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  • 101.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Henry, Colette
    School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Mikalsen, Geir H.
    School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Women’s entrepreneurship policy research: a 30-year review of the evidence2019In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 409-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on women’s entrepreneurship policy as a core component of the entrepreneurial ecosystem. We use a systematic literature review (SLR) approach to critically explore the policy implications of women’s entrepreneurship research according to gender perspective: feminist empiricism, feminist standpoint theory, and post-structuralist feminist theory. Our research question asks whether there is a link between the nature of policy implications and the different theoretical perspectives adopted, and whether scholars’ policy implications have changed as the field of women’s entrepreneurship research has developed. We concentrate on empirical studies published in the “Big Five” primary entrepreneurship research journals (SBE, ETP, JBV, JSBM, and ERD) over a period of more than 30 years (1983–2015). We find that policy implications from women’s entrepreneurship research are mostly vague, conservative, and center on identifying skills gaps in women entrepreneurs that need to be “fixed,” thus isolating and individualizing any perceived problem. Despite an increase in the number of articles offering policy implications, we find little variance in the types of policy implications being offered by scholars, regardless of the particular theoretical perspective adopted, and no notable change over our 30-year review period. Recommendations to improve the entrepreneurial ecosystem for women from a policy perspective are offered, and avenues for future research are identified.

  • 102.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Catching glimpses of youth: Women’s experiences of their husbands visiting Men’s Shed2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 103.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Catching glimpses of youth: Women’s experiences of their husbands visiting Men’s Shed2019In: The Contributions of Education and Learning For Older Adults’ Well-Being: Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the ESREA -Research Network On Education and Learning of Older Adults (ELOA) / [ed] Carla Vilhena & Maria Helena Gregório, Faro: Universidade do Algarve , 2019, p. 310-321Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 104.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Learning to deal with freedom and restraints: Elderly women’s experiences of their husbands visiting a Men’s Shed2019In: Australian Journal of Adult Learning, ISSN 1443-1394, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 76-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the effects of activities in Men’s Sheds on elderly women. Specifically, it investigates the opportunities that are made available for women when their husband/partner becomes active in the Men’s Shed movement; focussing on ‘empowerment’, ‘gender identity’ and ‘well-being’. Five focus group interviews and eight individual interviews with elderly women were conducted and subsequently analysed through a content analysis, guided by the concepts of ‘empowerment’, ‘gender-as-performative’ and ‘well-being’. The result indicates that the notions of ‘self-fulfilment’ and ‘self-sacrifice’ are central to understanding how men’s participation in Men’s Sheds has affected elderly women’s empowerment, gender identities, and well-being. When men visit Sheds, it empowers women and offers them a sense of freedom and independence due to the women feeling less concern for their partners and a concomitantly eased bad conscience for leaving the men home alone with nothing to do when the women leave the household to pursue their own activities. Simultaneously, ‘Shedding’ provides new avenues for women to reproduce traditional feminine gender roles where they are primarily responsible for the socio-emotional work within their marriage. This was demonstrated by the women’s extensive engagement by which they, practically and emotionally, prioritised their husbands/partners and their new Shedding experiences.

  • 105.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Microsystem theory - a paradgimatic change in health care?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 106.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    The gender subtext of new public management-based work practices in Swedish health care2013In: Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, ISSN 2040-7149, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 144-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical framework for researching gender equality implications of Clinical Microsystems, a new public management-based model for multi-professional collaboration and improvement of health care delivery.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on literature from gender in organizations, new public management, multi-professional collaboration and organizational control to critically analyze the Clinical Microsystem model.

    Findings – While on the surface an egalitarian and consensus-based model, it nevertheless risks reinforcing a gendered hierarchical order. The explicit emphasis on social competencies, on being collaborative and amenable to change risks, paradoxically, disfavoring women. A major reason is that control becomes more opaque, which favors those already in power.

    Practical implications – The paper calls for researchers as well as practitioners to incorporate concerns of equality in the work place when introducing new work practices in health care. For research, the authors propose a useful theoretical framework for empirical research. For practice, the paper calls for more transparent conditions for multi-professional collaboration, such as formalized merit and advancement systems, precisely formulated performance expectations and selection of team members based strictly on formal merits.

