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  • 101.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Bergmo-Prvulovic, IngelaJönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.Kilhammar, KarinJönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Human resource management: A Nordic perspective2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 102.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Czarniawska, Barbara
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Many words about tea2010In: ENTER: Entrepreneurial Narrative Theory Ethnomethodology and Reflexivity: An Issue about The Republic of Tea / [ed] William B. Gartner, Clemson University Digital Press , 2010, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 191-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 103.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Florin Samuelsson, Emilia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Testing networking strategies for nascent women entrepreneurs2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 104.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Florin Samuelsson, Emilia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Walking a tightrope: Women entrepreneurs on the pricing decision as a delicate act of balancing inner and outer forces1999In: Sailing the Entrepreneurial Wave into the 21st Century: proceedings for the USASBE Entrepreneurship Conference in January 1999 / [ed] Scott William Kunkel, San Diego: University of San Diego , 1999Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a pilot study on the rationales for pricing decisions among a group of female entrepreneurs. For the purpose of avoiding pre-determined categories and allowing novel ideas and concerns to emerge, a focus group methodology was employed. Unlike the dominating literature on the subject which sees pricing as a rational decision based on costs, customer value and competition, this study suggests that both contextual factors and psychological factors are important. Important contextual factors were culture, regional characteristics and gender. Important psychological factors were sense of fairness, morals, identity, self-image, need for confirmation and self-confidence.

  • 105.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Hedegaard, Joel
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Golding, B.
    Federation University Australia.
    How the Men’s Shed idea travels to Scandinavia2017In: Australian Journal of Adult Learning, ISSN 1443-1394, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 316-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Australia has around 1,000 Men’s Sheds – informal communitybased workshops offering men beyond paid work somewhere to go, something to do and someone to talk to. They have proven to be of great benefit for older men’s learning, health and wellbeing, social integration, and for developing a positive male identity focusing on community responsibility and care. A Men’s Shed is typically selforganized and ‘bottom-up’, which is also a key success factor, since it provides participants with a sense of ownership and empowerment. Men’s Sheds are now spreading rapidly internationally, but the uptake of the idea varies with the local and national context, and so too may the consequences. Our paper describes how the Men’s Shed travelled to Denmark, a country with considerably more ‘social engineering’ than in Australia, where Sheds were opened in 2015, via a ‘top-down’ initiative sponsored by the Danish Ministry of Health. Using data from the study of the web pages of the Danish ‘Shed’ organizations, from interviews with the central organizer, and from visits and interviews with participants and local organizers at two Danish Men’s sheds, we describe how the idea of the Men’s Shed on the Australian model was interpreted and translated at central and local levels. Preliminary data indicate that similar positive benefits as exist in Australia may result, provided that local ownership is emphasized.

  • 106.
    Ahl, Helene J.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    The Making of the Female Entrepreneur: A Discourse Analysis of Research Texts on Women’s Entrepreneurship2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from a social constructionist understanding of gender, this thesis examines how the female entrepreneur is constructed in research articles about women’s entrepreneurship. It finds that even if the texts celebrate women’s entrepreneurship, they do it in such a way as to recreate women’s secondary position in society.

    Building on Foucault’s theory of discourse, the thesis analyzes the discursive practices by which this result was achieved. These practices include certain assumptions that are taken for granted about women, men, business, work, and family. One of these assumptions is that men and women must be different. Despite research results to the contrary, many texts insist that the genders are different and construct three kinds of arguments in support of this. One is making a mountain out of a molehill, i.e. stressing small differences while ignoring similarities. Another is the self-selected woman, which proclaims women entrepreneurs as unusual women. The third is called the good mother and consists of molding an alternative, feminine model of entrepreneurship while leaving the dominant model intact. These arguments reproduce the idea of essential gender differences and the idea of the woman as the weaker sex.

    The discursive practices also include certain ontological and epistemological assumptions, which are questioned in the thesis. In addition, they contain disciplinary regulations as well as writing and publishing practices that reinforce the discourse. The practices and the ensuing research results are moreover dependent on the particular context in which the articles are produced. This means that their results and conclusions cannot be transferred to other contexts uncritically.

