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  • 1.
    Du, Jingshu
    et al.
    Vlerick Business School.
    Leten, Bart
    Vlerick Business School.
    Vanhaverbeke, Wim
    Hasselt University, ESADE Business School, National University of Singapore.
    Lopez-Vega, Henry
    Linköpings universitet.
    When Research Meets Development: Antecedents and Implications of Transfer Speed2014Ingår i: The Journal of product innovation management, ISSN 0737-6782, E-ISSN 1540-5885, Vol. 31, nr 6, s. 1181-1198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the organization of new product development in large, R&D-intensive firms. In these firms, research and development activities are often separated. Research is conducted in dedicated research projects at specialized research labs. Once research results are achieved by research projects, they are transferred to business units for further development and commercialization. We investigate the speed whereby research projects transfer their first research results to business units (hereafter: transfer speed). In particular, we analyze the antecedents and performance implications of transfer speed. Based on data of 503 research projects from a European R&D intensive manufacturing firm, our results suggest that a fast transfer speed (as measured by the time it takes for a research project to develop and transfer its first research result to business units) is associated with a better research performance (as measured by the total number of transfers the research project generates). Moreover, we find that different types of external R&D partners—science-based and market-based partners—play distinct roles in speeding up project first research transfers. While market-based partnerships (i.e., customers and suppliers) generally contribute to a faster transfer of first research results, science-based partnerships (i.e., universities and research institutions) only speed up first research transfers of technologically very complex projects. Our results also show that early patent filings by research projects accelerate first research transfers.

  • 2.
    Sciascia, Salvatore
    et al.
    IULM University, Milano, Italy.
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Center for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO).
    Mazzola, Pietro
    IULM University, Milano, Italy.
    De Massis, Alfredo
    Centre for Family Business, Institute for Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development, Lancaster University Management School, United Kingdom.
    Family ownership and R&D intensity in small- and medium-sized firms2015Ingår i: The Journal of product innovation management, ISSN 0737-6782, E-ISSN 1540-5885, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 349-360Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research was largely consistent in predicting a negative relationship between family ownership and research and development (R&D) intensity until Chrisman and Patel, using a behavioral agency model (BAM), called this general assumption into question. They argued that publicly owned family firms typically invest less in R&D than nonfamily-owned firms. This behavior may however be reversed if economic performance levels are below family aspirations or if family long-term goals, such as pursuing strong transgenerational family control, are highly valued. While most researchers, like Chrisman and Patel, primarily focused on large listed firms, more research on the relationship between family ownership and R&D intensity in privately held small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is required. This is because firm size can play an important role in understanding the innovation management behavior of firms. Building on the BAM perspective, in the present paper it is argued that Chrisman and Patel's results can be extended to the context of SMEs, albeit with one important specification: the relationship between family ownership and R&D intensity is likely to be contingent on the way the family has invested its wealth. Specifically, it is contended that in the context of SMEs, where goals are more fluid and mixed, when there is a high overlap between family wealth and firm equity (i.e., most of the family's wealth is invested in the firm) the relationship between family ownership and R&D intensity is negative because of the family owners' greater desire to protect their socioemotional wealth (SEW). However, if the overlap between the family's total wealth and single firm equity is low (i.e., firm equity is just a small part of the total family wealth), the relationship between family ownership and R&D intensity is positive as the low overlap between family wealth and firm equity reduces the family's loss aversion propensity. In such a situation, family ownership is likely to foster R&D intensity because of the long-term orientation of family owners that increases the family firm's propensity to bear the risk of investing in R&D activities. The hypothesis is tested and confirmed in a study of 240 small- and medium-sized firms based in Italy. The paper contributes to the literature in several ways. First, adding to the literature on innovation management and R&D intensity, it increases the understanding of what drives or inhibits R&D investments in SMEs when a family is involved in the ownership of the firm. This is particularly important because research on innovation management, as well as research on R&D intensity in family firms, is primarily focused on large firms and much less on SMEs. Second, the study complements arguments from prior research on the correlates of R&D intensity in large listed firms, showing that the BAM and SEW perspective offer a theoretical framework that is also able to illustrate the complex nature of innovation management in the context of SMEs. Third, the study contributes to research on the effects of family ownership on the general functioning of a firm. In particular, it provides new insights into how family ownership may affect R&D intensity.

  • 3.
    Senyard, Julienne
    et al.
    Australian Centre for Entrepreneurship Research, QUT Business School, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Baker, Ted
    Steffens, Paul
    Davidsson, Per
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Företagsekonomi. Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Bricolage as a path to innovativeness for resource-constrained new firms2014Ingår i: The Journal of product innovation management, ISSN 0737-6782, E-ISSN 1540-5885, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 211-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence suggests that both nascent and young firms (henceforth: “new firms”)—despite typically being small and resource-constrained—are sometimes able to innovate effectively. Such firms are seldom able to invest in lengthy and expensive development processes, which suggests that they may frequently rely instead on other pathways to generate innovativeness within the firm. In this paper, we develop and test arguments that “bricolage,” defined as making do by applying combinations of the resources at hand to new problems and opportunities, provides an important pathway to achieve innovation for new resource-constrained firms. Through bricolage, resource-constrained firms engage in the processes of “recombination” that are core to creating innovative outcomes. Based on a large longitudinal dataset, our results suggest that variations in the degree to which firms engage in bricolage behaviors can provide a broadly applicable explanation of innovativeness under resource constraints by new firms. We find no general support for our competing hypothesis that the positive effects may level off or even turn negative at high levels of bricolage.

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