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  • 101.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Returns to Higher Education: a Regional Perspective2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The returns to education have been thoroughly investigated and Sweden has shown to have a relatively low return compared to other countries in Europe. Nevertheless, few studies have combined the regional perspective with returns to education. Hence, the purpose of the paper is to analyze regional differences in their returns to higher education within natural science, engineering and medicine. We assume that individuals maximize expected utility; they will try to attain the highest expected return to education as possible. The regional sum of employment possibilities as well as unemployment shares may differ between regions. Therefore, it is plausible to believe that the regional return to education varies between locations which accounted for in the empirical part of the paper. The result shows that there are clear differences between regional classifications concerning returns to higher education. Central urban regions, except the three largest cities and ten largest universities have the highest return to education. These regions may need to compensate the individuals with a higher return. The three largest cities in Sweden have a relatively low return but have other amenities that attract individuals.

  • 102.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Sara
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Norman, Therese
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wallin, Tina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wixe, Sofia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Tillgänglighet, innovationsprocesser och tillväxt2015Report (Other academic)
  • 103.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Sara
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wallin, Tina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wixe, Sofia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Mångfald och utveckling av långsiktigt hållbara innovationsmiljöer2014Report (Other academic)
  • 104.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Sara
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wallin, Tina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wixe, Sofia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Platsbunden innovationsförmåga och arbetskraftens sammansättning2014Report (Other academic)
  • 105.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Hjalager, A.-M.
    Wikhamn, W.
    Hur ser morgondagens hotell ut? Forskningsprojekt om innovationer inom hotellbranschen2017Report (Other academic)
  • 106.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Lööf, Hans
    Nabavi, Pardis
    Palmberg, Johanna
    Mångfald och innovationer i urbana regioner2015In: Det innovativa Sverige 2: Innovation och attraktion i stad på landsbygd / [ed] Jonas Gustafsson och Åse Karlén, Stockholm: ESBRI , 2015, p. 21-39Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Internationella jämförelser visar att stora, kunskapsintensiva regioner växer snabbare än mindre regioner. Vad är det som utmärker storstadsregionerna gentemot övriga urbana regioner? Vad är det som gör dem attraktiva? En första tes i detta kapitel är att Sveriges tre storstadsregioner får sin särställning genom mångfald. En andra tes är att förnyad och ökad mångfald i de största stadsregionerna över tiden sprider sig till övriga delar av Sverige. Storstäderna är i sig själva attraktiva platser för innovation och förnyelse, men också ekonomiska motorer för resten av landet.

  • 107.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Determinants of entrepreneurship. Is it all about the individual or the region?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established at whatever spatial level studied that economic actors exhibit a strong tendency to cluster. Despite this fact many explanations to entrepreneurship only considers the personal characteristics of entrepreneurs. This is certainly not a satisfactory state-of-the-art. It is obvious that the influence of spatial factors must be considered carefully. In this paper we illustrate empirically that variations in the rate of entrepreneurship are explained not only in terms of characteristics of entrepreneurs, such as education, sector of employment, occupation, experience and income but also by the characteristics of i) the localities where they worked before they became entrepreneurs, ii) the localities where they currently started their firm and iii) the regions where these localities are situated. The characteristics of localities include size, population density, firm density and type of locality (metropolitan, urban, semi-rural or rural). The estimations use a multi-level approach to decipher the how much of the variance that can be explained by the different levels (individual, locality and region). The data used in this study is micro-level data for Sweden provided by Statistics Sweden.

  • 108.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Determinants of entrepreneurship: Is it all about the individual or the region?2013In: International Review of Entrepreneurship, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 109.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS). Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Determinants of self-employment among commuters and non-commuters2016In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 95, no 4, p. 755-774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the determinants of self-employment and focus on the contextual environment. By distinguishing between commuters and non-commuters we are able to analyse the influence from the work and home environment, respectively. Our results indicate a significant difference between non-commuters and commuters in terms of the role of networks for becoming self-employed. Our results indicate that it is the business networks where people work, rather than where they live that exerts a positive influence on the probability of becoming self-employed. These effects are further robust over educational and occupational categories.