    By discussing these practices, the thesis opens the way for alternative ways of theorizing and researching women’s entrepreneurship. Suggestions for alternative research practices include the addition of institutional aspects to the research agenda, such as labor market structure, family policy, and legislation. The thesis also suggests a shift in epistemological position – from gender as something that is given, to gender as something that is produced.

  • 107.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Marlow, S.
    Gendering entrepreneurship: have the sisters done for themselves?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 108.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Marlow, S.
    Postfeminist times: New opportunities or business as usual?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 109.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Marlow, Susan
    Haydn Green Institution of Enterprise and Innovation, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Analysing entrepreneurial activity through a postfeminist perspective: A brave new world or the same old story?2018In: Postfeminism and organization / [ed] P. Lewis, Y. Benschop, & R. Simpson, London: Routledge, 2018, p. 141-159Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical component of the contemporary neoliberal turn has been the rise of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial behaviours (Campbell and Pedersen, 2001). In developed nations, this era has been exemplified by a marked increase in entrepreneurship and new venture creation; entrepreneurial activity has also been integrated into the corporate environment encouraging individualised employee agency to generate innovative problem solving (Dannreuther and Perren, 2012) At a micro-level, we have seen the emergence of the ‘enterprising self’ and society where individuals assume responsibility for their own lives managing social welfare provisions previously provided by the state (du Gay, 1994; Down and Warren, 2008; Ahl and Nelson, 2015). These shifting expectations have been made possible by enabling legislative and institutional changes such as de-regulation, the decline of trade unions, privatisation of state services and liberalised markets (Perren and Dannreuther, 2012). Contemporaneously, the populist cultural promotion of entrepreneurship through various media has positioned it as a desirable career option with increasing status and social worth (Swail, Down, and Kautonen, 2013). 

  • 110.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Marlow, Susan
    University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Can sisters do it for themselves? Critiquing the possibilities of entrepreneurship through a postfeminist perspective2017In: 2017 Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, AOM 2017, Academy of Management , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 111.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Marlow, Susan
    Entrepreneurship and the postfeminist turn: Women’s final emancipation or the same old story?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Marlow, Susan
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Exploring the dynamics of gender, feminism and entrepreneurship: advancing debate to escape a dead end?2012In: Organization, ISSN 1350-5084, E-ISSN 1461-7323, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 543-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrary to the neo-liberal thesis that entrepreneuring is an open and accessible endeavour where personal effort alone determines reward and status, it has been demonstrated that there is a persistent, but occluded, gender bias within the entrepreneurial discourse. Accordingly, women are positioned as lacking and incomplete men; however, despite calls to employ feminist theory as an analytical frame to demonstrate the reproduction of such subordination, there is scant evidence this has emerged. Within this article, we respond to this call by demonstrating how post structural feminist analysis reveals the gendered assumptions informing entrepreneurship theory that embed prevailing hetero-normative assumptions. These assumptions limit the epistemological scope of contemporary research which positions women as failed or reluctant entrepreneurial subjects; as such, in the absence of feminist theorizing these analyses remain descriptive rather than explanatory. Accordingly, the current entrepreneurial research agenda is in danger of reaching an epistemological dead end in the absence of a reflexive critical perspective to inform the idea of who can be and what might be an entrepreneur. Finally, we draw upon these arguments to reflect upon current approaches to theorizing within the broader field of entrepreneurial enquiry.

  • 113.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Nelson, TeresaSimmons College, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Special Issue: Institutional perspectives on gender and entrepreneurship2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 114.
    Ahlberg, Heléne
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Andersson, Linn
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    How do Banks Manage the Credit Assessment to Small Businesses and What Is the Effect of Basel III?: An implementation of smaller and larger banks in Sweden2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Small businesses are considered as a valuable source for the society and the economic growth and bank loan is the main source of finance for them. Small businesses are commonly seen as riskier than larger businesses it is thus noteworthy to examine banks’ credit assessment for small businesses. The implementation of the Basel III Accord will start in 2013 with the aim to generate further protection of financial stability and promote sustainable economic growth, and the main idea underlying Basel III is to increase the capital basis of banks.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe how larger and smaller banks in Sweden are managing credit assessment of small businesses, and if this process differs according to the size of the bank. The authors further want to investigate how expectations of new capital regulations, in form of Basel III, affect the credit assessment and if it is affecting the ability of small businesses to receive loans.

