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  • 101.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Samuelsson, Emilia
    The pricing of an entrepreneurs: An identity construction dilemma1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 102.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet.
    Kvinnors företagande och genusordningen2013In: Arbete och jämställdhet - förändringar under femtio år / [ed] Eva Blomberg & Kirsti Niskanen, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2013, p. 169-187Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 103.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Swedish welfare state retrenchment and the call for women’s entrepreneurship to fill the void2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last two decades have seen major welfare state retrenchment in Sweden. The public sector, which used to be a large and stable employer for women, was downsized. Public schools and public health and care services were privatized. Customer choice models were introduced. The rhetoric connected to privatization stressed the unique opportunities for women formerly employed by the state to start their own businesses in this sector, now open for competition and private initiatives. In this paper we ask what the results were. We discuss the results from a feminist perspective, i.e we ask if privatization and business ownership has improved women’s situation on the labor market, or not. The paper draws together the research findings from our own empirical research (about fifteen different studies) as well as from research done by other Nordic scholars in the field.

  • 104.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Tillmar, Malin
    School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Division of Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Entrepreneurship as a losing proposition for women: Gendered outcomes of neo-liberal entrepreneurship policy in a nordic welfare state2023In: Women's Entrepreneurship Policy: A Global Perspective / [ed] C. Henry, S. Coleman, and K. Lewis, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023, p. 75-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
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    Preprint
  • 105. Berglund, K.
    et al.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Pettersson, K.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Movi(e)ing practices of gender, rurality and entrepreneurship2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 106.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Pettersson, K.
    Tillmar, Karin
    Practicing ’intellectus’ in rural entrepreneurship2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we turn to recent philosophical investigations to analyse stories from entrepreneurial women in rural areas. They describe a variety of social activities they are engaged in to develop their companies, products and services, but also the local community, and society. These engagements are often described in passing, and not directly connected to the company according to conventional goal-oriented logic. Rather, they are seen as taken for granted– they are just done, and someone needs to do them. They concern care for others – for the children in the community, the elderly, the infrastructure, the sustainability of the industry etc. They are neither described as sacrifice, nor as benevolence, as is often emphasized in social entrepreneurship stories. Rather, these engagements signal something else. We argue that they illustrate a reflective practice of entrepreneurship, normally suppressed by an economic logic and described as play, passion and creativity in the sociologically inspired entrepreneurship literature.

    To better understand the role of reflexive practices in rural entrepreneurship, we turn to philosopher Jonna Bornemark who describes how humans in modern societies have become ‘prisoners’ of the measurable economic rationality (‘ratio’). With inspiration from the pre-renaissance philosopher, Nicholas Cusanus (1401-1464), she describes how the calculating ‘ratio’ has taken precedence over ‘intellectus’. Economic rationality (ratio) describes how we turn to rules of abstractions and generalization. Bornemark’s argument is that too much of ratio makes us loose contact with ourselves, others and the specific situation in a way that disables us to develop judgment. Instead we rely on external parameters to objectively guide our action. Practices built on intellectus, on the contrary, emphasize the subjective, emotional, temporary and our ability to ‘not know’, but to learn to cope with insecurity, instability, anxiety and find ways to act in such terrains. Bornemark’s point is that ratio and intellectus practices are interdependent – both are needed. But, in modern societies intellectus has been suppressed, overlooked and seen as state of lack of better knowledge.

    But, what if intellectus is a practice that is nurtured in rural contexts? A practice that not only makes it possible for rural areas to survive and thrive, but which we can learn from in the contemporary calls to change global society in a more thoughtful direction. By analyzing stories from 35 women pursuing different businesses and social activities, we set eyes at the question of if, and how, intellectus is practiced by rural entrepreneurial women.

  • 107.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Tales of heroine entrepreneurs2017In: The Routledge companion to global female entrepreneurship / [ed] Colette Henry, Teresa Nelson, Kate Lewis, New York: Routledge, 2017, p. 320-339Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 108.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Management and Organization Section, Stockholm University School of Business, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Division of Rural Development, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Conceptualising feminist resistance in the postfeminist terrain2023In: Gender in Management, ISSN 1754-2413, E-ISSN 1754-2421, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 183-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    In this paper, women entrepreneurs are seen as leaders and women leaders as entrepreneurial, making both groups an easy target of postfeminist expectations, governed by calls to embody the entrepreneurial self. Acknowledging that the entrepreneurial self has its roots in the universal, rational and autonomous subject, which was shaped in a male form during the Enlightenment, the purpose of this study is to conceptualise feminist resistance as a process through which the autonomous subject can be de-stabilised.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Empirically, this study draws on an extensive research project on women’s rural entrepreneurship that includes 32 in-depth interviews with women entrepreneurs in rural Sweden. This study interpreted expressions of resistance from the women by using an analytical framework the authors developed based on Jonna Bornemark’s philosophical treatise.

