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  • 101.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Schytt, Emilia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Sexism in Advertising: A Qualitative Study of the Influence on Consumer Attitudes Towards Companies2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 102.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Erlandsson, Hanna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Johansson, Martina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Produktplacering i barnfilmer: en explorativ studie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of marketing to children is a fascinating subject as according to the motion 2011/12:C385 (Sveriges riksdag, 2011), it is the communities’ responsibility to raise the awareness within these questions. It is illegal to target children with marketing under the age of twelve in Sweden. Although this legislation exists there are still movies on the Swedish market with concealed commercial messages.

    Our goal is to try to create an understanding and explain the concept of product placement. We want to create a wide and complete picture of this phenomenon. The aim is to find out if children can perceive the concealed commercial messages, if so how the parents perceive this in the behaviour of the children and how the product placements are structured.

    Due to the limited research within this subject we have chosen to do an explorative study. The aim with this explorative method is to raise the awareness within the subject and create a better understanding according to Ruane (2010), Plowright (2011), Ritchie and Lewis (2003) including Teddlie and Tashakkori (2009). An explorative study creates a deeper understanding then to just describe a phenomenon (Ruane, 2010; Ritchie & Lewis, 2003).

    Our studies have shown that product placement exists in movies that are available in Sweden. They have also shown that the children can perceive these but no one take responsibility for it. The corporations’ claims that they do not work with product placement in children movies, the community seems to let this pass and the parents have accepted this as a part of the everyday life and something that is accepted. Our conclusions therefore generate more questions marks related to the subject and this confirms the need for someone to take responsibility for this. An effective product placement in children movies should be a visual placement, preferably in combination with an auditive placement, but most important it should be integrated in the story.

  • 103.
    Andersson, Josefin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Johansson, Beatrice
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Value and proportions of intangible assets: A comparison between the private- and the public sector2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations within the public- and the private sector have different aims with their accounting. Privately held organizations often have the intention to make profit, while authorities within the public sector aim to provide citizens with different services. The difference between these two sectors is also visible in the legislation, where International Accounting Standards Board set the standards for privately held organizations and Ekonomistyrningsverket do the same for the public sector. Because of the larger demand by the society for knowledge and technology, included in the category intangible assets, these are more emphasized in the accounting for organizations. Intangible assets are although linked with complexity which is associated with the measurement. The purpose of this study is therefore to see whether there are any existing differences in how to measure and value intangible assets and internally generated ones between listed companies in the private sector and authorities operating in the public sector.

    This study is conducted with both a qualitative and quantitative perspective. The data collected for this study is secondary, and is gathered through samples of annual reports from different companies in order to be representative for the whole population. The main results of this study is that there are differences in the measurement and valuation of intangible assets dependent on which sector an organization operates within and this is not due to the standards and regulations. The differences are visible in the percentage change in value of intangible assets since they fluctuate more heavily in the private sector than in the public sector. Simultaneously, the proportions of internally generated intangible assets compared to intangible assets in general differ between the two sectors.

  • 104.
    Andersson, Katarina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Söder, Olle
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Much Ado About Nothing?: The Regulation of Multiple Directorship appointments within Financial Institutions in Europe2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The Global financial crisis of 2008 shock the financial systems in its core in its aftermath many advocated the increased need of regulation of the banking and financial systems around the globe. Europe was no exception. The European Union Fourth Capital Requirements Directive (CRD IV) issued by the European Commission directly featured to increase the robustness of financial institutions and also regulated the composition of the board of banks and financial institutions.

     

     

    Purpose:                 

    To investigate how the European Directive 2013/36/EU Article 91 implemented 1 of July 2014 affected multiple Directorship appointments for non-executive directors within the major Credit Groups in Europe. In order to capture a relevant time frame before and after the implementation of the Directive a period of five years will be collected and analysed starting from 2012 and ending 2016.

     

     

    Method:

    A before-and-after research have been done regarding numbers of appointments that is held by non-executive board members in the largest European credit institutions. Secondary data are collected from corporate governance reports between 2012 and 2016 and descriptive statistics are calculated and analysed by the authors.

     

     

    Conclusion:

    Despite that the overall Directors appointments have decreased since the implementation of the maximum cap, this study reveals paradoxes surrounding the legislation. Evidence supporting that multiple Directorship actually impact firm performance remains inconclusive.  Moreover, it is likely that institutions fail to report on other Non-Commercial appointments for its Directors. The lack of standardised measures for disclosure as well as the lack of transparency when it comes to infringements questions if the intent of the legislation can be fulfilled.       

  • 105.
    Andersson, Leni
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Nordell, Nina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Wong, Annie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Get to know your breasts: A market research concerning AWARE Breast self-examination pad2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem: During the last decade people have become increasingly aware of their health which has led to the establishment of a new market: Over-the-counter test. These tests enable a consumer to individually monitor and examine their health. A decease where such a test could have a large impact is breast cancer. The Breast self-examination pad AWARE has provided women with an opportunity to prevent the course of the decease to reach beyond treatable. This product is shortly made available to the majority of Swedish women. At present there has been no research conducted in Sweden regarding what women think about such a product.

    Purpose: The purpose of this research thesis is to identify which factors to emphasize in the advertising of AWARE

    Frame of reference: In this section theories regarding consumer behavior are presented. The chapter in concluded by the creation of a model which aids the fulfillment of the purpose.

    Method: In order to accomplish the fulfillment the purpose a quantitative method has been utilized. The data collection constitutes of a market research in the Jönköping region where 354 female respondents were included.

    Conclusion: The result presents to which degree the specific factors are important to enhance in the advertising of AWARE. The authors reached the conclusion that the Psychological factor is of highest importance.

  • 106.
    Andersson, Line
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Ahlman Dahquist, Linn
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Importance of Network for Board Representation in Sweden: Female Presence or Female Exclusion?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to increase knowledge about the nature of personal connections that board members on top corporate boards in Sweden hold with the contacts that have been of most importance for their board appointment. As a consequence this study explores similarities and differences in career background, skills, expertise and networking structure of women and men on board positions.

    Method - To fulfill the purpose we conduct an explorative quantitative study of qualitative nature using a survey to gather data. The survey concerns the relationship that is of self-perceived importance for the board member’s board appointment and address their experience and background. The population in our study is limited to board members from corporations that are traded on Nasdaq OMX Stockholm, with a stock market value over 150 million Euros

    Results – We find that board members hold weak ties with contacts that have played the most important role for their board appointment and both women and men mainly choose men as these contacts. Women on average have a higher educational level than men, while a higher proportion of men come from a professional background as an executive. 

    Research Limitation - We limit our study to include self-perceived importance of contacts rather than the actual importance.

    Practical Implications – Our study contribute to the debate of the slow progress of gender equality on corporate boards by acknowledging that the preference among women and men to merely socialize with other men it can be a factor that increases the barriers for women to gain a position in the top corporate boards of Sweden. By acknowledging this underlying preference more board members may actively include women in their network. Additionally, successful board appointments are derived from contacts that are located outside the close personal network. This holds especially true for women who have made it into the boardroom despite the fact that they do not socialize for leisure activities. 

  • 107.
    Andersson, Marcus
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Wahlberg, Petra
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Östlund, Jacob
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Financing rapid, organic growth in Sweden: A study of manufacturing gazelle companies2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, only 652 companies have managed to reach the criterions stated by Dagens Industri in their ranking of the Swedish gazelle compa-nies. Rapidly growing companies are very important for the creation of job opportunities and economic wealth. Growth is associated with significant costs, especially for a manufacturing company, and capital is therefore vital for a company’s prosperity. Capital can be either internally generated or externally provided. Previous research has shown that companies firstly prefer internally generated funds, then debt and last new equity.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to describe, analyze and provide examples on how Swedish gazelle companies have financed their growth, what financing options they have and for what purposes they needed finance. The thesis will also examine the importance of external financer’s contribution with financial and human capital for the growth of the gazelles.

    Method: A qualitative approach has been used to meet the purpose of the thesis. 12 in-depth, unstructured phone interviews have been conducted with some of the fastest growing gazelle companies in Sweden.