    Method: In order to meet the purpose of the thesis a mixed model approach is used. The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with representatives from three smaller and three larger banks. Additional, statistics were computed in order to examine the economic state of the Swedish market, where also an archival research with 10 allocated banks operating with corporate services was executed.

    Conclusions: The banks have a well-developed credit process where building a mutual trust relationship with the customer is crucial. If the lender has a good relationship with the customer, it will ease the collection of credible information and thus enhance the process of making right decision. The research examined minor differences between smaller and larger banks in their credit assessment. Currently, the banks do not see any problems with adjusting to the new regulation and thus do not see specific effects for small businesses and their ability to receive loans. The effects that can be identified by the expectations of Basel III are the banks’ concern of charging the right price for the right risk and the demand of holding more capital when lending to businesses. The banks have come a long way on the adjustment to Basel III, which has pros and cons, thus it implies that banks are already charging customers for the effect of the regulations that will not be 100 percent implemented until 2019. The difference that was identified between larger and smaller banks is that larger banks seem to have more established strategies when working on the implementation of Basel III.

  • 115.
    Ahlberg, Jakob
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Marketing and Logistics.
    Successful Methods of Viral Marketing2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 116.
    Ahlden, Oscar
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Kollberg, Felix
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Female directors relationship to financial performance.: A study of female directors impact on financial performance and the presence of "glass cliff" in Sweden.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gender diversity within the boardroom is an important theme in the research of corporate governance. The lack of female directors during recent years have raised attention where the prejudice against women have been a central theme. Especially, in a gender egalitarian country as Sweden. The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between female directors and financial performance, but also the presence of the “glass cliff” theory. The study is based on companies listed on Large Cap in Sweden, where data are collected from annual reports and a database. The collected data are analyzed by several statistical methods. The findings show that female directors do have a positive impact on a company’s financial performance, in terms of accounting-based measurements. However, the market-based measurement does not a provide a significant relationship to female directors, indicating that the Swedish stock market does neither positively or negatively react to a more gender diverse board. As no differences in performance are seen preceding the appointments of females compared to males, no evidence for the “glass cliff” is found. The findings suggest that female directors may enhance the performance of a company and disproves the prejudice against women. Further, the findings indicate that the Swedish boards are becoming more diverse, where precarious situations are not the reason for women to be appointed to the board. 

  • 117.
    Ahlin, Nathalie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Holmquist, Maria
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Reasons to Budget Throughout the Life Cycles of Swedish IT Companies2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The budget is shown to be the most prioritized management accounting tool for companies with scarce resources, while at the same time it is criticized for being time consuming and ineffective. This study uses life cycle theory as a framework to investigate how the budgets can be used in a more efficient and effective way, depending on what life cycle stage the company is in.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how commonly budgets are used throughout the life cycle stages of IT companies in Sweden, and whether there is a difference in what reasons to budget are considered the most important in different stages.

    By using previous research made on life cycle theory and the reasons to budget as a foundation, this study collects the data using a quantitative method where a survey is sent to a sample of IT companies in Sweden.

    The answers to the survey lead to results about the budget use, what life cycle stage the respondents consider their company to be in, and how important ten different reasons to budget within the areas control, planning and evaluation are to the individual companies. The results show that there is a low budget use among companies in the birth stage, and that the budget use is high for companies in the growth, maturity and revival stages. The increasing budget use follows the increasing number of employees through the stages. The study finds that in general there are no major differences through the stages in what budget reasons are chosen to be most important; control is overall the most important purpose that the budget fulfills. Furthermore, there are some reasons to budget that have been assigned low values of importance across all the stages. Staff evaluation and encouraging innovative behavior are not considered important by the responding companies.

  • 118.
    Ahlstrand, Tobias
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Selin, Joseph
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    What happens with control when fundamentals change?: A study of how an ERP implementation may affect management control by causing changes among supporting roles and activities2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the society becomes more internationalized and companies spread operations to multiple locations in different countries, there is a growing need for systems that can link information between different company departments and make it available for users at any time. Over the years, companies have used several information systems for different business activities and purposes, but due to complexity and high costs, a need for an integrated platform has emerged. A system that can connect different business functions within a company, and at the same time link systems owned by customers and suppliers through modern technology is an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system.

