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  • 1.
    Adam, Frane
    et al.
    Institute for Developmental and Strategic Analyses (IRSA).
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    The meaning and importance of socio-cultural context for innovation performance2013Ingår i: Innovation in Socio-Cultural Context, New York: Routledge, 2013, s. 1-21Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Brouwer, A. E.
    et al.
    NHL Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Department of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, Leeuwarden, Netherlands.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Smit, M.
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    Perspectives on the dynamics of third spaces2022Ingår i: The COVID-19 Pandemic and the Future of Working Spaces / [ed] I. Mariotti, M. Di Marino and P. Bednář, Taylor & Francis, 2022, s. 200-212Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Ekane, Nelson
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) and Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mertz, C. K.
    Decision Research (DR), Eugene, Oregon, USA.
    Slovic, Paul
    Decision Research (DR) and University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, USA.
    Kjellén, Marianne
    Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI).
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Risk and benefit judgment of excreta as fertilizer in agriculture: An exploratory investigation in Rwanda and Uganda2016Ingår i: Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, ISSN 1080-7039, E-ISSN 1549-7860, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 639-666Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores the use of psychometric techniques to improve understanding of psychological mechanisms underlying judgment of excreta as fertilizer in agriculture including other excreta related activities. Participants consisted of environmental health students, smallholder farmers and traders in rural and urban Rwanda and Uganda. The finding reveals an inverse relationship between risk and benefit judgments. This relationship holds for the three groups of participants with significant risk-benefit correlations of p<.0001. This finding is consistent with other studies showing that affect plays a key role in risk perception, judgment and decision making.

    Building on this finding, we conclude that individuals with high risk and low benefit judgment for excreta related practices would eschew them or emphasize strict standards. Individuals with a high benefit and low risk judgment would engage in excreta management practices regardless of the actual risks involved. This finding is relevant for risk communication and risk management as it indicates that individuals do not rely only on risk management information they receive concerning excreta and related risks but also depend to an extent on their feelings about these substances when making judgments and decisions regarding the purpose for using excreta as fertilizer and the level of exposure they can tolerate and manage.

  • 4.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Östersund, Sweden.
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Attributes influencing self-employment propensity in urban and rural Sweden2013Ingår i: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 479-514Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Policies aiming at promoting entrepreneurship are in general formed on national levels, without any consideration of differences between urban and rural areas. Usually, cities are provided with better and more modern infrastructure; cities have better supply of physical, financial and human capital, and connected services, and cities have a more modern industrial structure in the sense that their shares of growing industry are higher. Thus, it is possible that policies for entrepreneurship, which in general are designed for urban areas, might be less effective when they are implemented in rural areas. A first step to test the validity of this hypothesis could be to investigate the differences between cities and countryside regarding self-employment propensity and factors affecting the choice to become self-employed. Based on an exceptionally rich data set containing very detailed socio-economic and geographical information on all residents in Sweden, this paper examines: (a) the scope and structure of self-employment propensity in urban and rural areas, respectively, in Sweden, divided into full-time and part-time self-employment, and (b) the importance of a number of attributes that may have an impact on individuals' propensity to start an enterprise in the two area types. Variables being tested are connected to demography and education, labor market status, plant characteristics, self-employment experience, financial resources, family links and regional attributes. The main results indicate that self-employment entry is influenced by the same factors in the same way in urban and rural areas. However, countryside's industrial structure has a smaller share of growing industries. The fact that countryside's startups follow the existing industrial structure means that this "modernity gap" between densely built up areas and countryside remains. From a policy perspective, this must be seen as a serious problem for countryside's growth potential. This gives an argument for designing a special entrepreneurship policy for the countryside in order to increase its share of growing trades and thereby modernize its industrial structure.

  • 5.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Fölster, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Does social capital contribute to regional economic growth?: Swedish experiences2013Ingår i: Social Capital and Rural Development in the Knowledge Society / [ed] Westlund, H. and Kobayashi, K., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, s. 113-126Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Determinants of Net Migration to Rural Areas, and the Impacts of Migration on Rural Labour Markets and Self-Employment in Rural Sweden2015Ingår i: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 693-709Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Across most of Europe, the countryside seems to show a polarized development in which large districts are depopulating, while certain areas, mainly around big- and mid-sized cities, are increasing in population. The latter development is often described in concepts of “rural gentrification” and “rurbanization”, symbolizing a transformation of rural communities to communities with urban values and lifestyles. Most studies of the effects of these processes have focused on social and cultural consequences, as e.g. the displacements of lower-income households with higher-income residents and of rural culture and values with urban ones. This paper examines the phenomenon from another perspective, namely the effects of the “rurbanization” processes on countryside’s labour markets and economic life. This paper aims at analysing the determinants of net migration to rural areas in general and to different types of regions, and the impacts of inmigration on rural labour markets, self-employment and other socio-economic conditions in Sweden for the period of 2003–2005. We find that net migration into rural areas increases with the size of adjacent local and regional centres, whereas net migration decreases with the average commuting distance of workers in the rural areas. When comparing in-migrants to rural areas with rural area stayers, our results indicate that the former has lower incomes, a lower employment ratio and a lower degree of entrepreneurial activities. These differences could—at least partly—be explained by the fact that rural area stayers were on average 6 years older than rural area inmigrants, i.e. the two groups were in different stages of their life cycles.

