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  • 1.
    Earl, Robyn
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia and Linköping University & Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Morris, Susan L.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Viewpoints of pedestrians with and without cognitive impairment on shared zones and zebra crossings2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 9, artikkel-id e0203765Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Shared zones are characterised by an absence of traditional markers that segregate the road and footpath. Negotiation of a shared zone relies on an individual’s ability to perceive, assess and respond to environmental cues. This ability may be impacted by impairments in cognitive processing, which may lead to individuals experiencing increased anxiety when negotiating a shared zone.

    Method

    Q method was used in order to identify and explore the viewpoints of pedestrians, with and without cognitive impairments as they pertain to shared zones.

    Results

    Two viewpoints were revealed. Viewpoint one was defined by “confident users” while viewpoint two was defined by users who “know what [they] are doing but drivers might not”.

    Discussion

    Overall, participants in the study would not avoid shared zones. Pedestrians with intellectual disability were, however, not well represented by either viewpoint, suggesting that shared zones may pose a potential barrier to participation for this group.

  • 2.
    Evans, Kiah L.
    et al.
    Curtin University and Edith Cowan University.
    Millsteed, Jeannine
    Edith Cowan University.
    Richmond, Janet E.
    Edith Cowan University.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University.
    Working Sandwich Generation Women Utilize Strategies within and between Roles to Achieve Role Balance2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 6, artikkel-id e0157469Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasingly, women simultaneously balance the roles of mother, parental carer and worker. However, individual role balance strategies among these working ‘sandwich’ generation women have not been thoroughly explored. Eighteen women combining these three roles were interviewed about their individual role balance strategies. Findings were identified through the framework analysis technique, underpinned by the Model of Juggling Occupations. Achieving and maintaining role balance was explained as a complex process accomplished through a range of strategies. Findings revealed the women used six within-role balance strategies: living with integrity, being the best you can, doing what you love, loving what you do, remembering why and searching for signs of success. The women also described six between-role balance strategies: maintaining health and wellbeing, repressing perfectionism, managing time and energy, releasing responsibility, nurturing social connection and reciprocating. These findings provide a basis for health care providers to understand and potentially support working ‘sandwich’ generation women.

  • 3.
    Faulks, Denise
    et al.
    Clermont Université, Université d’Auvergne, EA3847, Centre de Recherche en Odontologie Clinique, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Norderyd, Johanna
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. National Oral Disability Centre, The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Molina, Gustavo
    Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.
    Macgiolla Phadraig, Caoimhin
    Dublin Dental University Hospital, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    Scagnet, Gabriela
    Quinquela Martin Hospital, Government of Buenos Aires City & National University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Eschevins, Caroline
    Clermont Université, Université d’Auvergne, EA3847, Centre de Recherche en Odontologie Clinique, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Hennequin, Martine
    Clermont Université, Université d’Auvergne, EA3847, Centre de Recherche en Odontologie Clinique, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to describe children referred to special care or paediatric dental services2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 4, artikkel-id e61993Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Children in dentistry are traditionally described in terms of medical diagnosis and prevalence of oral disease. This approach gives little information regarding a child's capacity to maintain oral health or regarding the social determinants of oral health. The biopsychosocial approach, embodied in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Child and Youth version (ICF-CY) (WHO), provides a wider picture of a child's real-life experience, but practical tools for the application of this model are lacking. This article describes the preliminary empirical study necessary for development of such a tool - an ICF-CY Core Set for Oral Health. An ICF-CY questionnaire was used to identify the medical, functional, social and environmental context of 218 children and adolescents referred to special care or paediatric dental services in France, Sweden, Argentina and Ireland (mean age 8 years ± 3.6 yrs). International Classification of Disease (ICD-10) diagnoses included disorders of the nervous system (26.1%), Down syndrome (22.0%), mental retardation (17.0%), autistic disorders (16.1%), and dental anxiety alone (11.0%). The most frequently impaired items in the ICF Body functions domain were 'Intellectual functions', 'High-level cognitive functions', and 'Attention functions'. In the Activities and Participation domain, participation restriction was frequently reported for 25 items including 'Handling stress', 'Caring for body parts', 'Looking after one's health' and 'Speaking'. In the Environment domain, facilitating items included 'Support of friends', 'Attitude of friends' and 'Support of immediate family'. One item was reported as an environmental barrier - 'Societal attitudes'. The ICF-CY can be used to highlight common profiles of functioning, activities, participation and environment shared by children in relation to oral health, despite widely differing medical, social and geographical contexts. The results of this empirical study might be used to develop an ICF-CY Core Set for Oral Health - a holistic but practical tool for clinical and epidemiological use.

  • 4.
    Fismen, Anne-Siri
    et al.
    Norge.
    Smith, Otto Robert Frans
    Norge.
    Torsheim, Torbjørn
    Norge.
    Rasmussen, Mette
    Danmark.
    Pedersen Pagh, Trine
    Danmark.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Ojala, Kristiina
    Finland.
    Samdal, Oddrun
    Norge.
    Trends in food habits and their relation to socioeconomic status among Nordic adolescents 2001/2002-2009/20102016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In the Nordic countries, substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to increase adolescents' consumption of fruit and vegetables and to reduce their intake of sweets and soft drinks. Some initiatives have been formulated in a Nordic collaboration and implemented at national level. In recent years, social inequalities in food habits have been attracted particular governmental interest and several initiatives addressing the socioeconomic gradient in food habits have been highlighted. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated how trends in adolescents' food habits develop in the context of Nordic nutrition policy, or have compared differences between the Nordic countries.

    Methods

    The study was based on Danish, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish cross-sectional data from the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. Food habits were identified by students' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar sweetened soft drink. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data.

    Results

    Trends in fruit consumption developed differently across countries, characterized by an increase in Denmark and Norway and more stable trends in Sweden and Finland. Vegetable consumption increased particularly in Denmark and to a lesser extent in Norway, whereas Sweden and Finland displayed stable trends. Decreased trends were observed for sweet and soft drink consumption and were similar in Norway, Sweden and Finland. Sweet consumption decreased across all survey years, whereas soft drink consumption decreased between 2001/2002–2005/2006 and was stable thereafter. Denmark displayed an increase between 2001/2002–2005/2006 followed by a similar decrease between 2005/2006–2009/2010 for both sweet and soft drink consumption. Socioeconomic inequalities in fruit and vegetable consumption were observed in all countries, with no cross-country differences, and no changes over time. Small but not significant cross-country variation was identified for SES inequalities in sweet consumption. Reduced SES inequalities were observed in Sweden between 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. SES was not associated with soft drink consumption in this study population, with the exception of Denmark for the survey year 2009/2010.