    Conclusions: A company can finance its growth using owner’s equity, retained earnings, leasing, factoring, public subsidies and loans, bank loans, venture capital and business angels. All these sources of finance are represented in the empirical findings except for factoring. Internally generated capital has mainly been used to cover working capital and to some extent smaller in-vestments. The externally provided capital has mainly been invested in larger investments like machines, property and product development. The financial capital has been the main contribution by external financers except for business angels, where the human capital was most important.

  • 108.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Bäckström, Erik
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Valuation of firms in the Sport Sector: A case study on key ratios and corporate structure for Allmänna Idrottsklubb Solna & Parken Sport & Entertainment2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Football industry has turned into a financial war and the purchasing power among the clubs is getting more and more important. The fact is that some of the largest clubs in Europe actually have a negative net income in the last years. The importance of find- ing investors that are willing to invest in the club to achieve good financial ratios are getting more and more important. To find these investors a club must show good finan- cial results that will get the investors interested.

    In this thesis a valuation has been made of the two Nordic firms; AIK Solna and Parken Sport & Entertainment. With the use of valuation theory and profitability ratios; this thesis will value the organizations entirely as two firms. This will lead to the most accu- rate comparison because the firms are built up in different ways and this thesis will draw a conclusion about the effects of the whole firm value not just single parts of the firm.

    In this valuation calculations of different valuation ratios such as Free Cash Flow to Eq- uity and Free Cash Flow to Firm have been used. This thesis will also show calculations of profitability ratios such as ROE, ROA, ROC, P/E ratio and Interest Coverage ratio.

    When calculating the value of the firms the Modigliani and Miller firm valuation formu- la was used. The results of this thesis show that Parken Sport & Entertainment was nei- ther under or overvalued. The stock value of Parken Sport & Entertainment that was calculated was almost the same as its set value on the stock market today. AIK Solna on the other hand has big financial problems and their stock value was actually valued to a negative result. This is not a good result when they want to get new investors to the firm.

  • 109.
    Andersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Nilsson, Henrik
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Leverantörer i uppköp: Relationsförändringar och motreaktioner2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The media provides us almost daily with information regarding acquisitions between large companies. This indicates that acquisitions of companies play a frequent role in today’s business life.  Earlier studies on acquisitions focus mainly on the integrated companies. It is important not only to study the integrated companies, but to also cast an eye at the suppliers of the acquired companies. In this thesis we assume that the suppliers of an acquired company will be affected by the acquisition and that they also will react upon it. If an end-product manufacturer acquires a competitor one effect could be that half of the suppliers are made redundant, while the ones left will have to produce a lot more. This indicates that the change affects the relations between companies, but also that the concentration of companies gives fewer possibilities to initiate business relations.

    The aim of the thesis is to investigate how the relationship between a buyer and a supplier changes due to the buyer being acquired by one of its competitors. The aim is also to investigate which measures that are taken by the supplier to gain as positive effects as possible from the acquisition.  The occurrence being investigated involves an acquiring company, a company being acquired and suppliers of the acquired company. The number of parties involved makes the occurrence complex. To get as accurate information as possible we have chosen an exploratory study and a qualitative method.  The approach in the thesis is a case study and the case is taken from the house manufacturing industry, namely Hjältevadshus’ acquisition of Modulenthus. The information has been gathered through interviews with the integrated companies as well as with the suppliers.

    It is important for the supplier to have an understanding of its position in the network of suppliers, in order to understand which relationship changes that can occur due to an acquisition. The reason why it is important is because it determines how easy or how hard it is to be replaced.  The type of product, the degree of complexity, or what kind of service the supplier offers plays a significant part in how the supplier might be affected by the acquisition. It is also important to understand the relationship between the buyer and the supplier in order to understand relationship changes due to the acquisition. The relationship’s degree of strength and character decides whether a change will occur as a result of the acquisition.

    The trend of concentrating through acquisitions decreases the number of companies in the market. If a supplier does not look upon an acquisition as a possibility and plays an active part in the process of change, there is a major risk that the acquiring company will use established suppliers, with a well-developed relationship with the acquiring company, instead.

    By limiting the buyer’s possibilities for actions, the supplier increases its power. An alternative for the supplier is to get the opportunity to manufacture a larger part of the buyer’s needs, which increases the supplier’s power in that particular relationship. It is difficult for the supplier to develop alternatives to a buyer that used to purchase a large proportion of the supplier’s total production. One possibility is that the other buyers increase their purchases, but most likely the supplier will be forced to find new, large buyers if a major part of the production has to be relocated.

  • 110.
    Andersson, Richard
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Liliegren, Lisa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    THE ROLE OF MICRO BUSINESS MANAGERS: A Replication of Mintzberg's study 2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During decades people have tried to define and explain the role of a manager. Mintzberg (1973) was one of them that made studies about the manager role. He defined ten managerial roles that still are in use today. In later years more people have been interested in the work of Mintzberg. 2003 Tengblad did a replication of his work on large and medium size businesses, and 2004 Florén conducted a similar study on small size businesses. Therefore, it can be of interest to do a replication of Mintzberg’s work on micro size businesses as well.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe how the managers of micro businesses work, by doing a replication of Mintzberg’s “The nature of managerial work”. We also intend to compare our result with earlier studies by Mintzberg (1973), Tengblad (2003) and Florén (2004), to distinguish the similarities and differences in what roles top executives undertake during their working days.

    Method: For this thesis we use a qualitative method, and to complete the purpose of this research we collect information from four different observations of micro business managers, to be able to define the role they perform. The empirical findings that we found during the observations are analyzed together in the frame of reference which represents the basis for our conclusions.

    Conclusion: The conclusion we can draw from this survey is that the role micro business manager perform are very similar to a pattern of a ‘spider in a net’, because the micro business manager is a person that is involved in everything that goes on in a micro business. The manager knows everything; s/he is more or less the company.

  • 111.
    Andersson, Åsa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Skoog, Sara
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Svensson, Johanna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Commuter Shopping: A study in understanding commuting in the context of shopping2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    For ages people have commuted to work, or to other activities, located outside their home municipality. Statements found indicate that the basic decision for commuting are based on utility maximisation and no matter what the character of the benefit is; it should be higher than what can be found closer to the home location. This thesis aims to investigate if people are also commuting with the purpose of obtaining benefits from shopping.

    The shopping location will in this thesis be defined as a shopping mall. In order for shopping malls to attract customers and create awareness of which benefits they offer they must engage in branding. The authors of this thesis have chosen to investigate the terms; shopping, commuting and branding separately in order to find a definition for the term commuter shopping and to create understanding for what makes people engage in commuter shopping.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this thesis is to understand how the term commuter can be translated into the context of shopping. Moreover, the goal is also to identify the reasons for why people are willing to commute to a shopping destination not closest to their home location. The authors will also provide a definition for the term commuter shopping.

    Method

    In order to fulfil the purpose of this thesis, an abductive research approach was used. This includes a mixed method research, which allows both qualitative and quantitative data to be represented. The quantitative data in this research consist of a survey conducted at a shopping mall in Jönköping called A6 Center and used a sample of 402 customers as respondents. The qualitative part of the research includes an interview with A6 Center’s Centre Manager Kristoffer Krantz.

    The main source of information, however, is the collection of secondary data within the fields of commuting, shopping malls and branding which are combined in order to provide a definition of commuter shopping.

     

    Conclusion

    The study contributes with understanding in the fields of research to the extent that means one can translate the term commuting into the context of shopping. Moreover, the thesis managed to identify the reasons for why people engage in commuter shopping and which attributes they value at a shopping location. As a result the thesis propose a definition: “Commuter shopping is when one or more people go to a shopping location, not closest to their home location, in order to obtain benefits satisfied by attributes offered.”

  • 112.
    Andersén, Sophia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Annie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Gilén, Sandra
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Social Media within a B2B context: A qualitative study about how industrial corporations can use social media to maintain B2B relationships2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The last thirty years there has been a dramatic change in relationship marketing. The use of computers connected to the Internet at work places has increased over time and social media is widely used in marketing strategies. Social media is a new phenomenon to communicate with each other, it enables market information based on individual consumer’s experiences. Therefore managers are seeking a way to incorporate social media into their strategies, but this is more common within B2C than B2B.