  • 7.
    Falck, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Regional Grants and FDI Location: Evidence from Swedish Regional Policy Programs 2002-20092013Ingår i: Romanian Journal of Regional Science, E-ISSN 1843-8520, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 36-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates factors determining the location of foreign direct investments (FDI) in Sweden. The main purpose is to examine the link between FDI and public incentives, in the form of regional grants, which make up a central part of the Swedish regional policy and state expenditures that explicitly addresses regional development. Our main finding is that there is no evidence of a robust relationship between grants and the location of FDI. However, a statistically significant effect is found for investment support and transport allowance, which are grants that aims at promoting development in designated areas. This by supporting investments in machines, buildings, and so on, and offset costs disadvantages in the northern parts of the country. We conclude that a better integration between the work on FDI and regional development may be a plausible route to promote economic development in Sweden, particularly in deprived regions.

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  • 8.
    Farrell, Kyle
    et al.
    Urban and Regional Studies, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    China’s rapid urban ascent: an examination into the components of urban growth2018Ingår i: Asian Geographer, ISSN 1022-5706, E-ISSN 2158-1762, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 85-106Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Having gone from 11.8% of its population inhabiting urban areas in 1950 to 49.2% by 2010, China represents the most dramatic urban transformation the world has seen. With the contemporary urban narrative presenting new challenges, particularly in terms of its unprecedented pace and scale, this paper conducts an inquiry into the nature and causes of China’s rapid urban ascent. Making use of a new analytical framework, this paper maps out the changing stages of China’s urban transition and examines the components of urban growth underpinning it. It arrives at several notable findings. Rural to urban migration has been the dominant component of urban growth, followed by urban natural population increase and reclassification. Although China’s urban growth rates were high, it is the reduction in rural growth rates that underpinned China’s particularly rapid urbanization rates. China is currently in the latter part of the accelerated stage of its urban transition, and is expected to enter the terminal stage by 2030. In light of China’s ongoing urban transition, this paper concludes with reflections on China’s New-Type Urbanization Plan 2014–2020. 

  • 9. Fröbel, Lisa
    et al.
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    Social capital and rural development: A preliminary pilot study2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Haas, Tigran
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Centre for the Future of Places (CFP), KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westlund, HansHögskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    In the post-urban world: Emergent transformation of cities and regions in the innovative global economy2017Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few decades, many global cities and towns have experienced unprecedented economic, social, and spatial structural change. Today, we find ourselves at the juncture between entering a post-urban and a post-political world, both presenting new challenges to our metropolitan regions, municipalities, and cities. Many megacities, declining regions and towns are experiencing an increase in the number of complex problems regarding internal relationships, governance, and external connections. In particular, a growing disparity exists between citizens that are socially excluded within declining physical and economic realms and those situated in thriving geographic areas. This book conveys how forces of structural change shape the urban landscape.

    In The Post-Urban World is divided into three main sections: Spatial Transformations and the New Geography of Cities and Regions; Urbanization, Knowledge Economies, and Social Structuration; and New Cultures in a Post-Political and Post-Resilient World. One important subject covered in this book, in addition to the spatial and economic forces that shape our regions, cities, and neighbourhoods, is the social, cultural, ecological, and psychological aspects which are also critically involved. Additionally, the urban transformation occurring throughout cities is thoroughly discussed. Written by today’s leading experts in urban studies, this book discusses subjects from different theoretical standpoints, as well as various methodological approaches and perspectives; this is alongside the challenges and new solutions for cities and regions in an interconnected world of global economies.

    This book is aimed at both academic researchers interested in regional development, economic geography and urban studies, as well as practitioners and policy makers in urban development.