    Findings

    Feminist resistance unfolds as an interactive and iterative learning process where the subject recognises their voice, strengthens their voice and beliefs in a relational process and finally sees themselves as a fully fledged actor who finds ways to overcome obstacles that get in their way. Conceptualising resistance as a learning process stands in sharp contrast to the idea of resistance as enacted by the autonomous self.

    Research limitations/implications

    This study helps researchers to understand that what they may have seen as a sign of weakness among women, is instead a sign of strength: it is a first step in learning resistance that may help women create a life different from that prescribed by the postfeminist discourse. In this way, researchers can avoid reproducing women as “weak and inadequate”.

    Originality/value

    Through the re-writing of feminist resistance, the masculine entrepreneurship discourse including the notion of the autonomous self is challenged, and a counternarrative to the postfeminist entrepreneurial woman is developed. Theorising resistance as a learning practice enables a more transforming research agenda, making it possible to see women as resisting postfeminist expectations of endless competition with themselves and others.

  • 109.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Department of Management and Organization Stockholm Business School at Stockholm University.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Department of Urban and Rural Development Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    School of Business and Economics Linnaeus University.
    Women's entrepreneurship, neoliberalism and economic justice in the postfeminist era: A discourse analysis of policy change in Sweden2018In: Gender, Work and Organization, ISSN 0968-6673, E-ISSN 1468-0432, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 531-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 1990s, there has been investment in women's entrepreneurship policy (WEP) in Sweden, which continued until 2015. During the same period, Sweden assumed neoliberal policies that profoundly ch7anged the position of women within the world of work and business. The goals for WEP changed as a result, from entrepreneurship as a way to create a more equal society, to the goal of unleashing women's entrepreneurial potential so they can contribute to economic growth. To better understand this shift we approach WEP as a neoliberal governmentality which offers women 'entrepreneurial' or 'postfeminist' subject positions. The analysis is inspired by political theorist Nancy Fraser who theorized the change as the displacement of socioeconomic redistribution in favour of cultural recognition, or identity politics. We use Fraser's concepts in a discourse analysis of Swedish WEP over two decades, identifying two distinct discourses and three discursive displacements. Whilst WEP initially gave precedence to a radical feminist discourse that called for women's collective action, this was replaced by a postfeminist neoliberal discourse that encouraged individual women to assume an entrepreneurial persona, start their own business, compete in the marketplace and contribute to economic growth. The result was the continued subordination of women business owners, but it also obscured or rendered structural problems/solutions, and collective feminist action, irrelevant.

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  • 110.
    Berglund, Karin
    et al.
    Företagsekonomiska institu­tionen, Stockholms Universitet.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Ekonomihögskolan, Linnéuniversitetet.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Institutionen för stad och land, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU).
    Genusperspektiv på entreprenörskap: från kvinnors företagande till feministisk aktivism2023In: Organisation & Samhälle, ISSN 2001-9114, E-ISSN 2002-0287, no 1, p. 12-15Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Från inledningen: Den internationella forskningen om kvinnors företagande tog fart i början av 1990-talet. Redan 1989 publicerade pionjärerna Elisabeth Sundin och Carin Holmquist den svenska studien Kvinnor som företagare: Osynlighet, mångfald, anpassning. Studien banade väg för en livaktig svensk forskning inom ämnet. I början handlade forskningen om att visa att kvinnor som företagare faktiskt finns. Trots att kvinnor sedan många år utgjort ungefär en tredjedel av alla företagare så ansågs och anses fortfarande företagare vara män. I ett senare skede fokuserade forskningen på villkoren för företag drivna av kvinnor. Många studier visade till exempel att kvinnor har svårare att få finansiering för sina verksamheter än män. Det kan bero på direkt diskriminering, men också på att kvinnor är verksamma i feminint kodade branscher som exempelvis detaljhandel eller personlig service. I dessa branscher har man sällan stora tillgångar som kan ställas som säkerhet för ett lån. Branscherna är också arbetskraftsintensiva, vilket gör det svårare att uppnå skalfördelar och hög lönsamhet.

  • 111.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Almgren, Susanne
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University.
    Berglez, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Bergström, Johanna
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Bertills, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande (IBL), Avdelningen för psykologi (PSY), Linköpings universitet (LIU).
    Bäcklund, Johan
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Practice Based Educational Research, Epistemic Cultures & Teaching Practices. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Communication, Culture and Diversity (CCD).
    Dybelius, Anders
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Florin Sädbom, Rebecka
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Practice Based Educational Research, Epistemic Cultures & Teaching Practices.
    Gustafsson, Mikael
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Hammarsten, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS), Sustainability Education Research (SER).
    Heuman, Johannes
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Communication, Culture and Diversity (CCD).
    Segolsson, Mikael
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Practice Based Educational Research, Epistemic Cultures & Teaching Practices.
    Öhman, Charlotte
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Practice Based Educational Research, Preschool Education Research.
    Lifelong Learning Through Context Collapse: Higher education Teachers’ Narratives About Online education During The Pandemic2022In: Proceedings of INTED2022 Conference 7th-8th March 2022, 2022, p. 2632-2641Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic has elicited a shift from campus classrooms to distance education in higher education worldwide, shaping not only students’ experiences, but also those of teachers, especially those who never have taught online. In addition, the pandemic created a meta-context that has positioned distance education as something different from previous efforts. This study aimed to investigate higher education teachers’ experiences during the transition from classroom to online teaching by using a collective auto-ethnography method based on 13 personal stories from Swedish faculty. For the abductive approach in the analysis, a framework that combines lifelong learning theory with the context collapse concept has been applied. The disjuncture that the pandemic has elicited created a situation in which teachers had to make sense of the fact that their previous experiences did not completely fit the new situation. Context collapse, a term used to describe encounters with many audiences in social media, has been introduced to highlight the clash between professional and private contexts in online educational platforms. Based on lifelong learning theories, we suggest that context collapse should be examined in terms of how it can help improve higher education, as it holds the potential to include the entire person – body and mind – in education.

