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  • 1.
    Abi-Khalil, Pierre
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Abdulahad, Zuhair
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Stadsutveckling i mellanstora städer: En studie om förtätning i centrala Norrköping ur ett socialt och ekologiskt perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Planners in Norrköping municipality today facing a challenge to meet Norrköping'sneeds in the housing market, while at the same time achieving demand for public places and areas such as parks, squares and nature areas. When existing areas within the city's borders are built, so-called densification takes place in the city, whichcan have both positive and negative consequences. The aim of this study is to investigatehow the densification has affected Norrköping's inner city from a social and ecologicalperspective with a focus on free space, and present proposals for measures forbetter management of the densification in central Norrköping.

    This study has mainly been carried out using a qualitative research method.A qualitative study is based on soft data such as interviews, document analysis and literature studies. The interviews have been conducted with respondents from Norrköpings municipality and the document analysis consists of steering documents obtained from Norrköpings municipality and Pontarius AB. Some data is obtained from documents and studies where results are presented in the form of tables, diagrams, figures and GIS analysis, which means that quantitative methods are also applied.

    To perform a safer densification, it is important that the municipality establishes safe guidelines and steering documents to relate to. These control documents should be used as a framework for efficient exploitation and ensure that the city's freeareas are developed from a sustainable perspective and that a good quality is includedin the development.

    It is advantageous that the development of the densification takes placeaccording to guidelines and documentation prepared by the municipality. To ensure maximum efficiency in exploitation, these guidelines should be followed at an early stage. It is also important that there is a balance of free space size and their quality. Too small a surface leads to a higher load and larger surfaces can be perceived as superfluousand a feeling of unsecure. It is recommended to study how the densification developsin connection with the infrastructure and how it will affect free and green areas in the long run.

    This study is limited to only the inner city of Norrköping. The study also delimits economic and political factors that can influence the planning of the densification and the development of the city’s infrastructure and public transport.

  • 2.
    Ahlander, Alfred
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Ekroth, Pontus
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Kommunikationsmodell för APD-plan vid användning av materialrutor och gångstråk2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: On-site construction is a complicated process. A temporary factory, with new zones for materials and workplace area must be established for each new project, which complicates the process further. Material management stands for a big saving opportunity in building projects and 40 % of the time lost on a construction site can be attributed to material management.  To overcome this waste connected to material management a well-processed logistics planning, god communication as well as experience feedback from previous projects is required. The aim for this thesis is therefore to identify improvement measure regarding the use of material-dedicated buffer zones and walking paths, and as well as create a model of communication that supports experience feedback.

    Method The thesis is a case study on two projects within the organization of NCC.  A qualitative data collection with literature review, interviews, document analysis and observation has been conducted. Semi-structured interviews have been conducted and includes seven respondents with different position within the construction industry.

    Findings: The thesis has produced factors that should be taken into consideration when material zones and walking paths are planned. The result shows that resources and structured processes are required if experience feedback should work during the construction project. To succeed with the use of material-dedicated buffer zones and walking paths, good communication of the construction site plan is needed. Furthermore, the thesis has resulted in a model of communication that supports experience feedback.  

    Implications: It’s during the purchase and delivery planning that the conditions for the material-dedicated buffer zones and walking paths are set, therefore the construction site planning should be involved more in this phase. A prerequisite for using dedicated material zones and walking paths are resources which supports the construction management with planning and performance. By using logistic resources within the organization facilitates planning and management of material at the construction site, enables that collected experience can be conveyed between projects. In the production there should be a responsible receiver of material deliveries, who is extra briefed in the constructions site plan and the material-dedicated buffer zones through continuous communication with the construction management and logistic resource.

    Limitations: Since the thesis only includes two building projects, there is a limitation of the factors and arguments that are treated. Although the result is based on two building projects the fundamental processes and course of events are similar and can therefore be applied on other building projects. 

  • 3.
    Ahlgren, Ahlgren
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Ekblad, Alexander
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Förvaltande byggherrars inställning till BIM2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4.
    Ahlstrand, Sanna
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Bender, Johanna
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Nordström, Linn
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    A more efficient way of building in a developing country, influenced by industrialized building: A case study in Leticia, Colombia2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:The purpose of this study is to approach a solution to reduce housing shortage, by using inspiration from an industrialized building concept, which can lead to the opportunity for underprivileged people to get a livable housing. The aim is to study how knowledge from industrialized building could be used for a more efficient way of building in developing countries similar to Colombia.

     

    Method:Utilizing literature studies for achieving abutment to published research also giving the authors an observant mind. With this knowledge, participatory observations were made as action research to explore the prevailing procedure when establishing a house. Operating analyzes, interviews were held in Leticia for understanding observed decisions. To be able to critically analyze the results from the interviews and observations, collected data were compared with knowledge based on the authors’ reference frames.

     

    Findings:Keystones identified as the overall concept are applicable on establishments in the western world, since the concept is designed after similar conditions. Capital is required designing a building system as well as establishing a factory for prefabrication of elements, conditions limited in developing countries. Climate conditions and prevailing corruption prevents implementation of the concept. Identified weaknesses during the observations, noted repetition of unnecessary and non-value adding activities. One conclusion is not to implement the entire industrial building system, only practice the mindset. Initially keystones are implemented such as planning, exchange of information and reflection of performed projects, in order to improve upcoming projects. These keystones require no direct capital, merely a mindset that should be implemented.