  • 11.
    Jeong, Hayeong
    et al.
    Kyoto University.
    Kobayashi, Kiyoshi
    Kyoto University.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Social capital for sustainable rural regions: the roles of voluntary association-mediated public service2013Ingår i: Social Capital and Rural Development in the Knowledge Society / [ed] Hans Westlund and Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing , 2013, s. 299-332Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Johansson, Mats
    et al.
    Department of Urban and Rural Studies, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Pia
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Demographic and rural trends in Europe2015Ingår i: Social capital and development trends in rural areas: Vol. 10 / [ed] Yvonne von Friedrichs, Hans Westlund, Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Kyoto: MARG Kyoto University , 2015, s. 129-158Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 13.
    Johansson, Mats
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Pia
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Migration and ageing in expanding and shrinking European Regions2018Ingår i: Modelling aging and migration effects on spatial labor markets / [ed] R. R. Stough, K. Kourtit, P. Nijkamp, & U. Blien, Cham: Springer, 2018, s. 107-131Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Europe is in a phase of vast transition regarded both from a demographic and economic-structural point of view. Studies have shown that demographic development differs a lot when comparing urban regions with more sparsely populated peripheral regions. These diverging patterns are shown to be especially strong in the northern and eastern parts of Europe where a redistribution of people contributes to a concentration process to the metropolitan or big city areas as well as to shrinkage and depopulating of rural and peripheral areas. This paper empirically addresses these differing demographic development paths by analyzing the influence of key underlying demographic factors on population change across European regions. For the stated purpose the paper applies typologies based on both economic and demographic structure and a cross-regional regression model. The economic-structural typology developed within the ESPON/EDORA-project is used to describe and analyze economic-structural factors and a typology based on demographic characteristics that classify regions as either shrinking or expanding in terms of population is used in the empirical assessment. Findings indicate that age structure is of importance with regard to population changes and there exists an east-west divide between the growing west and declining east where the declining sectors are more frequent. It is also shown that large and densely populated regions have better preconditions for growth and fewer risks for shrinking than small and sparsely populated ones. 

  • 14.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haas, Tigran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Innovative transformations of global city regions in the post-urban world2020Ingår i: Urban empires: cities as global rulers in the new urban world / [ed] E. L. Glaeser, K. Kourtit & P. Nijkamp, New York City: Routledge, 2020, s. 257-274Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Kobayashi, Kiyoshi
    et al.
    Kyoto University.
    Jeong, HayeongKyoto University.Westlund, HansJönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Social Capital and Development Trends in Rural Areas Vol. 72012Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Kobayashi, Kiyoshi
    et al.
    Kyoto University.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Jeong, Hayeong
    Kyoto University.
    Change the Social Structure and Social Capital2011Ingår i: Social Capital and Development Trends in Rural Areas Vol. 6 / [ed] Kobayashi, K., Westlund, H. and Jeong, H., Kyoto: MARG, Kyoto University , 2011, s. 1-8Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Kopren, A.
    et al.
    Faculty of Law, University of Graz, Graz, 8010, Austria.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Bridging versus bonding social capital in entrepreneurs’ networks: The case of post-conflict western balkans2021Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, nr 6, artikel-id 3371Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the value and effect of social capital deriving from cross-ethnic business cooperation on social networks and society in the aftermath of war. The study contributes to a deeper understanding of the social function entrepreneurship conveys beyond its economic role. Based on Putnam’s bridging and bonding social capital theory and Granovetter’s theory on weak ties, the article studies ties between entrepreneurs originating from different ethnic groups in ethnically divided post-conflict societies. This study highlights the capacity of entrepreneurs to produce and generate social capital across ethnic lines. The field study includes surveys and interviews in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, and North Macedonia. The results show that the majority of entrepreneurs cooperate and employ across ethnic lines. Cross-ethnic business relationships formed between entrepreneurs create benefits not only for entrepreneurs but also for building social capital across ethnic lines, thus forming valuable, yet depleted, social capital in post-conflict societies. Voluntary relationships between managers and business owners set a valuable model of weak ties facilitating associative behaviour among divided ethnic groups. Business exchange and relationships create social values that transcend a simple financial transaction. Value is in the form of friendship and trust, a reliance that maintains entrepreneurs’ relationships and contributes to the social capital.

  • 18.
    Kopren, A.
    et al.
    Faculty of Law, University of Graz, Universitätsstraße 15, Graz, 8010, Austria.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 10A, Stockholm, SE 100 44, Sweden.
    Entrepreneurship bridging ethnic divides2022Ingår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 45, nr 4, s. 423-449Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to examine the wider societal outcomes of entrepreneurs' networking in ethnically divided post-conflict societies. Using network theory to explain relational dynamics between business, social and personal relationships, we postulate that entrepreneurs' interactions generate connections and paths across ethnically diverse social networks, thus facilitating social relations between ethnic groups. The survey was conducted with 130 entrepreneurs in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo and North Macedonia. The findings demonstrate that entrepreneurs are driven to increase profit and networks when cooperating with diverse ethnic groups. While spreading their business connections with other ethnic groups, they at the same time form connections between ethnic communities. Entrepreneurs alleviate ethnic cleavages and improve relations between ethnic groups. This article contributes to the recognition of the capacity of economic ties to facilitate cooperative patterns and rebuild impaired ethnic relations in ethnically divided post-conflict societies.