  • 112.
    Boström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Bergmo Prvulovic, Ingela
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Chaib, Christina
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Chaib, Mohamed
    Petersson, Rune
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Universities’ regional engagement in regional settings in Sweden2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 113.
    Boström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Chaib, Mohamed
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Chaib, Christina
    Bergmo Prvulovic, Ingela
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Petersson, Rune
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Universities Regional Engagement in Regional settings in Sweden: and the case of the National Centre of Lifelong Learning (Encell), Jönköping University2010In: Council of Europe Standing Conference of Ministers of Education: "Education for Sustainable Democratic Societies: The Role of Teachers". 23rd session in Ljubliana, Slovenia, 4-5 June 2010.Introduction to sub-theme C Partnerships and networking in Education: Illustrative case from Sweden, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 114.
    Brundin, Ethel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Estéen, Jonas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Wigren, Caroline
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Högteknologiska företag i Jönköpings kommun: (High-technology companies in Jönköping)1997Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 115.
    Escobar, Karla
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell. Jönköping University Library.
    Civil society initiatives for integrating refugees into Swedish society: Sustainable over time?2024Report (Other academic)
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  • 116. Escobar, Karla
    et al.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Civilsamhällets insatser i spåren av flyktingvågen 2015: Hållbara över tid?2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersöker vilka integrationsbefrämjande aktiviteter som civilsamhället, ofta med stöd av projektpengar från staten, bedrev i spåren av flyktingkrisen 2015. Vi undersöker också om aktiviteterna fick ett långsiktigt fäste i civilsamhällets organisationer eller inte. Vi har intervjuat representanter för kyrkor, biståndsorganisationer, sociala företag, ideella föreningar, invandrarföreningar och några kommunala projekt. Vi fann ett starkt samband mellan enskilda medlemmars tidigare erfarenheter av integrationsfrågor och vilka aktiviteter de valde att satsa på. Lärare startade språkcaféer, vårdpersonal informerade om sjukvården, behandlingspedagoger startade hälsoprojekt och så vidare. Vi fann också att de flesta av insatserna har avslutats. Projektformen, med krav både på nytänkande och förutbestämda resultatmått ledde till kortsiktighet. De yttre kraven var inte förenliga med de arbetssätt och de resultatmått som både civilsamhällets aktörer och flyktingarna föredrog så projekten förnyades inte. Organisationerna kunde inte långsiktigt härbärgera aktiviteterna. Undantagen är de fall där man efter att ha lyssnat till målgruppens behov bildat en ny, formell organisation som kunde härbärgera de önskade aktiviteterna. Detsamma gäller för invandrarföreningarna som inte var beroende av projektpengar och som redan hade ”integration” inbyggt i organisationens syfte och verksamhet. Studien ger lärdomar för myndigheter om vikten av att forma utlysningar så att syfte och resultatmått är förenliga med vad både civilsamhällets aktörer och projektdeltagare finner meningsfullt.

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  • 117.
    Escobar, Karla
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Epistemic Cultures & Teaching Practices. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER). Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Multi-level governance and civil society’s work on integrating migrants after the migrant crisis of 2015 in Jönköping2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From foreword: This report describes how civil society and the public sector in Jönköping municipality collaborated with each other in assisting the welcoming and integration of the refugees who arrived in the municipality during the so-called ‘migrant crisis’ of 2015.

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  • 118.
    Escobar, Karla
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Praktiknära utbildningsforskning (PUF), Epistemic Cultures & Teaching Practices. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Sustainability Education Research (SER). Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Styrda fast ändå inte?: Flernivåstyrning och civilsamhällets arbete med att integrera flyktingar efter flyktingkrisen 2015 i Jönköping2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Från förordet: Den här rapporten handlar om hur civilsamhället och offentlig sektor i Jönköpings kommun har samarbetat för att hjälpa till att välkomna och integrera alla de flyktingar som kom i samband med flyktingkrisen 2015. Rapporten är en del av en större studie som i förlängningen syftar till att jämföra civilsamhällets roll i mottagningssystemen i Kanada och Sverige och är finansierad av Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council i Kanada.