    Conclusion

    Different trends resulted in increased country differences in food habits during the time of observations. In survey year 2009/2010, Danish students reported a higher intake of fruit and vegetable consumption than their counterparts in the other Nordic countries. Finnish students reported the lowest frequency of sweets and soft drink consumption. Despite the positive dietary trends documented in the present study, the majority of Nordic adolescents are far from meeting national dietary recommendations. Our findings underline the need for more comprehensive initiatives targeting young people's food habits as well as a more deliberate and focused action to close gaps in social inequalities that affect food choices.

  • 5.
    Fristedt, Sofi
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa.
    Dahl, Anna K.
    Wretstrand, Anders
    Björklund, Anita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ADULT.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Changes in community mobility in older men and women. A 13-year prospective study2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. e87827-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Community mobility, defined as "moving [ones] self in the community and using public or private transportation", has a unique ability to promote older peoples' wellbeing by enabling independence and access to activity arenas for interaction with others. Early predictors of decreased community mobility among older men and women are useful in developing health promoting strategies. However, long-term prediction is rare, especially when it comes to including both public and private transportation. The present study describes factors associated with community mobility and decreased community mobility over time among older men and women. In total, 119 men and 147 women responded to a questionnaire in 1994 and 2007. Respondents were between 82 and 96 years old at follow-up. After 13 years, 40% of men and 43% of women had decreased community mobility, but 47% of men and 45% of women still experienced some independent community mobility. Cross-sectional independent community mobility among men was associated with higher ratings of subjective health, reporting no depression and more involvement in sport activities. Among women, cross-sectional independent community mobility was associated with better subjective health and doing more instrumental activities of daily living outside the home. Lower subjective health predicted decreased community mobility for both men and women, whereas self-reported health conditions did not. Consequently, general policies and individual interventions aiming to improve community mobility should consider older persons' subjective health.

  • 6.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    et al.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Fransson, Eleonor
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ADULT.
    Ahola, Kirsi
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Burr, Hermann
    Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), Berlin, Germany.
    Dragano, Nico
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    School of Community and Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Koskinen, Aki
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nordin, Maria
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    The Danish National Centre for Social Research, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Shipley, Martin J.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Väänänen, Ari
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Batty, G. David
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Job Strain and the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Individual-Participant Meta-Analysis of 95 000 Men and Women2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 2: e88711Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Many clinicians, patients and patient advocacy groups believe stress to have a causal role in inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. However, this is not corroborated by clear epidemiological research evidence. We investigated the association between work-related stress and incident Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis using individual-level data from 95 000 European adults.

    Methods: We conducted individual-participant data meta-analyses in a set of pooled data from 11 prospective European studies. All studies are a part of the IPD-Work Consortium. Work-related psychosocial stress was operationalised as job strain (a combination of high demands and low control at work) and was self-reported at baseline. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis were ascertained from national hospitalisation and drug reimbursement registers. The associations between job strain and inflammatory bowel disease outcomes were modelled using Cox proportional hazards regression. The study-specific results were combined in random effects meta-analyses.

    Results: Of the 95 379 participants who were free of inflammatory bowel disease at baseline, 111 men and women developed Crohn's disease and 414 developed ulcerative colitis during follow-up. Job strain at baseline was not associated with incident Crohn's disease (multivariable-adjusted random effects hazard ratio: 0.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.48, 1.43) or ulcerative colitis (hazard ratio: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.76, 1.48). There was negligible heterogeneity among the study-specific associations.

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that job strain, an indicator of work-related stress, is not a major risk factor for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.

  • 7. Heikkilä, Katriina
    et al.
    Nyberg, Solja
    Fransson, Eleonor
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ADULT. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Bjorner, Jakob
    Bonenfant, Sébastien
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Clays, Els
    Casini, Annalisa
    Dragano, Nico
    Erbel, Raimund
    Geuskens, Goedele
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Hooftman, Wendela
    Houtman, Irene
    Joensuu, Matti
    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
    Kittel, France
    Knutsson, Anders
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Koskinen, Aki
    Kouvonen, Anne
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Madsen, Ida
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Marmot, Michael
    Nielsen, Martin
    Nordin, Maria
    Pentti, Jaana
    Salo, Paula
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Suominen, Sakari
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Väänänen, Ari
    Westerholm, Peter
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Zins, Marie
    Theorell, Töres
    Hamer, Mark
    Ferrie, Jane
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Batty, David
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Job strain and alcohol intake: A collaborative meta-analysis of individual-participant data from 140 000 men and women2012Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 7, s. e40101-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job strain) and alcohol intake.

    Methodology and Principal Findings: We analysed cross-sectional data from 12 European studies (n = 142 140) and longitudinal data from four studies (n = 48 646). Job strain and alcohol intake were self-reported. Job strain was analysed as a binary variable (strain vs. no strain). Alcohol intake was harmonised into the following categories: none, moderate (women: 1–14, men: 1–21 drinks/week), intermediate (women: 15–20, men: 22–27 drinks/week) and heavy (women: >20, men: >27 drinks/week). Cross-sectional associations were modelled using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Longitudinal associations were examined using mixed effects logistic and modified Poisson regression. Compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and (random effects odds ratio (OR): 1.10, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.14) and heavy drinkers (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.26) had higher odds of job strain. Intermediate drinkers, on the other hand, had lower odds of job strain (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99). We found no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and alcohol intake.

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and heavy drinkers are more likely and intermediate drinkers less likely to report work-related stress.

  • 8. Heikkilä, Katriina
    et al.
    Nyberg, Solja T
    Fransson, Eleonor I
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ADULT. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Åldrande - livsvillkor och hälsa.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Bjorner, Jakob B
    Bonenfant, Sébastien
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Clays, Els
    Casini, Annalisa
    Dragano, Nico
    Erbel, Raimund
    Geuskens, Goedele A
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Hooftman, Wendela E
    Houtman, Irene L
    Joensuu, Matti
    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
    Kittel, France
    Knutsson, Anders
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Koskinen, Aki
    Kouvonen, Anne
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Madsen, Ida E H
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L
    Marmot, Michael G
    Nielsen, Martin L
    Nordin, Maria
    Pentti, Jaana
    Salo, Paula
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Suominen, Sakari
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Väänänen, Ari
    Westerholm, Peter
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Zins, Marie
    Theorell, Töres
    Hamer, Mark
    Ferrie, Jane E
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Batty, G David
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Job strain and tobacco smoking: An individual-participant data meta-analysis of 166 130 adults in 15 European studies2012Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 7, s. e35463-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults.