  • 110.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Entrepreneurship and age across time and space2018In: Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, ISSN 0040-747X, E-ISSN 1467-9663, Vol. 109, no 3, p. 371-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies confirm an inverted U-shaped relationship between age and entrepreneurship. This paper deepens the understanding of this relationship by analysing how the relationship varies across time and across different types of regions, aspects often overlooked in the current literature. An individual perspective is taken, and the probability of starting a firm is expected to increase as individuals' age but at a decreasing rate. The results show significant differences in the relationship between the age of individuals and the rate of entrepreneurship across time and space. The age-entrepreneurship profile has shifted to the left over time such that individuals are younger when they start firms. 

  • 111.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Location of New Firms: Influence of Commuting Behaviour2017In: Growth and Change, ISSN 0017-4815, E-ISSN 1468-2257, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 682-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the entrepreneurship literature, it is generally assumed that an individual establishes a new firm in a location in which they have strong ties, normally in the municipality of residence or employment. We scrutinise this general assumption and show that firm location depends on individual characteristics, such as the commuting experience. Our results show that commuting influences the firm location choice. The probability of establishing a firm in the work municipality increases if the entrepreneur is a commuter, holding constant the type of region and unobservable and observable individual features. 

  • 112.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Who says life is over after 55? Entrepreneurship and an aging population2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies confirm a positive inverted U-shaped relationship between age and entrepreneurship. This paper analyses if this statement is true also for Sweden. By focusing on those above the age of 50, this paper adds knowledge about how individuals close to their retirement act in terms of self-employment and to what extent they contributeas entrepreneurs to the overall society. First, it analyses at the regional level the propensity of older people to start firms with a focus on the relationship between different age cohorts and the rate of new firm formation. At the second stage, an individual perspective is taken where the probability to become self-employed is expected to increase as individuals become older but at a decreasing rate. By decomposing the population in different age cohorts, it is possible to find differences in the probability of becoming self-employed. To increase and deepen the knowledge about the relationship between age and entrepreneurship this paper further adds to existing literature by separating regions into different categories along the urban-rural hierarchy. The results in this paper confirm that the rate of entrepreneurship first increases and then decreases with age. Individuals above both 55 and 64 have a positive influence on the rate of entrepreneurship at both the regional as well as the individual level. The impact is stronger in locations that are more rural.

  • 113.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Öner, Özge
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Innovation in the hospitality industry: Firm or location?2017In: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1591-1614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hospitality industry is a rapidly growing revenue generator in many countries and is becoming economically important for generating employment and for integrating of immigrants into the labor market. As an industry where firms face fierce competition, it is important for the firms to maintain their competitiveness by distinguishing themselves from others through continuous improvements and innovations. In this article, we investigate the determinants of innovation in the hospitality industry by analyzing survey data gathered from over 900 firms in Sweden. In the analysis, we differentiate between firm-specific and location-specific features. We conclude that the most important characteristics that explain innovation lie within the firm itself, not the location. These results provide important insights regarding firm- versus location-placed innovation policies.

  • 114.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Öner, Özge
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Innovationer inom besöksnäringen2017Report (Other academic)
  • 115.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Kohlhase, Janet
    University of Houston, Department of Economics, Houston, TX.
    The Influence of Diversity on the Formation, Survival and Growth of New Firms2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our paper investigates how diversity of the labor force influences the rate of new firm formation and the performance of new firms in urban areas. A diversified labor force within the firm and in the external environment influences the formation, survival and growth of firms. We explore these issues with both aggregate data at the municipal level and individual data at the firm level for the years 1993-2010. We measure diversity using entropy measures that account for a wider range of differences than is typically used. Our empirical analysis finds a positive influence of diversity of the labor force on the rate of new firm formation at the municipal level. At the level of an individual firm, we find that the diversity of the firm’s labor force is positively associated with the survival and growth of new firms. Our results add to the literature on the workings of agglomeration economies through variations in human capital, information spillovers and innovation.