    Today, management control may be regarded as an information intensive company process where managers can improve control by working with relevant and accurate information. An ERP system represents a natural bearer of that information, and because of that, it becomes interesting to analyze the effects on management control when its fundamentals (the ERP system) change. As previous publications mostly have examined organizational changes and effects of ERP implementations from a more general perspective, the authors realize a need for addressing ERP systems in relation to management control. Though prior research indicates that implementation of ERP systems have affect on management control, there is still uncertainty how it may be affected. The aim for this study is therefore to create understanding of how a major change such as an ERP implementation may affect management control by causing changes among supporting roles and activities.

    In order to achieve the purpose for this work, the authors have exemplified an ERP implementation through a case study of a manufacturing company implementing Electronic Invoice Processing (EIP) as a part of a larger ERP change. By using a scientific research approach characterized by an iterative process that moves between theory and empiricism, some valuable outcomes can be drawn from the analyzed case material. These outcomes become in the end target for a broad interpretation of roles, activities, and how changes among them may affect management control on a more generalized ERP level.

    Analyzing the case, the authors have been able to identify three distinctive roles that may be affected by an ERP implementation; the Executor, the Supervisor, and the Supporter. These three roles have been found to carry out five prime activities; Information Assembling, Information Verification, Information Registration, Information Presentation, and Information Storing. Finally, the changes and altering of focus between these roles and activities were found to potentially affect management control positively through five prime aspects; Timeliness, Accuracy, Accessibility, Richness, and Control.

  • 119.
    Ahlén, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Benjaminsson, Erik
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Hedegärd, Jesper
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Improving the Order Receiving Process: Case Study: Ekmans AB2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of the thesis is to identify problems cooperating departments suffer from, create solutions and discover ways to successfully implement the changes. A case study of Ekmans AB has been conducted to accomplish this.

    Background

    In today’s business world competition is fiercer than ever. New companies enter the market and new technologies and working methods are introduced which requires the companies to work proactivelyto foresee opportunities. But even if the companies are aware of all these external factors, they also need to look internally to see what they can improve and make more efficient in order to stay competitive. Therefore, it is important for companies to be ready to change both structure and culture to be more efficient.

    Method

    The method is based on a qualitative approach with semi-structuredi nterviews. A total of 20 interviews were conducted. The interviewees possess different positions within the company, ranging from the top management down through the organizational hierarchy.

    Conclusion

    The study shows that problems can arise from miscommunication, outdated ways of handling order receiving and a poorly chosen organizational structure. To solve these problems companies has to realize the importance of change. When modification the organizationa company has to take the organizational culture into consideration. It is important that the employees feel that they are a part of the change instead of just seeing it from sideline. Moreover, the management has to make sure they are thoroughly in their work regarding change; they have to follow up each alteration to make sure that it is actually implemented. Moreover, standardization is the key for organizations wishing improve and become more efficient. The result of the study showed that it is first when these criterions are fulfilled that the company can expect to successfully implement changes.

  • 120.
    Ahmad, Bilal
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Hemphoom, Sunisa
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Family Firms and Clean Technologies: A qualitative study exploring how a firm’s ownership status influences implementation of clean technologies2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Sustainability practices have become a crucial factor for firms since there are external and internal pressures that expect firms to act environmentally friendly. Especially within organizations that are owned by family, being sustainable enables them to pass their firm in a good condition to the next generation. One way firms can be sustainable is through adopting clean technology strategy as it can provide both environmental and economic benefits to firms. Being sustainable and having the ability to implement clean technology requires a long-term vision or long-term orientation (LTO); a characteristic often associated with family-controlled businesses (FCBs).

    Purpose: The purpose is to examine the adoption of clean technology within family-controlled firms (FCBs) and non-family-controlled firms (Non-FCBs). The aim is to explore if there are certain characteristics of FCBs that facilitate implementation of clean technologies.