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  • 119.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Henry, Colette
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Review of Policy and Practice Implications in Gender and Entrepreneurship Research2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars across all discipline areas are increasingly being asked to demonstrate the impact of their research (Mohrman et al., 2001; Steyaert, 2011). In so doing, entrepreneurship researchers have become aware of the considerable disparity between the knowledge generated by academic scholars and that which can be usefully employed by entrepreneurs and managers in practice (Steffens et al., 2013). With specific regard to women’s entrepreneurship, while scholars have proved that gender does matter (Brush et al., 2010, Kelley et al., 2012), and that entrepreneurship in itself is a gendered phenomenon (Jennings & Brush, 2013), the extent to which gender scholars have been concerned with the actual impact of their research has not been evidenced to the same extent. However, assessing impact can be a highly complex issue, involving both subjective and objective assessments, often on a longitudinal basis (Storey, 2000; Henry et al., 2005). Thus, by way of proxy, we consider the manner in which scholars articulate the intended impact of their research to be an important first step toward a robust assessment of impact over time. With this in mind, this paper seeks to critically explore the articulated policy and practice implications of women’s entrepreneurship research. Our key objective is to consider whether there has been a notable shift in focus with regard to such implications since the first studies on female entrepreneurship appeared, and if so, to consider whether there is a link between such a shift and the different theoretical perspectives[1] adopted.  

    We draw on a comprehensive data set compiled from the gender and entrepreneurship literatures over a 30-year period. Consistent with Denyer & Neely (2004), we conducted a systematic literature review (SLR) of relevant empirical papers published in top tier journals. For the purposes of this paper, consistent with Katz (2003) and Brush (2007), we focused on articles published in the ‘Big Five’ entrepreneurship journals (i.e. ERD, ETP, JBV, JSBM, SBE) between 1983 and 2012. We compare the different levels of focus on policy and practice implications between the three decades included in our review, and highlight notable variances. The paper builds on and contributes to extant literatures by furthering our understanding of policy and practice implications in gender and entrepreneurship research.

    The paper is organised as follows. In the first section we discuss the issue of policy and practice implications, how this has attracted increased attention in the social sciences and the particular tradition within the field of entrepreneurship. The second section focuses on the development of gender perspectives in entrepreneurship research, outlining the particular questions that have guided our empirical study. The third section details the methodology, and this is followed by the presentation of our findings, which are subsequently discussed. Finally, some concluding remarks are provided, with an indication of avenues worthy of future research.

    [1] For example, gender as a variable (GAV), feminist standpoint theory (FST) and post-structural feminism (PSF).

     

  • 120.
    Foss, Lene
    et al.
    School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Henry, Colette
    School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Mikalsen, Geir H.
    School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Women’s entrepreneurship policy research: a 30-year review of the evidence2019In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 409-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on women’s entrepreneurship policy as a core component of the entrepreneurial ecosystem. We use a systematic literature review (SLR) approach to critically explore the policy implications of women’s entrepreneurship research according to gender perspective: feminist empiricism, feminist standpoint theory, and post-structuralist feminist theory. Our research question asks whether there is a link between the nature of policy implications and the different theoretical perspectives adopted, and whether scholars’ policy implications have changed as the field of women’s entrepreneurship research has developed. We concentrate on empirical studies published in the “Big Five” primary entrepreneurship research journals (SBE, ETP, JBV, JSBM, and ERD) over a period of more than 30 years (1983–2015). We find that policy implications from women’s entrepreneurship research are mostly vague, conservative, and center on identifying skills gaps in women entrepreneurs that need to be “fixed,” thus isolating and individualizing any perceived problem. Despite an increase in the number of articles offering policy implications, we find little variance in the types of policy implications being offered by scholars, regardless of the particular theoretical perspective adopted, and no notable change over our 30-year review period. Recommendations to improve the entrepreneurial ecosystem for women from a policy perspective are offered, and avenues for future research are identified.

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  • 121.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Catching glimpses of youth: Women’s experiences of their husbands visiting Men’s Shed2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 122.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Catching glimpses of youth: Women’s experiences of their husbands visiting Men’s Shed2019In: The Contributions of Education and Learning For Older Adults’ Well-Being: Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the ESREA -Research Network On Education and Learning of Older Adults (ELOA) / [ed] Carla Vilhena & Maria Helena Gregório, Faro: Universidade do Algarve , 2019, p. 310-321Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 123.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Learning to deal with freedom and restraints: Elderly women’s experiences of their husbands visiting a Men’s Shed2019In: Australian Journal of Adult Learning, ISSN 1443-1394, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 76-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the effects of activities in Men’s Sheds on elderly women. Specifically, it investigates the opportunities that are made available for women when their husband/partner becomes active in the Men’s Shed movement; focussing on ‘empowerment’, ‘gender identity’ and ‘well-being’. Five focus group interviews and eight individual interviews with elderly women were conducted and subsequently analysed through a content analysis, guided by the concepts of ‘empowerment’, ‘gender-as-performative’ and ‘well-being’. The result indicates that the notions of ‘self-fulfilment’ and ‘self-sacrifice’ are central to understanding how men’s participation in Men’s Sheds has affected elderly women’s empowerment, gender identities, and well-being. When men visit Sheds, it empowers women and offers them a sense of freedom and independence due to the women feeling less concern for their partners and a concomitantly eased bad conscience for leaving the men home alone with nothing to do when the women leave the household to pursue their own activities. Simultaneously, ‘Shedding’ provides new avenues for women to reproduce traditional feminine gender roles where they are primarily responsible for the socio-emotional work within their marriage. This was demonstrated by the women’s extensive engagement by which they, practically and emotionally, prioritised their husbands/partners and their new Shedding experiences.