  • 116. Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Kohlhase, Janet
    University of Houston.
    The Influence of Diversity on the Formation, Survival and Growth of New Firms2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 117. Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Lopez, Esteban
    Rowe, Francisco
    Career trajectories and outcomes of forced migrants in Sweden: Self-employment, employment or persistent inactivity?In: Small Business EconomicsArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 118.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The geography of innovation and entrepreneurship2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction to the special issue “The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship” in the Annals of Regional Science surveys a collection of nine papers which consider agglomeration economies and spatial heterogeneity of regions and firms through the lenses of innovation and entrepreneurship. They all make use of extensive and detailed data sources that enable models to provide a richer picture of how firms, industries and regions are affected by innovation and entrepreneurship but also how these entities shape and foster renewal. These factors include spatial concentration, industry composition, labor market characteristics, immigration, firm characteristics, R&D activities and R&D collaboration. The papers add to the understanding of the geography of innovation and entrepreneurship by suggesting alternative ways of identifying spillovers, combing and integrating internal and external knowledge sources, and by estimating the impact on innovation, new firm formation and growth.

  • 119.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Mellander, Charlotta
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, The Prosperity Institute of Scandinavia (PIS).
    Gabe, Todd
    University of Maine, USA.
    Effects of human Capital on the growth and survival of Swedish businesses2016In: Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, ISSN 1090-4999, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 22-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effects of human capital on the growth and survival of a large sample of Swedish businesses. Human capital is represented by conventional measures of the educational attainment and experience of an establishment’s workers and skills-based measures of the types of occupations present in the company. Controlling for an establishment’s size and age, as well as its industry and region of location, we find that the human capital embodied in a company’s workers affects its performance. The specific effects, however, depend on how human capital is measured and whether the analysis focuses on growth or survival.

  • 120.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Nilsson, Pia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Regional Level of Human Capital - What are the Determinants?2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Nilsson, Pia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    The role of cultural heritage in attracting skilled individuals2018In: Journal of Cultural Economics, ISSN 0885-2545, E-ISSN 1573-6997, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 111-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the role played by built heritages and cultural environments, alongside other locational factors, in explaining the growth of human capital in Sweden. We distinguish between urban, natural and cultural qualities as different sources of regional attractiveness and estimate their influence on the observed growth of individuals with at least three years of higher education during 2001–2010. Neighborhood-level data are used, and unobserved heterogeneity and spatial dependencies are modeled by employing random effects estimations and an instrumental variable approach. Our findings indicate that the local supply of built heritages and cultural environments explain a significant part of human capital growth in Sweden. Results suggest that these types of cultural heritages are important place-based resources with a potential to contribute to improved regional attractiveness and growth.

  • 122. Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Nilsson, Pia
    Klaesson, Johan
    Hur påverkar jämställdhet, integration, miljö, klimat och innovation jordbruksföretagens konkurrenskraft?2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 123.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Nilsson, Pia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Strömberg, Carl-Johan
    Jämställdhet, integration och konkurrenskraft: En empirisk studie med fokus påsvenska jordbruksföretag2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 124.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Nilsson, Pia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Rickardsson, Jonna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Wassen, Lisa
    Utvärdering av Landsbygdsprogrammet 2007-2013 (Axel 1)2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 125.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Palmberg, Johanna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS).
    Contextualizing small family firms: How does the urban-rural context affect firm employment growth?2015In: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 247-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the effects of family governance and ownership on firm employment growth, extending existing knowledge by including in the analysis the regional context in which firms are located. We create a regional taxonomy to capture the urban–rural dimension and combine this with the corporate governance structure of the firm. Our results show that, being a family firm per se does not influence employment growth. However, when corporate governance structure and regional context are combined, the urban–rural context influences family firm and nonfamily firm employment growth differently, with family firms exhibiting greater employment growth, compared with nonfamily firms, in rural areas.

