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  • 101.
    Blane, Alison
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe C.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Willstrand, Tania Dukic
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Human Factors, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Assessing Cognitive Ability and Simulator-Based Driving Performance in Poststroke Adults2017In: Behavioural Neurology, ISSN 0953-4180, E-ISSN 1875-8584, article id 1378308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving is an important activity of daily living, which is increasingly relied upon as the population ages. It has been well-established that cognitive processes decline following a stroke and these processes may influence driving performance. There is much debate on the use of off-road neurological assessments and driving simulators as tools to predict driving performance; however, the majority of research uses unlicensed poststroke drivers, making the comparability of poststroke adults to that of a control group difficult. It stands to reason that in order to determine whether simulators and cognitive assessments can accurately assess driving performance, the baseline should be set by licenced drivers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess differences in cognitive ability and driving simulator performance in licensed community-dwelling poststroke drivers and controls. Two groups of licensed drivers (37 poststroke and 43 controls) were assessed using several cognitive tasks and using a driving simulator. The poststroke adults exhibited poorer cognitive ability; however, there were no differences in simulator performance between groups except that the poststroke drivers demonstrated less variability in driver headway. The application of these results as a prescreening toolbox for poststroke drivers is discussed.

  • 102.
    Blane, Alison
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Human Factors, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Cognitive ability as a predictor of task demand and self-rated driving performance in post-stroke drivers – Implications for self-regulation2018In: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 9, p. 169-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving is a highly complex task requiring multiple cognitive processes that can be adversely affected post-stroke. It is unclear how much ability post-stroke adults have to self-evaluate their driving performance. Furthermore, the impact of cognitive decline on this evaluation has not been previously investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived level of task demand involved in driving tasks, and to examine differences between perceived and observed driving performance in post-stroke drivers in comparison to a control group. A further aim of the research was to investigate the influence of cognition on self-rated driving performance. A total of 78 participants (35 post-stroke and 43 controls) were assessed using a series of cognitive tasks and were observed whilst driving. Participants were asked to rate their own driving performance and the task demand involved while driving using the NASA Task Load Index. Between group analyses were conducted to determine differences in the level of self-rated performance and task demand. Further analyses were conducted to investigate whether cognition accounted for differences in task demand or self-rated performance. Overall, the results suggested that the post-stroke drivers exhibited deficits in cognition, but they did not report increased levels of task demand when driving. Post-stroke adults also rated themselves more conservatively than the controls for on-road performance, which was associated with their reduced propensity for risk. The study suggests that cognitive deficits may influence post-stroke drivers to amend their driving behaviour, in order to bring the task demand within a manageable level. Understanding the mechanisms involved in self-rated performance and estimations of task demand can help promote accurate self-regulation practices in post-stroke drivers. Furthermore, measuring calibration may assist practitioners with assessing fitness-to-drive, as well as with tailoring driving rehabilitation.

  • 103.
    Blank, Rainer
    et al.
    Clinic for Child Neurology and Social Pediatrics, Child Centre Maulbronn, Maulbronn, Germany.
    Barnett, Anna L.
    Department of Psychology, Health & Professional Development, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Cairney, John
    Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Green, Dido
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Kirby, Amanda
    Dyscovery Centre, University of South Wales, Newport, United Kingdom.
    Polatajko, Helene
    Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, Rehabilitation Sciences Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Rosenblum, Sara
    Laboratory of Complex Human Activity and Participation, Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.
    Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien
    Department of Health and Rehabilitation Services, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Sugden, David
    School of Special Needs Education, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Wilson, Peter
    School of Psychology and Centre for Disability and Development Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Vinçon, Sabine
    Clinic for Child Neurology and Social Pediatrics, Child Centre Maulbronn, Maulbronn, Germany.
    International clinical practice recommendations on the definition, diagnosis, assessment, intervention, and psychosocial aspects of developmental coordination disorder2019In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 242-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: These international clinical practice recommendations (CPR) for developmental coordination disorder (DCD), initiated by the European Academy of Childhood Disability (EACD), aim to address key questions on the definition, diagnosis, assessment, intervention, and psychosocial aspects of DCD relevant for clinical practice.

    METHOD: Key questions in five areas were considered through literature reviews and formal expert consensus. For recommendations based on evidence, literature searches on 'mechanisms', 'assessment', and 'intervention' were updated since the last recommendations in 2012. New searches were conducted for 'psychosocial issues' and 'adolescents/adults'. Evidence was rated according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (level of evidence [LOE] 1-4) and transferred into recommendations. For recommendations based on formal consensus, two meetings of an international, multidisciplinary expert panel were conducted with a further five Delphi rounds to develop good clinical practice (GCP) recommendations.

    RESULTS: Thirty-five recommendations were made. Eight were based on the evidence from literature reviews (three on 'assessment', five on 'intervention'). Twenty-two were updated from the 2012 recommendations. New recommendations relate to diagnosis and assessment (two GCPs) and psychosocial issues (three GCPs). Additionally, one new recommendation (LOE) reflects active video games as adjuncts to more traditional activity-oriented and participation-oriented interventions, and two new recommendations (one GCP, one LOE) were made for adolescents and adults with DCD.

    INTERPRETATION: The CPR-DCD is a comprehensive overview of DCD and current understanding based on research evidence and expert consensus. It reflects the state of the art for clinicians and scientists of varied disciplines. The international CPR-DCD may serve as a basis for national guidelines.

    WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS:

    • Updated international clinical practice guidelines on developmental coordination disorder (DCD).
    • Refined and extended recommendations on clinical assessment and intervention for DCD.
    • A critical synopsis of current research on mechanisms of DCD.
    • A critical synopsis of psychosocial issues in DCD, with implications for clinical practice.
    • The first international recommendations to consider adolescents and adults with DCD.
  • 104. Bond, A
    et al.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Internet-anpassad information för personer med utvecklingsstörning2000Report (Other academic)
  • 105. Bonthrone, A. F.
    et al.
    Morgan, A. T.
    Mankad, K.
    Clark, C. A.
    Green, Dido
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Liegeois, F. J.
    Brain imaging correlates of limb and speech motor difficulties in children aged 8-10 with Developmental Coordination Disorder2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 106.
    Boren, T.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Axelsson, Anna Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Profound intellectual and multiple disabilities2014In: JARID: Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, ISSN 1360-2322, E-ISSN 1468-3148, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 371-371Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Boren, Taylor
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Wilder, Jenny
    Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Axelsson, Anna Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Sweden’s LSS and social integration: An exploration of the relationship between personal assistant type, activities, and participation for children with PIMD2016In: Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, ISSN 1741-1122, E-ISSN 1741-1130, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 50-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish personal assistance system, facilitated through Swedish legislation (known as the LSS), allows children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) to receive subsidized personal assistance. This assistance may be either a hired professional from outside the family or a parent paid as a personal assistant. The type of personal assistant can impact activity selection. As noted by bio-ecological systems theory, participation in “systems” beyond the household is important for a child’s cognitive and social development, including the development of children with disabilities. The authors explored whether children’s personal assistant type (i.e., external or parental) is related to their presence in socially integrative activities (SIAs) versus non-socially integrative activities (NSIAs). The relationship between children’s activity engagement and their personal assistant type was examined via a descriptive, comparative study based on a questionnaire. Sixty families answered, providing quantitative data about personal assistance type across 56 common family activities. Children’s external assistants showed a greater presence in SIAs than children’s parental assistants, who showed a greater presence in NSIAs. The level of activity engagement between personal assistant type, however, had a less direct relationship. In accordance with bio-ecological systems theory, activity selection can influence the child’s cognitive and social development. Ultimately, this study suggests that external assistants partake in more SIAs than parental assistants, likely as a function of providing respite for families. This respite stems from the LSS’s implicit role for external personal assistants to also serve as relief for parents. In turn, by facilitating exposure to broader systems, these external assistants can play a critical role in children’s social and cognitive development.