    Method: This research is based on qualitative research method with an abductive approach and interpretivism philosophy. The primary data is collected through semi-structured interviews with four companies of which three are family-controlled businesses and one is a non-family- controlled business.

    Conclusion: FCBs are more inclined to invest in clean technologies. The extent to which a company does or does not implement clean technologies depends not only on the institutional values of an organization but also how deeply one or more of the three LTO dimensions are implanted in those values.

  • 121.
    Ahmed, Kemal
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management.
    Naqvi, Syed Mohammed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management.
    Postponement in Retailing Industry: A case study of SIBA2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Master’s Thesis in Logistics and Supply Chain Management

    _____________________________________________________

    Title:                 Postponement in Retailing Industry- A case study of SIBA

    Authors:         Ahmed Kemal & Naqvi Syed Mohammad

    Tutor:               Helgi Valur Fredriksson, Dr.

    Date:               May, 2010

    Key Words:   Speculation, Postponement, Customer Order Decoupling point,

    Retailing, Supply Chain Flexibility, Agility

    ______________________________________________________________

    Abstract

    Problem: Today's business environment is characterized by changing customer demands, increasing cost pressures on retailers, shorter product life cycles and products becoming obsolete shortly after their introduction. The above factors make it difficult for electronics retailers to balance the costs of dealing with excessive inventory and not be out of stock. To be competitive, retailers should delay some of their activities until customer demand becomes visible. This brings us to the phenomenon of postponement. Electronics market in Sweden faces continuous growth, although at a declining rate. This is indicative of a saturation that this sector, as a whole, is approaching to. The above problems are due to the speculative approaches and standardized products policies that are in practice. Loss of sales and customers result from these practices. The current study analyses the importance of postponement strategy and the benefits it offers. This study also tries to explore the potential solutions for retailers that postponement may relate to.

     

    Purpose: The scope of this study is to identify possible postponement strategies needed for SIBA.

    Method: A case study approach has been taken. The choice of the method is qualitative with an inductive approach. This involved personal communications during interviews with the managers of SIBA, using semi structured questions to collect data.

     

    Results: The concepts of postponement, supply chain flexibility, agility and customer order decoupling points (CODP) are closely related to one another and it has been shown that as the depth of postponement increase from right to left in the CODP continuum, the CODP changes its position, moving along the CODP continuum from right to left and towards the upstream. With this movement, the flexibility and agility in the chain increases. Our finds suggest that postponement is rather underutilized and that wastes (by way of lost sales and customers, obsolete inventory costs and storage costs) in the retailing process occur due to speculative approaches in application at the retail level. We have suggested logistics postponement for two out of three product categories and enumerated the ensuing benefits that the retailer can derive by way of enhanced flexibility, agility and reductions in wastages and satisfied customers.

  • 122.
    Ahmed, Khondoker Emran
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Karmakar, Suman
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Challenges in the initial stage of internationalization: A study of Swedish and Bangladeshi SMEs2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internationalization is a topic of much importance because of its complex nature. In this study, the focus is on the initial challenges that the SMEs have to face when they go international. The literature suggests that, due to the simple structure and comparatively weaker financial base of SMEs, they face many hurdles when entering into a foreign market. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate what challenges a Swedish and a Balangedishi SME are faced with in the initial stage of the internationalization process.

    We have used a qualitative method and collected empirical data through interviews. For the analysis, we use a theoretical framework that emphasizes the Uppsala Internationali-zation Model. Our main results show that the SMEs suffer because of the challenges to collect appropriate information and to reduce cultural differences.

    With this thesis we hope to contribute with a new understanding of challenges that can help the SME to better cope with challenges in practice when involving in internationalization.