  • 126.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Wallin, Tina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Access to banks and external capital acquisition: Perceived innovation obstacles2018In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 161-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine whether low access to banks is perceived as problematic when obtaining financial capital for innovation activities. Data on innovation obstacles from the Swedish Community Innovation Survey are combined with geo-coded data at the firm level, which allows us to proxy access to external capital by the Euclidian distance from each firm to its nearest bank and the supply within a radius of five kilometres. The results indicate that both a longer distance to the nearest bank and fewer banks in the vicinity are related to experiencing greater difficulties in obtaining external financial capital for innovations.

  • 127.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Wallin, Tina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Access to financial intermediaries and external capital acquisition2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine whether low access to financial intermediaries works as an obstacle acquiring financial capital for Swedish firms by using information from the Community Innovation Survey indicating whether firms perceive the acquisition of external capital to be difficult. This perception is explained by the distance to the firms’ nearest financial intermediaries and their total local supply. The results indicate that the distance to banks is related to a larger problem of obtaining external financial capital in rural areas.

  • 128. Baczko, Tadeusz
    et al.
    Eickelpasch, Alexander
    Lejpras, Anna
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Location Conditions in East Germany and in Poland from the Point of View of the Companies2008In: DIW: Weekly Report, ISSN 1860-3343, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 14-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A joint research project at the European University Viadrina, DIW Berlin and the Polish Academy of Science has investigated how companies assess their locational conditions and whether there is a relationship between location attributes and the company performance. In both countries the majority of companies assessed the same location attributes as being important or unimportant for the company's performance. Some remarkable differences were found in the evaluation of locational quality. In both countries, the supply of skilled employees is deemed to be the most important quality criterion of a location, and the current situation regarding this location factor is assessed as satisfactory. The companies in Poland more often evaluate the supply of training and qualification facilities as important compared to companies in East Germany, and the availability is assessed as good in both regions. Less important are traffic conditions. This is-not unexpectedly-assessed worse by Polish companies compared to the East German ones. The support by chambers of commerce is more often important for the Polish companies compared to East German ones. This potentially reflects the different importance of commercial authorities in both countries. Local administration is on average rated worse by the East German companies compared to Polish counterparts.

  • 129. Baczko, Tadeusz
    et al.
    Eickelpasch, Alexander
    Lejpras, Anna
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Standortbedingungen in Ostdeutschland und Polen aus Sicht der Unternehmen2008In: DIW Wochenbericht, ISSN 0012-1304, Vol. 75, no 9, p. 91-98Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 130.
    Badunenko, Oleg
    et al.
    Köln University.
    Barasinska, Nathalia
    Deutsche Bundesbank.
    Schäfer, Dorothea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Investments: women are more cautious than men because they have less financial resources at their disposal2010In: DIW Berlin, Weekly Report, ISSN 1860-3343, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-4Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Experts on investments and financial products assume that women are less amenable to risks and therefore put their money into secure investment products. A current study conducted by the DIW Berlin (German Institute for Economic Research) challenges this view. The study demonstrates that men and women are equally likely to take a chance on risky investments – assuming that they have the same financial resources at their disposal. A general cliché may not longer be true: that sex is a determinant factor in investment decisions and that the difference in attitudes toward investment between men and women is a result of gender-based investment attitudes. Women are likely to have cautious investment habits because – as a rule – they have only half the investment resources available that men have at their disposal.

  • 131.
    Bagley, Mark
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Small worlds, inheritance networks and industrial clusters2018In: Industry and Innovation, ISSN 1366-2716, E-ISSN 1469-8390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of firms within industrial clusters has been the subject of a multitude of studies. The organizational attributes inherited by spinoffs from parent firms is one explanation behind performance premiums. This paper examines the relationship between a spinoff’s network and its geographic location in an industrial cluster. We hypothesize that there is a negative relationship between a spinoff’s network efficiency and its distance from the cluster’s centroid. Although recent literature infers that the transmission of knowledge in industrial clusters is accomplished via inherited network ties, this has not been directly measured. This paper aims to fill that research gap. We find that, after controlling for firm size, parent size and age, there is indeed a statistically significant and negative relationship between network efficiency and geographic distance to a cluster’s core. 