    Methodology and Principal Findings: We analysed cross-sectional data from 15 European studies comprising 166 130 participants. Longitudinal data from six studies were used. Job strain and smoking were self-reported. Smoking was harmonised into three categories never, ex- and current. We modelled the cross-sectional associations using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine longitudinal associations. Of the 166 130 participants, 17% reported job strain, 42% were never smokers, 33% ex-smokers and 25% current smokers. In the analyses of the cross-sectional data, current smokers had higher odds of job strain than never-smokers (age, sex and socioeconomic position-adjusted odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.18). Current smokers with job strain smoked, on average, three cigarettes per week more than current smokers without job strain. In the analyses of longitudinal data (1 to 9 years of follow-up), there was no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and taking up or quitting smoking.

    Conclusions: Our findings show that smokers are slightly more likely than non-smokers to report work-related stress. In addition, smokers who reported work stress smoked, on average, slightly more cigarettes than stress-free smokers.

  • 9.
    Hellström, Amanda
    et al.
    Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Hagell, Peter
    The PRO-CARE Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Broström, Anders
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ADULT. Department of clinical neurophysiology, Linköping University hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ulander, Martin
    Department of clinical neurophysiology, Linköping University hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Luik, Annemarie I.
    Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Espie, Colin A.
    Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    A classical test theory evaluation of the Sleep Condition Indicator accounting for the ordinal nature of item response data2019Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 1-13, artikkel-id e0213533Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Insomnia symptoms are common among young adults and affect about 5% to 26% of 19 to 34-year-olds. In addition, insomnia is associated with poor mental health and may affect daily performance. In research, as well as in clinical practice, sleep questionnaires are used to screen for and diagnose insomnia. However, most questionnaires are not developed according to current DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. An exception is the recently developed Sleep Condition Indicator (SCI), an eight-item scale screening for insomnia.

    AIM: The aim of this study was to perform a Classical Test Theory (CTT) based psychometric evaluation of the SCI in a sample of Swedish university students, by taking the ordinal nature of item level data into account.

    METHODS: The SCI was translated into Swedish and distributed online to undergraduate students at three Swedish universities, within programs of health, psychology, science or economy. Of 3673 invited students, 634 (mean age 26.9 years; SD = 7.4) completed the questionnaire that, in addition to the SCI, comprised other scales on sleep, stress, lifestyle and students' study environment. Data were analyzed according to CTT investigating data completeness, item homogeneity and unidimensionality.

    RESULTS: Polychoric based explorative factor analysis suggested unidimensionality of the SCI, and internal consistency was good (Cronbach's alpha, 0.91; ordinal alpha, 0.94). SCI scores correlated with the Insomnia Severity Index (-0.88) as well as with sleep quality (-0.85) and perceived stress (-0.50), supporting external construct validity.

    CONCLUSIONS: These observations support the integrity of the of the SCI. The SCI demonstrates sound CTT-based psychometric properties, supporting its use as an insomnia screening tool.

  • 10.
    Horlin, Chiara
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Albrecht, Matthew A.
    School of Psychology, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    The cost of autism spectrum disorders2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 9, artikkel-id e106552Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    A diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorders is usually associated with substantial lifetime costs to an individual, their family and the community. However, there remains an elusive factor in any cost-benefit analysis of ASD diagnosis, namely the cost of not obtaining a diagnosis. Given the infeasibility of estimating the costs of a population that, by its nature, is inaccessible, the current study compares expenses between families whose children received a formal ASD diagnosis immediately upon suspecting developmental atypicality and seeking advice, with families that experienced a delay between first suspicion and formal diagnosis.

    Design

    A register based questionnaire study covering all families with a child with ASD in Western Australia.

    Participants

    Families with one or more children diagnosed with an ASD, totalling 521 children diagnosed with an ASD; 317 records were able to be included in the final analysis.

    Results

    The median family cost of ASD was estimated to be AUD $34,900 per annum with almost 90% of the sum ($29,200) due to loss of income from employment. For each additional symptom reported, approximately $1,400 cost for the family per annum was added. While there was little direct influence on costs associated with a delay in the diagnosis, the delay was associated with a modest increase in the number of ASD symptoms, indirectly impacting the cost of ASD.

    Conclusions

    A delay in diagnosis was associated with an indirect increased financial burden to families. Early and appropriate access to early intervention is known to improve a child's long-term outcomes and reduce lifetime costs to the individual, family and society. Consequently, a per symptom dollar value may assist in allocation of individualised funding amounts for interventions rather than a nominal amount allocated to all children below a certain age, regardless of symptom presentation, as is the case in Western Australia.

  • 11.
    Huus, Karina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Åkerman, Linda
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Raustorp, Anders
    Linnaeus University and University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University and Östergötland County Council, Sweden.
    Physical Activity, Blood Glucose and C-Peptide in Healthy School-Children, a Longitudinal Study2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 6, artikkel-id e0156401Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    To further elucidate the relationship between physical activity and several risk factors for development of diabetes (glucose, C-peptide and obesity) over time.

    Methods

    A prospective longitudinal study where physical activity was measured on 199 children from Kalmar and Linköping at age 8, and the same 107 children from Linköping again at age 12. Anthropometric data was collected and blood was analyzed for C-peptide and f-glucose. The children in the study were representative for the general Swedish child population, and on an average lean.

    Results

    High physical activity was related to lower C-peptide at age 8 and 12. This correlation was especially pronounced in boys, who also were more physically active than girls at both time points. The association seen at 8 years of age was similar at age 12 in most children. Children with higher BMI Z-Score had a higher fasting C-peptide (age 12) but linear regression showed that children with more steps per day were less likely to have a higher fasting C-peptide irrespective of BMI. Longitudinal follow-up showed that a decrease in physical activity increased insulin resistance and β-cell load.

    Conclusions

    Already in young children, physical activity improves insulin sensitivity and decreases the need of C-peptide over time. This seems to become even more pronounced with increasing age when children are followed longitudinally. Low physical activity increases the load on insulin producing β-cells, might increase the risk for both type 1- and 2 diabetes.