  • 123.
    Ahsan, Yasin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Faria Meireles, Felipe
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Power, Trust, and Commitment in buyer-supplier relationships.: Multiple Case Study in the Manufacturing Sector2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 124. Aidis, R.
    et al.
    Welter, Friederike
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, EMM (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, Management).
    Smallbone, D.
    Isakova, N.
    Female Entrepreneurship in Transi­tion Economies: The Case of Lithuania and Ukraine2007In: Feminist Economics, ISSN 1354-5701, E-ISSN 1466-4372, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 157-183Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 125.
    Aigare, Annija
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Koyumdzhieva, Tsvetelina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Thomas, Petrocelia Louise
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Diversity Management in Higher Education Institutions: Key Motivators2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem and Purpose – Diversity management, a subject of increasing interest over the last three decades in the business context, is even more relevant to higher education institutions, where diversity is present both in the supplier and customer side. In addition to general organisational improvements, most of the benefits arguably derived would have a direct impact on the cognitive processes such as problem-solving, creativity and learning, which are the core of the university reason for existence, being a centre for knowledge creation and transfer. However, the existing research covering diversity and its management in this particular organisational setting is very scarce. This paper aims to fill some of this gap. The purpose of this study is to identify the key motivators for ethnic diversity management in higher education institutions and the perceived benefits derived.

    Method – The investigation took the form of in-depth structured interviews conducted through e-mail, policy document analysis and website reviews of four selected higher education institutions. Pattern matching (Yin, 1994) was employed as the mode for data analysis.

    Findings – Ethnic Diversity Management was present in all units, however, it went beyond just the business case to include social justice view and other aspects. The HEIs studied were found to either manage diversity for purely ethical reasons, be motivated by a combination of moral considerations and perceived performance improvements, or completely culturally embrace diversity in the environment with less designated initiatives of diversity management, dependent on a range of variables present in each institutions related to their perceptions, goals and environment. Hence, both the social justice case and business case were concluded to be strong motivators for diversity management in the higher education context.

    Originality/value – The paper highlights various DM initiatives, strategies as well as observed effects, hence solidifying the arguments for recognizing and managing diversity and the link between well managed diversity and performance in various aspects, both in business and higher education context. The study is expected to make a contribution  to knowledge by assisting in providing information on key motivators for DM in HEIs and is intended  to be  an elementary supplement  for scholarly discourse in management science, and particularly DM in the HEI context.

  • 126.
    Aijaz, Humayun
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Logistics and Supply Chain Management.
    Butt, Faisal Suhail
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Innovation Systems, Entrepreneurship and Growth .
    BARRIERS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRONIC COMMERCE: A STUDY OF PAKISTANI ENVIORNMENT2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    E-commerce has flourished in the developed world and is playing an important role in the everyday lives of the people and national economies. The developing nations are far behind in this regard even though their governments have made considerable efforts to encourage e-commerce. This thesis is a study of the environmental factors that act as barriers to the development of e-commerce in Pakistan. It shows the nature and the level of hindrance these environmental factors have caused and there relation to one another. In order to make a national analysis, environmental factors have been stretched to include the government, businesses, consumers, physical infrastructures, social and cultural factors. A qualitative study was conducted via telephonic and written interviews from academic and professional experts, users and non users of e-commerce in Pakistan. The analysis of these interviews revealed that not all of the factors considered as e-commerce barriers for developing nations were present in Pakistan. The relation between different e-commerce barriers was studied and further, additional barriers were also identified. Low literacy rate, traditional economic sector, failure of government to successfully implement e-commerce initiatives and regulations, shortage of electrical supply and low demand for online businesses and the consumer purchasing behaviour of Pakistanis were identified as the main e-commerce barriers.

  • 127.
    Aimar, Maude Eugenie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Milicevic, Anna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Strategic Renewal in the Banking Industry: A middle managerial perspective with the focus on dynamic managerial capabilities in the Swedish Banking industry2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 128.
    Akbarali, Ahmed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Foma, Awambeng
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Determinants of Capital Structure in Family Firms2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most firms are using optimal combination of equity and debt so as to maximize firms value and the wealth of the shareholders. To achieve all these, firms should be aware of the factors that influence the capital structure decisions.

    Previous empirical studies attempted to explain what determines the choice of capital structure in firms. The focus was on firms in general without categorizing family firms and non-family firms. The primary objective of this study is to examine what determines the capital structure of family firms in OECD countries.

    Amadeus database was used to obtain the data needed for the statistical analysis. Measures for firm-specific characteristics were calculated based on the previous stud-ies. The study was conducted over a period of 9 years from 2005-2013. Dataset com-prised of 95 family firms resulting in 850 observations.