     

    Implications:The outcome of this study is to enlighten the subject, since obvious weaknesses were noticed, with capacity for development. Further research is realistic because, in a long term it will help solving the housing situation. For example, using this result as underlay for education like creating more efficient building, enlightening planning for reducing unnecessary non value-adding activities. As a conclusion of the study, identified weaknesses during the establishment affects the efficiency, creating unnecessary costs. A developing country should focus upon emphasizing reduction of costs, since their economic status is already declining.

     

    Limitations: The observations during the case study have been concentrating on one small-scaled project in Leticia, Colombia. No further observations have been made but complements such as literature studies and interviews. Due to lack of time and language barrier, the amount of collected empirical data was too limited to provide durable conclusions for question formulations. Since only observations were performed on one establishment, a general result cannot be submitted.

  • 5.
    Ahrenbeck, Linnea
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Holmström, Josefin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Varför vill inte fler vara skyddsombud på byggarbetsplatser?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: A stated problem in the construction industry is to recruit and keep safety officers. The lack of willing and engaged safety officers could result in lower safety at construction sites. The purpose of this report is to examine how the safety officers are currently experiencing their work environment and examine what can be changed to improve the situation. 

    The aim of this thesis is to find out what can be improved for more people to want to be a safety officer. This is examined by the main question: Why do not more people want to be a safety officer? The main question is answered by two sub-questions:

    • Which difficulties exists in the role as a safety officer? 
    • What changes needs to be done to improve the situation?

    Method: To reach the aim of the report a case study was performed. The case is Skanska Hus Väst and is limited to the profession safety officers. The method of investigation is interviews and questionnaires, which are qualitatively conducted. The interviews are conducted with the chief safety officers. The chief safety officers can see the broad picture of the situation since they continuously keep contact with all the construction sites in their district. The questionnaires are sent to all the local safety officers in all the districts in the entire region. 

    Findings: One reason for the lack of engaged safety officers is that they do not receive the necessary respect and response from their coworkers. It makes them feel alone. There is no acceptance for safety work and the time that is needed, which give the safety officers a bad conscience when they are forced to leave their work partner. To improve the situation the safety officer’s must receive more respect from their coworkers. Knowledge and acceptance concerning safety must be improved among all workers on the construction site. The safety officers need to feel that they can, and are allowed to, influence the project. 

    Implications: To solve the problem the current safety officer’s situation must be improved. If the existing safety officers are pleased they will give a positive picture of the role to their coworkers, the potential new safety officers. The safety officers’ situation can be improved by the points that follows:

    • The safety officers must receive more respect from others in the construction site. 
    • The safety officers should advantageously be placed separate from the time plan of the project.
    • The safety officers should be involved in an earlier stage of the project. 

    Limitations: The report has been limited to only examining the role of the safety officer and their own perspective. The views of safety officers from the perspective of other roles at the construction site has been omitted from the thesis. The report does not investigate how to perform the changes.

  • 6.
    Alizadehsalehi, Sepehr
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Civil Engineering Department, Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkey.
    Yitmen, Ibrahim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Civil Engineering Department, Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkey.
    Celik, Tolga
    Civil Engineering Department, Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkey.
    Arditi, David A.
    Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, United States.
    The effectiveness of an integrated BIM/UAV model in managing safety on construction sites2018In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. A variety of approaches exist to achieve better construction safety performance, but only a few consider a combination of building information modeling (BIM) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

    Method. This article presents a four-dimensional (4D) BIM/UAV-enabled safety management model based on IDEF0 language. In the first step, potential hazards are identified with the help of safety specialists’ experiences and BIM software used in the design of the structure. Then, a UAV monitors the location of the potential hazards. The third step involves the integration of the 4D BIM-based model and the information obtained from the UAV. Finally, the combined data are analyzed and interpreted, and site safety staff are notified about measures to be put in place to prevent accidents.

    Results. This model shows a strong relationship between the design and construction phases by using BIM in the design phase and UAVs in the construction phase. The proposed safety model was evaluated by construction safety specialists in a two-pronged approach.

    Conclusion. The number of fatal, non-fatal and property damage-causing accidents may be significantly lower when the proposed system was used.

    Practical application. This model allows safety specialists to identify hazards and develop suitable mitigation strategies. 

  • 7.
    Alklid, Erik
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Finnander, Jakob
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Arbetsmiljömodell för byggarbetsmiljösamordnare på små byggföretag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 8.
    Alsterlund, Karin
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Andler, Fanny
    Jönköping University.
    Hantering av oanvänt byggmaterial på byggarbetsplatser2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The construction industry generates over 100 million ton of waste every year. When it comes to sustainability there is focus on material type, energy use, indoor climate, transports and waste. There are different certification systems that can be used to classify the buildings. In those certification systems there are no requirements on unused building material. 13 percent of the waste contains unused material. Unused material means material and products that are ordered to the construction site but is not used in the construction. The goal with the project is to analyse how to reduce the amount of unused material that goes to waste on big construction companies in Sweden.

    Method: This thesis is done through a qualitative study with the methods of literature study, document analysis and interviews. The literature study showed the current research front. Document analysis and interviews provided information about the companies sustainable goals, ethical regulations and working methods.

    Findings: The thesis shows that unused material occurs because of difficulties to quantify material because of the tight time schedule and not wanting to risk getting downtime in the production. The material gets damaged when it is handled on the construction site. The material is disposed to follow the ethical requirements of the company but is not in line with the sustainability goals. All interview responders agreed on the need of change to achieve the goal. The company has a working method where the trucks drive the material to a terminal and then out to the construction when it is time for the material to be used. This method could be used to minimize the disposal. Better communication between the projects would help unused material to be taken care of in a different project. The problem is that since it is different owners of the material depending on the purchase of contract it is not always easy to handle the material between the projects. To sell the unused material has been discussed before in the company but because of the lack of space and resource consumption it is problematic. Material also get damaged from the weather, but the lack of space is the reason why a tent not is a good solution.