    The purpose is to investigate the potential for industrial corporations, within the warehousing industry, to use social media for maintaining established relationships within B2B, as a part of their marketing strategy. The primary data is collected by qualitative interviews with relevant corporations. The study includes four corporations within the industrial industry, an illustrative corporation that have issues regarding using social media or not, and one expert interview.  The secondary data is collected from previous research, articles and journals. From the theoretical framework and empirical research, it seems to be more useful for corporations acting in the market of B2C rather than in B2B to use social media. Major of the interviewed corporations were thinking of using social media as a part of their marketing strategy, but almost no one were using it as a tool today.

    The younger generation, raised in a technological society, seem to generally have a broader knowledge of social media and what advantages and disadvantages the use can lead to. From this thesis it does not seem that one social media is better than another since different social media platforms are used in different ways. Therefore, it is not possible to say that one specific social media suits all corporations. However, if a corporation decides to use social media as a marketing tool, they need to be aware of the time required for it and be prepared for negative effects since they are open platforms, free for everyone to express their feelings. Within B2B, the trend of having a personal relation with customer and supplier is very strong and social media can never replace this personal relationship. The conclusions and recommendations is instead to use social media as an integrated marketing tool within their strategy.

  • 113.
    Andreasson, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Andersson, Emma
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Petersson, Jens
    JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Att sätta segel i ett av världens största sportevenemang: En studie av begrepp, motiv och utvärdering av sponsring2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem. Sponsorship has increased continuously during the 21st century, however, at the same time the public interest of traditional promotion has been diminishing. The meaning of sponsorship is a very diffuse and therefore the concept needs to be investigated. Due to the multitude of sponsorship and its impreciseness about its financial value, it is difficult to evaluate sponsorship for companies, especially when there is a difficulty in choosing a decent method for evaluation.

    Purpose. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the concept of sponsorship, motives for sponsorship and evaluation of sponsorship according to the theory and give empirical examples of how these areas are being managed by companies.

    Method. On the basis of the purpose, a qualitative method was chosen with personal interview and telephone interviews as tools. The choice of method and tool was based on the demand for rich and deep information, since this was needed to solve the purpose. Volvo Event Management, SEB, Assa Abloy and Djuice were the sample of the thesis, and have all been involved in sponsoring of the Volvo Ocean Race.

    Results. The concept of sponsorship has no universal definition, though it is important that companies understand the concept. By stating some cornerstones of the definition it might help explaining the problem and the indistinctness with sponsorship. Sponsorship as a communication tool is unique and therefore makes it possible for companies to differentiate on the market, since the public is getting tired on traditional promotion. Additionally, there are numerous motives to use sponsorship, but exposure is one of the most common according to the participating companies in this study, closely followed by relations. Motives can further on be categorized in two different groups, internal and external, which simplify and give a better perspective of companies’ motives. Finally, the study has shown that companies evaluate sponsorship using different theoretical tools, however, according to literature and theorists companies are not evaluating. Hence, a disagreement arises between the academic and the real world. In spite of the progression that has been made, there are still doubts concerning the trustworthiness surrounding the translation of exposure to a financial value, which contributes to that the value of sponsorship becomes more uncertain.

  • 114.
    Andreasson, Lovisa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Ek Berglund, Michaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Svensson, Alice
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Power of Innovation: Exploring Innovativeness and its Influence on Brand Loyalty in a Saturated Market through the Eyes of Generation Y2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem

    Saturated markets are known to be competitive, with a wide selection of alternatives. In a saturated market is essential to differentiate a brand to compete in a market. Therefore, innovation has become a central part of a brand’s DNA when developing strategies, such as product evolvement and marketing. Today, there is a research gap of how innovation efforts are perceived by consumers of Generation Y, and how their loyalty to a brand is influenced by the phenomenon.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to investigate how Generation Y perceives a brand’s innovation efforts. Further, how their loyalty is influenced by the innovation efforts. One research question was developed to fulfill the purpose; how does innovation influence brand loyalty in saturated markets?

     

    Methodology

    This thesis was written from a qualitative perspective. To gather empirical data, semi-structured interviews were conducted. The participants were all within the age restriction of Generation Y, and the samples were chosen through the purposive sampling approach.  

     

    Findings

    Several findings were identified from this qualitative research study. The two main findings were of great importance. One finding showed that within the saturated market of low-involvement products, marketing innovation plays a greater role than product innovation. Marketing innovation shows to have a large impact on establishing brand loyalty within a saturated market. Both findings were identified from the viewpoint of Generation Y. 

  • 115.
    Andrén, Erik
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Fors, Oskar
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Actively Managed Investments: A comparison of US hedge and equity mutual funds2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past years, the total assets under management among hedge funds and equity mutual fundshave increased significantly. The question from an investor point of view iswhich investment vehicle can provide the greatest return adjusted for risk. The purpose of this study involves an analysis on the historical net asset values todetermine and evaluate what one can except from actively managed hedge andequity mutual funds. It supports the determination of the most profitable asset, adjusted for risk, as part of a diversified portfolio. The performance is measured net of fees and costs with the inclusion of potential performance fees individual hedge funds may apply. Hedge funds practice different investment approaches depending on what strategy is applied and hence, return levels can vary dramatically. The study is designed to answer questions by comparing net returns and risk-adjusted returns for respective investments and the different hedge fund strategies. With a deductive research approach, the analysis is conducted by applying existing models and theories as the Fama-French three-factor model through time-series regressions measuring excess returns (alpha), risk-adjusted performance measures as Sharpe ratio, M-squared and the Sortino ratio. The results show that hedge funds outperform equity mutual funds in all examined aspects and produce positive monthly net alphas,on average. Equity mutual funds are unable to provide investors with positive excess returns and subsequently fail the purpose of an actively managed fund by providing returns lower than the return of the market. The results are increasingly strengthened with both time-series regressions and performance measures showing homogenous results and reaching the equal conclusions. From the conclusions that hedge funds provide the most profitable investment compared to equity mutual funds, the hedge fund strategy CTA/managed futures strategies perform best in both net and risk-adjusted terms.

  • 116.
    Angjelova, Adrijana
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Sundström, Petter
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Reducing Consumer Skepticism when Communicating CSR: A study on the efficiency of Cause Fit- and Cause Commitment communication2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to be able to conclude which of the two, cause fit communication or cause commitment communication, is the best strategy for companies to adapt when looking to reduce consumer skepticism when communicating their CSR. CSR is nowadays a core component in every business yet so many managers find it hard to justify because they do not reap the benefits from engaging in CSR (Porter & Kramer, 2006). CSR has to be communicated in order for companies to reap the benefits from their endeavors (McElhaney, 2009). However, when companies do this consumers tend to get skeptical about the CSR motives of the company, which results in companies not gaining any benefits from their CSR at all (Bhattacharya, 2010). To solve this problem, researchers have suggested many different communication strategies to reduce consumer skepticism when companies communicate their CSR. In this thesis we test the consumer skepticism reducinge ffects of Cause Fit Communication and Cause Commitment Communication to conclude which of the two is the most efficient at reducing consumer skepticism. To fulfill our purpose we have used a quantitative method and constructed a survey where we have asked people about their perception of different companies’ CSR communication when the companies used Cause Fit Communication or Cause Commitment Communication. The answers from the respondents were analyzed through which we could conclude which of the two strategies is better.

    From our findings it was very hard to conclude which of the two communication strategies was the best at reducing consumer skepticism. However, we could see that Cause Commitment Communication had the highest consumer skepticism reducing effects. After having conducted this research we truly believe that the two communication strategies can be just as efficient at reducing consumer skepticism as long as one follows the guidelines we have provided in this thesis. 

  • 117.
    Anisimova, Tatiana
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Brand communication using symbolic brand values: implications for consumer satisfaction and loyalty2015In: Academy of Marketing Annual Conference Proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing interest of research into idiosyncratic brand values highlights the importance of understanding brand symbolism. However, there is still a limited understanding about this area, and in particular its effects on consumer relationships with brands. This suggests the importance of investigating of how corporate brand symbolism contributes to some of the key performance indicators such as consumer satisfaction and loyalty. This research tests the effects of symbolic brand values on consumer satisfaction and loyalty. Regression results reveal favourable and significant effects of symbolic brand values on both consumer satisfaction and loyalty. This study does not intend to deny the role of economic utilitarianism in formulating brand value marketing strategies, particularly for the companies operating in a technologically intensive markets. The findings of this study point to the strategic role of the brand symbolism in generating both satisfaction and loyalty.