  • 132.
    Bagley, Mark
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    The birth, life and death of firms in industrial clusters: The role of knowledge networks2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three single-authored papers in this thesis will explore the role of knowledge and information in industrial clusters; and specifically, how knowledge plays a role inthe emergence and persistence of clusters. This thesis places a major emphasis on spinoff firms.

    The first paper uses a computational model to describe how patterns of industrial clustering arise with respect to the size of an initial firm when measured in terms of innovation. Technology is qualitatively described using a code set mapped on a cognitive space. Assuming inheritability of networking skills, I seek to model how the size of an initial firm influences future patterns of cluster formation through a model of technical cognition and a mimicking of creativity. Replicating the stylized facts of entrepreneurial cluster formation, we find initial firm size has a lasting impact on clustering patterns through its influence on the level of cognitive distance of the underlying agents.

    The second paper turns to networks as a tool of analysis to explore the relationship between a spinoff’s network and its geographical location within an industrial cluster. Although recent literature infers that the transmission of organizational attributes in industrial clusters is accomplished via passive network ties, this has not been directly measured. After controlling for firm size, parent size and age, we find that there a statistically significant and negative relationship between network efficiency and geographic distance to a cluster’s core.

    The third and final paper extends the use of networks to examine how knowledge flows, as conduits for routines and skills, affect the survival prospects for firms in industrial clusters. We consider knowledge transmission via two channels: those from inherited linkages and those from geographic proximity. It is found that a firm’s historical links formed through parent-spinoff networks have a significant impact on survival, which differ depending on the motivations of the entrepreneur. Moreover, the gains with respect to location are found to be nonlinear.

  • 133.
    Bagley, Mark J. O.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    A simulation of entrepreneurial spawning2017In: JASSS: Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, ISSN 1460-7425, E-ISSN 1460-7425, Vol. 20, no 3, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how patterns of industrial clustering arise with respect to the size of an initial firm when measured in terms of innovation. Through principles of evolutionary economics, the aim of this paper is to examine the ’birth’ of industrial clusters. We take an endogenous and supply-side approach, where firms in a region spawn from incumbents. Technology is qualitatively described using a code set mapped on a cognitive space. Assuming inheritability of networking skills, we seek to model how the size of an initial firm influences future patterns of cluster formation through a model of technical cognition and a mimicking of creativity. It is found that initial firm size has a lasting impact on clustering patterns through its influence on the level of cognitive distance of the underlying agents. The model replicates the stylised facts of entrepreneurial cluster formation.

  • 134.
    Bagley, Mark J. O.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Networks, geography, and the survival of the firmManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior studies show that the success of firms in industrial clusters is the result of two main reasons; the transfer of knowledge and routines from parent firms to spinoffs that locate in the same locality, and the returns from co-location. While previous research has largely inferred the presence of parent-spinoff networks, few studies have measured them. Furthermore, the lack of geographic precision has led to conflicting results for evidence of returns from location, as the gains from geographic proximity may not always be linear. This paper introduces network measurement and a refined geographic measure to separate these two respective channels of knowledge transfer, and analyzes their impact on firm survival (as a proxy for firm success). It is found that the gains with respect to location are nonlinear. Furthermore, a firm’s historical links formed through parent-spinoff linkages have a significant impact on survival, which differ depending on the motivations of the entrepreneur. Moreover, these channels of knowledge are complementary in nature.

  • 135.
    Bagley, Mark J. O.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Networks in clustersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a multitude of studies that examine the performance of firms within industrial clusters. The organizational attributes inherited by spinoffs from parent firms is one explanation behind performance premiums. This paper examines the relationship between a spinoff’s network and its geographical location in an industrial cluster. We hypothesize that there is a negative relationship between a spinoff’s network efficiency and its distance from the cluster’s centroid. Although recent literature infers that the transmission of knowledge in industrial clusters is accomplished via passive network ties, this has not been directly measured. This paper aims to fill that research gap. We find that, after controlling for firm size, parent size and age, there is indeed a statistically significant and negative relationship between network efficiency and geographic distance to a cluster’ score.