  • 124.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Microsystem theory - a paradgimatic change in health care?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 125.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    The gender subtext of new public management-based work practices in Swedish health care2013In: Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, ISSN 2040-7149, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 144-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical framework for researching gender equality implications of Clinical Microsystems, a new public management-based model for multi-professional collaboration and improvement of health care delivery.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on literature from gender in organizations, new public management, multi-professional collaboration and organizational control to critically analyze the Clinical Microsystem model.

    Findings – While on the surface an egalitarian and consensus-based model, it nevertheless risks reinforcing a gendered hierarchical order. The explicit emphasis on social competencies, on being collaborative and amenable to change risks, paradoxically, disfavoring women. A major reason is that control becomes more opaque, which favors those already in power.

    Practical implications – The paper calls for researchers as well as practitioners to incorporate concerns of equality in the work place when introducing new work practices in health care. For research, the authors propose a useful theoretical framework for empirical research. For practice, the paper calls for more transparent conditions for multi-professional collaboration, such as formalized merit and advancement systems, precisely formulated performance expectations and selection of team members based strictly on formal merits.

    Originality/value – A gender analysis of a seemingly anti-hierarchical management model is an original contribution, adding to the literature on Clinical Microsystem in particular but also to critical studies on new public management. Moreover, the paper makes a valuable practical contribution in suggesting ways of avoiding the reproduction of gender inequalities otherwise implied in the model.

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    fulltext
  • 126.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    The gender subtext of public health care innovation: the case of implementing Clinical Microsystems in Sweden2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Longevity and improved medical remedies in combination with monetary limitations forces health care to increase its efficiency. This cannot be undertaken from a medical perspective alone, rather there is a call for innovative work practices (Berwick, Nolan and Whittington, 2008). Practices inspired by business or industry are thus implemented in Sweden as well as in other countries (Henriks & Berger, 2007; Leonard, Graham, & Bonacum, 2004).

    In addition to efficiency problems, Swedish health care has well documented gender inequalities. Women are consistently given care of lesser quality than men, and health care organizations typically have a patriarchal gender hierarchy, gendered professions, and stereotypical gender expectations, encompassed by both staff and patients (Smirthwaite, 2007; Upmark, Borg, & Alexandersson, 2007). The question for this paper is thus: will innovation in health care, designed to meet inefficiency problems, also address inequality problems?

    The particular model examined is labeled Clinical Microsystems, introduced by US scholars (Nelson, Batalden, & Godfrey, 2007) and implemented in several Swedish public health care organizations. The model borrows from Total Quality Management and from Lean Production. A Clinical Microsystem is comprised of the entire group of health care professionals that meet a patient. Patients and their relatives are considered integral parts of the microsystem, and so are material artifacts like computers and waiting rooms. The idea is that improvement of care emanates from better functioning microsystems engaged in constant quality development. The model holds thoughts of bottom-up processes, empowerment, multi-professional co-operation, and consensus. It focuses informal and social competences of staff, stressing change of attitudes, approaches, and measuring processes, and staff is evaluated on being collaborative, flexible and, not least, innovative (Berwick et al., 2008).

    From a feminist perspective, the model might have some unwanted side effects. It tends to produce a certain type of individual, and reproduce a certain social order. Norms of empowerment and consensus may give the illusion of a flat organization and a sense that influence is widely spread throughout the organization, but the influence is strictly conditional: in order for an individual to exercise influence, he/she must behave in a prescribed way and display the appropriate attitudes such as being collaborative and flexible (Powers, 2003; Orlikowski, 1991).

    Health care specialists have been accustomed to having a high level of control in their work, conferred by their professional training (Abernethy and Stoelwinder, 1995). Models that not only focus the end product but also the processes leading up it tend to restrict this autonomy. When professional authority is downplayed, this cannot be used a resource to challenge stereotyped gender expectations. When job descriptions include behavioral and social aspects, this tends to benefit the group that is in power (Krogstad et al., 2004), and as Eräsaari (2002) demonstrates, when formal rules and regulations are replaced by informal ones, and when organizations are flattened and made less bureaucratic, this tends to disfavor women. Barker (1993) suggest that team-organized work tends to stabilize norms rather than challenge them, and therefore, as Acker (2006) points out, may not reduce gender inequality at all. In conclusion, innovation in health care delivery such as Clinical Microsystems may change the delivery of care, but holds no clear promise of challenging gender inequalities in health care.