  • 108.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Improving computer usage for students with physical disabilities through a collaborative approach: a pilot study2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 463-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an assistive technology (AT) intervention to improve the use of available computers as assistive technology in educational tasks for students with physical disabilities during an ongoing school year. Methods: Fifteen students (aged 12–18) with physical disabilities, included in mainstream classrooms in Sweden, and their teachers took part in the intervention. Pre-, post-, and follow-up data were collected with Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS), a computer usage diary, and with the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS). Teachers' opinions of goal setting were collected at follow-up. Results: The intervention improved the goal-related computer usage in educational tasks and teachers reported they would use goal setting again when appropriate. At baseline, students reported a positive impact from computer usage with no differences over time regarding the PIADS subscales independence, adaptability, or self-esteem. Discussion: The AT intervention showed a positive effect on computer usage as AT in mainstream schools. Some additional support to teachers is recommended as not all students improved in all goal-related computer usage. A clinical implication is that students' computer usage can be improved and collaboratively established computer-based strategies can be carried out by teachers in mainstream schools.

  • 109.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ahlsten, Gunnar
    Folke Bernadotte Regional Habilitation Centre and Department of Women´s and Children´s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gaze-based assistive technology in daily activities in children with severe physical impairments–An intervention study2017In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 129-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To establish the impact of a gaze-based assistive technology (AT) intervention on activity repertoire, autonomous use, and goal attainment in children with severe physical impairments, and to examine parents’ satisfaction with the gaze-based AT and with services related to the gaze-based AT intervention.

    Methods: Non-experimental multiple case study with before, after, and follow-up design. Ten children with severe physical impairments without speaking ability (aged 1–15 years) participated in gaze-based AT intervention for 9–10 months, during which period the gaze-based AT was implemented in daily activities.

    Results: Repertoire of computer activities increased for seven children. All children had sustained usage of gaze-based AT in daily activities at follow-up, all had attained goals, and parents’ satisfaction with the AT and with services was high.

    Discussion: The gaze-based AT intervention was effective in guiding parents and teachers to continue supporting the children to perform activities with the AT after the intervention program. 

  • 110.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology - A longitudinal study2016In: Assistive technology, ISSN 1040-0435, E-ISSN 1949-3614, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with a before and after design was conducted on 10 children (aged 1-15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9-11 months, and after 15-20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15-20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance.

  • 111. Bornman, Juan
    et al.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Facilitating change in early childhood intervention by using principles from systems theory: an interventionist’s perspective2007In: South African Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0038-2337, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 4-7Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    All interventions have one aspect in common – the pursuit of positive change, ie, moving towards a particular intervention goal. In intervention both sudden changes and long-term changes are necessary – sudden changes act as an incentive to carry on with intervention as the “effect of intervention” is quickly seen, whilst longer term changes are important for maintenance and mastery of particular skills. The purpose of this article is to explore both types of change from a systems theory perspective. Bifurcation points, stabilising central attractors (SCA) and functional and structural linkages are used to explain sudden change, whilst equifinality and self-stabilisation are explained with reference to long-term change. This article concludes by pointing to specific implications for intervention when using systems theory as the framework.

  • 112.
    Bruce, C. R.
    et al.
    Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Unsworth, Carolyn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Dillon, M. P.
    Prosthetics and Orthotics, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Tay, R.
    School of Business IT & Logistcs, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Bird, P.
    The Gosforth Clinic, Maroochydore QLD, Australia.
    Carey, L. M.
    Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Hazard perception skills of young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be improved with computer based driver training: An exploratory randomised controlled trial2017In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 109, p. 70-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of road traffic injuries than their peers. Increased risk correlates with poor hazard perception skill. Few studies have investigated hazard perception training using computer technology with this group of drivers.

    Objectives

    *Determine the presence and magnitude of the between-group and within- subject change in hazard perception skills in young drivers with ADHD who receive Drive Smart training. *Determine whether training-facilitated change in hazard perception is maintained over time.

    Methods

    This was a feasibility study, randomised control trial conducted in Australia. The design included a delayed treatment for the control group. Twenty-five drivers with a diagnosis of ADHD were randomised to the Immediate Intervention or Delayed Intervention group.The Immediate Intervention group received a training session using a computer application entitled Drive Smart. The Delayed Intervention group watched a documentary video initially (control condition), followed by the Drive Smart computer training session. The participant’s hazard perception skill was measured using the Hazard Perception Test (HPT).

    Findings

    After adjusting for baseline scores, there was a significant betweengroup difference in post-intervention HPT change scores in favour of the Immediate Intervention group. The magnitude of the effect was large. There was no significant within-group delayed intervention effect. A significant maintenance effect was found at 6-week follow-up for the Immediate Intervention group.

    Conclusions

    The hazard perception skills of participants improved following training with large effect size and some maintenance of gain. A multimodal approach to training is indicated to facilitate maintenance. A full-scale trial is feasible.

  • 113.
    Bruce, C.
    et al.
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Unsworth, Carolyn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Dillon, M.
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Tay, R.
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Bird, P.
    The Gosforth Clinic, Maroochydore, Australia.
    Carey, L.
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Hazard Perception Skills Of Young Drivers With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Can Be Improved With Computer-Based Training: A Feasibility Trial2017In: Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry (Print), ISSN 0004-8674, E-ISSN 1440-1614, Vol. 51, no Suppl. 1, p. 122-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Young drivers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of road traffic injuries than their peers. Increased risk correlates with poor hazard perception skill. Few studies have investigated hazard perception training using computer applications such as DriveSmart with this group of drivers.

    Objectives: To: determine the magnitude of the between-group and within-subject change in hazard perception skills among young drivers with ADHD-exposed/delayed exposure to DriveSmart training and determine whether training-facilitated change in hazard perception is maintained over time.

    Methods: Australian feasibility study. Twenty-five drivers with a diagnosis of ADHD were randomized to the intervention or control group. Participants in the intervention group received a computer training session using DriveSmart, while the control group watched a documentary video. The design included a delayed treatment for the control group. The participants’ hazard perception skill was measured on the University of Queensland Hazard Perception Test (HPT) post training and at 6-week follow-up.

    Findings: After adjusting for baseline scores, there was a significant between-group difference (p = 0.023, partial η2 = 0.212) and a significant within-subject difference post intervention in the experimental group. There was no significant difference between post intervention and 6-week follow-up scores in the experimental group.

    Conclusions: The hazard perception skills of participants improved following training and were largely sustained. We found a large effect size consistent with one prior study. A full-scale trial is feasible.

  • 114. Button, Lori
    et al.
    Green, Barbara
    Tengnah, Cassam
    Johansson, Inez
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Baker, Christine
    The impact of international placements on nurses´personal and professional lives: literature review2005In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 315-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. This paper presents a critical review of research literature on the impact of international placements on the lives and practice of nurses.

    Background. Health care institutions are progressively more aware of the need to respond to diverse patient populations and cultivate leaders to enrich the nursing profession, both locally and globally. One response has been to establish international exchange programmes for nursing students to give them experience of different cultures and health care systems.

    Methods. A search of the literature from 1980 to 2003 using electronic databases was undertaken using the databases CINAHL, ERIC, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, the BIDS Social Science Citation Index and Medline. The keywords used were 'international exchange experience', 'international studies', 'international education', 'international placement(s)', 'exchange programme(s)', combined with 'nurses/nursing', combined with 'evaluation', 'practice', 'education' and/or 'policy'. The papers retrieved used both qualitative and quantitative approaches and were scrutinized for recurring themes.

    Findings. Nurses reported significant changes in their personal development, perspectives on nursing practice and critical appraisal of health care systems. They also indicated an increased appreciation and sensitivity towards cultural issues and cross-cultural care. Moreover, differences in placement programmes, such as duration, preparation and debriefing were found to have affected the reported overall international placement experience. However, the primary effects of international placements were identified as personal development and transcultural adaptation.

