certain developed countries are found on an upward-sloping addendum to the original formulation of Kuznets.

  • 124.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    Kim, Yunhee
    Seoul National University.
    Lee, Jeong-Dong
    Seoul National University.
    Analysis of Pay Inequality and its Impacts on Growth and Performance in the Korean Manufacturing Industry2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationship between pay inequality, economic growth, and performance in Korea. Pay inequality is estimated by using Theil’s index to identify the factors determining the level of pay inequality, and establish its relationship with economic growth and performance. For the empirical results we use panel data on the Korean manufacturing sector for the period 1993 to 2003. It appears that a large portion of rising pay inequality can be attributed to rising relative pay among the small-sized firms, outside the capital city area and in the ICT sectors which were affected by the economic structural reform since 1997. The findings support the hypothesis of an “augmented” Kuznets Curve, according to which certain developed countries are found on an upward-sloping addendum to the original formulation of Kuznets.

  • 125.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Kumbhakar, S. C.
    Department of Economics, Binghamton University (SUNY), Binghamton, NY, United States.
    A general model of technical change with an application to the OECD countries2014In: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 25-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the neoclassical production theory technical change (TC) is specified as a function of time. However, some exogenous external factors other than time can also affect the rate of TC. In this paper, we model TC via a combination of time trend (purely non-economic) and other observable exogenous factors that shift the technology. The exogenous economic factors are used to define several technology indices. These technology indices are embedded into the production function in a flexible manner. By estimating this generalized production function, we get estimates of rate of TC which is decomposed into a pure time component as well as several components attributed to technology indices. The empirical model uses panel data on OECD, accession and enhanced engagement countries observed during 1980-2006. ©2013 Taylor & Francis.

  • 126.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Ctr. Public Sector Research (CEFOS), University of Gothenburg, Vasagatan 1, S-411 80 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kumbhakar, S. C.
    Department of Economics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1172, United States.
    Estimation of technical efficiency in Swedish crop farms: A pseudo panel data approach1997In: Journal of Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0021-857X, E-ISSN 1477-9552, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 22-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the estimation of technical efficiency using pseudo panel data constructed from rotating panel data on Swedish crop farmers where each unit is observed for a maximum of four years. Farms are grouped into 89 cohorts, using their common time-invariant characteristics, and the cohorts are used as an individual unit in the empirical analysis. The overall technical inefficiency is decomposed into a persistent and a residual component. An alternative model with time-varying technical inefficiency is also considered. In addition to technical inefficiency, measures of returns to scale and technical change are also obtained.