  • 19.
    Li, Yuheng
    et al.
    Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Yurui
    Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Liu, Yansui
    College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.
    Urban-rural transformation in relation to cultivated land conversion in China: Implications for optimizing land use and balanced regional development2015Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 47, s. 218-224Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims to investigate land conversion as a result of urban-rural transformation in the Chinese context. Theoretical analysis and empirical study of the Bohai Rim region find strong connections between the land conversion rates and urban-rural transformation intensity in the period 2000-2010. Rapid land conversion normally takes place in counties/districts of low initial level of urban-rural transformation. However, places of high initial socioeconomic level and low transformation intensity would experience slow land conversion. The different land conversion rates in relation to urban-rural transformation intensity are mainly attributed to the China's land quotas distribution system which is subjective and administrative. The study highlights the implementation of land quotas distribution system based on differences to improve the land distribution efficiency and achieve balanced regional development in China. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 20. Li, Yuheng
    et al.
    Wang, Xun
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Liu, Yansui
    Physical Capital, Human Capital, and Social Capital: The Changing Roles in China’s Economic Growth2015Ingår i: Growth and Change, ISSN 0017-4815, E-ISSN 1468-2257, Vol. 46, nr 1, s. 133-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the roles of physical capital, human capital, and social capital in China’s economic growth during the reform period 1981–2010. Empirical estimation confirms that physical capital and human capital contribute to the economic growth, probably due to the capital accumulation and the improvement of labor productivity. The impact of social capital turns from being insignificant in the 1980s and the 1990s to be positive in the 2000s, suggesting its rising importance in recent decades. A declining role of physical capital in the economic growth in China from 1990s to 2000s is also found. The findings hold for several additional robustness checks, including focusing on longer term determinants of the economic growth, subregional analysis, and endogeneity. Furthermore, the foreign direct investment inflows and adjustment of economic ownership structure are also important for economic growth in China

  • 21.
    Li, Yuheng
    et al.
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Decomposition Analysis of Population Change and its Determinants in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region2011Ingår i: Romanian Journal of Regional Science, E-ISSN 1843-8520, Vol. 5, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides two scenarios of population change and its spatial distribution at the county level in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region: three residential patterns and three population growth groups. The findings show that population change in this region mainly agglomerated to the urban districts and areas of fast population growth in the period of 1990-2000. Regression results also provide details on the contribution of a number of determinants to the population change in the divisions of each scenario. This research concludes by arguing the necessity of future population studies in terms of different regional or local conditions.

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  • 22.
    Li, Yuheng
    et al.
    Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Interpreting overall inequality in China: The roles of physical capital, human capital and social capital2013Ingår i: Regional Science Inquiry, ISSN 1791-5961, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 145-150Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the relationship between overall inequality in China and the contributions of physical capital, human capital and social capital. The investment in physical capital tends to enlarge overall inequality while human capital helps to reduce the inequality. Human capital appears to be more influential than physical capital in overall inequality reduction in the research period. Social capital (people's social networks) however, does not seem to exert any impact on overall inequality in the post-reform era. Possible policy implications of these results are that measures should be taken to pursue more even distributed investment of physical capital and to increase people's education in order to reduce overall inequality in China.

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  • 23.
    Li, Yuheng
    et al.
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Social capital and economic growth in China’s provinces2013Ingår i: Social Capital and Rural Development in the Knowledge Society / [ed] Hans Westlund and Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing , 2013, s. 182-198Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Li, Yuheng
    et al.
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Future urban-rural relationship in China: comparison in a global context2010Ingår i: China Agricultural Economic Review, ISSN 1756-137X, E-ISSN 1756-1388, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 396-411Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to make a general comparison between urban-rural relationship in China and that in the developed countries, aiming to draw some experiences based on which future tendencies of urban-rural relationship in China could be predicted.

    Design/methodology/approach – The core analysis of this paper examines how the urban-rural relationship develops especially when urbanization rate reaches a very high level. Through literature review, this paper explores the evolution of urban-rural relationship in developed nations by referring to some international cities in different industrial stages. In parallel, it goes through this relationship in China from 1949 until now.

    Findings – This paper shows that future urbanization development in China will be generated largely by rural-urban migration especially the eastern-inclined migration while rural industrialization-lead urbanization would develop at the provincial level. It also points that education and training to the labor force is the crucial issue to future urbanization development in China.