  • 118.
    Anisimova, Tatiana
    et al.
    Linnaeus University.
    Brunninge, Olof
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Media, Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC).
    Creating competitive brand advantage via connecting and disconnecting historical epochs through heritage brands2018In: 2018 Global Marketing Conference at Tokyo Proceedings, 2018, p. 1258-1260Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Anisimova, Tatiana
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Mavondo, Felix
    Department of Marketing , Monash University , Melbourne , Australia.
    Aligning Company and Dealer Perspectives in Corporate Branding: Implications for Dealer Satisfaction and Commitment2014In: Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, ISSN 1051-712X, E-ISSN 1547-0628, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 35-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There is a contention in marketing literature that gaps between corporate and key stakeholders’ perspectives have unfavorable implications for corporate brand performance. The current article attempts to empirically substantiate this argument. As such, this article looks at the relationship between a car manufacturer and its dealers and examines it from the perspective of the relationship misalignment.

    Methodology: Applying the Profile Deviation method, this study tests the effects of a manufacturer–dealer corporate brand misalignment on dealer satisfaction and commitment. The manager-specified ideal profile for a corporate brand was used as a proxy for a manufacturer perspective and a benchmark against which dealer perceptions were compared. The corporate brand construct encompassed the dimensions of corporate image, corporate personality and dealer-experienced value. Hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlations and multiple regressions.

    Findings: Results, which were robust across all the corporate brand dimensions, support the hypotheses of negative performance impact of manufacturer-dealer misalignment.

    Originality/value/contribution: This study identifies an important link between the theoretical proposition and the operationalization test of examining performance implications of misalignment. The current study argues for broader integrative thinking and cross-disciplinary research in business-to-business marketing. In the absence of the relevant literature on conceptualization and operationalization in the marketing literature, the article borrows a testing method of Profile Deviation from the management field. By developing a fine-grained analysis, the current study pinpoints specific aspects that require co-alignment in corporate branding, thus facilitating managerial decision-making.

    Research implications/limitations: The current study demonstrates that deviation from a corporate perspective implies a weakness in corporate branding process with negative performance consequences. The Profile Deviation perspective used in this article has focused on a static, cross-sectional approach for specifying and testing misalignment between a manufacturer and its dealer principles. The researchers are encouraged to consider alternative mechanisms to test for misalignment as a dynamic task within a longitudinal research design.

    Practical implications: Companies must be aware of the areas where gaps can occur that impede effective decision-making. Aligning a corporate brand between a company and members of the distribution channel requires careful implementation that encourages dealer inputs in brand operations while avoiding counter-productive implications.

  • 120.
    Anisimova, Tatiana
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Mavondo, Felix T.
    Monash University, Australia.
    Corporate brand: structural equation modelling2015In: Corporate Branding: Areas, arenas and approaches / [ed] T. C. Melewar, S. F. Syed Alwi, London: Routledge, 2015, p. 169-191Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Anisimova, Tatiana
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Mavondo, Felix T.
    Monash University, Department of Marketing, Melbourne, Australia.
    Weiss, Jan Frederic
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Supply Chain and Operations Management.
    Controlled and uncontrolled communication stimuli and organic food purchases: The mediating role of perceived communication clarity, perceived health benefits, and trust2019In: Journal of Marketing Communications, ISSN 1352-7266, E-ISSN 1466-4445, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 180-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a growing demand worldwide, organic food remains a niche category, with consumers only purchasing it some of the time. This study examines the mediating effects of consumers’ perceived clarity of organic food-related communication, trust for, and perceived health benefits of organic foods in the relationship between controlled and uncontrolled communication stimuli and organic food purchases. We test our hypotheses on a sample of 1011 Australian organic food consumers using Structural Equation Modeling. We find that all mediators except perceived communication clarity perform as hypothesized, with the latter not mediating the relationship between uncontrolled communications and perceived health benefits of organic foods. The results suggest that marketers should ensure clarity in controlled organic food communications, signal health benefits of organic food and build consumer trust to generate organic purchases. 

  • 122.
    Anisimova, Tatiana
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Müllern, Tomas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Plachkova, Tonya
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Popular Music in Audio-Visual Advertising: A Study of the Roles and Functions of Lyrics in TV-Commercials2014In: Advances in social sciences research journal, ISSN 2055-0286, Vol. 1, no 5, p. 8-21Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 123.
    ANJORIN, RASHIDAT
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    JANSARI, AVNI
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    MANAGING CULTURAL DIVERSITY AT WORKPLACE2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

    Background: Cultural diversity within a workplace is increasingly becoming important as more organisations are embracing it within the global workforce. Some of its effect have been linked to performance outcomes according to past reviews and as a result, there are more suggestions on the need to study how various organisations manage their cultural diversity. Universities as an organisation has also blended in the internationalisation practice through human resources and diverse employees to form a part of the economic globalisation. Purpose: The purpose if this paper is to examine how cultural diversity is managed in a Swedish university, Jönköping International Business School (JIBS). Also, further investigation is on the employee’s perception of how the practices and policies of cultural diversity is being delivered by the management at the university.

    Method: An exploratory research is conducted for this paper and the empirical findings is gathered through a qualitative research. The primary research is retrieved by semi-constructed interviews. The human resource department and teachers from different backgrounds and countries were interviewed to find out how the teachers perception of cultural diversity management at their workplace based on how the practices and policies were delivered to them.

    Findings: Based on the interviews it was found that the cultural diversity management as a topic is well understood by both the management and the employees. However, the study revealed that the employees do not perceive it in the same manner it was being delivered to them by the management. The issues and practices connected to managing cultural diversity is not entirely provided by the management within the work environment. It essential that the management provide for more effectively communicated structure.

  • 124.
    Antai, Imoh
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Market versus supply chain vs. supply chain competition: A systems approach to reconciling the perspectives for business2016In: / [ed] Lauri Ojala, Juuso Töyli, Tomi Solakivi, Harri Lorentz, Sini Laari, Ninni Lehtinen, Turku: University of Turku Press , 2016, p. 1-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrative account of market (economic) competition and supply chain vs. supply chain competition in order to discover how both perspectives of competition might fit together within the broader encompassing notion of business competition.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The paper explores the potential points of alignment between the two competition perspectives from their development through to their current standings. Literatures on the evolving supply chain vs. supply chain competition as well as market competition are thus explored.

    Findings

    Results show that the two perspectives of competition are more similar than expected and as such market competition and supply chain vs. supply chain competition may not be described as mutually exclusive alternatives to the concept of competition.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable)

    The suggestions in this paper have implications for the discussion on how to deal with the competition interfaces (borders) that may be present in carrying out business as usual.

    Original/value

    The paper presents as one of the first studies of an integration of market competition and supply chain vs. supply chain competition, and thereby contributes to furthering our understanding of competition between supply chains and the different competition regimes that may exist within the business environment. This prospect is yet to be pointed out in literature.

  • 125.
    Antai, Imoh
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Mutshinda, Crispin
    Mount Allison University.
    Owusu, Richard
    Linnaeus University.
    A 3-R principle for characterizing failure in relief supply chains’ response to natural disasters2015In: Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, ISSN 2042-6747, E-ISSN 2042-6755, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 234-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this paper is to introduce a 3R (right time, right place, and right material) principle for characterizing failure in humanitarian/relief supply chains’ response to natural disasters, and describes a Bayesian methodology of the failure odds with regard to external factors that may affect the disaster-relief outcome, and distinctive supply chain proneness to failure.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The suggested 3Rs combine simplicity and completeness, enclosing all aspects of the 7R principle popular within business logistics. A fixed effects logistic regression model is designed, with a Bayesian approach, to relate the supply chains’ odds for success in disaster-relief to potential environmental predictors, while accounting for distinctive supply chains’ proneness to failure.

    Findings

    – Analysis of simulated data demonstrate the model’s ability to distinguish relief supply chains with regards to their disaster-relief failure odds, taking into account pertinent external factors and supply chain idiosyncrasies.Research limitations/implications– Due to the complex nature of natural disasters and the scarcity of subsequent data, the paper employs computer-simulated data to illustrate the implementation of the proposed methodology.