    Conclusion. Students should be exposed to a variety of nursing experiences within the host country. This would give them a broad spectrum for comparisons between cultures, nursing practice and health care delivery in those cultures. Therefore, educational institutions are strongly encouraged to provide opportunities for students to participate in nursing care and education in another

  • 115.
    Bäckström, Caroline
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Professional and social support for first-time mothers and partners during childbearing2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Expecting a child and becoming a parent is one of life’s major events, during which the parents’ perspective on life and their couple relationship changes. For some parents, childbearing entails a decrease in parental couple relationship quality. The way in which parents are able to cope with childbearing may be connected with their Sense of Coherence; which is a person’s ability to perceive life as comprehensible, manageable and meaningful. For parents’ positive childbearing experiences, professional and social support have been proven to be valuable. However, far from all parents have access to social support; furthermore, professional support does not always meet the needs of expectant parents. Hence, more research is needed to increase knowledge about expectant parents’ experiences of professiona land social support. In addition, more research is needed to explore factors associated with quality of couple relationship among parents during childbearing.

    Aims: The overall aim of the thesis was to explore professional and social support for first-time mothers and partners during childbearing in relation toquality of couple relationship and Sense of Coherence.

    Methods: The study’s designs were explorative, prospective and longitudinal; both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Specifically, explorative designs, qualitative methods and phenomenographic analysis were used to explore expectant first-time mothers’ (I) and partners’ perceptions of professional support (II). Furthermore, an explorative design, qualitative method and qualitative content analysis were used to explore expectant first-time mothers’ experiences of social support (III). Within Study IV, a prospective longitudinal design, descriptive statistics, non-parametric tests and multiple linear regression analysis were used to evaluate factors associated with quality of couple relationship among first-time mothers and partners, during pregnancy and the first six months of parenthood.

    Results: The overall results of the thesis revealed both similarities and differences between expectant first-time mothers’ and partners’ perceptions of professional support, effects from social support and associated factors with perceived quality of couple relationship. The similarities were; both mothers and partners perceived that professional support could facilitate partner involvement, influence their couple relationship and facilitate contacts with other expectant parents. According to first-time mothers’ experiences, their couple relationship with their partner was also strengthened by social support during pregnancy. Further, the results showed that both first-time mothers’ and partners’ higher perceived couple relationship quality six months after birth, was associated with their higher perceived social support. The results showed also that both mothers and partners perceived their quality of couple relationship to decrease and Sense of Coherence to increase six months after childbirth, compared to the pregnancy. Differences revealed were such as: higher Sense of Coherence was only associated with mothers’ higher perceived quality of couple relationship, and first-time mothers reported perceiving more social support compared to the partners both during pregnancy, first week and six months after childbirth.

    Conclusions: Professional and social support can strengthen first-time mothers and partners both individually and as a couple, in their abilities to cope with childbearing. On the individual basis, the expectant parents could be strengthened through professional and social support that contributed to their understanding and feeling of being prepared for childbirth and parenting, for instance. As a couple, the parents were strengthened by professional support that included the partner’s role, as well as higher perceived social support overall. In contrast, lack of support could have a negative influence on the expectant parents’ feeling of being prepared for childbirth and parenting. Besides this, the results indicates that childbearing has a positive effect on parents’ abilities to cope with life even though their quality of couple relationship decrease. Professionals can use these results in their further understanding about how to offer satisfactory support to first-time mothers and partners during childbearing.

  • 116.
    Bäckström, Caroline A.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. University of Skövde, School of Health and Education, Skövde, Sweden.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Aging Research Center, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thorstensson, Stina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education, Skövde, Sweden.
    Golsäter, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Mårtensson, Lena B.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education, Skövde, Sweden.
    Quality of couple relationship among first-time mothers and partners, during pregnancy and the first six months of parenthood2018In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 17, p. 56-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highlights

    • Social support is associated with first-time mothers’ and partners’ perceived quality of couple relationship six months after birth.
    • Sense of Coherence is associated with first-time mothers’ perceived quality of couple relationship six months after birth.
    • First-time mothers’ and partners’ Sense of Coherence increase between pregnancy and six months after birth.
    • Partners’ feelings for parenthood is associated with first-time mothers’ perception of quality of couple relationship six months after birth.
    • First-time mothers’ and partners’ perceived quality of couple relationship is decreasing after childbirth.
  • 117.
    Bäckström, Caroline A.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. University of Skövde.
    Mårtensson, Lena B.
    University of Skövde.
    Golsäter, Marie H.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Futurum Akademi for Health and Care Region Jönköping County.
    Thorstensson, Stina A.
    University of Skövde.
    “It's like a puzzle”: Pregnant women's perceptions of professional support in midwifery care2016In: Women and Birth, ISSN 1871-5192, E-ISSN 1878-1799, Vol. 29, no 6, p. e110-e118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem

    Pregnant women are not always satisfied with the professional support they receive during their midwifery care. More knowledge is needed to understand what professional support pregnant women need for childbirth and parenting.

    Background

    Childbearing and the transition to becoming a parent is a sensitive period in one's life during which one should have the opportunity to receive professional support. Professional support does not always correspond to pregnant women's needs. To understand pregnant women's needs for professional support within midwifery care, it is crucial to further illuminate women's experiences of this support.

    Aim

    To explore pregnant women's perceptions of professional support in midwifery care.

    Methods

    A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Fifteen women were interviewed during gestational weeks 36–38. Data was analysed using phenomenography.

    Findings

    The women perceived professional support in midwifery care to be reassuring and emotional, to consist of reliable information, and to be mediated with pedagogical creativity. The professional support facilitated new social contacts, partner involvement and contributed to mental preparedness. The findings of the study were presented in six categories and the category Professional support contributes to mental preparedness was influenced by the five other categories.

    Conclusion

    Pregnant women prepare for childbirth and parenting by using several different types of professional support in midwifery care: a strategy that could be described as piecing together a puzzle. When the women put the puzzle together, each type of professional support works as a valuable piece in the whole puzzle. Through this, professional support could contribute to women's mental preparedness for childbirth and parenting.

  • 118.
    Bäckström, Caroline A.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. University of Skövde, School of Health and Education, Skövde, Sweden.
    Thorstensson, Stina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education, Skövde, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Lena B.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education, Skövde, Sweden.
    Grimming, Rebecca
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education, Skövde, Sweden.
    Nyblin, Yrsa
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education, Skövde, Sweden.
    Golsäter, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science.
    'To be able to support her, I must feel calm and safe': Pregnant women's partners perceptions of professional support during pregnancy2017In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Professional support does not always meet the needs of expectant fathers or co-mothers. The way in which professional support is offered during pregnancy varies internationally, depending on the country. In order to attain a greater understanding of partners' experiences of professional support, it is necessary to further illuminate their perceptions of it. The aim of this study was therefore to explore pregnant women's partners' perceptions of professional support during pregnancy.

    Methods: Qualitative research design. Partners of pregnant women were interviewed during gestational week 36-38. Individual semi-structured interviews were used to explore the partners' perceptions. The data was analysed using a phenomenographic approach. The study was performed in a county in south-western Sweden; the data collection was conducted from November 2014 to February 2015. Fourteen partners (expectant fathers and co-mothers) of women who were expectant first-time mothers with singleton pregnancies, were interviewed.

    Results: The findings of the study are presented through four descriptive categories: Ability to absorb adequate information; Possibility to meet and share with other expectant parents; Confirmation of the partner's importance; and Influence on the couple relationship. Using a theoretical assumption of the relationship between the categories showed that the fourth category was influenced by the other three categories.

    Conclusions: The partners perceived that professional support during pregnancy could influence the couple relationship. The partners' ability to communicate and to experience togetherness with the women increased when the expectant couple received professional support together. The support created also possibilities to meet and share experiences with other expectant parents. In contrast, a lack of support was found to contribute to partners' feelings of unimportance. It was essential that the midwives included the partners by confirming that they were individuals who had different needs for various types of professional support. The partners perceived it easier to absorb information when it was adequate and given with a pedagogic that made the partners become interested and emotionally engaged. 