    Originality/value – The obvious value of this paper is to predict, through a historical review and comparison, urban-rural relationship in China when it is approaching to high urbanization level. Literature review finds some experiences in developed countries that will somehow take place in China. It also analyzes the eastern-oriented rural-urban migration, rural industrialization and their influence on urban-rural relationship in China.

  • 25.
    Ljunggren, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Professors’ attitude to collaboration and central infrastructure for collaboration: an analysis of social capital establishment within higher education institutions2013Ingår i: Knowledge Commercialization and Valorization in Regional Economic Development / [ed] Baycan, T., Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing , 2013, s. 85-110Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26. Lundgren, Anna
    et al.
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    The concept of openness in the knowledge economy: Towards a taxonomy2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27.
    Lundgren, Anna
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The openness buzz in the knowledge economy: Towards taxonomy2017Ingår i: Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space, ISSN 2399-6544, Vol. 35, nr 6, s. 975-989Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the networked information and knowledge-based economy and society, the notions of ‘open’ and ‘openness’ are used in a variety of contexts; open source, open access, open economy, open government, open innovation – just to name a few. This paper aims at discussing openness and developing a taxonomy that may be used to analyse the concept of openness. Are there different qualities of openness? How are these qualities interrelated? What analytical tools may be used to understand openness? In this paper four qualities of openness recurrent in literature and debate are explored: accessibility, transparency, participation and sharing. To further analyse openness new institutional theory as interpreted by Williamson (2000) is used, encompassing four different institutional levels; cultural embeddedness, institutional environment, governance structure and resource allocations. At what institutional levels is openness supported and/or constrained? Accessibility as a quality of openness seems to have a particularly strong relation to the other qualities of openness, whereas the notions of sharing and collaborative economics seem to be the most complex and contested quality of openness in the knowledge-based economy. This research contributes to academia, policy and governance, as handling of challenges with regard to openness vs. closure in different contexts, territorial, institutional and/or organizational, demand not only a better understanding of the concept, but also tools for analysis.

  • 28.
    Naldi, Lucia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Företagsekonomi. Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Policy entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial orientation in vulnerable Swedish municipalities2020Ingår i: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 32, nr 7-8, s. 473-491Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Small- and medium-sized towns (SMSTs) not integrated into expanding metropolitan regions often face industrial decline and depopulation. As a result, many of them lack resilience to change and may be classified as vulnerable. While research holds that a local government’s efforts to act in an entrepreneurial way are important for the development of vulnerable SMSTs, entrepreneurship behaviours in the local public sector remain under-investigated. In this paper, we address this gap in the literature by investigating whether and how vulnerable SMSTs differ in their entrepreneurial behaviours. Based on the concepts of policy entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial orientation, we performed a survey of Swedish local communities about their work on strengthening and renewing local business life and improving their own administrations. We analyse factors associated with these activities and examine differences between the policy entrepreneurship of vulnerable and nonvulnerable places, as well as differences within the vulnerable group. Vulnerable places rank low in entrepreneurial orientation, which may contribute to regional lock-in. Cluster analysis reveals that the vulnerable municipalities are a heterogeneous group, which we classify into “entrepreneurs’ ‘local innovators’, and ‘disengaged risktakers’. Regression analysis indicates that local social capital may increase entrepreneurial orientation in vulnerable places by strengthening the focus on innovation.

  • 29.
    Naldi, Lucia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Företagsekonomi. Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership (CeFEO). Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Nilsson, Pia
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wixe, Sofia
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Amenities and new firm formation in rural areas2021Ingår i: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 85, s. 32-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on the neo-endogenous rural development model and the resource-based view of the firm, this paper investigates the role of place-based amenities for new firm formation. Empirically, we employ a full-population dataset encompassing new firms in Sweden from 2009 to 2016, combined with geocoded datasets with the spatial distribution of nature- and culture-based amenities. The results show that local amenities are indeed important factors in determining the rate of new firm formation. Estimating the model across urban and rural neighborhoods show that amenities are relatively more important in explaining new firm formation in rural areas as compared to urban. As such, our study contributes to the literature on diversification of the economies of rural areas by pointing at the important role that place-based amenities may play for an entrepreneurially-driven development of less developed and/or rural areas.