  • 12.
    Jacob, Andrew
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Scott, Melissa
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    The costs and benefits of employing an adult with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 10, s. 1-15, artikkel-id e0139896Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Despite an ambition from adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to be employed, there are limited opportunities for competitive employment for this group. Employment is not only an entitlement enjoyed by others in society, but employing adults with ASD also has economic benefits by decreasing lost productivity and resource costs for this group. Few studies have explored the cost-benefit ratio for employing adults with ASD and even fewer have taken the viewpoint of the employer, particularly applying this situation to ASD. Until such study occurs, employers may continue to be reluctant to employ adults from this group.

    Objective

    This review aimed to examine the costs, benefits and the cost-benefit ratio of employing adults with ASD, from a societal perspective and from the perspective of employers.

    Methods

    Eight databases were searched for scientific studies within defined inclusion criteria. These databases included CINAHL Plus, Cochrane Library, Emerald, Ovid Medline, ProQuest, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science.

    Results and Conclusion

    Enhancing the opportunities for adults with ASD to join the workforce is beneficial from a societal perspective, not only from an inclusiveness viewpoint, but also from a strict economic standpoint. Providing supported employment services for adults with ASD does not only cut the cost compared with providing standard care, it also results in better outcomes for adults with ASD. Despite the fact that ASD was the most expensive group to provide vocational rehabilitation services for, adults with ASD have a strong chance of becoming employed once appropriate measures are in place. Hence, rehabilitation services could be considered as a worthwhile investment. The current systematic review uncovered the fact that very few studies have examined the benefits, the costs and the cost-benefit ratio of employing an adult with ASD from the perspective of employers indicating a need for this topic to be further explored.

  • 13.
    Kuzminski, Rebecca
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Netto, Julie
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Wilson, Joel
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Long Pocket Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Chamberlain, Angela
    School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Linking knowledge and attitudes: Determining neurotypical knowledge about and attitudes towards autism2019Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 7, artikkel-id e0220197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    "Why are neurotypicals so pig-ignorant about autism?" an autistic person wrote on the Curtin Autism Research Group's on-line portal as a response to a call for research questions. Coproduced with an autistic researcher, knowledge about and attitudes towards autism were analysed from 1,054 completed surveys, representing the Australian neurotypical adult population. The majority, 81.5% of participants had a high level of knowledge and 81.3% of participants had a strong positive attitude towards autism. Neither age, nor education level had an impact on attitudes. However, attitudes were influenced by knowledge about 'Societal Views and Ideas'; 'What it Could be Like to Have Autism'; and the demographic variables 'Knowing and having spent time around someone with autism'; and gender (women having more positive attitudes than men). Thus, targeted interventions, geared more towards men than women, to increase knowledge about autism could further improve attitudes and increase acceptance of the autistic community.

  • 14. MacDonald, K.
    et al.
    Thomas, M. L.
    Sciolla, A. F.
    Schneider, B.
    Pappas, K.
    Bleijenberg, G.
    Bohus, M.
    Bekh, B.
    Carpenter, L.
    Carr, A.
    Dannlowski, U.
    Dorahy, M.
    Fahlke, C.
    Finzi-Dottan, R.
    Karu, T.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. SALVE (Socialt arbete, Livssammanhang, Välfärd).
    Glaesmer, H.
    Grabe, H. J.
    Heins, M.
    Kenny, D. T.
    Kim, D.
    Knoop, H.
    Lobbestael, J.
    Lochner, C.
    Lauritzen, G.
    Ravndal, E.
    Riggs, S.
    Sar, V.
    Schäfer, I.
    Schlosser, N.
    Schwandt, M. L.
    Stein, M. B.
    Subic-Wrana, C.
    Vogel, M.
    Wingenfeld, K.
    Minimization of childhood maltreatment is common and consequential: Results from a large, multinational sample using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 1-16, artikkel-id e0146058Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood maltreatment has diverse, lifelong impact on morbidity and mortality. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is one of the most commonly used scales to assess and quantify these experiences and their impact. Curiously, despite very widespread use of the CTQ, scores on its Minimization-Denial (MD) subscale-originally designed to assess a positive response bias-are rarely reported. Hence, little is known about this measure. If response biases are either common or consequential, current practices of ignoring the MD scale deserve revision. Therewith, we designed a study to investigate 3 aspects of minimization, as defined by the CTQ's MD scale: 1) its prevalence; 2) its latent structure; and finally 3) whether minimization moderates the CTQ's discriminative validity in terms of distinguishing between psychiatric patients and community volunteers. Archival, item-level CTQ data from 24 multinational samples were combined for a total of 19,652 participants. Analyses indicated: 1) minimization is common; 2) minimization functions as a continuous construct; and 3) high MD scores attenuate the ability of the CTQ to distinguish between psychiatric patients and community volunteers. Overall, results suggest that a minimizing response bias-as detected by the MD subscale-has a small but significant moderating effect on the CTQ's discriminative validity. Results also may suggest that some prior analyses of maltreatment rates or the effects of early maltreatment that have used the CTQ may have underestimated its incidence and impact. We caution researchers and clinicians about the widespread practice of using the CTQ without the MD or collecting MD data but failing to assess and control for its effects on outcomes or dependent variables. © 2016 MacDonald et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • 15.
    Mellander, Charlotta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS).
    Lobo, Jose
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Stolarick, Kevin
    OCAD University, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Matheson, Zara
    University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Night-time light data: A good proxy measure for economic activity?2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 10, s. 1-18, artikkel-id e0139779Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Much research has suggested that night-time light (NTL) can be used as a proxy for a number of variables, including urbanization, density, and economic growth. As governments around the world either collect census data infrequently or are scaling back the amount of detail collected, alternate sources of population and economic information like NTL are being considered. But, just how close is the statistical relationship between NTL and economic activity at a fine-grained geographical level? This paper uses a combination of correlation analysis and geographically weighted regressions in order to examine if light can function as a proxy for economic activities at a finer level. We use a fine-grained geo-coded residential and industrial full sample micro-data set for Sweden, and match it with both radiance and saturated light emissions. We find that the correlation between NTL and economic activity is strong enough to make it a relatively good proxy for population and establishment density, but the correlation is weaker in relation to wages. In general, we find a stronger relation between light and density values, than with light and total values. We also find a closer connection between radiance light and economic activity, than with saturated light. Further, we find the link between light and economic activity, especially estimated by wages, to be slightly overestimated in large urban areas and underestimated in rural areas.