  • 127.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Viktoriagatan 30, Gothenburg, S-411 25, Sweden.
    Kumbhakar, S. C.
    Department of Economics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, 78712-1172, TX, United States.
    Farm heterogeneity and technical efficiency: Some results from Swedish dairy farms1994In: Journal of Productivity Analysis, ISSN 0895-562X, E-ISSN 1573-0441, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 45-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces farm-heterogeneity in measuring technical efficiency of Swedish dairy farms using farm-level data. In calculating technical efficiency which is allowed to vary over time and across farms, we control for farm-specific effects. This is possible only when panel data is available. Furthermore, we separate technical efficiency from technical change-the presence of which is indicated by a shift in the production function over time, ceteris paribus. We also calculate percentage change in technical efficiency to examine whether farm efficiencies have improved over time. Finally, a comparison of technical efficiency, elasticities of different inputs, and technical change is made across different years and panels. The data includes four panels of dairy farms observed during the period 1976-1988, excluding 1985. ©1994 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  • 128.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Kumbhakar, S. C.
    Department of Economics, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, United States.
    Technical change and total factor productivity growth: The case of Chinese provinces2011In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 78, no 4, p. 575-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the literature technical change (TC) is mostly assumed to be exogenous and specified as a function of the time trend or time dummies. However, some exogenous external factors other than time can also affect TC. In this paper we model TC via time trend (external non-economic) as well as other exogenous (external economic) factors (technology shifters). For this we define technology indices based on the external economic factors and the time trend. The specification of production function is then amended to accommodate these technology indices which are not necessarily separable from the traditional inputs. That is, these technology indices allow for non-neutral shift in the production function. In doing so we are able to decompose TC (a component of TFP change) into two parts. One part is driven by time and the other part is related to producer-specific external economic factors. The latter can further be decomposed into each external economic factors. The empirical model uses panel data on Chinese provinces. We identify a number of key technology shifters and their effect on technical change and TFP growth of provinces are examined. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  • 129.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Gothenburg University, Viktoriagatan 30, S-411 25 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kumbhakar, S. C.
    Department of Economics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, United States.
    Hjalmarsson, L.
    Department of Economics, Gothenburg University, Viktoriagatan 30, S-411 25 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Efficiency of the Swedish pork industry: A farm level study using rotating panel data 1976-19881995In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 80, no 3, p. 519-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the issues of technical efficiency, technical changes and bias in technical change in the Swedish pork industry using rotating panel data. We use a generalized Cobb-Douglas model, where the coefficients are linear functions of time. This allows input elasticities to vary over time. Technical changes and bias in technical change are farm- and time-specific. The model distinguishes farm heterogeneity from technical inefficiency. We use a corrected least squares procedure to estimate the model. The data consists of a rotating panel of 450 pork producing farms with a total number of 1506 observations during the period of 1976-1988. We compare the productive performance of farms by size of farm land and animal stock, and over time. The empirical results show among other things that technical change is found to be positive but rapidly declining during the period 1976-1980 turning into technical regress during the remaining period, 1981 to 1988. The mean technical efficiency is found to be around 91%.

  • 130.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Korea University.
    Kumbhakar, Subal
    University of Stavanger.
    A General Model of Technical Change with an Application to OECD Countries2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 131.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Korea University.
    Kumbhakar, Subal
    Binghamton University,.
    Effects of Public Support Policies on Performance of ESCO Industry: The Korean Case2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 132.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Korea University.
    Kumbhakar, Subal C.
    Binghamton University.
    A General Model of Technical Change with an Application to the OECD Countries2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the neoclassical production functions model technical change (TC) is assumed to be exogenous and it is specified as a function of time. However, some exogenous external factors other than time can also affect the rate of TC. In this paper we model TC via a combination of time trend (purely non-economic) and other observable exogenous factors, which we call technology shifters (economic factors). We use several composite technology indices based on appropriate combinations of the external economic factors which are indicators of different aspects of technology. These technology indices are embedded into the production function in such a way that they can complement to different inputs. By estimating the generalized production function, we get estimates of TC which is decomposed TC into a pure time component as well as several producer specific external economic factors. Furthermore, the technology shifters allow for non-neutral and biased shifts in TC. We also consider a simple model in which the technology shifters are aggregated into one single index. The empirical model uses panel data on OECD, accession and enhanced engagement countries observed during 1980-2006.

  • 133.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Korea University.
    Kumbhakar, Subal C.
    Exogenous Technical Change Modeled via Time Trend and Technology Shifters: Application to OECD Countries2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 134.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    Kumbhakar, Subal C.
    Binghamton University.
    Technical Change and Total Factor Productivity Growth: The Case of Chinese Provinces2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the literature technical change is mostly assumed to be exogenous and specified as a function of time. However, some exogenous external factors other than time can also affect technical change. In this paper we model technical change via time trend (purely external non-economic) as well as other exogenous (external economic) factors (technology shifters). We define technology index based on the external economic factors which are indicators of ¡®technology¡¯. Thus our definition of production function is amended to accommodate everal technology shifters which are not separable from the traditional inputs. That is, these technology shifters allow for non-neutral shift in the production function. In doing so we are able to decompose technical change (a component of TFP change) into two parts. One part is driven by time (manna from heaven) and the other part is related to producer specific external economic factors. These exogenous technology shifters are aggregated (via hedonic aggregator functions) into several groups (technology indices) for parsimonious parametric specification. The empirical model uses panel data on Chinese provinces. We identify a number of key technology shifters and their effect on technical change and TFP growth of provinces.