  • 30.
    Naldi, Lucia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership). Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Nilsson, Pia
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Wixe, Sofia
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    What is Smart Rural Development?2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Naldi, Lucia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Företagsekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Nilsson, Pia
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Wixe, Sofia
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    What is smart rural development?2015Ingår i: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 40, s. 90-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010, the European Union adopted the notion ‘smart’ in its new ten-year growth strategy Europe 2020 stating that Europe should become a smart, sustainable, and inclusive economy. The broad and policy-oriented concepts of smart growth and smart development are part of the strategy introduced as a response to the observed low growth rates of innovation and productivity across European regions. In all its essence, the growth strategy states that smart growth supports sustainable development, which is achieved by promoting research, innovation, and knowledge in order to attain regional economic growth. What is made less clear is how the concept of smart growth can be translated to fit a diverse set of rural regions. Other outstanding issues discussed in this paper relate to the possibility to measure and empirically address the outcome of policies for smart rural development. Hence, in this paper we conceptually analyse and bring together the ideas that underlie the logic behind policies for smart growth by focusing on smart growth from the perspective of rural regions. The paper also presents indicators of smart rural development and analyses their relevance in future empirical studies.

  • 32.
    Nilsson, Pia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Företagsekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Wixe, Sofia
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    The influence of related and unrelated variety on firm performance in European urban and rural areas2015Ingår i: Social capital and development trends in rural areas: Vol. 10 / [ed] Yvonne von Friedrichs, Hans Westlund, Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Jönköping: Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School , 2015, s. 159-178Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 33.
    Nilsson, Pia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership). Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Wixe, Sofia
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    The Influence of Related and Unrelated Variety on Firm Performance across European Urban and Rural Regions2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 34. Nordin, Sara
    et al.
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    From Mountain Village to International Ski Resort: The Transformation of the Destination of Åre2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 35.
    Nordin, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Innovation Systems, Entrepreneurship and Growth.
    Social Capital and the Life Cycle Model: The Transformation of the Destination of Åre2009Ingår i: Tourism, ISSN 1332-7461, E-ISSN 1849-1545, Vol. 57, nr 3, s. 259-284Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the development of the Swedish tourism destination of Åre and its transformation from one of many mountain villages into Scandinavia’s leading alpine ski resort. In reference to Butler’s life cycle model, this evolution is analyzed and some historical turning points in Åre’s development identified. The role of social capital is added to the historical analysis, based on the assumption that there is a link between a destination’s development and its ability to reproduce its social capital. The analysis shows that the social capital at the early stage was, to a large extent, built by and around local actors which predominated the village. The transformation to an international ski resort was possible only by the entrance of new actors, increasingly from the national and international arenas. These new actors have largely come to play leading roles in Åre’s development. At the same time, the new actors’ different values and networks have impacted Åre’s social capital.

  • 36.
    Olsson, Amy Rader
    et al.
    IQ Samhällsbyggnad (The Swedish Centre for Innovation and Quality in the Built Environment), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; RSA (Institute for Developmental and Strategic Analyses), Ljubljana, Slovenia .
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; The Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Entrepreneurial governance and local growth2020Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, nr 9, artikel-id 3857Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Do local development policies influence local employment growth? Based on a survey to municipal managers in all Swedish municipalities, this is one of the first studies to empirically assess the relationship between reported local development initiatives (entrepreneurial governance (EG) and growth of local employment. We find a weak but significant association between EG and employment growth for urban municipalities. This suggests that EG is more effective in larger, growing municipalities than in smaller, declining rural areas. Urban municipalities may of course have more resources for entrepreneurial governance than rural ones as they have grown substantially faster for a long period of time. The result thus indicates that EG and growth are in a positive interplay of interaction. When the EG index was divided into three sub-indexes after the entrepreneurial process (discover or create opportunities, collect resources and exploit opportunities) the analyses also showed positive correspondence between some sub-indexes and employment growth for the rural municipalities, indicating that EG is not solely a phenomenon connected to growth in urban, growing municipalities. In sum, the article indicates several avenues through which entrepreneurial governance at local level might be linked to local growth.

  • 37.
    Olsson, Amy Rader
    et al.
    Division of Urban and Regional Studies, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Entrepreneurial governance for local growth2015Ingår i: The rise of the city: Spatial dynamics in the urban century / [ed] Karima Kourtit, Peter Nijkamp and Roger R. Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, s. 135-159Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 38.
    Rader Olsson, Amy
    et al.
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Measuring political entrepreneurship: an empirical study of Swedish Municipalities2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 39.
    Rex, Anna
    et al.
    Remote Lab, Ostersund, Sweden..
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Coworking and local development outside metropolitan areas in Sweden2024Ingår i: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 105, artikel-id 103185Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Through a mixed methods approach, this paper explores how coworking as a phenomenon manifests itself in Sweden, and, using the foundations of agglomeration economy theory as a lens, discusses what impact the occurrence of coworking spaces might have on local and regional development in Sweden's rural regions.Our findings show that the occurrence of coworking providers in Sweden is much more widespread than previously known, as there are far more spaces than popular aggregation sites suggest -our study found that for Sweden they only show 14-18 percent of the actual number of spaces available. In our interviews with members and owners, we used Duranton and Puga's (2004) pillars for agglomeration as a sorting mechanism, which showed that sentiments that fit the themes "matching", "sharing" and "learning" crop up frequently when respondents explain their experiences. There is reason to go forward from this first, small study to explore how agglomeration economies at the micro level may influence surrounding society and regional economic growth in rural regions.We argue that the emergence of these spaces in rural regions might be a factor in the development of local economies by enabling agglomeration economies at the micro level. We also make the suggestion that gaining accurate information about the number and characteristics of coworking spaces in rural regions will allow for better informed policy decisions and labor market legislation when it comes to regional development.