  • 16.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    et al.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki and Tampere, Finland.
    Fransson, Eleonor
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för naturvetenskap och biomedicin. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ADULT.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki and Tampere, Finland.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Casini, Annalisa
    School of Public Health, Université libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
    Clays, Els
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Dragano, Nico
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Erbel, Raimund
    Department of Cardiology, West-German Heart Center Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.
    Ferrie, Jane
    School of Community and Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Hamer, Mark
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
    Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.
    Kittel, France
    School of Public Health, Université libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz
    German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Marmot, Michael
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Nordin, Maria
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Westerholm, Peter
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brunner, Eric
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Batty, David
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki and Tampere, Finland.
    Job strain and cardiovascular disease risk factors: Meta-analysis of individual-participant data from 47,000 men and women2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. e67323-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Job strain is associated with an increased coronary heart disease risk, but few large-scale studies have examined the relationship of this psychosocial characteristic with the biological risk factors that potentially mediate the job strain – heart disease association.

    Methodology and Principal Findings

    We pooled cross-sectional, individual-level data from eight studies comprising 47,045 participants to investigate the association between job strain and the following cardiovascular disease risk factors: diabetes, blood pressure, pulse pressure, lipid fractions, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, obesity, and overall cardiovascular disease risk as indexed by the Framingham Risk Score. In age-, sex-, and socioeconomic status-adjusted analyses, compared to those without job strain, people with job strain were more likely to have diabetes (odds ratio 1.29; 95% CI: 1.11–1.51), to smoke (1.14; 1.08–1.20), to be physically inactive (1.34; 1.26–1.41), and to be obese (1.12; 1.04–1.20). The association between job strain and elevated Framingham risk score (1.13; 1.03–1.25) was attributable to the higher prevalence of diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity among those reporting job strain.

    Conclusions

    In this meta-analysis of work-related stress and cardiovascular disease risk factors, job strain was linked to adverse lifestyle and diabetes. No association was observed between job strain, clinic blood pressure or blood lipids.

  • 17.
    Peterson, Anette
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Hanberger, Lena
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Pediatrics and Diabetes. Research Center, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Åkesson, Karin
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare. Department of Pediatric, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Bojestig, Mats
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Andersson-Gäre, Boel
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Kvalitetsförbättring och ledarskap inom hälsa och välfärd.
    Samuelsson, Ulf
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Pediatrics and Diabetes. Research Center, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Improved results in paediatric diabetes care using a quality registry in an improvement collaborative: a case study in Sweden2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 5(e97875), s. 1-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Several studies show that good metabolic control is important for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. In Sweden, there are large differences in mean haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in different hospitals and difficulties implementing national guidelines in everyday practice. This study shows how the participation in an improvement collaborative could facilitate improvements in the quality of care by paediatric diabetes teams. The Swedish paediatric diabetes quality registry, SWEDIABKIDS was used as a tool and resource for feedback and outcome measures.

    METHODS:

    Twelve teams at paediatric diabetes centres, caring for 30% (2302/7660) of patients in Sweden, participated in an 18-month quality improvement program. Each team defined treatment targets, areas needing improvement, and action plans. The main outcome was the centre patients' mean HbA1c levels, but other clinical variables and change concepts were also studied. Data from the previous six months were compared with the first six months after starting the program, and the long-term follow up after another eleven months.

    RESULTS:

    All centres reduced mean HbA1c during the second and third periods compared with the first. The mean reduction for all was 3·7 mmol/mol (p<0.001), compared with non-participating centres who improved their mean HbA1c with 1·7 mmol/mol during the same period. Many of the participating centres reduced the frequency of severe hypoglycaemia and/or ketoacidosis, and five centres reached their goal of ensuring that all patients had some sort of physical activity at least once weekly. Change concepts were, for example, improved guidelines, appointment planning, informing the patients, improving teamwork and active use of the registry, and health promotion activities.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    By involving paediatric diabetes teams in a quality improvement collaborative together with access to a quality register, the quality of paediatric diabetes care can improve, thereby contributing to a reduced risk of late complications for children and adolescents with diabetes.

  • 18. Piirtola, M.
    et al.
    Jelenkovic, A.
    Latvala, A.
    Sund, R.
    Honda, C.
    Inui, F.
    Watanabe, M.
    Tomizawa, R.
    Iwatani, Y.
    Ordoñana, J. R.
    Sánchez-Romera, J. F.
    Colodro-Conde, L.
    Tarnoki, A. D.
    Tarnoki, D. L.
    Martin, N. G.
    Montgomery, G. W.
    Medland, S. E.
    Rasmussen, F.
    Tynelius, P.
    Tan, Q.
    Zhang, D.
    Pang, Z.
    Rebato, E.
    Stazi, M. A.
    Fagnani, C.
    Brescianini, S.
    Busjahn, A.
    Harris, J. R.
    Brandt, I.
    Nilsen, T. S.
    Cutler, T. L.
    Hopper, J. L.
    Corley, R. P.
    Huibregtse, B. M.
    Sung, J.
    Kim, J.
    Lee, J.
    Lee, S.
    Gatz, M.
    Butler, D. A.
    Franz, C. E.
    Kremen, W. S.
    Lyons, M. J.
    Magnusson, P. K. E.
    Pedersen, N. L.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping).
    Öncel, S.Y.
    Aliev, F.
    Derom, C. A.
    Vlietinck, R. F.
    Loos, R. J. F.
    Silberg, J. L.
    Maes, H. H.
    Boomsma, D. I.
    Sørensen, T. I. A.
    Korhonen, T.
    Kaprio, J.
    Silventoinen, K.
    Association of current and former smoking with body mass index: A study of smoking discordant twin pairs from 21 twin cohorts2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 7, artikkel-id e0200140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Smokers tend to weigh less than never smokers, while successful quitting leads to an increase in body weight. Because smokers and non-smokers may differ in genetic and environmental family background, we analysed data from twin pairs in which the co-twins differed by their smoking behaviour to evaluate if the association between smoking and body mass index (BMI) remains after controlling for family background.

    Methods and findings

    The international CODATwins database includes information on smoking and BMI measured between 1960 and 2012 from 156,593 twin individuals 18–69 years of age. Individual-based data (230,378 measurements) and data of smoking discordant twin pairs (altogether 30,014 pairwise measurements, 36% from monozygotic [MZ] pairs) were analysed with linear fixed-effects regression models by 10-year periods. In MZ pairs, the smoking co-twin had, on average, 0.57 kg/m2 lower BMI in men (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.70) and 0.65 kg/m2 lower BMI in women (95% CI: 0.52, 0.79) than the never smoking co-twin. Former smokers had 0.70 kg/m2 higher BMI among men (95% CI: 0.63, 0.78) and 0.62 kg/ m2 higher BMI among women (95% CI: 0.51, 0.73) than their currently smoking MZ co-twins. Little difference in BMI was observed when comparing former smoking co-twins with their never smoking MZ co-twins (0.13 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.04, 0.23 among men; -0.04 kg/m2, 95% CI -0.16, 0.09 among women). The associations were similar within dizygotic pairs and when analysing twins as individuals. The observed series of cross-sectional associations were independent of sex, age, and measurement decade.