    Originality/value

    – The 3R principle offers a simple and familiar basis for evaluating failure in relief supply chains’ response to natural disasters. Also, it brings the issues of customer orientation within humanitarian relief and supply operations to the fore, which had only been implicit within the humanitarian and relief supply chain literature.

  • 126.
    Antar, Joyce
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Gholamifar, Donya
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    CRM in Fashion Companies for men's wear2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: The Fashion industry is a highly discussed issue today, and as it is very competitive, the awareness among consumers, especially male consumers, has increased. Through a preliminary research conducted by the authors, it was evident that creating customer relationships enables Fashion companies to maintain a competitive position in the market. Also, it was believed that since men tend to stay loyal and are hesitant to purchase apparel from new stores, developing and maintaining relationships with them is crucial. Purpose: The aim of this thesis is to determine what a customer-supplier relationship in Fashion companies for men’s wear is and when it exists, in order to identify the most important aspects when developing and maintaining this relationship.

    Method: A hermeneutic and an abductive approach have been used throughout this thesis, while a case study was performed. In order to fulfill the purpose of this thesis, five semistructured interviews were conducted with managers, at different hierarchical levels, and salesclerks of the chosen case company.

    Theories: The theoretical areas that were used in this thesis consisted of theories regarding Customer Relationship Management, Fashion management, Customer-supplier relationships, Consumer behavior, Customer satisfaction, Communication in Fashion etc.

    Conclusions: The authors came to the conclusion that the existing definitions of relationships do not identify a customer-supplier relationship in Fashion retailing. Therefore, the authors found it necessary to introduce a new definition for a customer-supplier relationship in Fashion companies for men’s wear, namely semi- intimate relationships. These relationships are long-term relationships that are characterized by frequent personal interactions, personal information exchange, a shared mode of thinking, two-way commitment and mutual values beyond monetary terms. Moreover, the authors concluded that a semiintimate relationship exists when the customers are included in the company and interactions are on interpersonal levels. Furthermore, a semi-intimate relationship does not exist through one action; it is rather developed through a series of actions. The authors also determined that a customer focused culture, trust, commitment and loyalty, employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction, adding value through benefits and communicating the brand to the male customer are the most important aspects when developing and maintaining semi-intimate relationships. Finally, the authors found the concept of relational tools misleading in the context of this thesis and therefore, new implications for relational tools were introduced, with the sales force being the most important one, when developing and maintaining semi-intimate relationships.

  • 127.
    Antonsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Engström, Lukas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Verbus, Vytautas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Innovation within Fast Food Restaurants: The role of the local restaurant management2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Innovation is an important aspect of business today. It is important for companies to be innovative in order to stay competitive with their competitors. During the last couple of decades, technology has become more and more common both in our daily life, as well as in businesses. This has lead to an increase in technology implementation, especially within the service industry, where customers now can use self-service technologies in order to receive the service on their own. However, a lack of self-service technologies was discovered within the fast food industry. Since these types of innovations increased the service efficiency and decreased the waiting-time for customers, the authors believed that this would be very interesting for local managers within the fast food industry. Therefore, the authors began to investigate how much power local management has over these types of new innovations.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to explore how local management affects the innovation process, within fast food restaurant chains.

    Method: By conducting a cross-case study with the two fast food companies Subway and Max, the authors interviewed local fast food managers in order to explore the effect local management have on the innovation process. These two cases were selected since Subway fully consists of franchisees, while Max is almost completely company owned. Therefore, the two most common organizational structures within the fast food industry are included which will provide a more fair view of the industry.

    Conclusion: The effect of the innovation process has a positive relationship with the amount of power distributed to the local management. However, these areas differ depending on the organizational structure, with franchisees achieving their highest amount of power within medium-sized innovations and managers in company-owned outlets maintain their highest amount of power within minor innovations. Even though the overall communication was perceived as satisfying and efficient, large opportunities for improvements occur. By implementing more horizontal communication within the local management, it is in the belief of the authors that the entire internal communication will benefit. Especially this would benefit the franchise system where an increased local communication and collaboration would lead to more efficient communication throughout the entire organization.

  • 128.
    Apell Karlsson, Jennifer
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Gustafsson, Moa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Rasmusson, Rikard
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Consumers' Response to Irresponsible Corporate Behaviour: A Study of the Swedish Consumers' Attitude and Behaviour2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How companies in the apparel industry produce their products is receiving increasingly more attention, both in the society and marketplace, as well as by consumers. Despite the increasing amount of corporate scandals and corporate irresponsibility within the apparel industry, the previous research conducted within this field has mainly focused on how positive CSR affects consumers. This thesis aims to investigate how Swedish consumers’ attitude and behaviour are affected by negative CSR in the apparel industry.

    In order to fulfil the purpose of this thesis, a mix of quantitative and qualitative research was used to conduct an abductive study. The data was gathered through a survey posted on social media and by performing semi-structured interviews with participants consisting of Swedish consumers.

    The authors of this thesis have identified that Swedish consumer’s attitude is affected by negative CSR performed by apparel companies. However, the change in consumer attitude did not necessarily transfer into a change in behaviour, which generates an attitude-behaviour gap. The key barriers identified contributing to this gap are Swedish consumers’ lack of knowledge, and that they generally value personal needs and wants such as price, quality, and style greater than social responsibility.  

  • 129.
    Appelqvist, Carolina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Harplinger, Henrik
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Kindqvist, Christian
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Fairtrade - A fair trademark for ICA and Lidl?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate if and how the presence of Fairtrade promotion can change the attitude towards the stores, ICA and Lidl.

    Background: People‟s attitude towards the brand Fairtrade is predominantly positive and by providing these socially beneficial products, stores wish to strengthen their brand image by communicating their social responsibility through the message of Fairtrade. Previous research has shown that the socially responsible actions of a company can result in an enhanced brand attitude, but also in some cases, the actions taken have had a diminished effect on the attitude towards a brand. It is therefore of interest to research which stores that can gain from Fairtrade promotions in terms of an improved attitude towards the brand.

    Method: To answer the purpose, a mixed method sequential explanatory design was applied, by collecting quantitative data from an experiment, and qualitative data from a follow-up interview. The emphasis was put on the quantitative phase, where four different experimental groups were manipulated with different internet advertisement; ICA and Lidl, with the presence and absence of Fairtrade promotion.

    Conclusion: The outcome of the study signified that the attitude towards Lidl was somewhat negative with the absence of Fairtrade and declined with the presence of Fairtrade promotion while the attitude towards ICA did not change regardless of promotion. The results indicate that Fairtrade can not be successfully used as a system of changing brand attitude of a store, if customers do not consider it to be congruent with the initial brand image. It is supported that consistency is the key to success for a brand to be believable and enhance the brand attitude.

  • 130.
    Arkannia, Seyamak
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Lundgren, Gabriella
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Stenberg, Åsa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Stay tuned!: TV-commercial avoidance in a multitasking environment2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    The purpose of the thesis is to, through an ethnographic case study, understand 20-25 year olds‘ multitasking habits when watching TV and to create a framework of the distractions identified for media consumption.

    Background:

    The changes in technology and the new possibilities of consuming media creates a need to understand how people in the ages of 20-25 consume media. Advertising on TV is, in Swe-den, the marketing channel that companies spend the largest amount of money on. Most of the statistics regarding viewing rates are collected in a way that might not give totally accu-rate picture of the actual TV viewing of the consumers. Therefore, it is necessary to do an in-depth study of the media consumption habits of this group.

    Method:

    The study will be conducted, through an ethnographic case study where the researchers ob-serve a sample of four people in the target group during 10 sessions. Each session will be two hours long, and during, the researchers will observe the group‘s media consumption habits when watching TV. The observers will also look at the multitasking habits of the group, what media and distractions are combined while watching TV.

    Conclusions:

    The researchers conclude that multitasking is a common occurrence in the target groups media consumption. The authors have identified four categories that distracts the viewer‘s focus from TV commercials. The first three are distractions being, social, media and non-media distractions. The fourth category is technical avoidance, where people tend to switch channels or mute the sound in order to avoid commercials. Further, an important factor af-fecting the level of multitasking was whether the TV viewing was planned or unplanned. It was observed that this had an effect on the level of commercial avoidance when watching TV. Finally, four different models have been created as a framework to help marketers un-derstand the consumers behavior.