    Implications: In order to reduce the occurrence of unused material, BIM, Lean, prefabrication and terminal management can be used. The materials that become unused can be taken care of in a different project, better communication between the projects will reduce material disposal.

    Limitations: The thesis is only theoretically analysing how to reduce disposal of unused material. No measures of time or economical aspects has been analysed. The work does not consider material like waste, consumables or material that are useable after demolishes. The result is useful in larger companies since smaller companies do not have the same problematics.

    Keywords: Building Information Modeling, BIM, disposal,  durability, environment, environmental objectives,  ethical rules, Lean Construction, material handling,  material waste, terminal management, unused building materials, waste and energy loss reduction.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Felix
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Partnering bland små och medelstora entreprenader2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10.
    Aronsson, Linus
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Integrerat brounderhåll2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Trafikverket is responsible for the public traffic network in Sweden. The traffic

    network contains around 15 500 bridges that constantly are exposed of different

    kinds of degradation. The bridges must therefore be maintained at regular

    intervals both to keep bridges in good condition and to prevent the degradation

    accelerated.

    During the last years Trafikverket has developed a new procurement method of

    bridge maintenance. The method involves that all bridges maintenance of a region

    is being bundled to one contract that an entrepreneur handles for five years, a socalled

    bridge maintenance package. A bridge maintenance package exists of

    preventive maintenance, remedial maintenance and emergency maintenance.

    The purpose of this paper is to follow up the new form to procure bridge

    maintenance in package. The goal is to clarify the gains or losses made in

    efficiency since the introduction of bridge maintenance in package.

    Methods used in the creating of this thesis are literary studies, meetings and

    interviews along with analysis, calculations and comparisons.

    The result lays the foundation for the client, contractor and consultant working in

    the bridge maintenance package and further what has changed from the way they

    were working on bridge maintenance earlier.

    The largest efficiency gains are administrative. Because a bridge maintenance

    package is a turnkey contract the majority of responsibility is put on the

    contractor, instead of the client, which gives the client time for other tasks.

    Nowadays the bridge maintenance is in a separate contract which lasts for a longer

    time which gives the client a more qualified contractor for that kind of work

    which is reducing the number of fundamental questions and gives the client extra

    time. The contractor will get more operating freedom and at the same time more

    time to plan maintenance work. Through frequent communication between client

    and contractor decision-making paths becomes shorter which gives more

    efficiency throughout the entire process.

    The package in the region Skaraborg was one of the first bridge maintenance

    packages and it differs a lot from later maintenance packages. The biggest

    difference is in the contract documents. The package in Skaraborg was based on a

    fictional bridge while the more recent maintenance packages documents addresses

    the real action which the contractor will perform during the contracted period.

  • 11.
    Arveståhl, Beatrice
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Lehtinen, Susan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    UTREDNING KRING TOLKNINGEN AV ”LITEN AVVIKELSE”2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In Sweden, a municipal plan monopoly is used to regulate what, how and where you can or cannot build. How the plans, in the shape of comprehensive and detailed development plans, are formed is in turn regulated by the Planning and Building Act (PBL). Throughout history, Swedish building regulations have gone through many more or less extensive changes with the overall goal to improve our built environment and simplify or streamline the planning and building processes. From this comes the term small deviation, which in PBL is used to allow building permits that deviate from the detailed development plan, provided that the deviation is small. There is, however, no explanation in the law as to what this might mean in practice, and so there are large differences in terms of interpretation and application.

    The goal of this study is to analyse how the term small deviation according to PBL, chapter 9 § 31b is interpreted and applicated in building permit trials.

    Method: The methods used in this study are interviews (with building permit officers) and document analysis (of building permit decisions from quarter two, 2016, and court cases from the Land and Environment Court of Appeal).

    Findings: How deviations are interpreted does indeed vastly differ, and while the municipalities do work in a similar manner to determine whether a deviation could be considered small, there are significant differences. Only in the matter of built area on a property, the three studied municipalities all have different practices in what size of violation may be considered small, and the building permit officers in one of these municipalities still deviate from this. In eight out of 13 court cases, the Land and Environment Court of Appeal judged differently from the previous authorities. Only in one did all authorities agree.

    Implications: The findings implicate the following:

    • There are remarkable differences in how small deviation is assessed.

    • De biggest differences are between the local building permit officers and the Land and Environment Court of Appeal.

    • The factors that affect the assessment on a municipal level the most are experience, precedent cases and discussion with colleagues.

    Limitations: A wider study containing more information from several municipalities and an analysis of the material accessible to the municipalities for guidance to assess deviations would provide a clearer answer as to what affects the interpretation.

    Keywords: PBL, Planning and Building Act, building permits, law interpretation, interpretation, deviation, small deviation, deviation from detailed development plan, sensemaking, the Land and Environment Court of Appeal 

  • 12.
    Berglund, Angela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Holtz, Tina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Ledarskap för ökad effektivitet i byggproduktion2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The population of Sweden is steadily increasing, which raises the need for new infrastructure and new buildings. To meet these demands the construction industry must become more efficient. According to several researchers, better leadership can be a part of accomplishing this. Discussions regarding leadership are mostly from the leaders’ perspective and usually the decisions about what kind of leadership is needed is made by the leaders themselves. Not very often do the followers get a chance to share their thoughts on what they need to become more efficient. Earlier research shows a correlation between motivation and efficiency. Therefore, this study attempt to find out what motivates construction workers.