    The results from the study indicate that the capital structure for family firms in OECD countries is influenced by profitability, asset tangibility, growth, size, debt tax shield , non-debt tax shield and liquidity. Both pecking-order theory and trade-off theory explain the capital structure of family firms.

  • 129.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Exit in the context of portfolio firms2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 130.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Family business portfolios: Enduring entrepreneurship and exit strategies2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines how family business portfolios endure across time and investigates the entrepreneurial strategies that they engage in. The goal of this dissertation is addressed through five appended papers in which I have argued for the importance of business families owning multiple firms, that is, portfolio entrepreneurship. Portfolio entrepreneurship plays a central role in economic development as it is a prevalent phenomenon in developed and emerging economies. However, despite its importance, there is currently very little research on portfolio entrepreneurship, especially in the context of family firms.

    In so doing, I study nine business families owning multiple businesses in Pakistan. I conducted in-depth interviews with family owners and employees; the interviews were supplemented with other sources of data such as observations and archival material. When studying questions such as how a portfolio is built-up across generations, how and why business families exit and, when they exit, which businesses they choose to exit from, I draw on insights from the literature on portfolio entrepreneurship, business exit, family firms, socioemotional wealth, sensemaking, compassion and social identity theory in the five papers.

    The dissertation addresses the calls for studies on portfolio entrepreneurship in the context of family firms by examining the process through which a portfolio is constructed by studying performance and exit related issues. In other words, it examines both the growth and the contraction of portfolios. The study offers several contributions. First, it contributes to studies on enduring entrepreneurship by investigating how business families last across time despite encountering difficult situations and declining business. Second, the study contributes to the portfolio entrepreneurship literature by elucidating how portfolios are built across generations and the roles of both growth and contractions while addressing processual and contextual issues.

    Third, the study contributes to the business exit literature by looking at the exit process in a family business context and exploring multiple exits. This isunique, as it is, to the best of my knowledge, the first study on business exits looking at multiple exit in the context of family firms. Fourth, the study also contributes to the literature on family firms by exploring how and why business families refrain from exiting from their core legacy business and how their emotions influence the exit process.

    Finally, the study contributes to context-related issues. The study adds to the literature on contextualization and addresses the call for more context-specific studies in entrepreneurship scholarship. This dissertation is focused on context-based factors considering the spatial and social context, where the former has been undertaken by taking an emerging economy and country context as the setting, while the latter refers to the relational and emotional ties within family firms. In addition to its theoretical contributions, this dissertation has important implications for practice. The dissertation brings to the fore some promising and unique ways in which entrepreneurship endures across time and context through the transgenerational transmission of entrepreneurship and insights into how business families behave in a declining business situation. Additionally, this study offers insights for family owners and managers on how to address the dilemma of continued entrepreneurship, that is, how to encourage and foster enduring entrepreneurship in organizations, in particular in the context of family firms.

  • 131.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Firm growth and entrepreneurs: Role of kinship ties2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 132.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Kinship and the family business2015In: Theoretical perspectives on family businesses / [ed] Mattias Nordqvist, Leif Melin, Matthias Waldkirch and Gershon Kumeto, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 175-190Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this chapter is to review and synthesise the prior work on kinship in family firms and to open up future research avenues for this interesting and important topic. The study shows that kinship is highly relevant in family firms by revisiting the concept of family and kinship as well as the definition of family firms. This chapter explores important aspects related to family firms, such as continuity of generations, succession, inheritance and resource provision and links these to kinship. These aspects are identified as four functions of kinship and indicate the possible research gaps, thereby suggesting future kinship research avenues.

  • 133.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Pluriactivity and Portfolio Entrepreneurship in Informal Economies2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 134.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Portfolio entrepreneurship in family firms2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 135.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Portfolio entrepreneurship in family firms: Taking stock and moving forward2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Portfolio entrepreneurship is a critical but relatively unexplored aspect of entrepreneurship literature. In particular, little research exists on portfolio entrepreneurship in the context of family firms. Existing literature on portfolio entrepreneurship in the context of family firms tends to have multiple research gaps which are unaddressed. To this end, we explore the extant literature on portfolio entrepreneurship in general and portfolio entrepreneurship in the context of family firms in particular and bring forth three future research areas. First, we examine how triggers and motivations to indulge in portfolio entrepreneurship are relevant and important for family firms. Second, we explore the role of different settings for the exploration of the portfolio family firms. Third, we argue that performance and outcome results are important aspects to have a closer look at the growth and survival of portfolio family firms.