  • 131.
    Arnaud, Alexandre
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Kollman, Alexandra
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Berndt, Adele
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Marketing and Logistics.
    Generation Y: The Development and Use of Shopping Lists2015In: Advances in Social Sciences Research, ISSN 2055-0286, Vol. 2, no 9, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grocery shopping is one of the most basic elements of consumer behaviour and is a part of everyday life. For consumers to achieve their goals and make their grocery shopping trip efficient, many plan their shopping trip, as seen in the development and use of a shopping list. Previous studies have taken a general view of consumers and not investigated any one specific cohort. Generation Y is regarded as an important and knowledge cohort, with greater access to information and resources yet the development and use of shopping lists among this cohort is largely unknown. The purpose of this study is thus to understand the development and usage of shopping lists by Generation Y consumers.

    Use was made of a qualitative method to understand the development, usage and outcomes associated with list usage among this cohort. In total, 29 personal semi-structured interviews were conducted with interviews in supermarkets, the university or at the participants’ house.

    The findings show that the majority of Generation Y consumers develop and use shopping lists, and use both paper and electronic lists. The purpose for their development is for reminding, planning and saving money. The respondents believe that lists help reduce unplanned purchases, as well as reducing the time spent and cost in store.

  • 132.
    Arnesson, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Hökfelt, Daniel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Yavus Iskander, Madelene
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Recruitment in Problematic Market Conditions: An Empirical Study: Recession vs. Demographic Change2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    ‟Recession‟ and ‟Layoff‟ were the buzz words of late 2008. Economic slowdown and recession have hit the economy hard. At the same time people in society are getting older and the demographic profile of the population is getting increasingly top heavy, with the retirements of the 1940‟s baby boomers expected to peak in 2010. The implications of an increased proportion of old people in society have been debated for some time, but the issue has not become a pressing concern for firms until recently.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate „How does the economic slowdown and the demographic change affect the recruitment behavior of the firms in the region?, the region being defined as the County of Jönköping and County of Östergötland in southern Sweden.

    The study is based on an exploratory survey polling respondents about their willingness to employ, the effects that the economic slowdown and demographic change exert on them. The survey was conducted during November 2008.

    The descriptive and inferential quantitative statistical analysis of the empirical findings and sec-ondary sources draw on contemporary research in the areas of demographic change, economic theory and human resource management.

    Demographic change is of less importance with regards to firms' willingness to employ than ex-pected and is overshadowed by the lack of skilled and experienced labour, which makes finding a suitable employment not so difficult, even in these recessionary times, if you have the right education, qualification and/or experience.

    It is hard to give a definitive answer as to how large the effect of the economic slowdown on recruitment is, but it does indeed affect the firms' willingness to employ, and it has generally negative consequences for the overall size of the workforce. Nevertheless, there remains a need for employees fed by the inextinguishable calls for competence and experience.

    With regards to the general recruitment behaviour, the firms face a dilemma. The weak economic climate commands cost savings. But the widespread call for and concurrent lack of skilled and experienced labour, both in the firms and in the labour market, command resources to be committed to the search for applicants. Furthermore, coping with the challenges of an agediverse workforce will be one of the most important commissions for anyone dealing with human resource management issues in the future.

     

  • 133.
    Aronsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Sittkoff, Robin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    IFRS: Hur har de svenska företagen redovisat övergången?2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The last few years a globalization of the capital market has occurred. This have led to that it is more important for the companies that their financial information can be compared with other companies in order to compete on same grounds. In order to fa-cilitate for the companies within EU to compete with other companies and in order to strive for an internal market EU decided that IFRS should be used by all listed companies within the union.

    Problem: In 2006 the first financial reports according to IFRS will be published, and then it will be interesting to investigate how the companies have chosen to communicate the transition to its stakeholders. According to IFRS some information is compulsive but the companies have chosen to disclose voluntary information to a different degree.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe to what extent the Swedish listed com-panies have reported the transition to IFRS in their consolidated financial statements.

    Method: In this essay a quantitative method have been chosen in order to find general re-lations. The data collection is done with help of an evaluation model that have been devel-oped for this study. The data have been collected from the chosen companies’ annual re-ports.

    Conclusion: The study shows that the amounts of information about the transition to IFRS within the company’s annual reports vary a lot. The result of the transition is also varying. The study shows a connection between the companies’ net sales and how much in-formation the companies publish in their annual reports. The study found no relation be-tween how the transition to IFRS affected the companies equity or the result and how much voluntary information that was disclosed.

  • 134.
    Arrhenius, Annie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Antonsson, Emelie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Evaluation of banking internationalization: -a case study on Nordea in Poland and SEB in Germany2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to gain a deeper understanding in the internationalization process that Swedish banks go through. This will be achieved by evaluating Nordea and SEB and their internationalization to Poland and Germany.

    The concept of internationalization is constantly being explored, leading to different forms of results and theories within this area of research. Nordea is one of the largest providers of financial services in the Nordic and Baltic Sea region. Nordea has a strong focus on expanding their internationalization. SEB’s biggest markets are the Nordic countries, the Baltic’s and Germany. SEB has diverse strategies and structures in the different countries that the bank operates in. The methodology for this thesis is of a deductive approach performed with qualitative and quantitative data. A case study on Nordea and SEB is performed. To complement the case study results, a CAMEL rating is conducted on Nordea and SEB to assess the risk and earnings performance on each bank and and their specific internationalization locations.

    Evidence from this thesis confirms that the amount of knowledge and experience put in by the bank to the location is essential for the success of internationalization. This research found Nordea’s incentives towards Poland were the higher potential in growth in emerging markets. For SEB the incentive was mainly to follow customers which confirm that SEB has a strong commitment to the home market which leads the bank to new activities. The authors found the CAMEL rating to be a valuable tool for evaluating foreign operations. The authors believe an external CAMEL rating should be assigned each parent company along with their internationalization locations. Both banks obtained very low ratings according to these measures which indicates good and solid performance with little need for supervision. Nordea and SEB are both stable banks in Sweden as well as abroad. The international operations assess a slightly higher CAMEL rating for both banks which shows that the banks have a more stable business in the domestic countries. The CAMEL rating showed that Nordea and SEB’s parent companies are well prepared for the new Basel regulations which will be implemented in 2013 while the acquisitions in Poland and Germany must make adoptions to the new set of requirements.

  • 135.
    Arshad, Nadia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Contextualizing crowdfunding in low-income countries: The case of Pakistan2017In: Contextualizing Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies and Developing Countries / [ed] Marcela Ramírez Pasillas, Ethel Brundin and Magdalena Markowska, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017, p. 157-168Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 136.
    Arshad, Rabia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Chen, Cheng
    Value Chain Management in Context of Crowdfunding2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 137.
    Arvidsson, Dennis
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Svensson, Anton
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Islamic Banking in the Swedish Market?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Islamic banking sector has increased significantly during the last decades around the globe. From being a banking alternative only present in countries where Islam is the major religion, it has in recent years spread to a number of countries in the Western world. The Muslim population has been growing steadily in Sweden and there is yet to be an Islamic banking alternative.

    This thesis is based on qualitative methods and aims to give an understanding of the basic differences between Islamic banking and conventional banking. It also investigates and evaluates the challenges and opportunities that an Islamic bank would have to face if it entered the Swedish market with analysis based on Porter’s five forces. The method used is to interview people with knowledge within our subject together with an analysis of previous research.

    According to the analysis of the differences between Islamic banks and Conventional banks, it showed that there is a difference in theory but less difference in practice. Given the analysis of Porter’s five forces we draw the conclusion that three major challenges being Supply Power, Threat of Substitution and Threat of new Entry. The opportunities lies within Buyer Power and competitive Rivalry. 