  • 135.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, Korea.
    Kumbhakar, Subal C.
    Department of Economics, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, USA.
    Kim, Jungsuk
    Department of Economics and Trade, Sejong University, Seoul, Korea.
    Persistent and transient efficiency of international airlines2018In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 213-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the efficiency of international airlines for the period 1998-2012 using some competing stochastic frontier (SF) panel data models. It estimates a cost function for multi-output airline services, separating passenger and goods transportation at the national and international levels. Our preferred SF model distinguishes airlines heterogeneity from time-invariant persistent inefficiency, and transient (time-varying) inefficiency from random the noise component. This four component SF model is compared with two other competing SF models in which one of the four components is missing. All the models are estimated using the maximum likelihood method. The models give predicted values of persistent, transient and overall efficiency for each airline and time period. The mean and dispersion of cost efficiency amongst airlines differ by model specifications and according to their geographical area of operations. The performance difference may be a consequence of different market structures and deregulation processes and of specific competitive conditions such as resource availability and strategic alliances with competitors. The results confirm that, in general, none of the airlines is able to achieve full cost efficiency. We find that carriers based in the Asia region are more efficient than those operating in the European and North American regions. The bigger airlines are unable to take full advantage of economies of scale and are not more efficient than their smaller cousins.

  • 136.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Sogang University.
    Kumbhakar, Subal C.
    Binghamton University.
    Sun, Kai
    Aston Business School, Aston University.
    Estimation of Productivity in Korean Electric Power Plants: A Semiparametric Smooth Coefficient Model2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the impact of load factor, facility and generator types on the productivity of Korean electric power plants. In order to capture important differences in the effect of load policy on power output, we use a semiparametric smooth coefficient (SPSC) model that allows us to model heterogeneous performances across power plants and over time by allowing underlying technologies to be heterogeneous. The SPSC model accommodates both continuous and discrete covariates. Various specification tests are conducted to compare performance of the SPSC model. Using a unique generator level panel dataset spanning the period 1995-2006, we find that the impact of load factor, generator and facility types on power generation varies substantially in terms of magnitude and significance across different plant characteristics. The results have strong implication for generation policy in Korea as outlined in this study.

  • 137.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Kumbhakar, Subal C.
    Department of Economics, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, USA.
    Sun, Kai
    Aston Business School, Aston University, Birmingham, UK.
    Estimation of productivity in Korean electric power plants: A semiparametric smooth coefficient model2014In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 45, p. 491-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the impact of load factor, facility and generator types on the productivity of Korean electric power plants. In order to capture important differences in the effect of load policy on power output, we use a semiparametric smooth coefficient (SPSC) model that allows us to model heterogeneous performances across power plants and over time by allowing underlying technologies to be heterogeneous. The SPSC model accommodates both continuous and discrete covariates. Various specification tests are conducted to assess the performance of the SPSC model. Using a unique generator level panel dataset spanning the period 1995-2006, we find that the impact of load factor, generator and facility types on power generation varies substantially in terms of magnitude and significance across different plant characteristics. The results have strong implications for generation policy in Korea as outlined in this study. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 138.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Seoul National University.
    Lee, Sang-choon
    The Relationship between Globalization, Economic Growth and Income Inequality2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between globalization and income inequality by developing a new globalization index based on economic growth. In addition two other indices of globalization, non-parametric Kearney and parametric principal component analysis are used as benchmarks to compare the results. The proposed new index is decomposed into four sub components. The index is also estimated in several forms separated by different economic growth variables and in decomposed or composite forms. The main feature of this approach is that the estimation of globalization index and the examination of its relationship with economic development are conducted in one step. All indices are compared in respect of their level, development and correlations. The empirical analysis is based on a panel data consisting of 61 developed and developing countries observed during the period 1995-2001. Regression analysis is used to estimate the effects of globalization on income inequality. To examine the sensitivity of the relationship between globalization and inequality, different inequality variables are employed. It is expected that the indices serve as useful tools in comparing the globalization process among countries and the evaluation of the the globalization effect on economic development and income inequality. This study is useful in the construction of a new multidimensional index of globalization with different and estimated weights attached to the determinant factors.