    Conclusions

    Smoking is associated with lower BMI and smoking cessation with higher BMI. However, the net effect of smoking and subsequent cessation on weight development appears to be minimal, i.e. never more than an average of 0.7 kg/m2 

  • 19.
    Scott, Melissa
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjorn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Viewpoints on Factors for Successful Employment for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 10, artikkel-id e0139281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the key factors for successful employment from the viewpoints of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and employers. Two groups of individuals participated in this study, 40 adults with ASD and 35 employers. Q method was used to understand and contrast the viewpoints of the two groups. Data were analysed using by-person varimax rotation factor analysis. Results showed that although both groups appear committed to the employment process, the difference in their understanding regarding the type of workplace support required, job expectations and productivity requirements continues to hinder successful employment. These results highlight the need to facilitate communication between employees and employers to ensure a clear understanding of the needs of both groups are met. The use of an ASD-specific workplace tool may assist in facilitating the necessary communication between these two groups.

  • 20.
    Scott, Melissa
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Jacob, Andrew
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Hendrie, Delia
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Benefits and costs of employing an adult with Autism Spectrum Disorder2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 21.
    Scott, Melissa
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Jacob, Andrew
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Hendrie, Delia
    School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Employers' perception of the costs and the benefits of hiring individuals with autism spectrum disorder in open employment in Australia2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 5, artikkel-id e0177607Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has examined the benefits and costs of employing adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from the perspective of the employee, taxpayer and society, but few studies have considered the employer perspective. This study examines the benefits and costs of employing adults with ASD, from the perspective of employers. Fifty-nine employers employing adults with ASD in open employment were asked to complete an online survey comparing employees with and without ASD on the basis of job similarity. The findings suggest that employing an adult with ASD provides benefits to employers and their organisations without incurring additional costs.

  • 22.
    Shutters, Shade T.
    et al.
    Global Security Initiative, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Lobo, José
    School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Muneepeerakul, Rachata
    Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.
    Strumsky, Deborah
    Arizona State University, Santa Fe Institute Center for Biosocial Complex Systems, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.
    Mellander, Charlotta
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS).
    Brachert, Matthias
    Department of Structural Change and Productivity, Halle Institute for Economic Research, Halle (Saale), Germany.
    Farinha, Teresa
    Department of Economic Geography, Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Bettencourt, Luís M.A.
    Mansueto Institute for Urban Innovation, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.
    Urban occupational structures as information networks: The effect on network density of increasing number of occupations2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 5, artikkel-id e0196915Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban economies are composed of diverse activities, embodied in labor occupations, which depend on one another to produce goods and services. Yet little is known about how the nature and intensity of these interdependences change as cities increase in population size and economic complexity. Understanding the relationship between occupational interdependencies and the number of occupations defining an urban economy is relevant because interdependence within a networked system has implications for system resilience and for how easily can the structure of the network be modified. Here, we represent the interdependencies among occupations in a city as a non-spatial information network, where the strengths of interdependence between pairs of occupations determine the strengths of the links in the network. Using those quantified link strengths we calculate a single metric of interdependence–or connectedness–which is equivalent to the density of a city’s weighted occupational network. We then examine urban systems in six industrialized countries, analyzing how the density of urban occupational networks changes with network size, measured as the number of unique occupations present in an urban workforce. We find that in all six countries, density, or economic interdependence, increases superlinearly with the number of distinct occupations. Because connections among occupations represent flows of information, we provide evidence that connectivity scales superlinearly with network size in information networks.

  • 23.
    Sveen, Josefin
    et al.
    Palliative Research Centre, Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Pohlkamp, Lilian
    Palliative Research Centre, Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Öhlén, Joakim
    Palliative Research Centre, Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Jonas
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för omvårdnad. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Palliative Research Centre, Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brandänge, Kristina
    Department of Psychiatry, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Division of Psychology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Posttraumatic stress among not-exposed traumatically bereaved relatives after the MS Estonia disaster2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 11, artikkel-id e0166441Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Little is known about posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions in bereaved individuals following loss in disaster who were not directly exposed to disaster. The aim of the present study was to examine the course of PTS up to three years after losing relatives in the MS Estonia ferry disaster, one of the worst maritime disasters in modern times.

    Methods: Seven postal surveys were sent out over three years post-disaster. The respondents were invited and added consecutively during the three years and 938 relatives participated in one or more of the surveys, representing 89% of the MS Estonia's Swedish victims. The survey included the Impact of Event Scale (IES) to measure PTS. Latent growth curve modeling was used to analyze PTS over time.

    Results: The majority of bereaved individuals had high levels of PTS. At three years post-loss, 62% of the respondents scored above the recommended cut-off value on the IES. Over time, PTS symptoms declined, but initially high symptoms of PTS were associated with a slower recovery rate.

    Conclusion: The present finding suggests that being an indirectly-exposed disaster-bereaved close-relative can lead to very high levels of PTS which are sustained for several years.

  • 24.
    Tang, Julia
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Horlin, Chiara
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Face recognition and visual search strategies in autism spectrum disorders: Amending and extending a recent review by Weigelt et al.2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 8, s. 1-19, artikkel-id e0134439Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this review was to build upon a recent review by Weigelt et al. which examined visual search strategies and face identification between individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing peers. Seven databases, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, ERIC, Medline, Proquest, PsychInfo and PubMed were used to locate published scientific studies matching our inclusion criteria. A total of 28 articles not included in Weigelt et al. met criteria for inclusion into this systematic review. Of these 28 studies, 16 were available and met criteria at the time of the previous review, but were mistakenly excluded; and twelve were recently published. Weigelt et al. found quantitative, but not qualitative, differences in face identification in individuals with ASD. In contrast, the current systematic review found both qualitative and quantitative differences in face identification between individuals with and without ASD. There is a large inconsistency in findings across the eye tracking and neurobiological studies reviewed. Recommendations for future research in face recognition in ASD were discussed.