    This study intended to examine what type of leadership construction workers think they need to become more efficient. The study’s aim was to contribute knowledge about how leadership can increase the efficiency on the construction site.

    Method: Two methods for data collection were used. A literary review based on effective leadership and interviews with construction workers about their thoughts on what type of leadership would increase their motivation and efficiency.

    Findings: This study has, by answering the research questions, contributed knowledge about how leadership can increase the efficiency on the construction site. The construction workers are of the opinion that their leaders have a big impact on their efficiency. The leaders’ knowledge and experience of the production phase as well as their ability to communicate and plan ahead were all seen as factor that affect their efficiency.

    The literary review for this study found 23 effective leadership traits. According to the construction workers the leadership skills that contribute the most to their motivation and efficiency are humility, relationship-management, and self-awareness.

    Connecting the construction workers responses to the efficient leadership theories showed that the most relevant theories for increasing the workers motivation and efficiency are Transformational and Servant Theory. The theory of Servant is the most relevant since it focuses on the followers.

    Implications: To increase the efficiency one must focus on the people in the industry. By changing the leadership based on the construction workers' opinions their efficiency can be increased. Therefore, it is recommended that leaders on the construction site work with the leadership theories Transformational and Servant and that they develop the effective leadership traits, especially the traits the construction workers find most important.

    Limitations: This study was limited to the leadership from the site supervisor to the construction workers. The focus was on what type of leadership the construction workers wanted to become more motivated and efficient. Furthermore, the study was limited to four leadership theories and effective leadership traits.

    Keywords: Efficiency, motivation, effective leadership traits, Contingency Theory, Transformational Theory, Transactional Theory, and Servant Theory.

  • 13.
    Björling, Johan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Fransson, Daniel
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Ett utvecklande och kunskapsdelnde förättringsarbete i prefabindustrin: med stöd av Lean och Knowledge management2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The industry is still struggling with reoccurring deficits regarding quality and has therefore began to pay attention what benefits that comes with an industrial building process. With industrial building processes the companies using it can let the workers be in charge of their work processes that they find themselves in and thus help to improve and standardise them. A concept that fits these conditions very well is The Toyota production system (TPS), also known as Lean production. In the year 2016 several studies were made that showed that among Lean working construction companies it was the reach for higher quality and standardised working processes that was prioritized. Lean production and its processes contains a lot of information- and knowledge transfers and may be hard to practice in a company. Therefore further studies on how to implement these principles and tools properly are recommended.

    The aim with this study is to analyse how companies in the precast industry who works with Lean can evolve their continuous improvement process in the production process.  

    Method: This report is a qualitative case study accomplished at Ulricehamns Betong AB. The chosen methods on how to collect data are literature studies, participating observations, semi-structured interviews and document analysis.

    Findings: From the analysis of this study some problems in the improvement process could be identified, but also how they could be improved and how they could be more knowledge sharing. It was shown that the will to participate in the improvement process did varied a lot among the co-workers. A common attitude for the importance of the improvement process is needed for the continuous development, something that can be more encouraged by the organisation. Through the implementation of a mentor the company can ensure that the production process is more standardised.

    Implications: The number one thing that is most important for an evolving and knowledge sharing improvement process is that the co-workers stay motivated to participate. To motivate them, the status of individual knowledge should be raised and heard. Furthermore they should have access to continuous improvement meetings or other forums where they can exchange experiences and ideas.

    Limitations: The case study has been accomplished at a company that are using the Lean concept. The study limits to only study the improvement process in the production process of precast concrete elements. Furthermore the study is focused on how one specific company uses their improvement process and not how other companies uses theirs.

  • 14.
    Blom, Martina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Landstedt, Sara
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Granskning av 3D-printingens möjligheter vid utformning av byggnader2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There is today limitations of what is possible to design and in fact produce.

    In industrial construction the focus is on standardization which impedes an individual

    design form, which can be considered an architectural quality. The potential of 3Dprinting

    is growing, which is benefitting design freedom.

    The goal was to evaluate how 3D-printing in Sweden today could increase architects

    possibilities at the design process and be production adapted.

    Method: In a case study at Tengbom in Jönköping, interviews were included with three

    architects. In addition, a literature review, a telephone interview and a focus group

    interview formed the basis of the collected material. As an initial phase, a focus group

    interview was conducted, which resulted in the actors’ opinions about 3D-printing. The

    architect interviews contributed with high credibility regarding architectural qualities,

    which together with the other collection methods gave answers to the studies questions.

    Findings: The study shows that it is possible to print building components in Sweden.

    However it is not possible, with 3D-printing, to produce entire buildings. It can be

    shown that there are obstacles for the introduction of the technology, such as economy,

    Swedish laws and lack of knowledge. These should be reviewed to allow 3D-printing

    as a manufacturing method. With Rapid Ornament Production larger architectural

    qualities will conduce to, where 3D-printing allows unique solutions. Solutions no other

    technology can achieve.

    Implications: Customized and varied buildings can be achieved thanks to 3D-printing.

    Building components such as light weight walls, ornaments and details can be produced

    in Sweden today. One advantage of 3D-printing as a technology, is that it provides

    greater freedom between design and production. For further development of 3Dprinting

    a greater knowledge is recommended for industry stakeholders, regarding the

    drawing tools as well as the 3D-printing technology.

    Limitations: The result is applicable to architects, working at architectural offices

    similar to Tengbom in Jönköping. There have not been deeper studies regarding of

    printing technologies, finances, materials, time or law. A case study as research strategy

    entails an interpretation of the opinions, which limits the generalization of the results.