  • 138.
    Arvidsson, Evelina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Kling, Vera
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Factors influencing the intention to perform in-store recycling: A qualitative study applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour to the Swedish fashion industry2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to the fashion industry being one of the most polluting industries in the world with more clothing than ever being thrown away, attention has been brought to the need for more sustainable clothing behaviours. Therefore, the in-store recycling boxes have been introduced as an alternative for recycling. Previous literature has focused mainly on companies’ perspectives or consumers purchasing behaviours, hence there is a gap for literature on consumers’ disposal and recycling behaviours.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine what factors influence consumers’ intentions to use in-store recycling boxes. This will be done by applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour by Ajzen (1991).

    Method: A qualitative approach in terms of two focus groups and two individual interviews was applied. The study was made on the consumers’ perspectives, and therefore the participants were 11 Swedish female students.

    Conclusion: The empirical findings and analysis toward previous literature and theoretical framework revealed that the main factors influencing consumers’ intentions to use in-store recycling boxes are lack of information about the recycling process, the possibility to drop off damaged clothing, and the developing possibility to make new clothing out of recycled materials. The lack of information had the greatest impact, which was unfavourable toward the intention to perform the behaviour and hence obstructed the participants from using in-store recycling boxes.

  • 139.
    Arzhilovskiy, Maxim
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Priyatel, Kirill
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Factors influencing attendance of ice hockey games in Sweden2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Commercialization of sport has been growing since 80s and club owners tend to pay more and more attention not just to cups and titles but to commercial success as well. Nevertheless, fans are still the key source of revenues. Besides direct spending while attending games popular clubs and crowded stadiums grab attention of generous advertisers. That is why the problem of sports attendance becomes more and more important though ice hockey attendance is still not the most popular topic among sports marketing researchers. The majority of them cover Canada and the United States while European leagues suffer from the lack of studies as much bigger attention is paid to sport number one – soccer. In the same time, Sweden is one of the few countries in the world where ice hockey might be as popular as soccer. Swedish ice hockey league is one of the strongest in the world but still many clubs fail to sell out their arenas at every game. So the main purpose of this research is to identify factors that influence attendance of ice hockey games in Sweden and reveal their impact on attendance.

    The analysis is conducted using quantitative methods, where econometrical and statistical approaches are primary tools. In order to test factors influencing attendance a multiple regression model was set up. The dataset was compiled using secondary data and consisted of 1317 regular season ice hockey matches played during 4 seasons (from 2008/2009 to 2011/2012) of the top Swedish ice hockey league called Elitserien. The main sources for compiling the dataset were game reports provided by Swedish Ice Hockey Association and Elitserien.

    The present study has shown that several factors have strongly positive effect on attendance. Scheduling (games on Friday, Saturday and during Christmas holidays) and rivalry are the most important factors that bring crowds to arenas. Moreover, it can be concluded that higher prices do not affect attendance negatively and clubs can slightly increase ticket prices to improve match day revenues. Finally, on-ice violence attracts Swedish fans while opposite trend exists in North America. 

  • 140.
    Arévalo, Erika
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Barranquilla’s carnival: the place where identity meets societal entrepreneurship2017In: Contextualizing Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies and Developing Countries / [ed] Marcela Ramirez-Pasillas, Ethel Brundin & Magdalena Markowska, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017, p. 250-261Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 141.
    Askenberg, Amanda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Isaksson, Frida
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Is Tax Avoidance Affected by Firm Size?: A study of the relationship between effective tax rates and firm sizes of Swedish listed firms2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tax avoidance is a commonly discussed issue. Previous studies have investigated different factors and their relation to tax avoidance by measuring effective tax rates. One interesting factor, due to its inconsistent results in previous studies, is the relationship between effective tax rates and firm size. There are studies that state that larger firms tax avoid more compared to smaller firms in line with the political power theory. Also, there are studies that indicate the opposite, that larger firms tax avoids less, in line with the political cost theory. To our knowledge, previous research of the relationship between firm size and effective tax rates in Sweden, is limited and is therefore an interesting research direction.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to see if Swedish listed firms tax avoids more if they are larger compared to smaller firms.

    Method: The financial information required to calculate and define the variables used for this study is collected for the Swedish listed firms that fulfill the selected criteria. The final sample of firm observations included in the study is 132 for the years 2014-2016. A regression analysis is performed with two measures of effective tax rates as the dependent variable, in relation to firm size measured in three different ways as the independent variables, and selected factors as control variables.

    Conclusion: The result shows that larger firms are more likely to tax avoid compared to smaller firms, for some measures of firm size. A positive relationship between effective tax rates and firm size measured by revenue is concluded, in line with the political cost theory. The relationship between effective tax rates and firm size measured by total assets and market capitalization is negative, hence the results are in line with the political power theory. Further, we conclude that other factors than firm size can have an impact on the effective tax rate of a firm.

  • 142.
    Aspegren, David
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Jacobsson, Karl
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Bech-Jakobsson, Martin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Attracting capital: The business plan from the investors' perspective2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For entrepreneurs it can be difficult to attract investors. The business plan is a well-known document for that purpose, and is used widely by entrepreneurs and companies. With this in mind, several questions arise. What information in a business plan is important? Do the criteria for information in a business plan differ between banks, venture capital companies, and business angels? What is the perception of a business plan to these investors? These are questions future entrepreneurs have to deal with before taking action and start searching for investors. This thesis investigates the investors’ perspective on the issue of entrepreneurship and business planning.The purpose of this thesis is to broaden the understanding of the business plan as a mean to attract capital for new ventures. It further aims to investigate the relevance of the business plan and the optimal composition of information, according to the investors. A qualitative method has been used in this thesis. Empirical findings have been captured from interviews with relevant actors in the investing market, and thereafter been analyzed with existing theories. The overall conclusion in this thesis is that there is a very broad view of the business plan as a concept. There are different aspects of the business plans roles as a formal mean to attract capital. Obvious differences between how the three different investors evaluate a business plan have been found as well as that the investors find other things than the business plan to be important in a decision. The investors do not look solely on the business plan and then make the decision whether to invest or not. The third conclusion is that all three investors enter a company with different roles, affecting the business’ activities in different ways. Finally, the business plan as a document is never as formal as the theory states. It is surprisingly different from the theory which claims that formality is an important issue in this kind of documents.

  • 143.
    Augurell, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Olsson, Pontus
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Change of the Auditor's Report: How Key Audit Matters can enhance the informative value2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 144.
    Awan, Ziyad
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management.
    Rahman, Ziaur
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Supply chain designs for Humanitarian Relief2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the unpredictable nature of sudden onset disasters the humans are often caught with surprise so are the humanitarian relief organizations. In order to quickly react to the emergencies, supply chain networks are built instantly by the actors of the relief management. Parallel to this process, need assessment is started with the help of local experts which also confirm that the response cannot be lingered on due a delay in need assessment. After wards the supply chain structure needs to be changed once the right information is gathered by the passage of time. This is not all, actually the situation of the disaster prone area and people also changes by that time which always brings a challenging scenario for humanitarian relief actors to develop the supply chain design with flexibility.Primary focus of this paper is to define right supply chain designs for disaster response and post disaster phases in humanitarian relief.

  • 145.
    Ax, Åsa
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Jebrail, Jessica
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Swedish SMEs Established in China: - How to finance business and financial obstacles encountered2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Small- and medium size enterprises are well known for being the backbone of the economy. They are the key factors of the economic growth as well as for innovating and developing products and services. Financial obstacles often occur for Swedish SMEs when they are searching for ways of financing the business. The lack of necessary financing to help SMEs’ businesses grow has been brought up in many institutions supportive of Swedish SMEs.

    This study is conducted to examine and give an understanding of how Swedish SMEs established in China are financing their businesses since strong internal financing results in a decrease for a need for external financing. Furthermore, the study is looking at what type of financial obstacles SMEs may encounter.

    For this purpose the relevant arguments are presented and discussed. This is done through a qualitative approach as well as hermeneutic phenomenology for a more in depth analysis on how certain Swedish SMEs are financing their business in China. The writers have chosen to interview Swedish SMEs who in some way are in the business of manufacturing and production and who are established in China.  Interviews were also conducted with representatives from financial institutions in order to gather information on how Swedish SMEs can access external financing. All of the interviews were performed in a semi-structured manner. When the information was gathered some of the Swedish SMEs requested the answers to be anonymous, therefore the writers is keeping all answers from the responding SMEs anonymous in the result and analysis part of the thesis. The answers from the financial representatives are however clearly stated which respondent answered what. Additionally, the writers found that most of the existing research on financing can explain the SMEs financial decisions, yet there was some adaption needed in regards to the theories in order for them to fit into the context of the Swedish SMEs and financiers.