  • 25.
    Thompson, Craig
    et al.
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Long Pocket, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Bölte, Sven
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Long Pocket, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Long Pocket, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC), Long Pocket, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    To be understood: Transitioning to adult life for people with Autism Spectrum Disorder2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 3, artikkel-id e0194758Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to explore the viewpoints of parents of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in relation to their child's transition to adulthood.

    Methods: Data were collected during four structured focus groups with 19 parents of young people with ASD with average to high intellectual capacities. Condensed meaning units were identified and checked during focus groups, and were subsequently linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    Results: Three major themes emerged: to be understood, to understand the world and to succeed. The ICF domains of activity and participation and environmental factors emerged as having the greatest potential to influence transition outcomes.

    Conclusions: Policies and services should focus on strengths to maximise participation in higher education, employment and independent living amongst young people with ASD. Interventions targeting environmental factors could be effective in improving participation in adult life. Person-centred and individualised approaches could further complement this approach supporting the transition to adulthood for people with ASD, ultimately improving outcomes in adulthood. 

  • 26.
    Thompson, Melanie
    et al.
    Curtin University.
    Elliott, Catherine
    Curtin University.
    Willis, Claire
    University of Western Australia.
    Ward, Roslyn
    University of Western Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University.
    Gubbay, Anna
    University of Western Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University.
    Can, Want and Try: Parents’ Viewpoints Regarding the Participation of Their Child with an Acquired Brain Injury2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 7, artikkel-id e0157951Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background 

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a leading cause of permanent disability, currently affecting 20,000 Australian children. Community participation is essential for childhood development and enjoyment, yet children with ABI can often experience barriers to participation. The factors which act as barriers and facilitators to community participation for children with an ABI are not well understood. 

    Aim

    To identify the viewpoints of parents of children with an ABI, regarding the barriers and facilitators most pertinent to community participation for their child. 

    Methods 

    Using Q-method, 41 parents of children with moderate/severe ABI sorted 37 statements regarding barriers and facilitators to community participation. Factor analysis identified three viewpoints. 

    Results 

    This study identified three distinct viewpoints, with the perceived ability to participate decreasing with a stepwise trend from parents who felt their child and family "can" participate in viewpoint one, to "want" in viewpoint two and "try" in viewpoint three. 

    Conclusions 

    Findings indicated good participation outcomes for most children and families, however some families who were motivated to participate experienced significant barriers. The most significant facilitators included child motivation, supportive relationships from immediate family and friends, and supportive community attitudes. The lack of supportive relationships and attitudes was perceived as a fundamental barrier to community participation. 

    Significance 

    This research begins to address the paucity of information regarding those factors that impact upon the participation of children with an ABI in Australia. Findings have implications for therapists, service providers and community organisations.

  • 27.
    Ulfenborg, Benjamin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Riveiro, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Améen, Caroline
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Åkesson, Karolina
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Christian X.
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Synnergren, Jane
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    A data analysis framework for biomedical big data: Application on mesoderm differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 6, artikkel-id e0179613Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of high-throughput biomolecular technologies has resulted in generation of vast omics data at an unprecedented rate. This is transforming biomedical research into a big data discipline, where the main challenges relate to the analysis and interpretation of data into new biological knowledge. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for biomedical big data analytics, and apply it for analyzing transcriptomics time series data from early differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells towards the mesoderm and cardiac lineages. To this end, transcriptome profiling by microarray was performed on differentiating human pluripotent stem cells sampled at eleven consecutive days. The gene expression data was analyzed using the five-stage analysis framework proposed in this study, including data preparation, exploratory data analysis, confirmatory analysis, biological knowledge discovery, and visualization of the results. Clustering analysis revealed several distinct expression profiles during differentiation. Genes with an early transient response were strongly related to embryonic-and mesendoderm development, for example CER1 and NODAL. Pluripotency genes, such as NANOG and SOX2, exhibited substantial downregulation shortly after onset of differentiation. Rapid induction of genes related to metal ion response, cardiac tissue development, and muscle contraction were observed around day five and six. Several transcription factors were identified as potential regulators of these processes, e.g. POU1F1, TCF4 and TBP for muscle contraction genes. Pathway analysis revealed temporal activity of several signaling pathways, for example the inhibition of WNT signaling on day 2 and its reactivation on day 4. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of biological events and key regulators of the early differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells towards the mesoderm and cardiac lineages. The proposed analysis framework can be used to structure data analysis in future research, both in stem cell differentiation, and more generally, in biomedical big data analytics.

  • 28.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Boyes, Mark
    School of Psychology, Speech Pathology Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Joosten, Annette
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Is using the strengths and difficulties questionnaire in a community sample the optimal way to assess mental health functioning?2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikkel-id 0144039Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An important characteristic of a screening tool is its discriminant ability or the measure's accuracy to distinguish between those with and without mental health problems. The current study examined the inter-rater agreement and screening concordance of the parent and teacher versions of SDQ at scale, subscale and item-levels, with the view of identifying the items that have the most informant discrepancies; and determining whether the concordance between parent and teacher reports on some items has the potential to influence decision making. Cross-sectional data from parent and teacher reports of the mental health functioning of a community sample of 299 students with and without disabilities from 75 different primary schools in Perth, Western Australia were analysed. The study found that: a) Intraclass correlations between parent and teacher ratings of children's mental health using the SDQ at person level was fair on individual child level; b) The SDQ only demonstrated clinical utility when there was agreement between teacher and parent reports using the possible or 90% dichotomisation system; and c) Three individual items had positive likelihood ratio scores indicating clinical utility. Of note was the finding that the negative likelihood ratio or likelihood of disregarding the absence of a condition when both parents and teachers rate the item as absent was not significant. Taken together, these findings suggest that the SDQ is not optimised for use in community samples and that further psychometric evaluation of the SDQ in this context is clearly warranted.

  • 29.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    McAuliffe, Tomomi
    James Cook University, Townsville, Qld, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Should schools expect poor physical and mental health, social adjustment, and participation outcomes in students with disability?2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 5, s. 1-23, artikkel-id e0126630Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on whether students with disabilities have worse physical and mental health, social adjustment, and participation outcomes when compared to their peers without disabilities is largely inconclusive. While the majority of case control studies showed significantly worse outcomes for students with disabilities; the proportion of variance accounted for is rarely reported. The current study used a population cross-sectional approach to determine the classification ability of commonly used screening and outcome measures in determining the disability status. Furthermore, the study aimed to identify the variables, if any, that best predicted the presence of disability. Results of univariate discriminant function analyses suggest that across the board, the sensitivity of the outcome/screening tools to correctly identify students with a disability was 31.9% higher than the related Positive Predictive Value (PPV). The lower PPV and Positive Likelihood Ratio (LR+) scores suggest that the included measures had limited discriminant ability (17.6% to 40.3%) in accurately identifying students at-risk for further assessment. Results of multivariate analyses suggested that poor health and hyperactivity increased the odds of having a disability about two to three times, while poor close perceived friendship and academic competences predicted disability with roughly the same magnitude. Overall, the findings of the current study highlight the need for researchers and clinicians to familiarize themselves with the psychometric properties of measures, and be cautious in matching the function of the measures with their research and clinical needs.