    Originality/value – A gender analysis of a seemingly anti-hierarchical management model is an original contribution, adding to the literature on Clinical Microsystem in particular but also to critical studies on new public management. Moreover, the paper makes a valuable practical contribution in suggesting ways of avoiding the reproduction of gender inequalities otherwise implied in the model.

  • 107.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    The gender subtext of public health care innovation: the case of implementing Clinical Microsystems in Sweden2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Longevity and improved medical remedies in combination with monetary limitations forces health care to increase its efficiency. This cannot be undertaken from a medical perspective alone, rather there is a call for innovative work practices (Berwick, Nolan and Whittington, 2008). Practices inspired by business or industry are thus implemented in Sweden as well as in other countries (Henriks & Berger, 2007; Leonard, Graham, & Bonacum, 2004).

    In addition to efficiency problems, Swedish health care has well documented gender inequalities. Women are consistently given care of lesser quality than men, and health care organizations typically have a patriarchal gender hierarchy, gendered professions, and stereotypical gender expectations, encompassed by both staff and patients (Smirthwaite, 2007; Upmark, Borg, & Alexandersson, 2007). The question for this paper is thus: will innovation in health care, designed to meet inefficiency problems, also address inequality problems?

    The particular model examined is labeled Clinical Microsystems, introduced by US scholars (Nelson, Batalden, & Godfrey, 2007) and implemented in several Swedish public health care organizations. The model borrows from Total Quality Management and from Lean Production. A Clinical Microsystem is comprised of the entire group of health care professionals that meet a patient. Patients and their relatives are considered integral parts of the microsystem, and so are material artifacts like computers and waiting rooms. The idea is that improvement of care emanates from better functioning microsystems engaged in constant quality development. The model holds thoughts of bottom-up processes, empowerment, multi-professional co-operation, and consensus. It focuses informal and social competences of staff, stressing change of attitudes, approaches, and measuring processes, and staff is evaluated on being collaborative, flexible and, not least, innovative (Berwick et al., 2008).

    From a feminist perspective, the model might have some unwanted side effects. It tends to produce a certain type of individual, and reproduce a certain social order. Norms of empowerment and consensus may give the illusion of a flat organization and a sense that influence is widely spread throughout the organization, but the influence is strictly conditional: in order for an individual to exercise influence, he/she must behave in a prescribed way and display the appropriate attitudes such as being collaborative and flexible (Powers, 2003; Orlikowski, 1991).

    Health care specialists have been accustomed to having a high level of control in their work, conferred by their professional training (Abernethy and Stoelwinder, 1995). Models that not only focus the end product but also the processes leading up it tend to restrict this autonomy. When professional authority is downplayed, this cannot be used a resource to challenge stereotyped gender expectations. When job descriptions include behavioral and social aspects, this tends to benefit the group that is in power (Krogstad et al., 2004), and as Eräsaari (2002) demonstrates, when formal rules and regulations are replaced by informal ones, and when organizations are flattened and made less bureaucratic, this tends to disfavor women. Barker (1993) suggest that team-organized work tends to stabilize norms rather than challenge them, and therefore, as Acker (2006) points out, may not reduce gender inequality at all. In conclusion, innovation in health care delivery such as Clinical Microsystems may change the delivery of care, but holds no clear promise of challenging gender inequalities in health care.

  • 108.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Rovio-Johansson, Airi
    Gothenburg Research Institute, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Siouta, Eleni
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare. Karolinska Institute/Sofiahemmet University, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gendered communicative construction of patients in consultation settings2014In: Women & health, ISSN 0363-0242, E-ISSN 1541-0331, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 513-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to explore the communication in consultations between patients and health care staff from a gender perspective. We used 23 tape-recorded consultations between patients with Atrial Fibrillation and 5 nurses and 5 physicians at cardiac outpatient clinics at 6 different hospitals in southern Sweden during autumn 2009 to explore the verbal gendered constructions of patients. Through critical discourse analysis, we revealed that the male patients tended to describe their ailments with performance-oriented statements, whereas the female patients usually used emotional-oriented statements. The staff downplayed the male patients' questions and statements, while they acknowledged concern toward the female patients. Both the patients and the staff made conclusions according to a mutual construction. Male patients were constructed as competent, and female patients as fragile through gender-stereotypical communication. Open-ended statements and questions enabled consultations to be less limited by gender stereotypes.