    Keywords: 3D-printing, design, production, architectural qualities, possibilities,

    limitations, industrial construction.

  • 15.
    Bolling, Julia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Hellqvist, My
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Kommunikationsmodell mellan platschef och arbetsledare: För att hantera hinder inom interpersonell kommunikation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this report is to analyze how the communication between a site manager and a supervisor in the construction industry can be developed. Communication is a strong influencing factor for the success of a construction project and an effective communication process results in an increased productivity and decreased failure rates, which saves both time and money.

    Method: Since this report deals with complex interpersonal conjunctions, a qualitative approach was selected. Individual interviews and observations constitutes the empirical data. Participant observations was implemented to verify that the information collected from the interviews aligned with reality and to strengthen the credibility. A combination of the theoretical framework and collected empirical data resulted in a communication model.

    Findings: Interpersonal communication is affected by personal characteristics such as prior knowledge and experiences, hindrances that complicates the communication and tools that can be used to bridging communication barriers between the parties. Stress, time pressure, misunderstandings and personality clashes are factors that hinder an effective communication. Tools to use are check questions, reformulation, clear dividing of responsibilities, education, clear directives from the company directorate and to see the coworker as an active communicator instead of a passive receiver. Where the latter is achieved by creating dialogue which creates a feeling of participation and commitment of the employee. The communication between the site manager and the supervisor should be verbal and supported by writing where the writing should be through e-mail since it simplifies the possibility to look back at previous information.

    Implications: Communication problems between site manager and supervisor depends largely on the fact that the daily working situation on a construction site is stressful, the absence of time for structured communication combined with the majority of the communication between the parties being oral contributes to an ineffective communication process. By working according to the developed model the communication between the site manager and the supervisor can evolve. Suggestions for further research is to examine how the communication model can be implemented in the work at a construction site and what results would derive of it.

    Limitations: The study is limited to the fact that all interviews were conducted with representatives from the construction section at NCC Jönköping. The level of communication studied is interpersonal communication. The study is generally adaptable to other companies and industries.

    Keywords: Communication, hindrances, site manager, supervisor

  • 16.
    Borg, Robert
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Sperling, Jakob
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    BIMS PÅVERKAN PÅ TIDIGARE ARBETSMETODER2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Digitalization has progressed with big steps in the recent decades. This has been reflected in the construction industry where “Building Information Modeling” has been implemented. The implementation has entailed some complications for designers, existing established working methods are opposed to new software and digital instruments. There are also differences in skills between the designers who have worked long in the industry and those who are newly graduates. Those who have a long working experience do not have as high digital competence as the newly graduated but they have a much broader practical knowledge. The purpose of the study is to analyze how the implementation of BIM has affected constructors about their professional/technical competence and to develop measures to increase the digital competence so that constructors can fully utilize their professional competence.

    Method: The method used in this study is interviews. The study will be carried out through qualitative methods where the interviews are semi-structured. Several interviews have been conducted at two consulting offices in Uddevalla and Trollhättan. The interviewees are constructors with experience of construction before BIM and constructors with experience of BIM from their education.

    Findings: The study shows what factors that have contributed to difficulties in the working method BIM. Digitalization in general has affected the workflow that constructors carry out because they replace old habits. The construction industry is constantly changing, and older constructors can adapt to the system by training. This creates difficulties, which means that they require help from employees with a better digital competence. A higher digital competence is necessary to keep up with the incubation. Therefore, through good leadership, you should help older constructors, this is done by motivating them to learn how to use software to design, communicate and organize.

    Implications: There is a lack of digital competence in several constructors without education of BIM. There are also complications between constructors due to differences in skills and different perspectives on their problem solving. The study proposes that a BIM-coordinator is needed to steer the implementation of BIM in the right direction in a company and that a broader investigation must be carried out.

    Limitations: The report’s survey method was only limited to one company in addition to two offices, which meant that the perspective in the study was limited. The study focuses more on identifying the problem and finding a solution to the problem, it does not focus on how the measures should be carried out and what consequences this would have on a company.

  • 17.
    Bosch, Petra
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Linderoth, Henrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Hinder och drivkrafter för BIM i medelstora entreprenadföretag. SBUF-rapport 130692016Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Bosch-Sijtsema, Petra
    et al.
    Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, division Construction Management, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Department of Technology Management and Economics, division of Innovation and R&D Management, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Linderoth, Henrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Barriers and facilitators for BIM use among Swedish medium-sized contractors: We wait until someone tells us to use it2017In: Visualization in Engineering, ISSN 2213-7459, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The pace of diffusion of BIM (Building Information Modelling) use is considered to increase with governmentalinitiatives in which public clients in countries like Finland, Singapore, United Kingdom, and Sweden begin requiring BIM as apart of the project delivery. Currently, larger contractor firms use BIM to a certain extent. However, BIM use by mid-sizedcontractor firms (that is, firms with 50–500 employees that can successfully compete with larger contractors on projects costinga maximum of 50 million Euros) is relatively unknown. Hence, the aim of the paper is to explore current use and perceivedconstraints and driving forces of BIM-implementation with respect to mid-sized contractors.

    Methods: A mixed method approach was applied, and data was collected through an interview study and a survey involvingchief executive officers or their closest sub-ordinates in mid-sized contractor firms in Sweden. The survey was based on atechnology-, organization-, and environment framework that is used in information systems research to study the use of inter-organizational information systems. The total population of firms in the survey corresponded to 104. The study presented thepreliminary results based on 32 answers (with a 31% response rate).