  • 139.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Korea University.
    Lee, Sangchoon
    Korea University.
    The Relationship between Globalization, Economic Growth and Income Inequality2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 140.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Lee, Sangchoon
    Technology Management Economics and Policy (TEMEP) program at Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
    The Relationship between Globalization, Economic Growth and Income Inequality2010In: Journal of Globalization Studies, ISSN 2075-8103, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 87-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between globalization and income inequality by developing a new globalization index based on economic growth. In addition two other indices of globalization, non-parametric Kearney and parametric principal component analysis are used as benchmarks to compare the results. The proposed new index is decomposed into four sub-components. The index is also estimated in several forms separated by different economic growth variables and in decomposed or composite forms. The main feature of this approach is that the estimation of globalization index and the examination of its relationship with economic development are conducted in one step. All indices are compared in respect of their level, development and correlations. The empirical analysis is based on a panel data consisting of 61 developed and developing countries observed during the period 1995–2001. Regression analysis is used to estimate the effects of globalization on income inequality. To examine the sensitivity of the relationship between globalization and inequality, different inequality variables are employed. It is expected that the indices serve as useful tools in comparing the globalization process among countries and the evaluation of the globalization effect on economic development and income inequality. This study is useful in the construction of a new multidimensional index of globalization with different and estimated weights attached to the determinant factors.

  • 141.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University.
    Lee, Sangchoon
    Technology Management Economics and Policy Program (TEMEP), College of Engineering, Seoul National University.
    Hwang, Wonsik
    Technology Management Economics and Policy Program (TEMEP), College of Engineering, Seoul National University.
    Performance Analysis of Power Plants under Heterogeneous Technologies with Meta Frontier Framework2012In: International Journal of Economics and Management Engineering, ISSN 2225-742X, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 5-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been numerous studies measuring efficiency and productivity in the electricity industry worldwide but little research focusing on the comparisons of generation technologies. This study provides a better direction for the proper analysis of the electricity generation sector by examining the performance changes and comparing efficiencies among different types of electric power plants. To account for technology heterogeneity, we apply a meta frontier framework, which is composed of technology specific frontiers. This method allows analyses of the existing gap between generation technologies in the generation part of the electricity industry. The inter- and intra-efficiency variations of the technology groups are investigated using determinant analysis. The overall process is composed of two parts: efficiency measurement by deterministic meta frontier framework and regression analysis for determinant analysis. In the determinant analysis of efficiency differences, we exploit several common and time invariant characteristics of the plants. The results based on panel data of power plants indicate that there are significant technological gaps among different types of plants and several external factors affect performance of the plants.

  • 142.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Sogang University.
    Lenz - Cesar, Flávio
    Ministry of Communications, Esplanada dos Ministérios.
    Policy Simulation of Firms Cooperation in Innovation2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study utilizes results from an agent-based simulation model to conduct public policy simulation of firms’ networking and cooperation in innovation. The simulation game investigates the differences in sector responses to internal and external changes, including cross-sector spillovers, when applying three different policy strategies to promote cooperation in innovation. The public policy strategies include clustering to develop certain industries, incentives to encourage cooperative R&D and spin-off policies to foster entrepreneurship among R&D personnel. These policies are compared with the no-policy alternative evolving from the initial state serving as a benchmark to verify the gains (or loses) in the number of firms cooperating and networking. Firms’ behavior Is defined according to empirical findings from analysis of determinants of firms’ participation in cooperation in innovation with other organizations using the Korean Innovation Survey. The analysis based on manufacturing sector data shows that firms’ decision to cooperate with partners is primarily affected positively by firm’s size and the share of employees involved in R&D activities. Then, each cooperative partnership is affected by a different set of determinants. The agent-based models are found to have a great potential to be used in decision support systems for policy makers. The findings indicate possible appropriate policy strategies to be applied depending on the target industries. We have applied few examples and showed how the results may be interpreted. Guidelines are provided on how to generalize the model to include a number of extensions that can serve as an optimal direction for future research in this area.