  • 136.
    Barasinska, Nataliya
    et al.
    Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Schäfer, Dorothea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. German Institute for Economic Research DIW Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Gender role asymmetry and stock market participation – evidence from four European household surveys2018In: European Journal of Finance, ISSN 1351-847X, E-ISSN 1466-4364, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 1026-1046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the importance of social norms for shaping women's and men's decision to participate in the stock market, aiming to disentangle the different channels playing a role in this decision. Gender role asymmetry is indicated by the country's rank in the gender equality index of the World Economic Forum. Using data from four national household surveys, we find that in Italy – the country with highly asymmetric gender role prescriptions – women's risk-taking behavior responds to this non-supportive environment. Consistent with the theory of social identity, Italian women refrain from stock market participation more than their self-reported risk tolerance levels would suggest. In contrast, in the three countries with a lower asymmetry in gender role prescriptions, no exaggerated female backing off from investing in stocks is observable. The result is robust to separately analyzing sub-samples of singles and couples. However, women who self-select into stock market participation invest the same portfolio share in stocks as do their male peers – independent of the society's degree of gender role divergence. 

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-03-11 00:00
  • 137.
    Barasinska, Nataliya
    et al.
    Deutsche Bundesbank.
    Schäfer, Dorothea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). DIW Berlin.
    Is the Willingness to Take Financial Risk a Sex-Linked Trait?: Evidence from National Surveys of Household Finance2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate whether the willingness to take investment risk is a sex-linked trait and link the results to the country’s gender equality regime. Our empirical analysis involves household data on financial asset holdings as well as on self-reported risk tolerance for Austria, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain. Of those countries, Italy is by far the country with the greatest degree of gender inequality according to the 2009 Global Gender Gap Report. Two stages of building a portfolio of financial assets are analyzed. For the first-stage decision of whether to invest in risky assets in the first place, gender is found to have no effect in Austria, the Netherlands and Spain but does have an impact in Italy. However, even for Italy, it seems to be irrelevant in the second-stage decision about the share of wealth invested in the risky assets. We infer from these findings that, for countries with a high degree of gender equality, it is inappropriate to base financial advice primarily on gender.

  • 138.
    Bargman, Daniil
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    How Irrational Behavour Creates Order and How This Order Can Be Determined: The Theory and Practice of Fractal Market Analysis2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes two main frameworks that challenge the “mainstream” finance theory and the random walk hypothesis. The first framework is based on investor irrationality and is called Behavioural Finance. The second framework views the financial market as a chaotic system and is called Fractal Theory of a financial market.

    Behavioural Finance attacks the assumption of investor rationality, thus challenging the conventional finance theories on the micro level. Fractal Theory challenges the EMH and the “macroeconomics” of finance. This paper presents a step towards unifying the frameworks of Behavioural Finance and Fractal Theory.

    After a review of the relevant literature, a model of the financial market is suggested that rests on the predictions of both Behavioural Finance and Fractal Theory. As a next step, a mathematical algorithm is described that allows to test the financial market for consistency with the presented model.

    The mathematical algorithm is applied to 10 years of daily S&P500 price quotes, and consistent statistical evidence shows that the predicted fractal pattern reveals itself in the S&P500 prices. The new model outperforms the random walk in out-of-sample forecasting.

  • 139. Bartkowiak, Igor
    et al.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Innovationspolitik in Grossbritannien2007In: Innovationspolitik: Wie kann Deutschland von anderen lernen?, Marburg: Schüren Verlag , 2007, p. 103-119Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 140.
    Battese, G. E.
    et al.
    School of Economic Studies, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Department of Economic Statistics, Stockholm School of Economics, Box 6501, S-113 83, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hjalmarsson, L.
    Department of Economics, Göteborg University, P.O. Box 640, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Efficiency of labour use in the Swedish banking industry: A stochastic frontier approach2000In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 623-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of the deregulation of the Swedish banking industry in the mid-1980s, and the consequent banking crisis, on productive efficiency and productivity growth in the industry. An unbalanced panel of Swedish banks is studied over the period, 1984 to 1995. A total of 1275 observations are analysed for 156 banks that were observed for between two and twelve years. We adopt a translog stochastic frontier model to estimate the labour-use requirements in terms of the variables, loans, deposits, guarantees, number of branches and total inventories, together with the year of observation. The inefficiency effects in the labour-use frontier are modelled in terms of the number of branches, total inventories, the type of bank and year of observation. The technical inefficiencies of labour use of Swedish banks were found to be significant, with mean inefficiencies per year estimated to be between about 8 and 15 per cent over the years of study. However, the confidence interval predictions for these inefficiencies were found to be quite wide.