  • 119.
    Bäckström, Caroline
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. University of Skövde, School of Health and Education, Skövde, Sweden.
    Larsson, Therese
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education, Skövde, Sweden.
    Wahlgren, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education, Skövde, Sweden.
    Golsäter, Marie
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Mårtensson, Lena B.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education, Skövde, Sweden.
    Thorstensson, Stina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education, Skövde, Sweden.
    ‘It makes you feel like you are not alone’: Expectant first-time mothers’ experiences of social support within the social network, when preparing for childbirth and parenting2017In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 12, p. 51-57Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 120.
    Bölte, Sven
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mahdi, Soheil
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Coghill, David
    University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Gau, Susan Shur -Fen
    National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Holtmann, Martin
    University Bochum, Hamm, Germany.
    Karande, Sunil
    Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M. Hospital, Mumbai, India.
    Levy, Florence
    University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Rohde, Luis A.
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Segerer, Wolfgang
    Swiss Paraplegic Research, Nottwil, Switzerland.
    de Vries, Petrus J.
    University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Selb, Melissa
    ICF Research Branch a cooperation partner within the WHO Collaborating Center for the Family of International Classifcations in Germany (at DIMDI), Nottwil, Switzerland.
    Standardised assessment of functioning in ADHD: consensus on the ICF Core Sets for ADHD2018In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 1261-1281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with significant impairments in social, educational, and occupational functioning, as well as specific strengths. Currently, there is no internationally accepted standard to assess the functioning of individuals with ADHD. WHO’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health—child and youth version (ICF) can serve as a conceptual basis for such a standard. The objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive, a common brief, and three age-appropriate brief ICF Core Sets for ADHD. Using a standardised methodology, four international preparatory studies generated 132 second-level ICF candidate categories that served as the basis for developing ADHD Core Sets. Using these categories and following an iterative consensus process, 20 ADHD experts from nine professional disciplines and representing all six WHO regions selected the most relevant categories to constitute the ADHD Core Sets. The consensus process resulted in 72 second-level ICF categories forming the comprehensive ICF Core Set—these represented 8 body functions, 35 activities and participation, and 29 environmental categories. A Common Brief Core Set that included 38 categories was also defined. Age-specific brief Core Sets included a 47 category preschool version for 0–5 years old, a 55 category school-age version for 6–16 years old, and a 52 category version for older adolescents and adults 17 years old and above. The ICF Core Sets for ADHD mark a milestone toward an internationally standardised functional assessment of ADHD across the lifespan, and across educational, administrative, clinical, and research settings. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 121.
    Bölte, Sven
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Mahdi, Soheil
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vries, Petrus J. de
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Robison, John E.
    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, USA.
    Shulman, Cory
    The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
    Swedo, Susan
    National Institute of Mental Health, USA.
    Tonge, Bruce
    Monash University, Australia.
    Wong, Virginia
    The University of Hong Kong, China.
    Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie
    University of Alberta, Canada.
    Segerer, Wolfgang
    Swiss Paraplegic Research, Switzerland.
    Selb, Melissa
    Swiss Paraplegic Research, Switzerland.
    The Gestalt of functioning in autism spectrum disorder: Results of the international conference to develop final consensus International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health core sets2019In: Autism, ISSN 1362-3613, E-ISSN 1461-7005, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 449-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism spectrum disorder is associated with diverse social, educational, and occupational challenges. To date, no standardized, internationally accepted tools exist to assess autism spectrum disorder–related functioning. World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health can serve as foundation for developing such tools. This study aimed to identify a comprehensive, a common brief, and three age-appropriate brief autism spectrum disorder Core Sets. Four international preparatory studies yielded in total 164 second-level International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health candidate categories. Based on this evidence, 20 international autism spectrum disorder experts applied an established iterative decision-making consensus process to select from the candidate categories the most relevant ones to constitute the autism spectrum disorder Core Sets. The consensus process generated 111 second-level International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health categories in the Comprehensive Core Set for autism spectrum disorder—one body structure, 20 body functions, 59 activities and participation categories, and 31 environmental factors. The Common Brief Core Set comprised 60 categories, while the age-appropriate core sets included 73 categories in the preschool version (0- to 5-year-old children), 81 in the school-age version (6- to 16-year-old children and adolescents), and 79 in the older adolescent and adult version (⩾17-year-old individuals). The autism spectrum disorder Core Sets mark a milestone toward the standardized assessment of autism spectrum disorder–related functioning in educational, administrative, clinical, and research settings.

  • 122.
    Börjesson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Bengtsson, Staffan
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Cedersund, Elisabet
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue). Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    “You have to have a certain feeling for this work”: Exploring tacit knowledge in elder care2014In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 4, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased care worker knowledge has been emphasized for improving quality of care for older persons in organized elder care in Sweden. However, care workers and national policies are not always corresponding, with observations suggesting that care workers emphasize tacit knowledge. The aim of this article is to explore the nature of this kind of knowledge and how it can be identified and described. Field notes from participant observations at two elder care units in Sweden serve as the empirical material. Knowledge use for staff in elder care is part of a process of knowledge making and knowledge shaping. Analysis of the field notes identified the themes of “feeling for work” and “acting and artistry” as parts of a tacit knowledge in elder care. The processes of knowledge and job execution are closely intertwined, making them difficult to separate or even understand without a deeper insight.

  • 123.
    Carlberg, Louise
    et al.
    Hälsa och Habilitering, Region Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Achievement and participation in schools for young adolescents with self-reported neuropsychiatric disabilities: A cross-sectional study from the Southern part of Sweden2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 199-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Schools are expected to be an environment where children can reach their fullest potential and develop their talents, personality, as well as their mental and physical abilities. Children with disabilities often have restricted participation and lower achievement in school. The aim is to investigate if there are any differences in participation and achievement in school between adolescents, with and without self-reported neuropsychiatric disabilities, and to explore the relations between achievement and participation. 

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out based on data collected from 1520 adolescents in the sixth and seventh grade, from the south of Sweden. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to explore the relationship between having a neuropsychiatric disability, with participation and achievement, and how different factors affected this relationship. 

    Results: Having a self-reported neuropsychiatric disability increases the likelihood of having restricted participation (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.99–4.23) and lower achievement in school (AOR: 2.94; 95% CI: 2.06–4.24). These adolescents were also more likely to have negative relationships to their teachers, be bullied, have poorer connectedness to their parents, come from families with less money, be trying drugs and be male, in comparison to the adolescents without a neuropsychiatric disability. The odds of having lower achievement increased with lower engagement and absenteeism from class. 

    Conclusions: Adolescents with self-reported neuropsychiatric disabilities have a disadvantaged situation in school, and are exposed to factors that could have long-term negative effects. More longitudinal research is required to conclude what factors are causing restricted participation and low achievement.

  • 124. Carlhed, Carina
    et al.
    Björck-Åkesson, Eva
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Parent Perspectives on Early Intervention: The Paradox of Needs and Rights2003In: British Journal of Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0969-7950, Vol. 49, no 97, p. 69-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article was to discuss conceptions of support in relation to needs and rights based models in early intervention in Sweden, as perceived by parents of young children with disabilities. The discussion is illustrated with data collected by in-depth interviewing of eight parents and analysing the results using a qualitative approach. The theoretical frame is based on empowerment and the data are discussed in relation to this theory. The paradoxical effects of need fulfilment and empowerment that arise in parent-professional interaction are highlighted. This indicates a need for future research about the sometimes conflicting tasks of fulfilling needs and providing proactive support which professionals find in their encounters with parents of children with disabilities. Collaboration in the intervention process based on expertise of both parents and professionals is discussed in relation to these conflicts.