  • 40.
    Rutten, Roel
    et al.
    Tilburg University.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Boekema, Frans
    Tilburg University, Nijmegen School of Management, Radboud University Nijmegen.
    The Spatial Dimension of Social Capital2010Ingår i: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 863-871Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social capital pertains to the social relations between humans, and since these social relations have a spatial dimension, so too does social capital. However, the spatial dimension of social capital has received little attention in the literature so far. Even in a glo-balizing world where electronic and virtual communication have the potential to defeat the need for geographical proximity, it is still relevant to consider the spatial dimension of social capital. After all, human beings exist most prominently in real rather than in virtual space. This special issue undertakes an inquiry into the spatial dimension of social capital from an explorative perspective. It aims to further theoretical and empirical understanding of the spatial dimension of social capital. As editors we recognize that the debate on social capital is still ongoing in the literature and that it is fed from different, sometimes conflicting perspectives. Therefore, the spatial dimension of social capital can only be conceptualized in the light of these different perspectives, which necessitates an explorative approach. Nonetheless, the various contributions of this special issue allow several conclusions that are valuable to the ongoing discussion on social capital and its spatial dimension. In the first part of this introductory paper, we discuss social capital from a conceptual angle, as we distinguish between two key approaches (the "structuralist" and "interaction-ist" approaches). We then argue how these approaches may be helpful to the understanding of the spatial dimension of social capital. In the second part, we introduce the various contributions and explain how they contribute to the aim of this special issue.

  • 41.
    Sun, Xianhua
    et al.
    School of Economics, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing, China.
    Xiong, Ailun
    School of Management, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing, China.
    Li, Hongyi
    Business School, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). Division of Urban and Regional Studies, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Yuheng
    Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Does social capital influence small business entrepreneurship?: Differences between urban and rural China2023Ingår i: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 70, nr 3, s. 819-837Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between social capital and small business entrepreneurship in China. Unlike previous studies that focus solely on rural or urban residents, this paper pays more attention to the differences between them. According to our study, social capital has both positive and negative impacts on small business entrepreneurship. Based on the data drawn from China General Social Survey, we find that the impact of social capital differs significantly between rural and urban areas. In rural China, residents who have higher social capital tend to have entrepreneurial behaviors, while higher social capital leads to lower intention of small business entrepreneurship in urban China. Individuals whose parents have the experiences of small business tend to have small business entrepreneurial activities; individuals who are better educated tend to find regular jobs instead of having their own small business. The results suggest that small business entrepreneurship in rural China might be “entrepreneurship by necessity”. 

  • 42.
    Torre, A.
    et al.
    National Institute for Agronomic Research, University of Paris-Saclay, France.
    Corsi, S.Department of Economics, University of Milan, Italy.Steiner, M.Department of Economics, University of Graz, Austria.Wallet, F.National Institute for Agronomic Research, University of Paris-Saclay, France.Westlund, HansJönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Smart development for rural areas2021Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thought-provoking book questions the framework of the Horizon 2020 strategy and the policies of smart development. It aims to answer the following question: Is there any possibility for a policy of smart development and smart specialization in rural and peri-urban areas? Based on detailed analytical studies, empirical and econometric methods, as well as various European case studies, several conclusions are drawn. Smart development policies are well adapted to the developed or intermediate regions containing at the same time rural and urban areas, but do not really function for the more rural or more peripheral regions. The development policies of rural areas must be adapted to their particular characteristics, to the structure of their economies (agriculture, small firms), as well as in their diversity (distant regions, intermediate regions, rural areas near the urban areas). It appears interesting to exploit natural and cultural amenities, to develop the multifunctional character of the agriculture, to promote territorial innovation under all its forms, to favor the synergies between the various uses of land and space, and to develop the knowledge on the ecological, socioeconomic processes, as well as on the mechanisms of territorial governance. These results are very important because they question the validity of the H2020 policy and the smart development and smart specialization policies and their applicability to the whole European area, and not only for the most urban and rich areas. It will be valuable reading for students, researchers and policy-makers in regional development, rural studies, spatial planning and economic geography.