  • 143.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department of Food and Resource Economics, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, East Building 217, Anam-dong, Seoungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713, South Korea.
    Lenz-Cesar, F.
    Ministry of Communications, Esplanada Dos Ministérios, Bloco R 702, Brasília, DF, Brazil.
    Agent-based simulation of cooperative innovation in R&D2013In: Research Evaluation, ISSN 0958-2029, E-ISSN 1471-5449, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 15-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces an agent-based simulation model representing the dynamic processes of cooperative R&D in the manufacturing sector of South Korea. Firms’ behaviors were defined according to empirical findings on a data set from the internationally standardized Korean Innovation Survey in 2005. Simulation algorithms and parameters were defined based on the determinants of firms’ likelihood to participate in cooperation with other firms when conducting innovation activities. The calibration process was conducted to the point where artificially generated scenarios were equivalent to the one observed in the real world. The aim of this simulation game was to create a basic implementation that could be extended to test different policies strategies in order to observe sector responses (including cross-sector spillovers) when promoting cooperative innovation. Based on the evaluation of simulated research collaboration data, sector responses to strategies concerning government intervention in R&D of the firms can now be assessed.

  • 144.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Sogang University.
    Lenz-Cesar, Flávio
    Central Bank of Brazil.
    Policy Simulation of Firms’ Cooperation in Innovation2015In: Research Evaluation, ISSN 0958-2029, E-ISSN 1471-5449, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 293-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study utilizes an agent-based simulation model to conduct a public policy simulation of firms' networking and cooperation in innovation. The simulation game tests the differences in sector responses to internal and external changes, including cross-sector spillovers, when applying three different policy strategies to promote cooperation in innovation. The public policy strategies include clustering to develop certain industries, incentives to encourage cooperative research and development (R&D), and spin-off policies to foster entrepreneurship among R&D personnel. These policies are compared to a 'no-policy' alternative, which serves as a benchmark to verify the gains (or loses) in the number of firms cooperating and networking. The simulation model defines firms' behavior according to empirical findings from an analysis of determinants of the firms' participation in cooperation in innovation with other organizations using a Korean Innovation Survey. The exercise indicates possible appropriate policy strategies that can be applied depending on the target industries. We have applied a few examples and showed how the results may be interpreted. Agent-based models are found to have a great potential in decision-support systems for policy makers.

  • 145.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, TEMEP, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shilim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
    Lööf, H.
    Centre of excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm Sweden, Drottning Kristinas väg 30, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Investment and performance of firms: Correlation or causality?2008In: Corporate Ownership and Control, ISSN 1810-3057, Vol. 6, no 2 C CONT. 2, p. 268-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the two-way causal relationship between investment and performance indicators at the firm level. The performance variables include sales, value added, profit, cash flow, capital structure and employment. The investment variables are research and development and physical capital. A multivariate vector autoregressive approach is applied to a panel of Swedish firms observed between 1992 and 2000. Results show evidence of some two-way causal relationships, which are mainly transitory in character. Significant heterogeneity is observed in the firms’ investment and performance behavior by their size.