  • 109. Henry, C.
    et al.
    Orser, B.
    Coleman, S.
    Foss, Lene
    School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University, Norway.
    Welter, Friederike
    IfM Bonn (Institut für Mittelstandsforschung), Germany.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, K.
    Braun, P.
    de Bruin, A.
    Diaz-Garcia, C.
    Gawell, M.
    Lawton Smith, H.
    Lewis, K.
    McGowan, P.
    Nziku, D.
    Pettersson, K.
    Sheikh, S.
    Tillmar, M.
    Yousafzai, S.
    Women’s entrepreneurship policy: A 13-nation cross-country comparison2017In: Entrepreneurial ecosystems and growth of women's entrepreneurship: A comparative analysis / [ed] atiana S. Manolova, Candida G. Brush, Linda F. Edelman, Alicia Robb & Friederike Welter, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017, p. 244-278Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Public policy is a key element within the entrepreneurial ecosystem in that policy has the potential to shape venture creation behavior and entrepreneurial outcomes. In response to studies documenting a gender gap in entrepreneurial activity, government attention to women’s entrepreneurship has increased in the past two decades. Nevertheless, there are few cross-cultural studies to inform policy development. This 13-nation study draws on gender and institutional theory to report on the status of female-focused SME/entrepreneurship policies and to ask: How - and to what extent - do women’s entrepreneurship policies differ among countries? A common methodological approach is used to identify gaps in the policy-practice nexus, highlighting countries where policy is weak but practice is strong and vice versa. Recommendations for future research are advanced. 

  • 110. Henry, C.
    et al.
    Orser, Barbara
    Coleman, Susan
    Foss, Lene
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Braun, Patrice
    de Bruin, Anne
    Diaz-Garcia, Cristina
    Gawell, Malin
    Lawton Smith, Helen
    Lewis, Kate
    McGowan, Pauric
    Niziku, Dina
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Sheikh, Shandana
    Tillmar, Malin
    Welter, Friederike
    Yousafzai, Shumaila
    Women’s entrepreneurship policy: A 13 nation cross-country comparison2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 111.
    Henry, Colette
    et al.
    UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Foss, Lene
    UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Mikalsen, Geir
    UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Women's entrepreneurship research: What's context got to do with it?2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Henry, Colette
    et al.
    Dundalk Institute of Technology.
    Foss, Lene
    Tromsö University Business School.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    A Minority Report? Reviewing the research on women’s science & technology entrepreneurship2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 113.
    Henry, Colette
    et al.
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Foss, Lene
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Gender and entrepreneurship research: A review of methodological approaches2016In: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 217-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the findings of a systematic literature review (SLR) of the gender and entrepreneurship literature published in 18 journals over a 30-year period. The SLR sought to identify methodological trends in the field of gender and entrepreneurship and to criticallyexplore the type of methodological innovations needed in future scholarship. Findings reveal aproliferation of large-scale empirical studies focused on male/female comparisons, often with little detail provided on industry sector or sampling methods and with either a weak or no feminist perspective. We argue that future scholars must develop the methodological repertoire to match emerging trends towards post-structural feminist approaches; this may require a radical move towards more innovative, in-depth qualitative methodologies such as life histories, case study or discourse analysis.

  • 114.
    Henry, Colette
    et al.
    Dundalk Institute of Technology.
    Foss, Lene
    Tromsö University Business School.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Parallel Lines? A Thirty-Year Review of Methodological Approaches in Gender and Entrepreneurship Research2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    How mothers narrate their entrepreneurial endeavours? The case of Swedish mumpreneurs2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mumpreneurship understood as an entrepreneurial activity by women who are mothers is a growing phenomenon worldwide, yet its rise in Sweden is counterintuitive. To understand the circumstances of the participation of mothers in entrepreneurial activities, we use Career Kaleidoscope Model and adopt the narrative perspective and analyze 15 life-stories of Swedish mumpreneurs. Our data show that Swedish mumpreneurs frame their decision to enter entrepreneurship as a choice. The narratives portray them as agents – entrepreneurship results from a reevaluation of one’s own preferences, rather than an adaptation to the role of a mother. Because of the Swedish social welfare system mothers are not pushed into entrepreneurship, yet its design is consequential for their choice to enter into entrepreneurship.