    Results: Fifty-eight percent of the surveyed respondents stated that they had been involved in a project in which BIM wasused in some manner. The most commonly used application included visualization, which also facilitates coordination andcommunication. The biggest perceived constraints involved partners that did not use BIM, lack of demand from clients, andthe absence of internal demand in the company. With respect tothe two last obstacles, significant differences existedbetween users and non-users. The most common perceived driving forces included the fact that BIM is perceived as ameans to follow technical development and that BIMprovides competitive advantages to the company.

    Conclusions: It is concluded that the main driver responsible for BIM-implementation is mainly determined by anindividual’s subjective positive or negative evaluation of BIM, instead of external pressure from clients and partners or by theinternal capacity and knowledge to use BIM.

  • 19.
    Bucht, Caroline
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Korhonen, Joanna
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Kommunikation och kunskap för minskad energiförbrukning under produktionsfasen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The study addresses energy consumption in the production phase and focuses on how communication about energy consumption can reduce it. Most focus is currently on reducing the energy consumption of a building during the operation phase, while there is a lack of focus on the energy consumption in the production phase. One of the biggest difficulties with sustainable development in the construction industry is that each project is unique, making it difficult for parties involved to learn from previous experiences and share knowledge between different projects and actors, thereby increasing the importance of a working communication. The aim of this study is therefore to reduce the environmental impact of the construction phase concerning energy consumption, by improving communication between parties involved.

    Method: This study is performed as a case study for a specific project at one of the largest construction and property development companies in Sweden. Methods to answer the questions of the study and gather empirical data are literature studies, document analysis and interviews with parties involved in the production phase.

    Findings: Since most of the communication is handled centrally and there is an uncertainty about whose responsibility the environmental issue is during a project, it becomes a personalized question and depending on the personal interest for the environment and sustainability is for the people involved. The results show that there is currently a lack of focus on the energy consumption during the production phase. The drying of the concrete structure is the phase with the highest energy consumption and therefore has the greatest potential for reducing its carbon dioxide emissions.

    Implications: The study shows that personal interest for the environment, prioritization and allocation of resources can reduce energy consumption during a project. By including this in the QHSE-coordinator's tasks, implies in addressing the issue and energy savings can be made.

    Limitations: The study is limited to major contractors and only studies the energy consumption from the work stages foundation, framing and lock up in the production phase of a site-built concrete frame. The study does not therefore consider the energy consumption of the temporary factory. Respondents to the interviews have been selected based on expertise and involvement in energy efficiency at the construction site.

  • 20.
    Caan, Adam
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Altun, Jonny
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Nya Plan- och bygglagen 2010:900, En konsekvensgranskning av ändringarna i planbeskedet och bygglovsprocessen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is about the new Planning and Building Act 2010: 900 (PBL). The new act became effective on May 2 2011. The legislative changes intended to make the rules and processes concerning environmental building more efficient. According to the new provisions of PBL, there is no a right to private initiative to plan clearance. For building permits and building inspection, a series of changes occurred. Today there is a two stage building control, a building permit stage and a structural engineering control stage. A new provision of the act provides that the processing of building permits shall not exceed a maximum of 10 weeks. In addition, the duty of the control officer has been extended and all control officers must now be certified. The new PBL also includes the right to receive a starting statement that determines when a construction may commence. A mandatory construction site visit by the local housing committee has been introduced.

    This report aims to examine the effects of the plan announcement and building permit process. By demonstrating the effects there can be an increase in knowledge and understanding for future studies.

    The information in this report comes from both secondary data like reports, manuals, and Internet, as well as primary data from interviews with municipalities in the county of Jönköping, Sweden. The exam is a local survey and isn’t general for the whole country because there is a chance that the close distances between the municipalities can enable information exchange about work methods.

    The result of the studies that has been undertaken shows that the effects of the new PBL are similar between municipalities regardless of the different conditions. The changes have greatly served its purpose of streamlining the planning and building permission sector. Plan announcement means that there is a clear decision, better dialogue between the contractor and the municipality and that there are opportunities for saving resources. The 10 week limit for handling building permits has made the building permit process more effective. Starting clearance and construction visit means that the building controls have tightened.

    The non-requirement building permit constructions, the Attefallshouses, means more work for administrators because many developers deficiencies with problematic documents. This has created inefficiency. The new rule about broader announcement for the public has also created more administrative work for the administrators at the municipality.

    The problems that may arise are not necessarily due to the legislation itself, but also depends on the people who will implement the new provisions of the work.

  • 21.
    Cerek, Stefan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Zaklan, Amer
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Loggbokshantering angående byggmaterial inom byggbranschen med hjälp av digitala verktyg2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Today, there is no law in Sweden that material documentation must be carried out at new constructions. The advantages of providing material documentation also called logbook is that it creates an opportunity to trace health or environmentally hazardous substances in the buildings. Studies have shown that some substances are identified as hazardous to health or the environment over time. The logbook's advantages have led to the government giving the housing and construction authority the task of drafting a proposition on requirements for carrying out material documentation for new buildings. The difficulty with the current system and the current procedure is that no standardized approach exists on how a logbook should be conducted. The aim of the work is to make a study on how documentation and management of logbooks is done. Based on the studies then come up with an alternative procedure.

    Method: The work has a qualitative approach and is implemented in combination with three qualitative methods; literature study, interviews and document analysis. The literature study provided information and knowledge about the area in question, which also led to the qualitative interviews being conducted in a proper manner. The respondents work in larger companies in the construction industry with quality, environment and work environment issues and production. The document analysis provided information and knowledge to implement the interviews and to answer the study’s questions.