    Moreover, the authors found that there is no large financing gap or demand to require additional credit from traditional banks or other financiers. Hence, the participating Swedish SMEs established in China mainly obtain financing from shareholder equity or other internal sources to finance their business.

  • 146.
    Axelsson, Anton
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Yousef, Charles
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Presence of Alcohol in Swedish Lifestyle Blogs: An exploratory study on if and how the presence of alcoholic beverages on Swedish blogs may affect young females’ intention to pursue alcohol consumption.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alcohol has become ubiquitous in Swedish lifestyle blogs, as alcohol can be present in one third or one fifth of blog posts in some of Sweden’s biggest lifestyle blogs. Research suggests that exposure to media and commercial communications on alcohol increases consumption and that users and user-generated content related to alcohol and drinking may intensify social norms around alcohol consumption. This means Swedish lifestyle bloggers may be exposing alcohol and creating social normative influence that can affect blog readers’ intention to consume alcohol.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis was to explore if and how the presence of alcoholic beverages on Swedish blogs may affect young females’ intention to pursue alcohol consumption. Firstly, the study looks at to what extent and how alcoholic beverages and alcohol-related activities appear on Swedish lifestyle blogs. Secondly, the study explores if the presence of alcohol in blogs is recognised by blog readers and if they perceive this to affect their own and others' intention to consume alcohol.

    Method: This thesis has two different data collections to fulfil the purpose of the study. First a web content analysis is conducted on eight Swedish blogs to explore the presence of alcohol. Thereafter semi-structured interviews are conducted with nine respondents. The findings are compared to previous findings and analysed from theories on behavioural change.

    Conclusion: Alcohol and alcohol-related activities are depicted frequently in some of Sweden’s biggest lifestyle blogs when variation between blogs and monthly variance per blog are considered. Alcohol is put in a favourable setting through a positive or a commercial context. Blog readers perceive blog posts to contain positive alcohol content, and claim others may be affected to consume alcohol by these as bloggers have influence empowered by their social status. A majority of respondents claim they themselves are not affected by blog posts with alcohol. It is suggested this is because subjective attitude towards alcohol and a belief of personal control has stronger impact on intention to pursue alcohol-related activities. Another suggestion is that more salient and ready accessible referents such as parents, family and friends are deemed more important in affecting norms around alcohol through individuals’ perceived view of these referents’ desires and actions.

  • 147.
    Axelsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Nordberg, Henrik
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Role of PR: In the Introduction Stage of a New Brand2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The reality of today is that companies are spending more and more money on commercial spots. The “highlight” of the year is Super Bowl, where a 30-second ad costs more than $2 million to run. Advertising agencies are using their role as communicators by competing with each other with no interest in the product. The marketing guru Al Ries released a controversial book called “The Fall of Advertising and the Rise of PR” (2002) together with his daughter Laura Ries. In this book they are at-tacking the traditional advertising industry and claim that it has lost its credibility and above all, public relations is a more effective tool in brand building. The Rieses also favors PR in the in-troduction phase of a new brand.

    The purpose of the thesis is to investigate agencies’ view of public relations role relative to traditional advertising in the intro-duction phase of a new brand.

    The authors have used a qualitative study where the purpose will be achieved by performing in-depth face to face interviews with three respondents, which has a deep knowledge within the PR and the traditional advertising industry.

    Whether PR as a promotional tool is viewed as more effective relative to traditional advertising in the introduction of a new brand one has to consider different variables. PR is more effec-tive when it comes to credibility, cost, and clutter. However, a major drawback is the control. Also, one has to consider the at-tributes of the brand since there are brands that are more PR “friendly” than others.

  • 148.
    Axelsson, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Wallqvist, Erik
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    The Development of the Swedish Corporate Bond Market: A sustainable market with a potential of high future growth?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The financial crisis in 2008 has led to a number of consequences for the financial sector. For banks, new stricter regulations with the Basel III accord will be implemented from 2013. The adaption to the new conditions has resulted in stricter lending policies, which means that is tougher for companies to get traditional bank loans. Companies have started to look for other funding alternatives and the corporate bond market has gained more attention and a clear trend of growth for this market has been seen during the last couple of years

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to examine the development of the corporate bond market in Sweden and analyze how this will impact the market participants and how they can adapt and utilize from it.

    Method: The research method used, in order to meet the purpose of this thesis, is mainly qualitative. The study it is based on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with different market participants that have great knowledge regarding their specific field of expertise. To back this up and, in more detail, understand more exactly the pace of the growth, the interview have been complemented with statistics of the current market situation.

    Conclusion: The Swedish corporate bond market has experienced a significant growth during the last couple of years and this has affected a lot of actors on the financial markets that have adapted their business to the new prevailing conditions. All market participants agree that this development will continue and they highlight the importance for the development to be qualitative in order to get a sustainable market. 

  • 149.
    Axén Wrigfors, Caroline
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Eliasson, Karin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Strategic Management: A combination of the internal and external perspective2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic management has long been viewed as the concept and process that link an organization

    and its environment together (Leibold, Probst & Gibbert, 2002). It consists of the

    analysis, decisions and actions an organization undertakes in order to create and sustain

    competitive advantages (Dess, Lumpkin & Taylor, 2005).

    Within the history of strategic management research there has been an unbalance between

    the internal and the external perspective. During the 1980s Michael Porter, one of the most

    prominent strategic management researchers, and his Five Forces model focused strictly on

    the external competitive environment (Mintzberg, Ahlstrand & Lampel, 1998). Further, in

    the 1990s the focus shifted from external to internal along with Jay Barney’s development

    of the resource based theory in 1991 (Barney, 1991). The issue of excluding one or the

    other perspective has now started to be acknowledged and researchers today are striving

    for developing models integrating both perspectives. However, theoretical models existing

    today that combine the two perspectives are complex and hard to apply in practice for

    managers within the business world.

    In order to address the complexity of the strategic management concept we have chosen to

    develop a model with the purpose to connect and relate the external and internal perspectives

    by conducting an in-depth analysis of a chosen company. The model also strives to be

    easily communicated, applicable and understandable for managers and employees on different

    levels within the organization. This leads us to the purpose of this thesis: “to develop

    a simplified model that combines the external and internal perspective of strategic management

    and apply this to a chosen company”.

    The research was conducted through a case study based on the authors’ participation in a

    PBM (Project Based Module) - project. The model was tested on the company in question

    by analyzing the company’s internal and external environment with the means of analysis

    tools such as PEST-analysis, strategic group analysis, threshold analysis and the SWOTanalysis.

    To conclude it is important to balance an organization’s internal efforts with the external

    market conditions and avoid excluding one or the other from the strategic management

    process. Combining the two perspectives results in identifying the current capabilities and

    competences and the direction of how to use these in order to meet market demands and

    gain competitive advantage.

  • 150.
    Azar, Emil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Hedvall, Robin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Larsson, Markus
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    What is Swedishness?: - a qualitative research from the customer- and organisational perspective2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate what Swedishness is according to Swedish customers and how a company could communicate and benefit from the country-of-origin cue in its marketing strategy to attract customers. 

    Background: Marketing must be understood in the new sense of satisfying the customer needs. Hence, Swedish organisations, when emphasising the country-of-origin attribute in their branding approach, need to recognise what aspects are associated with Swedishness from the customer perspective.

    Several features could be associated with Swedishness and communicated through the usage of a brand. It could be where the item has been produced, how the product is presented or where it has been designed. Other characteristics might be that consumers want the owner of the company to be Swedish, that the organisation should have Swedish values or that the product must have a Swedish name.

    Method: To fulfil the purpose, a qualitative data collection was chosen. Semi-structured interviews based on a pilot test were conducted with Swedish customers in Jönköping and asynchronous e-mail interviews were conducted with two Swedish companies.

    Conclusion: The findings indicate that there are several features customers associate with Swedishness. The origin and history of a company, the quality and design of a product and Swedishness as a personal trait or behaviour. This research found that companies, depending on industry, can take advantage of the features associated with the country-of-origin cue.

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