  • 125.
    Carlsson, Emma
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    Ludvigsson, J.
    Division of Paediatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Faresjö, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Biomedical Platform.
    High physical activity in young children suggests positive effects by altering autoantigen-induced immune activity2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 441-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity in children is associated with several positive health outcomes such as decreased cardiovascular risk factors, improved lung function, enhanced motor skill development, healthier body composition, and also improved defense against inflammatory diseases. We examined how high physical activity vs a sedentary lifestyle in young children influences the immune response with focus on autoimmunity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, collected from 55 5-year-old children with either high physical activity (n = 14), average physical activity (n = 27), or low physical activity (n  = 14), from the All Babies In Southeast Sweden (ABIS) cohort, were stimulated with antigens (tetanus toxoid and beta-lactoglobulin) and autoantigens (GAD65, insulin, HSP60, and IA-2). Immune markers (cytokines and chemokines), C-peptide and proinsulin were analyzed. Children with high physical activity showed decreased immune activity toward the autoantigens GAD65 (IL-5, P < 0.05), HSP60 and IA-2 (IL-10, P < 0.05) and also low spontaneous pro-inflammatory immune activity (IL-6, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and CCL2 (P  < 0.05)) compared with children with an average or low physical activity. High physical activity in young children seems to have positive effects on the immune system by altering autoantigen-induced immune activity.

  • 126.
    Carlsson, Noomi
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Johansson, AnnaKarin
    Department of Medicine and Health, Division of Nursing Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    Department of Health and Society, University College of Kristianstad, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Andersson-Gäre, Boel
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    How to minimize children's environmental tobacco smoke exposure: an intervention in a clinical setting in high risk areas2013In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 13, no 76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Despite the low prevalence of daily smokers in Sweden, children are still being exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), primarily by their smoking parents. A prospective intervention study using methods from Quality Improvement was performed in Child Health Care (CHC). The aim was to provide nurses with new methods for motivating and supporting parents in their efforts to protect children from ETS exposure. METHOD: Collaborative learning was used to implement and test an intervention bundle. Twenty-two CHC nurses recruited 86 families with small children which had at least one smoking parent. Using a bundle of interventions, nurses met and had dialogues with the parents over a one-year period. A detailed questionnaire on cigarette consumption and smoking policies in the home was answered by the parents at the beginning and at the end of the intervention, when children also took urine tests to determine cotinine levels. RESULTS: Seventy-two families completed the study. Ten parents (11%) quit smoking. Thirty-two families (44%) decreased their cigarette consumption. Forty-five families (63%) were outdoor smokers at follow up. The proportion of children with urinary cotinine values of >6 ng/ml had decreased. CONCLUSION: The intensified tobacco prevention in CHC improved smoking parents' ability to protect their children from ETS exposure.

  • 127.
    Castro, Susana
    et al.
    School of Education, University of Roehampton, London, UK.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Learning Practices inside and outside School (LPS), Communication, Culture & Diversity @ JU (CCD@JU). School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    The relationship between classroom quality-related variables and engagement levels in Swedish preschool classrooms: a longitudinal study2017In: European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, ISSN 1350-293X, E-ISSN 1752-1807, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 122-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Child engagement has been defined as active participation in classroom routines, appropriate interactions with the environment and it also predicts academic achievement. Therefore, it is necessary to identify predictors of engagement over time. Moreover, cross-cultural data is needed to provide a global picture of the quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) across countries. This study aims to describe the quality of Swedish preschool classrooms and its relationship with students’ engagement over time. Data was collected from 165 preschool teachers in 55 preschool units in Sweden. Results show that all classroom-related variables (Emotional Support, Instructional Support and Classroom Organisation) have increased levels over time, while engagement remained stable. Three groups of preschool classroom units were identified with similar patterns of classroom quality over time (higher emotional support and lower instructional practice) and similar differences in level. Emotional Support was found to be the best predictor of student engagement over time.

  • 128.
    Cederfeldt, Marie
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Widell, Yvonne
    Occupational Therapy Department, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gosman-Hedström, Gunilla
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Concurrent validity of the executive function performance test in people with mild stroke2011In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 74, no 9, p. 443-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Studies have shown that executive dysfunction is common in adults after stroke. Occupational therapists working in acute care assess the performance of activities of daily living; most instruments focus on personal care. However, the assessment of instrumental activities of daily living has been shown to discriminate executive dysfunction more effectively. An instrument for assessing executive dysfunction in more complex activities that is easy to handle in acute care is consequently required for clinical use. The Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT) was recently introduced into Sweden. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of the EFPT in acute care for patients with mild stroke.

    Method: Twenty-three patients from an acute stroke unit were assessed with both the EFPT and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS).

    Results: The correlation between the EFPT and the AMPS assessments was highly significant (p = 0.003) and the concurrent validity was rho = 0.61.

    Conclusion: Since there is a risk that adult patients with mild stroke are discharged without rehabilitation, and there is a lack of a relevant instrument for occupational therapists that discriminates executive dysfunction in acute stroke care, the EFPT may be a suitable instrument to use with these patients.

  • 129.
    Cedersund, Elisabet
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Svensson, Lennart G.
    A 'Good' or a 'Bad' Student: A Study of Communication in Class Assessment Meetings1996In: Language and Education, ISSN 0950-0782, E-ISSN 1747-7581, Vol. 10, no 2-3, p. 132-150Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 130.
    Cedersund, Elisabet
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Säljö, Roger
    Bureaucratic discourse, conversational space and the concept of voice1993In: Semiotica, ISSN 0037-1998, E-ISSN 1613-3692, Vol. 97, no 1-2, p. 79-101Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 131.
    Cedersund, Elisabet
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Säljö, Roger
    The relation of news: On empirical results and implicit assumptions of human communication1988In: Practical aspects of memory: current research and issues. Vol. 1, Memory in everyday life, Chichester: Wiley, Cop. , 1988, p. 568-Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 132.
    Chaplin, John
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wartenberg, Constanze
    Qual Registry Ctr West Gotaland, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Petersson, Christina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Danielsson, Aina
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Initial validation of Swedish PROMIS (R)-25 in an orthopaedic population of children with acute severe knee injury2018In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 27, no Suppl. 1, p. S122-S122, article id 2107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The quality control of pediatric orthopaedic treatment options requires patient reported outcome measures that offer comparison to referenced populations. This study aimed to contribute to the validation of the Swedish translation of the norm-referenced PROMIS profile-25.

    Methods: Three questionnaires were administered one year after an acute knee injury via the Swedish paediatric orthopaedic registry (SPOQ). The questionnaires were: (1) The PROMIS Pediatric Profile-25, including the short-forms Mobility, Anxiety, Depression, Fatigue, Peer Relationships, Pain Interference and the single-item Pain Intensity, translated following the FACIT translation method, (2) the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome scales for children (KOOS-Child, previously validated in Swedish) with the scales Pain, Symptoms, ADL, Sport/play and QoL (39 questions), and (3) a single VAS item, Overall Health Scale. Convergent validity was assessed by interscale correlations and a one-way ANOVA was used to identify differences between three injury categories.

    Results: Of 218 eligible patients, 104 (53 girls, 9-14 years, mean 13 years, 42 with patella luxation, 34 with anterior cruciate ligament rupture and 28 with other knee injuries), returned questionnaires. PROMIS and KOOS-Child had 1% incomplete answers. There was high positive correlation between all KOOS-Child scales, and KOOS-Child-Pain explained a large amount of variance in Symptoms (R2 = .610), ADL (R2 = .648), Sport/play (R2 = .462) and QoL (R2 = .423). An expected high correlation between KOOS-Child-pain and PROMIS-Pain-Interference was found (r = .581, p = \.001). The expected relationship between the PROMIS-Mobility scale and KOOS-Child-QoL (r = .815, p = \.001) was found, confirming that at this age QoL is associated with physical functioning. There were statistically significant differences between the three diagnosis categories for two PROMIS scales: PROMIS-mobility (F(2, 101) = 6.901, p = .002) and PROMIS-depression (F(2, 101) = 3.116, p = .049). The PROMIS subscales showed high Cronbach’s alpha (between 0.730 and 0.864).