    Findings: Based on the gathered material, the management of the logbook takes places in different types of digital systems. The current working method is done by using a system or using different systems at the same time, which can result in a non-optimal working procedure. Therefore, the construction industry is demanding a standardized system. Improvement potential exists in today's working procedure with the logbook. By digitizing the working method in combination with the three different digital tools, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Blockchain, the defects can be avoided.

    Implications: Consensus is needed among the various participants in the construction industry regarding which system they should use to keep the logbook at desired quality. The already available digital tools that can be used to facilitate the work process and logbook is not fully used at the moment.

    Limitations: The references and theories used in the work are from different parts of the world. These were used to see how they might be applied in the Swedish construction industry. The logbook type that has been investigated is aimed at building materials and its containing substances. The study has not investigated whether the various digital tools can be used in practice only in theory. 

  • 22.
    Crafoord, Madeleine
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Hedberg, Gabriella
    Jönköping University.
    Informationsflöde inom prefabprocessen: Hur kan Derome Träteknik effektivisera informationsflödet från konstruktion till produktion?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to investigate how the information flow at an off-site fabrication is working, from design-stage to production. More specifically, it focus on identifying effective and ineffective parts in the information flow, along with improvement opportunities to optimize the personnel’s daily work.

    Since the authors had no knowledge about where the problems in the information flow at the company was, they were not able to create a theoretical framework before the case study was made. The case study involved observation and interviews. The observation was made to identify the process and information flow at the company. The interviews were made to get the knowledge about the personnel’s opinion and to locate where the problems in the information flow occurred. With the case study as a base the theoretical framework could be made with a literature study.

    The problem areas that emerged from the case study are all mainly based from the lack of time. This is partly due to the time-consuming activities such as manual handling in the making of production technical drawing and revision of planning documents. The improvement proposal the authors present is to upgrade the computer-aided design software and to implement a planning system. The authors also consider the lack of time as a reason for shortcomings in the communication. The improvement proposal the authors present for this is to keep the personal contact and to supplement it with a system.

    The study intends to contribute with knowledge about how an information flow at an off-site fabrication may look like. It reinforces theories about why it is important to keep the personal communication when a system upgrade are implemented. The study has also contributed in proposals in which parts of the information flow that have potential to become more effective at an off-site fabrication.

    The study was limited to an off-site fabrication and only the information flow between design-stage and production was included in the study. No economic aspects were considered and only one company has participated in the study.

  • 23.
    Edstrand, Gustav
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Engberg, Jacob
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Analys av centralt beslutad extern tredjepartslogistik i Vallastaden: En fallstudie gällande värdeskapande för byggentreprenörens logistikverksamhet2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: External logistics coordination was decided after a long procurement process while parts of the project Vallastaden already started construction. The external logistics company creates and implements a logistics solution in a short time. The municipality has no formal connection requirements on developers, but has transferred to the third-party logistics to contract with the developers.

    The goal is to examine how the implementation of the external solution contract affects residential building and how an external third-party logistics solution works value creation for the building contractor.

    Method: For data collection observation and interviews have been used as methods of work.

    Findings: In order to create favourable condition for a builder and/or contractor in the implementation of a centrally decided external third party logistics solution requires: 

    • Early involvement of third-party logistics contractor in the planning stage with the motto "first and last on site"
    • Clear and well-developed conditions for procurement of connectivity requirements, and the possibility of adaptation of the technical solution according to the customer identified needs.
    • Open and continuous dialogue at all levels within the organizational structure.

    Implications: The complexity of how building projects should plan their logistics allows a handling of the issue at an early stage in the project is crucial. If the potential of the third party logistics for construction projects should be used needs to be early dialogue between the parties involved which the project's conditions have to control how the service should be designed.

    Limitations: The problem area and the number of actors involved in the external third-partylogistics make it difficult to pinpoint exact events that contributed to the situation has become in Vallastaden. The authors have not found the source of why it has been difficult to implement third-party logistics solution at an early stage in Vallastaden. What emerged during the process is that it needs to be sought answers higher up in the organizational structure of Vallastaden, but there is work boundaries made this a priority away and therefore not addressed in this report.

    Selected methods aimed solely at Skanska role in Vallastaden. Alternative viewpoints from different developers and construction contractors in Vallastaden has partly been highlighted in logistics meetings. It is important to point out that the work contains only a limited number of viewpoints on centrally approved third party logistics based on the many actors who are part of the project Vallastaden.

  • 24.
    Eivindson, Espen
    et al.
    Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    Innvær, Berner E.
    Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    Kolberg, Elisabeth
    Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    Merschbrock, Christoph
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    Rolfsen, Christian Nordahl
    Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    Inefficiencies in Norwegian small-scale construction, or the problem of too long trucks?2017In: Procedia Engineering, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 196, p. 543-549Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “When the truck arrived at the construction site it could not unload the material because it [the truck] was too long, we had to send it away […], this happens all the time in Oslo where we have to build on very small plots.” (Carpenter, Oslo). As the quote illustrates, inefficiencies and resulting low productivity remain a challenge for today’s small construction businesses. While the reasons for inefficiencies are not completely understood, various techniques for project planning and control have proven their practical value in mitigating them. Lean construction has been articulated as one of the concepts that can solve inefficiency problems. The national initiative “Lean construction Norway” initiated by government, academia, and industry, seeks to diffuse lean production principles in the construction industry. However, small to medium sized contractors remain largely excluded from the innovative practices. This article sets out to study what a small Norwegian contractor enforcing lean concepts in addressing construction inefficienciesmay gain. Ingrained in the concept of muda we exemplify waste related to waiting, overproduction, defects, inventory, motion, over processing, and transporting. We ran a case study in a small industry standard type of residential project executed by a small contractor. Data were collected based on a series of qualitative interviews conducted with the on-site personnel. The findings illustrate a variety of inefficiencies resulting in low productivity. We expect that management inspired by lean principles in conjunction with modern planning methods such as building information modelling may improve project delivery in Norwegian small-scale construction.