  • 127.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Rovio-Johansson, Airi
    Gothenburg Research Institute, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Siouta, Eleni
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare. Karolinska Institute/Sofiahemmet University, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gendered communicative construction of patients in consultation settings2014In: Women & health, ISSN 0363-0242, E-ISSN 1541-0331, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 513-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to explore the communication in consultations between patients and health care staff from a gender perspective. We used 23 tape-recorded consultations between patients with Atrial Fibrillation and 5 nurses and 5 physicians at cardiac outpatient clinics at 6 different hospitals in southern Sweden during autumn 2009 to explore the verbal gendered constructions of patients. Through critical discourse analysis, we revealed that the male patients tended to describe their ailments with performance-oriented statements, whereas the female patients usually used emotional-oriented statements. The staff downplayed the male patients' questions and statements, while they acknowledged concern toward the female patients. Both the patients and the staff made conclusions according to a mutual construction. Male patients were constructed as competent, and female patients as fragile through gender-stereotypical communication. Open-ended statements and questions enabled consultations to be less limited by gender stereotypes.

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    Accepted Manuscript
  • 128. Henry, C.
    et al.
    Orser, B.
    Coleman, S.
    Foss, Lene
    School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University, Norway.
    Welter, Friederike
    IfM Bonn (Institut für Mittelstandsforschung), Germany.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, K.
    Braun, P.
    de Bruin, A.
    Diaz-Garcia, C.
    Gawell, M.
    Lawton Smith, H.
    Lewis, K.
    McGowan, P.
    Nziku, D.
    Pettersson, K.
    Sheikh, S.
    Tillmar, M.
    Yousafzai, S.
    Women’s entrepreneurship policy: A 13-nation cross-country comparison2017In: Entrepreneurial ecosystems and growth of women's entrepreneurship: A comparative analysis / [ed] atiana S. Manolova, Candida G. Brush, Linda F. Edelman, Alicia Robb & Friederike Welter, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017, p. 244-278Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Public policy is a key element within the entrepreneurial ecosystem in that policy has the potential to shape venture creation behavior and entrepreneurial outcomes. In response to studies documenting a gender gap in entrepreneurial activity, government attention to women’s entrepreneurship has increased in the past two decades. Nevertheless, there are few cross-cultural studies to inform policy development. This 13-nation study draws on gender and institutional theory to report on the status of female-focused SME/entrepreneurship policies and to ask: How - and to what extent - do women’s entrepreneurship policies differ among countries? A common methodological approach is used to identify gaps in the policy-practice nexus, highlighting countries where policy is weak but practice is strong and vice versa. Recommendations for future research are advanced. 

  • 129. Henry, C.
    et al.
    Orser, Barbara
    Coleman, Susan
    Foss, Lene
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Braun, Patrice
    de Bruin, Anne
    Diaz-Garcia, Cristina
    Gawell, Malin
    Lawton Smith, Helen
    Lewis, Kate
    McGowan, Pauric
    Niziku, Dina
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Sheikh, Shandana
    Tillmar, Malin
    Welter, Friederike
    Yousafzai, Shumaila
    Women’s entrepreneurship policy: A 13 nation cross-country comparison2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 130.
    Henry, Colette
    et al.
    UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Foss, Lene
    UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Mikalsen, Geir
    UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Women's entrepreneurship research: What's context got to do with it?2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 131.
    Henry, Colette
    et al.
    Dundalk Institute of Technology.
    Foss, Lene
    Tromsö University Business School.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    A Minority Report? Reviewing the research on women’s science & technology entrepreneurship2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 132.
    Henry, Colette
    et al.
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Foss, Lene
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Gender and entrepreneurship research: A review of methodological approaches2016In: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 217-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the findings of a systematic literature review (SLR) of the gender and entrepreneurship literature published in 18 journals over a 30-year period. The SLR sought to identify methodological trends in the field of gender and entrepreneurship and to criticallyexplore the type of methodological innovations needed in future scholarship. Findings reveal aproliferation of large-scale empirical studies focused on male/female comparisons, often with little detail provided on industry sector or sampling methods and with either a weak or no feminist perspective. We argue that future scholars must develop the methodological repertoire to match emerging trends towards post-structural feminist approaches; this may require a radical move towards more innovative, in-depth qualitative methodologies such as life histories, case study or discourse analysis.

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    Accepted Manuscript
  • 133.
    Henry, Colette
    et al.
    Dundalk Institute of Technology.
    Foss, Lene
    Tromsö University Business School.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Parallel Lines? A Thirty-Year Review of Methodological Approaches in Gender and Entrepreneurship Research2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Henry, Foss & Ahl (2013) Parallell lines? A Thirty-Year Review of Methodological Approaches in Gender and Entrepreneurship Research
  • 134.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Fix the structures, not the women: The case for norm critical entrepreneurship education2023In: The age of entrepreneurship education research: Evolution and future / [ed] A. C. Corbett, L. D. Marino & G. A. Alsos, Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2023, p. 51-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the authors argue that entrepreneurship education (EE) as currently conceived, does little to eradicate gender inequality – rather, its focus on the individual and its neglect of structural impediments and measures tend to reinforce this inequality. The authors discuss why this happens and suggest ways forward. The authors believe the most positive action would be to employ legislation and public policy to change gendered structures and practices which would lead to changes in gendered norms. However, the relationship between norms and structures is mutual. Structural change can only be achieved if existing norms are questioned and this should be the first step toward changing discriminatory structures. The authors argue that in this context EE must include norm critical education. The authors provide some practical examples related to the context of EE.