    Conclusions: This study is the first in Sweden to investigate the psychometric properties of the PROMIS profile-25 and highlights its relationship to the criterion measure of KOOS-Child. PROMIS-25 uses self-report, ultra-brief measurement for screening, providing additional information that was not available using previous questionnaires. PROMIS-25 can contribute to quality control and lead to improved treatment decisions. Data collection is ongoing through the orthopaedic registry, which will provide further evidence of how PROMIS-25 performs in other paediatric orthopaedic conditions.

  • 133.
    Chee, Derserri Yan-Ting
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia , Australia.
    Lee, Hoe Chung-yeung
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia , Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Barnett, Tania
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia , Australia.
    Falkmer, Olov
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University & Pain.
    Siljehav, Jessica
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University & Pain.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Viewpoints on driving of individuals with and without autism spectrum disorder2015In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 26-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Understanding the viewpoints of drivers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is crucial in the development of mobility support and driver training that is responsive to their needs. Methods: Fifty young adults with ASD and fifty seven typically developed adults participated in the study to form a contrasting group. Q-methodology was used to understand viewpoints on driving as a main mode of transportation. Data were analysed using a PQ by-person varimax rotation factor analysis. Results: Although some ASD participants perceived themselves as confident and independent drivers, others preferred other modes of transportation such as public transport and walking. Anxiety was also found to be a barrier to driving. The contrast group revealed consistent viewpoints on their driving ability. They preferred driving as their main mode of transportation and believed that they were competent, safe and independent drivers. Conclusion: These results are important in the planning of transport policies and driver training for individuals with ASD. Driver training manuals can be developed to address anxiety issues, hazard perception and navigation problems in the ASD population. Their use of public transport could be further facilitated through more inclusive transport policies.

  • 134.
    Chee, Derserri Yan-Ting
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia , Australia.
    Lee, Hoe Chung-Yeung
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia , Australia.
    Patomella, Ann-Helen
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Driving Behaviour Profile of Drivers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)2017In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 47, no 9, p. 2658-2670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The symptomatology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can make driving risky, but little is known about the on-road driving behaviour of individuals with ASD. This study assessed and compared the on-road driving performance of drivers with and without ASD, and explored how the symptomatology of ASD hinders or facilitates on-road driving performance. Sixteen drivers with ASD and 21 typically-developed drivers participated in the study. Drivers with ASD underperformed in vehicle manoeuvring, especially at left-turns, right-turns and pedestrian crossings. However, drivers with ASD outperformed the TD group in aspects related to rule-following such as using the indicator at roundabouts and checking for cross-traffic when approaching intersections. Drivers with ASD in the current study presented with a range of capabilities and weaknesses during driving.

  • 135.
    Chee, Derserri Yan-Ting
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia , Australia.
    Lee, Hoe Chung-Yeung
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia , Australia.
    Patomella, Ann-Helen
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University, Australia, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Investigating the driving performance of drivers with and without autism spectrum disorders under complex driving conditions2019In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the driving performance of drivers with autism spectrum disorders under complex driving conditions.

    Method: Seventeen drivers with autism spectrum disorders and 18 typically developed drivers participated in a driving simulator trial. Prior to the assessment, participants completed the Driving Behaviour Questionnaire and measurements of cognitive and visual-motor ability. The driving simulation involved driving in an urban area with dense traffic and unpredictable events.

    Results: In comparison with the typically developed group, drivers with autism spectrum disorders reported significantly more lapses in driving, committed more mistakes on the driving simulator, and were slower to react in challenging situations, such as driving through intersections with abrupt changes in traffic lights. However, they were also less likely to tailgate other vehicles, as measured by time-to-collision between vehicles, on the driving simulator.

    Conclusions: The performances of licensed drivers with autism spectrum disorders appeared to be safer in respect to car-following distance but were poorer in their response to challenging traffic situations. Driver education for individuals with autism spectrum disorders should focus on quick identification of hazards, prompt execution of responses, and effective allocation of attention to reduce lapses in driving. 

  • 136.
    Chen, Janice D.
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth 6845, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth 6845, Australia.
    Buzzard, Jennifer
    Ramsey Health, Hollywood Hospital, Perth 6009, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth 6845, Australia.
    Impact of experience when using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment to assess postural risk in children using information and communication technologies2014In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 398-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is an observation-based screening tool that has been used to assess postural risks of children in school settings. Studies using eye-tracking technology suggest that visual search strategies are influenced by experience in the task performed. This study investigated if experience in postural risk assessments contributed to differences in outcome scores on the RULA and the visual search strategies utilized. While wearing an eye-tracker, 16 student occupational therapists and 16 experienced occupational therapists used the RULA to assess 11 video scenarios of a child using different mobile information and communication technologies (ICT) in the home environment. No significant differences in RULA outcome scores, and no conclusive differences in visual search strategies between groups were found. RULA can be used as a screening tool for postural risks following a short training session regardless of the assessor's experience in postural risk assessments. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  • 137.
    Cohen-Holzer, Marilyn
    et al.
    Pediatric and Adolescent Rehabilitation Center, Alyn Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Katz-Leurer, Michal
    Pediatric and Adolescent Rehabilitation Center, Alyn Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Meyer, Shirley
    Pediatric and Adolescent Rehabilitation Center, Alyn Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Green, Dido
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Center for Rehabilitation, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Parush, Shula
    School of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Medicine of Hadassah and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.
    The effect of bimanual training with or without constraint on hand functions in children with unilateral cerebral palsy: A non-randomized clinical trial2017In: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, ISSN 0194-2638, E-ISSN 1541-3144, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 516-527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    To compare the effect of bimanual training with or without constraint on manual functions in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP).

    Methods:

    Seventeen children aged 6–11 years with UCP participated in one of two intensive therapeutic camps: bimanual (n = 9) incorporating one hour of constraint (“Hybrid”) or Bimanual (n = 8). Each camp met for 2 weeks, 5 days per week for 6 hours each day. The Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) and the Jebsen Taylor Test of Hand Function (JTTHF) examined bimanual and unimanual functions pre, post- and 3-months post-intervention.

    Results:

    A significant improvement was noted in AHA scores for both groups between the pre-, post- and three months post-intervention [Hybrid (F2; 16 = 85.5, p < 0.01); Bimanual (F2; 16 = 15.4, p < 0.01)] with no significant differences between groups over time (F2; 30 = 0.74, p = 0.48). For the JTTHF, a significant improvement was noted in the affected hand following the Hybrid program (F2; 30 = 7.45, p = 0.01), while following the Bimanual program a significant difference was noted only in the less-affected hand (F2; 16 = 6.02, p < 0.01].

    Conclusion:

    Both interventions Hybrid and Bimanual were similarly effective for improving use of the affected hand in bimanual tasks. The unique contribution of each intervention, the Hybrid program on the affected and the Bimanual on the less-affected side, warrants further examination.

  • 138.
    Cordier, Reinie
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Brown, Nicole
    Discipline of Occupational Therapy, James Cook University, Townsville City, QLD, Australia.
    Chen, Yu-Wei
    Discipline of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah
    Discipline of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjorn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Piloting the use of experience sampling method to investigate the everyday social experiences of children with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism.2016In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 103-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This pilot study explored the nature and quality of social experiences of children with Asperger Syndrome/High Functioning Autism (AS/HFA) through experience sampling method (ESM) while participating in everyday activities.

    METHODS: ESM was used to identify the contexts and content of daily life experiences. Six children with AS/HFA (aged 8-12) wore an iPod Touch on seven consecutive days, while being signalled to complete a short survey.

    RESULTS: Participants were in the company of others 88.3% of their waking time, spent 69.0% of their time with family and 3.8% with friends, but only conversed with others 26.8% of the time. Participants had more positive experiences and emotions when they were with friends compared with other company. Participating in leisure activities was associated with enjoyment, interest in the occasion, and having positive emotions.