  • 30.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Passmore, Anne
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Black, Melissa
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Cuomo, Belinda
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Belongingness in Early Secondary School: Key Factors that Primary and Secondary Schools Need to Consider2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 9, artikkel-id e0136053Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is unknown if, and how, students redefine their sense of school belongingness after negotiating the transition to secondary school. The current study used longitudinal data from 266 students with, and without, disabilities who negotiated the transition from 52 primary schools to 152 secondary schools. The study presents the 13 most significant personal student and contextual factors associated with belongingness in the first year of secondary school. Student perception of school belongingness was found to be stable across the transition. No variability in school belongingness due to gender, disability or household-socio-economic status (SES) was noted. Primary school belongingness accounted for 22% of the variability in secondary school belongingness. Several personal student factors (competence, coping skills) and school factors (low-level classroom task-goal orientation), which influenced belongingness in primary school, continued to influence belongingness in secondary school. In secondary school, effort-goal orientation of the student and perception of their school's tolerance to disability were each associated with perception of school belongingness. Family factors did not influence belongingness in secondary school. Findings of the current study highlight the need for primary schools to foster belongingness among their students at an early age, and transfer students' belongingness profiles as part of the handover documentation. Most of the factors that influenced school belongingness before and after the transition to secondary are amenable to change.

  • 31.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Passmore, Anne
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    The personal and contextual contributors to school belongingness among primary school students2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    School belongingness has gained currency among educators and school health professionals as an important determinant of adolescent health. The current cross-sectional study presents the 15 most significant personal and contextual factors that collectively explain 66.4% (two-thirds) of the variability in 12-year old students' perceptions of belongingness in primary school. The study is part of a larger longitudinal study investigating the factors associated with student adjustment in the transition from primary to secondary school. The study found that girls and students with disabilities had higher school belongingness scores than boys, and their typically developing counterparts respectively; and explained 2.5% of the variability in school belongingness. The majority (47.1% out of 66.4%) of the variability in school belongingness was explained by student personal factors, such as social acceptance, physical appearance competence, coping skills, and social affiliation motivation; followed by parental expectations (3% out of 66.4%), and school-based factors (13.9% out of 66.4%) such as, classroom involvement, task-goal structure, autonomy provision, cultural pluralism, and absence of bullying. Each of the identified contributors of primary school belongingness can be shaped through interventions, system changes, or policy reforms.

  • 32.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Centre for Research into Disability and Society, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, and School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Passmore, Anne Elizabeth
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Parkin, Timothy
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    School belongingness and mental health functioning across the primary-secondary transition in a mainstream sample: Multi-group cross-lagged analyses2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 6(e99576), s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between school belongingness and mental health functioning before and after the primary-secondary school transition has not been previously investigated in students with and without disabilities. This study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the bi-directional relationships between these constructs, by surveying 266 students with and without disabilities and their parents, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Cross-lagged multi-group analyses found student perception of belongingness in the final year of primary school to contribute to change in their mental health functioning a year later. The beneficial longitudinal effects of school belongingness on subsequent mental health functioning were evident in all student subgroups; even after accounting for prior mental health scores and the cross-time stability in mental health functioning and school belongingness scores. Findings of the current study substantiate the role of school contextual influences on early adolescent mental health functioning. They highlight the importance for primary and secondary schools to assess students' school belongingness and mental health functioning and transfer these records as part of the transition process, so that appropriate scaffolds are in place to support those in need. Longer term longitudinal studies are needed to increase the understanding of the temporal sequencing between school belongingness and mental health functioning of all mainstream students.

  • 33.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Centre for Research into Disability and Society, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    Passmore, Anne Elizabeth
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD.
    The impact of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence and mental health functioning across the primary-secondary school transition2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 1-13, artikkel-id e89874Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Students negotiate the transition to secondary school in different ways. While some thrive on the opportunity, others are challenged. A prospective longitudinal design was used to determine the contribution of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence (AC) and mental health functioning (MHF) of 266 students, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Data from 197 typically developing students and 69 students with a disability were analysed using hierarchical linear regression modelling. Both in primary and secondary school, students with a disability and from socially disadvantaged backgrounds gained poorer scores for AC and MHF than their typically developing and more affluent counterparts. Students who attended independent and mid-range sized primary schools had the highest concurrent AC. Those from independent primary schools had the lowest MHF. The primary school organisational model significantly influenced post-transition AC scores; with students from Kindergarten--Year 7 schools reporting the lowest scores, while those from the Kindergarten--Year 12 structure without middle school having the highest scores. Attending a school which used the Kindergarten--Year 12 with middle school structure was associated with a reduction in AC scores across the transition. Personal background factors accounted for the majority of the variability in post-transition AC and MHF. The contribution of school contextual factors was relatively minor. There is a potential opportunity for schools to provide support to disadvantaged students before the transition to secondary school, as they continue to be at a disadvantage after the transition.

  • 34.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Wilson, Nathan
    University of Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, CHILD. Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Sim, Angela
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Scott, Melissa
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjorn
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Factors associated with primary school teachers' attitudes towards the inclusion of students with disabilities2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 8, s. 1-12, artikkel-id e0137002Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Teachers' attitudes toward inclusion are often based on the practical implementation of inclusive education rather than a specific ideology and understanding of inclusiveness. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with primary school teachers' attitudes towards inclusion of students with all disabilities in regular schools.

    Method

    Seventy four primary school teachers participated in a cross-sectional survey conducted in Western Australia. Teachers' attitudes and efficacy toward integration of students with disabilities were measured using the Opinions Relative to Integration of Students with Disabilities scale and Bandura's Teacher Efficacy scale respectively.

    Results

    Four teacher attributes-age, gender, teaching self-efficacy and training collectively explained 42% of the variability in teachers' attitude toward including students with disabilities.

    Conclusion

    The current study further contributes to the accumulation of knowledge that can unpack the complex pattern of factors that should be considered to promote positive attitudes towards inclusive schools.

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