  • 135.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    How mothers narrate their entrepreneurial endeavours? The case of Swedish mumpreneurs2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mumpreneurship understood as an entrepreneurial activity by women who are mothers is a growing phenomenon worldwide, yet its rise in Sweden is counterintuitive. To understand the circumstances of the participation of mothers in entrepreneurial activities, we use Career Kaleidoscope Model and adopt the narrative perspective and analyze 15 life-stories of Swedish mumpreneurs. Our data show that Swedish mumpreneurs frame their decision to enter entrepreneurship as a choice. The narratives portray them as agents – entrepreneurship results from a reevaluation of one’s own preferences, rather than an adaptation to the role of a mother. Because of the Swedish social welfare system mothers are not pushed into entrepreneurship, yet its design is consequential for their choice to enter into entrepreneurship.

  • 136.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Paths to entrepreneurship: Life stories of Swedish mumpreneurs2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 137.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    The narratives of choice: Contextualizing mumpreneurship in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 138.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Timeout: The Role of Family-Friendly Policies in Business Start-Up Among Mothers2023In: Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, ISSN 1042-2587, E-ISSN 1540-6520, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 1169-1199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores why an increasing number of Swedish mothers are becoming entrepreneurs; this choice appears counterintuitive given the prevailing social welfare system prioritizes the rights of employed women. Using an interpretative stance, we analyzed the life stories of 18 Swedish mothers who created new ventures while caring for young children. The value of the time afforded by parental leave policies was identified as vital to the business creation process. Hence, we argue that time is a critical entrepreneurship-relevant resource; this is illustrated by the positive effect of the Swedish welfare system upon entrepreneurship entry and the timing of this decision.

  • 139.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Timeout: The Role of Social Welfare in Entrepreneurship among Mothers2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 140.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå School of Business, Economics and Statistics (USBE).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Women entrepreneurs doing and undoing their motherhood2023Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 141.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå School of Business, Economics and Statistics (USBE).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Women entrepreneurs doing and undoing their motherhood2023Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 142.
    Naldi, Lucia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Baù, Massimo
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    All about My Mother: Factors Influencing Women’s Entrepreneurship2019In: Academy of Management Proceedings, Academy of Management , 2019, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data on all businesses started by mothers of young children in Sweden between 2000 and 2014, we investigate what factors are the most important drivers of entrepreneurship among mothers. We find that being unemployed or being an immigrant are important drivers of entrepreneurship among mothers. However, our findings show that the most important and primary determinant of entrepreneurship by mothers in Sweden is the amount of paternity leave taken by their partners. These findings suggest that in institutional contexts such as Sweden gender inequality is not a persistent feature of most households and that women can make career choices by negotiating with their partners who will make use of the parental benefits offered by the government.

  • 143.
    Naldi, Lucia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Baù, Massimo
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Gender (in)equality within the household and business start-up among mothers2021In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 56, p. 903-918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data on all businesses started by mothers of young children in Sweden between 2000 and 2014, we explore which factors are associated with entrepreneurship among mothers. We find that being unemployed or being an immigrant is positively associated with business start-up by mothers; however, our findings show that what matters more is the paternity leave taken by the mothers’ partners. These findings suggest that in institutional contexts such as Sweden, gender inequality is not a persistent feature of most households and that women can make career choices by negotiating with their partners who will make use of the parental benefits offered by the government.

  • 144.
    Naldi, Lucia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Baù, Massimo
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Home Alone: Gender (in)equality Within The Household And Business Start-up Among Mothers2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 145.
    Nilsson, Marco
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Sustainable Societies (SUS).
    Escobar, Karla
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Labour market integration of refugees in Sweden: Analysing the interactions of CSOs at different levels2024In: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, E-ISSN 1469-9451, Vol. 50, no 6, p. 1317-1335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a gap in knowledge regarding how civil society organisations (CSOs) interact at different levels when working to integrate refugees into the labour market—its causes and limitations. To contribute to filling the gap, this study employs both a rational choice perspective and sociological institutionalism to analyse how and why CSOs in Jönköping municipality in Sweden interacted with other relevant actors, both other CSOs (horizontally) and the public sector (vertically), to integrate refugees into the labour market after the refugee crisis in 2015 and what challenges they faced. It analyses different forms of interaction, that is, not only the relationship between the state and the civil society but also the one between different civil society organisations, which brings a new analytical dimension to the concept of coproduction to support refugees. By analysing the organisations’ interactions at different levels, the study identifies four themes: Striving to be flexible and service-minded organisations; between rational choice and institutionalisation of horizontal interactions; obstacles to horizontal interactions; and difficulty of measuring goal attainment.