  • 141.
    Baum, Christoffer
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill MA 02135 USA.
    Karpava, Margarita
    MediaCom London.
    Schäfer, Dorothea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Credit rating agency downgrades and the Eurozone sovereign debt crises2014Report (Other academic)
  • 142. Baum, Christopher F.
    et al.
    Caglayan, Mustafa
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    Talavera, Oleksandr
    Uncertainty Determinants of Corporate Liquidity2008In: Economic Modelling, ISSN 0264-9993, E-ISSN 1873-6122, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 833-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the link between the optimal level of non-financial firms' liquid assets and uncertainty. We develop a partial equilibrium model of precautionary demand for liquid assets showing that firms alter their liquidity ratio in response to changes in either macroeconomic or idiosyncratic uncertainty. We test this hypothesis using a panel of non-financial US firms drawn from the COMPUSTAT quarterly database covering the period 1993–2002. The results indicate that firms increase their liquidity ratios when macroeconomic uncertainty or idiosyncratic uncertainty increases.

  • 143.
    Baum, Christopher F.
    et al.
    Boston College.
    Karpava, Margarita
    MediaCom London.
    Schäfer, Dorothea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Credit rating agency announcements and the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the impact of credit rating agency (CRA) announcements on the value of the Euro and the yields of French, Italian, German and Spanish long-term sovereign bonds during the culmination of the Eurozone debt crisis in 2011-2012. The employed GARCH models show that CRA downgrade announcements negatively affected the value of the Euro currency and also increased its volatility. Downgrading increased the yields of French, Italian and Spanish bonds but lowered the German bond's yields, although Germany's rating status was never touched by CRA. There is no evidence for Granger causality from bond yields to rating announcements. We infer from these findings that CRA announcements significantly influenced crisis-time capital allocation in the Eurozone. Their downgradings caused investors to rebalance their portfolios across member countries, out of ailing states' debt into more stable borrowers' securities.

  • 144.
    Baum, Christopher F.
    et al.
    Boston College.
    Karpava, Margarita
    MediaCom London.
    Schäfer, Dorothea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. DIW Berlin.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). DIW Berlin.
    Credit Rating Agency Downgrades and the Eurozone Sovereign Debt Crises2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the impact of credit rating agency (CRA) announcements on the value of the Euro and the yields of French, Italian, German and Spanish long-term sovereign bonds during the culmination of the Eurozone debt crisis in 2011–2012. The employed GARCH models show that CRA downgrade announcements negatively affected the value of the Euro currency and also increased its volatility. Downgrading increased the yields of French, Italian and Spanish bonds but lowered the German bond’s yields, although Germany’s rating status was never touched by CRA. There is no evidence for Granger causality from bond yields to rating announcements. We infer from these findings that CRA announcements significantly influenced crisis-time capital allocation in the Eurozone. Their downgradings caused investors to rebalance their portfolios across member countries, out of ailing states’ debt into more stable borrowers’ securities.

  • 145.
    Baum, Christopher F.
    et al.
    Boston College and DIW Berlin.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Perez, Luis
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Offshoring and Innovation Capabilities: Evidence from Swedish Manufacturing2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the impact of global value chains on firms’ innovation capabilities. Using the United Nations Broad Economic Categories (BEC) system to identify offshoring-related intermediate imports, we study contracting out production over the period 2001–2014 from about 7,000 mainly small Swedish manufacturing firms to six different destinations and test hypotheses on improvements and outcomes of innovation capabilities. Our empirical findings show that the strategy to participate in global value chains increases firms’ innovative capability regardless of firms’ technology intensity. The results are robust to a wide set of controls and in line with predictions in recent models of directed technical change.