  • 116.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Paths to entrepreneurship: Life stories of Swedish mumpreneurs2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 117.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    The narratives of choice: Contextualizing mumpreneurship in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 118.
    Naldi, Lucia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Baù, Massimo
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    All about My Mother: Factors Influencing Women’s Entrepreneurship2019In: Academy of Management Proceedings, Academy of Management , 2019, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data on all businesses started by mothers of young children in Sweden between 2000 and 2014, we investigate what factors are the most important drivers of entrepreneurship among mothers. We find that being unemployed or being an immigrant are important drivers of entrepreneurship among mothers. However, our findings show that the most important and primary determinant of entrepreneurship by mothers in Sweden is the amount of paternity leave taken by their partners. These findings suggest that in institutional contexts such as Sweden gender inequality is not a persistent feature of most households and that women can make career choices by negotiating with their partners who will make use of the parental benefits offered by the government.

  • 119.
    Naldi, Lucia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Baù, Massimo
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Home Alone: Gender (in)equality Within The Household And Business Start-up Among Mothers2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 120.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm Business School at Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linneaus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organization and Entrepreneurship, Sweden.
    In the name of women? Feminist readings of policies for women's entrepreneurship in Scandinavia2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 50-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy actors seeking to stimulate entrepreneurship sometimes give special attention to women. It is not given, however, that policy initiatives for women entrepreneurs necessarily contribute to gender equality, to social change for women – such as enhancing entrepreneurship as a means to women's well-being and financial or other independence – or to gendered change of society. We claim that the outcomes depend on the premises behind the policies. We claim that such an outcome depends on the premises behind the policies. The purpose of this paper is to conduct an analysis of the feminist approaches that are taken in policies for women's entrepreneurship in the Scandinavian countries. We analyse how these policies argue for women's entrepreneurship, how they position women, and what assumptions they hold with respect to women and their businesses. We analyse and compare state-level polices that have been implemented by the national governments in three Scandinavian countries; Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, during the period 2005–2015. A comprehensive analytical tool, building on six different feminist theoretical approaches, is developed. We find that, even if a liberal feminist perspective is present, along with elements of other feminist approaches, polices give precedence to economic growth in a non-feminist fashion. Over time, economic growth becomes the key focus, while feminist approaches are silenced. We observe that, in the name of supporting women, the actual aim of policies for women entrepreneurs often seems to be economic growth, and women are seen merely as an untapped, and yet not fully adequate, resource. 

  • 121. Sköld, B.
    et al.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, H.
    Pettersson, K.
    Kvinnors företagande i landsbygdskommuner med fokus på Småland och Öland2018Report (Other academic)
  • 122.
    Tillmar, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Translating feminism in the neoliberal era: Comparing differing Context2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neoliberal political ideas, management methods and ‘entrepreneurialism’ spread globally but are translated differently and have different implications due to contextual variations. This paper sets out to explore contextual variations in implications for women and their entrepreneurship from a feminist perspective. We compare the highly differing contexts of Sweden, known for consistently high rankings on gender equality indices much due to a family- and women friendly welfares state system, and the patriarchal context of East Africa. A mixed methods approach is used including theoretical and policy studies as well as ethnographic and interactive research. The local translations of feminism and entrepreneurialism in the respective contexts are discussed, as well as the relation between feminism and entrepreneurialism. In a stepwise analysis we draw three main conclusions. First, we argue that cut-backs in public spending in the public sector in Sweden have implied a set-back for feminism. Second, we find that entrepreneurialism more clearly empowers women in the studied East African countries, than in Sweden. Our third argument is that the differing outcomes can be traced back to the existence or non-existence of a benevolent, non-corrupt and ‘women-friendly’ state.

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