  • 136.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Portfolio entrepreneurship in family firms: Taking stock and moving forward2017In: The Routledge companion to family business / [ed] Franz W. Kellermanns, Frank Hoy, Routledge, 2017, p. 311-328Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 137.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Portfolio entrepreneurship in growing family firms2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 138.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Portfolio entrepreneurship in the context of family firms role of kinship ties2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 139.
    Akhter, Naveed
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Transgenerational growth: Family business portfolios in rural and urban contexts2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 140.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Brundin, Ethel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Hartel, C.
    Prodigies of Beliefs: Compassion and Positive organization2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 141.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Brundin, Ethel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Härtel, Charmine
    Transgenerational moral emotions: Activating compassion to develop a positive organizationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 142.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Accepting and implementing change in family firms within and across generations2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 143.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Harvest and after: Entrepreneurial recycling in family firm portfolios2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial exit is an integral component of the entrepreneurial process. Yet entrepreneurs often fail to realize the gains from their harvesting activities (Dehlen et al., 2012). This study extends our understanding of entrepreneurial recycling which allows a firm to re-allocate and re-invest the harvested resources (Mason & Harrison, 2006). Although entrepreneurial recycling is viewed as an important element of the post exit process (DeTienne & Chirico, 2013), with few exceptions there is little research present on this phenomenon. This is especially interesting in the case of a special breed of entrepreneurs called portfolio entrepreneurs (DeTienne, 2010; Rosa, 1998) who own multiple businesses simultaneously and undertake multiple exits as compare to entrepreneurs who start and harvest a single venture only (MacMillan, 1986). Theoretical and empirical research suggests that the context of family firms has a profound impact on portfolio entrepreneurship as well as on entrepreneurial recycling strategies (Carter & Ram, 2003).

  • 144.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    If we cannot have it then no one should: Business exit and re-entry2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 145.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Entrepreneurial exit strategies in family firm portfolios2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 146.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Exit strategies in family firm portfolios2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 147.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Sieger, P.
    Ramirez-Pasillas, Marcela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Transgenerational growth in family business portfolios: Strategies and the rural and urban context2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 148.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Chirico, Francesco
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Sieger, Philipp
    University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    If we cannot have it then no one should: Shutting down versus selling in family business portfolios2015In: Academy of Management Proceedings, January 2015 (Meeting Abstract Supplement) 15764, 2015 / [ed] John Humphreys, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates exit patterns in family business portfolios in times of declining performance. Drawing on social identity theory and a sample of six family business portfolios from Pakistan, we reveal that business families often prefer shutting down satellite portfolio firms rather than selling them. This is found to be mainly driven by the identity fit of the family and the satellite business and the desire to restart it at a later point in time. This study contributes to literature on portfolio entrepreneurship, business exit, and long-term success and endurance of family firms.

  • 149.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Ning, Ernestine
    Resourcefulness and Informal Economy:: From Pluriactivity to Portfolio Entrepreneurship2018In: The Family Business Group Phenomenon: Emergence and Complexities / [ed] Marita Rautiainen, Peter Rosa, Timo Pihkala, Maria José Parada, Allan Discua Cruz, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, p. 145--174Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 150.
    Akhter, Naveed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Entrepreneurial exit in family firm portfolios2014In: The Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings, January 2014 (Meeting Abstract Supplement), 15060, Academy of Management , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the process of entrepreneurial exit in a sample of five family firm portfolios from Pakistan. Our aim is to understand how entrepreneurial exit occurs in family firm portfolios and why family firm owners exit from some satellites and not from others. The emergent insights of this study through observing total number of 25 exits, portrays that due to emotional depth family firm owners manifest a strong attachment toward their core business and refrain from exiting from it. This tendency persists across generations. By doing so, family firm owners tend to exit from satellites, regardless to the fact that they are successful or not, to save the core business. Furthermore, they are more likely to exit from satellites ventured with external parties, not directly managed by the family and/or founded by distant relatives.

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