  • 43.
    Torre, A.
    et al.
    National Institute for Agronomic Research, University of Paris-Saclay, France.
    Wallet, F.
    National Institute for Agronomic Research, University of Paris-Saclay, France.
    Corsi, S.
    Department of Economics, University of Milan, Italy.
    Steiner, M.
    Department of Economics, University of Graz, Austria.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Conclusion2021Ingår i: Smart Development for Rural Areas / [ed] A. Torre, S. Corsi, M. Steiner, F. Wallet, H. Westlund, Taylor & Francis, 2021, s. 213-Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Amenities - as place specific assets and services that make a given location more or less attractive to individuals and firms - deserve attention in the context of policies intended to promote smart development in rural areas. The literature highlights that rural areas lack the necessary resources and levers to foster growth and innovation; levers and resources found in metropolitan areas and in some medium-sized towns. Local entrepreneurs in rural areas can be encouraged to “borrow size” - and with it, knowledge - in several ways, among which the most standard are direct subsidies or tax incentives for R&D. The main characteristics of rural areas are the geographical distance separating individuals and villages from one another, on the one hand, and their lower density on the other. Digital connectivity and improved digital skills increase the attractiveness of rural areas especially for young and qualified people.

  • 44.
    Torre, A.
    et al.
    National Institute for Agronomic Research, University of Paris-Saclay, France.
    Wallet, F.
    National Institute for Agronomic Research, University of Paris-Saclay, France.
    Corsi, S.
    Department of Economics, University of Milan, Italy.
    Steiner, M.
    Department of Economics, University of Graz, Austria.
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Jönköping University, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Introduction: Is there a smart development for rural areas?2021Ingår i: Smart Development for Rural Areas / [ed] A. Torre, S. Corsi, M. Steiner, F. Wallet, H. Westlund, Taylor & Francis, 2021, s. 1-26Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Rural regions have traditionally been dominated by areal industries such as agriculture and forestry, i.e. industries that, for over a century, have been characterized by shrinking employment numbers. Agriculture is traditionally one of the most important economic activities in rural areas and the concept of Smart Agriculture has been included in the European Union growth strategy Horizon 2020, related to the goals of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The implementation of smart development strategies in rural areas must take into account the specificities of innovation models and the types of resources available in these territories. For firms in rural regions, knowledge acquisition and dissemination seldom take place through collaboration with universities and research institutes, but rather with other types of organizations and firms. The supply of nature- and culture-based amenities seems relatively more important in explaining new firm formation in rural regions, compared to urban regions. The chapter also presents an overview on the key concepts discussed in this book.

  • 45. Westin, Lars
    et al.
    Kobayashi, KiyoshiWestlund, HansHögskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Social Capital and Development Trends in Rural Areas Vol. 32008Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 46.
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics. KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    A Brief History of Time, Space, and Growth: Waldo Tobler’s First Law of Geography Revisited2013Ingår i: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 51, nr 3, s. 917-924Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current knowledge economy, the most important production factor, human knowledge, is much more mobile than the dominating production factors of previous periods. This means that theories of spatial development, formulated during the manufacturing-industrial era, might not be wholly applicable today. One of the basic assumptions of spatial theory is formulated in Waldo Tobler's first law of geography: "everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things." This article discusses the validity of this law in today's knowledge economy. While several factors have made distance less important, a crucial factor for innovation and growth-tacit knowledge-is still highly dependent on face-to-face contacts. This suggests that Waldo Tobler's first law of geography plays an important role also in the knowledge economy.

  • 47.
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    A European Growth Policy for Twenty-seven Countries?: Prospects and Problems for a Diversified Union2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 48.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, Urbana och regionala studier.
    A multidimensional perspective on entrepreneurship2012Ingår i: Entrepreneurship, Social Capital and Governance: Directions for the Sustainable Development and Competitiveness of Regions / [ed] Karlsson C, Johansson B and Stough R., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing , 2012, s. 192-220Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 49.
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre for Innovation Systems, Entrepreneurship and Growth.
    A New Urban-Rural Relationship Needs a New Social Capital2010Ingår i: Social Capital and Development Trends in Rural Areas. Vol. 5 / [ed] Hans Westlund & Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Jönköping: Research Unit for Rural Entrepreneurship and Growth (RUREG), Jönköping International Business School , 2010, s. 77-92Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 50.
    Westlund, Hans
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, JIBS Entrepreneurship Centre.
    Analyzing social capital of the civil society and economic variables – a spatial problem2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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