    CONCLUSIONS: ESM was found to be helpful in identifying the nature and quality of social experiences of children with AS/HFA from their perspective.

  • 139.
    Cordier, Reinie
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Wilson, Nathan J.
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Western Sydney, Richmond, NSW, Australia.
    Stancliffe, Roger J.
    Intellectual Disability, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia .
    MacCallum, Judith
    School of Education, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia .
    Vaz, Sharmila
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Buchanan, Angus
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Formal intergenerational mentoring at Australian Men's Sheds: a targeted survey about mentees, mentors, programmes and quality2016In: Health & Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, E-ISSN 1365-2524, Vol. 24, no 6, p. e131-e143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intergenerational mentoring enables a purposeful exchange of skills and knowledge to enhance individual and social outcomes for sub-groups at risk of health and social disparities. Male intergenerational mentoring may be an approach to help address these disparities in young men. Over 1000 Men's Sheds operate in Australia with 39% providing some form of mentoring mainly to youth. Yet, little is known about the variables intrinsic to creating and running quality programmes. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of formal intergenerational mentoring programmes, review their quality against the Australian Youth Mentoring Network (AYMN) quality benchmarks, and identify the factors that predict quality in these programmes. All known Australian Men's Sheds were invited to participate in an online cross-sectional survey. Forty sheds with formal mentor programmes completed the survey for a total of 387 mentees (mean = 9.7 mentees/programme), the majority being male. The majority of mentor programme facilitators were unpaid male volunteers aged 61 years and older, and programmes were unfunded. Promoting social and emotional well-being of the mentees was the primary focus in more than half of the programmes, and working on a shared construction project was the most common activity. Respondents rated the three most important factors that influenced programme effectiveness as being: (i) meaningful activities; (ii) mentors’ approach; and (iii) a safe environment. Univariate analyses revealed that mentoring programmes that had a system in place for screening mentors, trained mentors and evaluated the programme were most likely to rate highly against the AYMN quality benchmarks. 

  • 140.
    Cowan, Georgia
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Perth, Australia.
    Earl, Robyn
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Girdler, Sonya
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Perth, Australia.
    Morris, Susan L.
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Perth, Australia.
    Fixation patterns of individuals with and without Autism Spectrum disorder: Do they differ in shared zones and in zebra crossings?2018In: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 8, p. 112-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shared zones are a contemporary traffic zone that promotes equality between multiple road users and efficiently utilizes available space, while simultaneously maintaining safety and function. As this is a relatively new traffic zone, it is important to understand how pedestrians navigate a shared zone and any potential challenges this may pose to individuals with impairments. The aim of this study was to utilize eye-tracking technology to determine fixations and fixation duration on traffic relevant objects, non-traffic relevant objects, and eye contact, in 40 individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a shared zone and a zebra crossing. It was assumed that individuals with ASD would make less eye contact in the shared zone compared to the group of typically developing adults. A total of 3287 fixations across the shared zone and zebra crossing were analysed for areas of interest that were traffic relevant, non-traffic relevant, and eye contact, and for fixation duration. Individuals with ASD did not display any difference in terms of eye contact in the shared zone and the zebra crossing when compared to the controls. All pedestrians were more likely to look at traffic relevant objects at the zebra crossing compared to the shared zone. Individuals with ASD had an overall shorter fixation duration compared to the control group, indicating people with ASD either process information quickly, or they do not process it for long enough, although these findings require further investigation. While shared zones have many benefits for traffic movement and environmental quality, it appeared that pedestrians displayed safer road crossing behaviours at a zebra crossing than in a shared zone, indicating that more education and environmental adaptations are required to make shared zones safe for all pedestrians. 

  • 141.
    Cuomo, Belinda M.
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Lee, Elinda A. L.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Thompson, Craig
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Rogerson, Jessica M.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Effectiveness of Sleep-Based Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Synthesis2017In: Pharmacotherapy, ISSN 0277-0008, E-ISSN 1875-9114, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 555-578Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep problems are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This meta-synthesis collated eight previously published systematic reviews examining the efficacy of sleep interventions in children with ASD in an attempt to present a clear analysis of trialed interventions. The collated reviews consider five major groups of sleep interventions for children with ASD: melatonin therapy, pharmacologic treatments other than melatonin, behavioral interventions, parent education/education programs, and alternative therapies (massage therapy, aromatherapy, and multivitamin and iron supplementation). These eight reviews were based on 38 original studies and address the efficacy of interventions across 17 sleep problem domains. The results of this meta-synthesis suggest that no single intervention is effective across all sleep problems in children with ASD. However, melatonin, behavioral interventions, and parent education/education program interventions appear the most effective at ameliorating multiple domains of sleep problems compared with other interventions. Due to the heterogeneous causative factors and presentations of disordered sleep, further research into the effectiveness of sleep interventions may target specific phenotypic subgroups rather than a broad analysis across the general ASD population. Similarly, future research needs to consider the efficacy of different polytherapeutic approaches in order to provide clinicians with evidence to inform best practice. In the meantime, this review supports clinicians' decision making for a majority of the identified sleep problems in the ASD population.

  • 142. Dada, S
    et al.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Alant, E
    A discussion of individual variability, in activity-based interventions, using the niche concept2007In: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 424-431Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 143.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    et al.
    Swedish Defense Research AgencyFollow.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Forsman, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of TechnologyFollow.
    Perceived Motion Sickness and Effects on Performance Following Naval Transportation2012In: Human Performance in Extreme Environments, ISSN 1529-5168, E-ISSN 2327-2937, Vol. 10, no 1, p. -3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study focused on the relationship between previous experiences of, and rated susceptibility to, motion sickness and its correlation to subjective measurements and actual performance. Performance was measured in terms of shooting precision among 23 participants from the Swedish amphibious corps after transportation in a small amphibious boat, while sealed off with no reference to the outside world. Self-rating questionnaires were collected regarding perceived performance and presence of motion sickness. The physiological status perceived by each participant was related to factors that generally indicate early stages of motion sickness, which also were correlated to deficits in performance. It was further shown that participants who believed that their performance could be affected by motion sickness also performed less well.

  • 144.
    Darcy, Laura
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    The everyday life of young children through their cancer trajectory2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The young child’s experiences of living with cancer are crucial to providing evidence based care. The overall aim of this thesis was to explore and describe experiences of health and functioning in the everyday life of young children with cancer, over a three year period from diagnosis, to provide insights and suggestions to improve evidence based care.

    The first and second papers in the series of four for this thesis used a qualitative content analysis to describe the child’s experiences shortly after diagnosis and six and 12 months later. The third paper used mixed methods to identify a comprehensive set of ICF-CY codes describing everyday health and functioning in the life of the young child with cancer. The fourth paper used the identified comprehensive set of ICF-CY codes to follow changes in everyday health and functioning over the study’s entire three year period from diagnosis.

    Entry into the health-illness transition was characterised by trauma and isolation. Health and functioning in everyday life was utterly changed and physical difficulties were at their peak. The passage through transition was characterised by an active striving on the part of the child to make a normal everyday life of the cancer experience. Difficulties affecting health and functioning in everyday life decreased and changed during the trajectory, though feelings of loneliness prevailed. A new period of stability in the child’s post treatment life was seen from two years after diagnosis and onwards, with (re)-entry to preschool/school and other social activities. However, an increase in difficulties with personal interactions with others and access to, and support from healthcare professionals was seen. Variances were seen within individual children’s’ trajectories.

    In summary it can be stated that the everyday life of young children with cancer changes over time and health care services are not always in phase with these changes. Young children living with cancer want to be participatory in their care and to have access to their parents as protectors.

    They need access to and ongoing contact with peers and preschool. Although physical difficulties in living an everyday life with cancer reduce over time, new difficulties emerge as the child post cancer treatment re-enters society. A structured follow-up throughout the cancer trajectory and not just during active treatment is necessary. A child-centered philosophy of care would guide the child towards attainment of health and well-being.