  • 146.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm Business School at Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linneaus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organization and Entrepreneurship, Sweden.
    In the name of women? Feminist readings of policies for women's entrepreneurship in Scandinavia2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 50-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy actors seeking to stimulate entrepreneurship sometimes give special attention to women. It is not given, however, that policy initiatives for women entrepreneurs necessarily contribute to gender equality, to social change for women – such as enhancing entrepreneurship as a means to women's well-being and financial or other independence – or to gendered change of society. We claim that the outcomes depend on the premises behind the policies. We claim that such an outcome depends on the premises behind the policies. The purpose of this paper is to conduct an analysis of the feminist approaches that are taken in policies for women's entrepreneurship in the Scandinavian countries. We analyse how these policies argue for women's entrepreneurship, how they position women, and what assumptions they hold with respect to women and their businesses. We analyse and compare state-level polices that have been implemented by the national governments in three Scandinavian countries; Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, during the period 2005–2015. A comprehensive analytical tool, building on six different feminist theoretical approaches, is developed. We find that, even if a liberal feminist perspective is present, along with elements of other feminist approaches, polices give precedence to economic growth in a non-feminist fashion. Over time, economic growth becomes the key focus, while feminist approaches are silenced. We observe that, in the name of supporting women, the actual aim of policies for women entrepreneurs often seems to be economic growth, and women are seen merely as an untapped, and yet not fully adequate, resource. 

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  • 147.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    et al.
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, Karin
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Knowledge Platform Entrepreneurship and Social Change, Department of Organization and Entrepreneurship, School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Paying lip service to gender inequality: EU rural development policy in Sweden2024In: Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, ISSN 0966-369X, E-ISSN 1360-0524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While research has pointed to the lack of gender mainstreaming in rural and agricultural policy, how rural policy determines what is seen as problems of gender inequality in the first place and how it constructs men and women in relation to rural development remains unexplored. In this article we perform an in-depth analysis of how rural policy constructs gender inequality problems and gendered subjects. We employ the 'What's the problem represented to be' approach to analyse the implementation of the European Union's Rural Development Policy in one Swedish region, Jönköping County. We conclude that gender inequality is largely left unproblematic in relation to rural development, placing women in the subject position of being uninterested in rural development policy and lacking the ability to take it on. The focus on farmers and ICT broadband positions adult, Swedish-born men as the norm, reflecting a neoliberal emphasis on economic growth through competitive businesses. We also conclude that the policy twists 'gender mainstreaming' by claiming that it promotes gender equality, while it in fact takes no action. Paying lip service to gender equality rural policy thereby co-opts feminism, in line with a neoliberal 'postfeminist' discourse, which is harmful to the feminist project. Alternative approaches to gender inequalities suggest that there may be broader, and different, ways of discussing them in relation to rural development, making for a broader spectrum of problematisations and subject positions, which may, in turn, allow a transformation towards gender equality.

  • 148.
    Roos, Annie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University.
    Gashi Nulleshi, Shqipe
    Linnaeus University.
    Alexandersson, Anna
    Linnaeus University.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Visions for sustainable rural areas in Sweden – Does the entrepreneurs and the innovation support system see the same future?2023In: Ruralities and Regions in Transition: Book of Abstracts, 2023, p. 22-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper contributes to entrepreneurship theory by studying entrepreneurs' and local innovation support system actors' visions on rural sustainability. We see that not only entrepreneurs, but also local innovation support system actors, shape the context and thus influences entrepreneurial processes and policymaking.

    Approach

    This study focuses on rural Southern Sweden, using qualitative narratives from entrepreneurs and local innovation support system actors. These narratives provide reflections and insights that inform their perceptions on addressing challenges of sustainability and innovations in rural contexts. By employing rural proofing to assess context, we identify various factors influencing the entrepreneurship process.

    Findings

    The preliminary findings suggests that entrepreneurs and local innovation support system actors envision different sustainable futures for rural areas in Sweden. Both rural entrepreneurs' perceptions and local innovation support system actors’ perceptions have the same objective in relation to long-term sustainable rural enterprises such as ecologic farming versus short-term solutions. However, their perspectives on sustainability and innovative ways of doing entrepreneurship differ.

    Originality

    We are contributing to the growing interest in context, agency, and policy. The interviewed entrepreneurs and local innovation support system actors does not talk the same language when it comes to rural sustainability. This hampers efforts for a sustainable rural future. To foster innovation and sustainability in rural settings, we must systematically assess context and involve both entrepreneurs and local innovation support system actors

  • 149. Rugina, S.
    et al.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    A Discourse Analysis of Representation of Female Entrepreneurs in Monthly Journals for Women2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 150. Rugina, S.
    et al.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    A media analysis of representations of women entrepreneurs in Latvian women’s magazines2021Conference paper (Refereed)
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