  • 146.
    Baum, Christopher F.
    et al.
    Boston College and DIW Berlin.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Viklund-Ros, Ingrid
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Outside Board Directors and Start-Up Firms’ Innovation2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We exploit increased access to detailed employer-employee data to assess whether outside board members affect innovation performance among start-up firms. Using data for all new limited companies in Sweden born during 1999–2013 which have no more then 10 employees when formed, we provide structural equation estimates that deal with the endogenous selection of board directors. Our empirical findings show that an increase in the board’s expertise, measured by the relative productivity of the firms where outsiders are employed, has a significant and positive impact on the new firm’s propensity to apply for both patents and trademarks.

  • 147.
    Baum, Christopher F.
    et al.
    Boston College.
    Schäfer, Dorothea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School.
    Talavera, Oleksandr
    The University of Sheffield.
    The impact of the financial system's structure on firms' financial constraints2011In: Journal of International Money and Finance, ISSN 0261-5606, E-ISSN 1873-0639, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 678-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate firms’ cash flow sensitivity of cash to empirically test how the financial system’s structure and level of development influence their financial constraints. For this purpose we merge Almeida et al.’s work, a path-breaking design for evaluating a firm’s financial constraints, with that of Levine, who paved the way for comparative analysis of financial systems around the world. We conjecture that a country’s financial system, both in terms of its structure and its level of development, should influence the cash flow sensitivity of cash of constrained firms but leave unconstrained firms unaffected. We test our hypothesis with a large international sample of 30,000 firm-years from 1989 to 2006. Our findings reveal that both the structure of the financial system and its level of development matter. Bank-based financial systems provide constrained firms with easier access to external financing.

  • 148. Baum, Christopher F.
    et al.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Accounting and Finance.
    Talavera, Oleksandr
    The Effects of Uncertainty on the Leverage of Non-Financial Firms2009In: Economic Inquiry, ISSN 0095-2583, E-ISSN 1465-7295, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 216-225Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 149.
    Baum, Christopher
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Boston College and Department of Macroeconomics, DIW Berlin, Germany.
    Lööf, Hans
    Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nabavi, Pardis
    Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    A new approach to estimation of the R&D–innovation–productivity relationship2017In: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 26, no 1-2, p. 121-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We apply a generalized structural equation model approach to the estimation of the relationship between R&D, innovation and productivity that focuses on the potentially crucial heterogeneity across sectors. The model accounts for selectivity and handles the endogeneity of this relationship in a recursive framework which allows for feedback effects from productivity to future R&D investment. Our approach enables the estimation of the different equations as one system, allowing the coefficients to differ across sectors, and also permits us to take cross-equation correlation of the errors into account. Employing a panel of Swedish manufacturing and service firms observed in three consecutive Community Innovation Surveys in the period 2008–2012, our full-information maximum likelihood estimates show that many key channels of influence among the model's components vary meaningfully in their statistical significance and magnitude across six different sectors based on the OECD classification on technological and knowledge intensity. These results cast doubt on earlier research which does not allow for sectoral heterogeneity.

  • 150.
    Baum, Christopher
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Boston College and Department of Macroeconomics, DIW Berlin.
    Lööf, Hans
    CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Nabavi, Pardis
    CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    A New Approach to Estimation of the R&D-Innovation-Productivity Relationship2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate a Generalized Structural Equation Model (GSEM) approach to the estimation of the relationship between R&D, innovation and productivity that focuses on the potentially crucial heterogeneity across technology and knowledge levels. The model accounts for selectivity and handles the endogeneity of this relationship in a recursive framework. Employing a panel of Swedish firms observed in three consecutive Community Innovation Surveys, our maximum likelihood estimates show that many key channels of influence among the model's components differ meaningfully in their statistical significance and magnitude across sectors defined by different technology levels.

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