  • 146.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Lööf, H.
    R&D Investment and Performance: Is there Correlation or Causality?2006In: ICFAI Journal of Industrial Economics, ISSN 0972-9208, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 43-59Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 147.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Sogang University, South Korea.
    Maasoumi, EsfandiarEmory University, USA.Wan, GuanghuaEconomics and Research Department of the Asian Development Bank, Philippines.
    Poverty reduction policies and practices in developing Asia2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book looks at the major policy challenges facing developing Asia and how the region sustains rapid economic growth to reduce multidimensional poverty through socially inclusive and environmentally sustainable measures. Asia is facing many challenges arising from population growth, rapid urbanization, provision of services, climate change and the need to redress declining growth after the global financial crisis. This book examines poverty and related issues and aims to advance the development of new tools and measurement of multidimensional poverty and poverty reduction policy analysis. The book covers a wide range of issues, including determinants and causes of poverty and its changes; consequences and impacts of poverty on human capital formation, growth and consumption; assessment of poverty strategies and policies; the role of government, NGOs and other institutions in poverty reduction; rural-urban migration and poverty; vulnerability to poverty; breakdown of poverty into chronic and transitory components; and a comparative study on poverty issues in Asia and other regions. The book will appeal to all those interested in economic development, resources, policies and economic welfare and growth.

  • 148.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Engn, TEMEP, Seoul 151742, South Korea.
    Mohammed, Sozy A.
    Univ Kurdistan Hawler, Fed Region Kurdistan, Iraq.
    Recent trends in economic development of MENA region2009In: Handbook of regional economics / [ed] Nolin, T P, Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2009, p. 285-332Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Middle East and North African (MENA) economies have been subject to major changes in recent decades. These changes are attributed to both internal and external factors. The trends in their economic, social and political developments have been different, leading to heterogeneous development as well as polarization of the economies. The countries also differ greatly in their initial conditions and reliance on natural resources. Several country groups can be distinguished, including those which rely on agriculture and tourism, those exporting crude oil and gas, countries with access to technology and capital from advanced countries and countries enjoying special Mediterranean trade agreements with the European Union. In this study, which is based on the World Development Indicator database, we investigate the trends in development economics in the MENA region. We identify different development patterns in the MENA. By using up-to-date data and simple statistical methods we intend to study development in the area of natural resources and in particular oil exports, tourism, construction, flow of direct foreign investment, wages, globalization, education, etc. The result will shed light on the economic conditions and potential of the region that can be useful in policy analysis, in investment decisions and as a forecast of the development in the region.

  • 149.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Viktoriagatan 30, S-411 25 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mulugeta, Y.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Viktoriagatan 30, S-411 25 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Technical efficiency of the Ugandan matoke farms1996In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 3, no 7, p. 491-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issues of measurement of technical efficiency in the production of matoke in Uganda are investigated. A Cobb-Douglas functional form is used to represent the underlying production technology and corrected least squares procedure to estimate the model and the farm-specific measures of technical efficiency. The data consists of a crossection of 288 matoke-producing family farms during the crop year 1990-1991. The productive performance of farms are compared according to the size of land. The impact of various production characteristics on the production structure of the farms is also tested. The empirical results from a comparison of different farm sizes show very small variations in mean efficiency between the different size classes. Some variations in the distribution of farms within each size-class are observed. The mean technical efficiency is found to be 65%.

  • 150.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department of Economics and the Center for Public Sector Research (CEFOS), Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Nafar, N.
    Department of Economics, Göteborg University, S-411 80 Göteborg, Sweden.
    A production analysis of the manufacturing industries in Iran1998In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 183-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is concerned with the estimation of production functions, returns to scale, and measurement of the rate of technical change using panel data. Technical change is represented by single as well as multiple time trends. The underlying production technology is represented in translog functional form. A random effects model with heteroscedastic variances is used. The models are estimated using the generalized least squares method. The disturbances of cross-sectional units are assumed to be correlated over time. Empirically, our focus is on measuring technical change in Iranian manufacturing industries during the period 1971-1993. Empirical results show that single or multiple time trend representations yield different time behavior of technical change. In the multiple time trends model, we observe a sharp decline in the pattern of technical change in 1978 in relation to the political changes. In the single time trend, as expected, the sharp decline cannot be revealed due to the smooth pattern of technical progress during the entire period of study.

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