    Both the child’s own perspective and a child’s perspective as described by adults caring for them should be seen on a continuum, rather than as opposites. This view could help ensure that young children become visible and are listened to as valuable contributors to care planning. Knowledge of health-illness transition can be useful in illustrating everyday health and functioning through long term illness trajectories.

  • 145.
    Darcy, Laura
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Björk, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Knutsson, Susanne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    The process of striving for an ordinary, everyday life, in young children living with cancer, at six months and one year post diagnosis2014In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 605-612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Health care focus is shifting from solely looking at surviving cancer to elements of attention relating to living with it on a daily basis.The young child's experiences are crucial to providing evidence based care. The aim of this study was to explore the everyday life of young children as expressed by the child and parents at six months and one year post diagnosis.

    METHODS: Interviews were conducted with children and their parents connected to a paediatric oncology unit in Southern Sweden. A qualitative content analysis of interview data from two time points, six months and one year post diagnosis, was carried out.

    RESULTS: The process of living with cancer at six months and at one year post diagnosis revealed the child's striving for an ordinary, everyday life. Experiences over time of gaining control, making a normality of the illness and treatment and feeling lonely were described.

    CONCLUSION: Nurses have a major role to play in the process of striving for a new normal in the world post-diagnosis, and provide essential roles by giving the young child information, making them participatory in their care and encouraging access to both parents and peers. Understanding this role and addressing these issues regularly can assist the young child in the transition to living with cancer. Longitudinal studies with young children are vital in capturing their experiences through the cancer trajectory and necessary to ensure quality care.

  • 146.
    Darcy, Laura
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Björk, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    ICF applications in health care for children with cancer in Sweden2017In: An emerging approach for education and care: Implementing a worldwide classification of functioning and disability / [ed] S. Castro & O. Palikara, London: Routledge, 2017, p. 178-186Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and its version for children and youth, the ICF-CY, can contribute to the present knowledge on the lives of young children with cancer, with an international and interdisciplinary language. In this context, the term health can be seen as a multidimensional concept in which both illness and non-illness/well-being are dimensions that can be present at the same time, rather than two opposite concepts. Health is the result of a continuous process rather than something that one individual has; it is a resource for everyday life rather than the objective of living (WHO, 1986). The ICF was developed to classify different dimensions on individuals’ health as a unified standardised common language and framework, to be used across disciplines (WHO, 2007). It acknowledges that health and illness are complex concepts and promotes a biopsychosocial model of health, in which the context is as important as the individual and his/her needs. The view of health as functioning in everyday life can be operationalised using the ICF model of body structure, body function, activities and participation and environmental factors (Rosenbaum & Gorter, 2012).

  • 147.
    Darcy, Laura
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Björk, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Knutsson, Susanne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Following young children's health and functioning in everyday life through their cancer trajectory2016In: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1043-4542, E-ISSN 1532-8457, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 173-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Knowledge of living with childhood cancer, through the trajectory, is sparse.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to follow young children’s health and functioning in everyday life through their cancer trajectory.

    Methods: Data were gathered longitudinally from a group of 13 young children and their parents connected to a pediatric oncology unit in Sweden. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth structure was used to identify difficulties in health and functioning in everyday life, in interview and questionnaire data. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed to show patterns of difficulty over a 3-year period from diagnosis.

    Results: Difficulties experienced by children declined and changed over time. An increase in difficulties with personal interactions with others and access to and support from health care professionals was seen 2 to 3 years after diagnosis and start of treatment. Similar patterns are seen within individual children’s trajectories in relation to diagnosis but individual patterns were seen for each child.

    Conclusions and Clinical Implications: Health care professionals need to plan for ongoing contact with school services and information and support pathways, beyond the treatment period. A person-centered philosophy of care is required throughout the cancer trajectory.

  • 148.
    Darcy, Laura
    et al.
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Björk, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Young children's experiences of living an everyday life with cancer – A three year interview study2019In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 39, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The young child's experiences of living with cancer are crucial to providing evidence based care. This study explores and describes experiences of everyday life of young children with cancer, over a three year period from diagnosis.

    Method

    This is a longitudinal, inductive interview study with young children with cancer, and their parents. Interviews from shortly after diagnosis, six and 12 months after diagnosis have been reanalysed. Interviews with the same children and their parents from 18 to 36 months after diagnosis have been analysed for the first time in the present paper. A longitudinal temporal analysis at category level for five synchronic data sets forms the basis for the results.

    Results

    The child living with cancer over a three year period is described as a child apart, striving to live an everyday life. This description is built on three categories: I want to be a child like any other, I need security and control and I feel lonely and left out. Young children with cancer actively strive to understand their illness, participate in care and live an ordinary everyday life- but with ongoing feelings of social isolation and loneliness.

    Conclusions

    Young children with cancer need access to and ongoing contact with peers and preschool. A structured follow-up throughout the cancer trajectory and not just during active treatment, is necessary. A child-centred philosophy of care would guide the child towards attainment of health and wellbeing.

  • 149.
    Darcy, Laura
    et al.
    Institution of Health Science, University College Borås.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    Simeonsson, Rune J
    Petersson, Christina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Björk, Maria
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Health and functioning in the everyday lives of young children with cancer: documenting with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY).2015In: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 475-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Health care focus is shifting for children from surviving childhood cancer to living with it on a daily basis. There is a need to document health and function in the everyday lives of young children with cancer using the multidimensional framework and language of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY).

    AIMS: The aims of this study were (1) to document health and functioning in the everyday lives of young children with cancer using ICF-CY codes and (2) to identify a comprehensive code set that can aid clinical assessment.

    METHOD: Interviews with children diagnosed with cancer and their parents, were transcribed, reviewed for content and coded to the ICF-CY using linking procedures.

    RESULTS: A comprehensive code set (n = 70) for childhood cancer was identified. The majority of content identified to codes was related to activity and participation describing social relations with family, peers and professionals, preschool attendance and play, as well as issues related to support and independence.

    CONCLUSIONS: The ICF-CY can be used to document the nature and range of characteristics and consequences of cancer experienced by children. The identified comprehensive code set could be helpful to health care professionals, parents and teachers in assessing and supporting young children's health and everyday life through the cancer trajectory. The comprehensive code set could be developed as a clinical assessment tool for those caring for young children with cancer. The universal language of the ICF-CY means that the utility of a clinical assessment tool based on identified codes can have wide reaching effects for the care of young children with cancer.

  • 150.
    Darcy, Laura
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Knutsson, Susanne
    Institution of Health Science, University College Borås, Sweden.
    Huus, Karina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    Enskär, Karin
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD.
    The everyday life of the young child shortly after receiving a cancer diagnosis, from both children's and parent's perspectives2014In: Cancer Nursing, ISSN 0162-220X, E-ISSN 1538-9804, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 445-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Providing qualified, evidence-based healthcare to children requires increased knowledge of how cancer affects the young child's life. There is a dearth of research focusing on the young child's experience of everyday life.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore young children's and their parents' perceptions of how cancer affects the child's health and everyday life shortly after diagnosis.

    Methods: Thirteen children with newly diagnosed cancer aged 1 to 6 years and their parents, connected to a pediatric oncology unit in Southern Sweden, participated in this study through semistructured interviews. Child and parent data were analyzed as a family unit, using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Everyday life was spent at hospital or at home waiting to go back to hospital. Analysis led to the following categories: feeling like a stranger, feeling powerless, and feeling isolated.

    Conclusions: The child wants to be seen as a competent individual requiring information and participation in care. Parents need to be a safe haven for their child and not feel forced to legitimize painful and traumatic procedures by assisting with them. Nurses play a major role in the lives of children. Research with and on the young child is necessary and a way of making them visible and promoting their health and well-being.

    Implications for practice: Nurses need to reevaluate the newly diagnosed child's care routines so as to shift focus from the illness to the child. This requires competent nurses, secure in their caring role.

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