  • 25.
    Emelie, Vållberg
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Emelie, Wilhelmsson
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Arbetsmiljö - Utredning av efterlevnad avordnings- och skyddsregler påbyggarbetsplatsen2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A construction site is an unsafe work environment where incidents and accidentshappens frequently even when the working environment is controlled by thegovernments regulation to prevent a poor working situation. To prevent accidentsand incidents to occur the rules of regulation and safety is an important tool in thestruggle to achieve an acceptable level.

    The purpose of the examination report is to examine the construction companyPeab in general due to compliance rate with the rules of regulation and safety onthe construction site to reduce accidents and incidents.

    By breaking down the objective into an achievable goals three questions werecreated and they are about the compliance with the rules of regulation and safety,the use of facilities and physical fitness, and improvement opportunities toenhance compliance with rules of regulation and safety.

    The used methods are literature review, case study, questionnaire survey andinterviews. The largest part of the report is the survey and the other methods arecomplementary investigation.

    The report shows that a low compliance level of the rules of regulation and safetyis mostly depending on the lack of communication between supervisors andcraftsmen but there are other reason such as attitudes, managerial and leadershipthat affects compliance. Both craftsmen and supervisors have admitted that theyare not always complying with the regulations that exist in the workplace. Toimprove the situation some solutions are proposed which are improving themanagement and leadership that can motivate and communicate information in aclear manner, which means a communication improvement. In order to changeindividual behavior and group cultures, companies can use social models thatgradually change an incorrect behavior.

    At every workplace there should exist means to facilitate certain steps but they arenot used as much as they could be. The survey shows that this is mainly due totime pressure that encourage creation of short cuts to save time and that thedevice is not available at the moment when its needed. Peab offers its employees’health care benefits to protect the physical health when it is required a certainphysique to cope with steps in the production. The results show that this is notutilized to the extent which is required even though the survey shows that mostemployees are aware of the benefits that are offered.

    It is important that all employees understand the meaning with the rules ofregulation and safety in order to influence their working environment to become asafer workplace.

  • 26.
    Eriksson, Elin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Hansson, Emelie
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Minskning av energiförbrukningen: I ett flerbostadshus från miljonprogrammet2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 27.
    Eriksson, Viktor
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Hansson, Rebecca
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    DIGITALA VERKTYG I BYGGPRODUKTION: HUR ANVÄNDANDET KAN ÖKA2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28.
    Erkul, Mehmet
    et al.
    Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Civil Engineering, Famagusta, North Cyrus.
    Yitmen, Ibrahim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Department of Civil Engineering, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Cyprus.
    Celik, Tahir
    Cyprus International University, Department of Civil Engineering, Nicosia, North Cyprus.
    Dynamics of stakeholder engagement in mega transport infrastructure projects2019In: International Journal of Managing Projects in Business/Emerald, ISSN 1753-8378, E-ISSN 1753-8386, ISSN 1753-8378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the practice of stakeholder engagement as a social network dynamics for stakeholder satisfaction and project success in the lifecycle of mega transport infrastructure projects (MTIPs).

    Design/methodology/approach – Hypotheses indicating the positive relationships between stakeholders’ effective attributes, stakeholder engagement as social network dynamics and project success through stakeholders’ satisfaction have been developed. Based on a questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews, responses have been gathered from the representative groups and organizations on their social network dynamics for their satisfaction and project success. A hypothesized structural equation model has been tested using AMOS statistical software package.

    Findings – The analysis highlighted the engagement of the stakeholders within the strategic intents of the project with the public needs and expectations. The model depicts the processes of building social network models based on the capturing of the project’s data in relation to the stakeholders’ communication and satisfaction across the key issues for success in the lifecycle of MTIP.

    Practical implications – The model is applicable on most MTIP with a diverse stakeholder base and the underlying complexity associated with the community participation and consultation processes. The model will also support wider stakeholder engagement in the planning of MTIP with optimal operationalization and service delivery from a community perspective.

    Originality/value – The research involves an approach for rationalizing the stakeholder engagement policies of the MTIPs by providing an empirically grounded model simultaneously linking various aspects of stakeholder effective attributes, stakeholder engagement and their relationships to stakeholder satisfaction and project success in MTIPs.

  • 29.
    Fransson, Tom
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Petersmo, Kalle
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Framgångsfaktorer för hantering av Ändrings-, Tilläggs- & Avgående arbeten (ÄTA) inom renovering och ombyggnadsprojekt2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Purpose: Alteration labour, additional labour and retiring labour are the sort of extra work that the contractor can add in addition to the original order. The management of this type of construction work have comprehensive variation from project to project. This sort of work provides changes in both labour hours and project costs. In other words, a high amount of these will increase the project costs. The goal with this thesis is to identify the success factors that contributes to better management process of alteration labour, additional labour and retiring labour for renovation and redevelopment projects. 

    Method: This thesis has been made with qualitative research. Literature study, document analysis and semi structured interviews are the methods that have been used. The literature study provided insight in the already available research in this area. The document analysis gave understanding of the company and comprehension regarding the amount of alteration labour, additional labour and retiring labour for each project. Lastly the interviews provided profound knowledge to how the employees at Skanska Direkt manage their handling process, and which type of improvements they thought will make positive change. 

    Findings: The thesis has resulted in clear and concrete factors that contribute to the management process for alteration labour, additional labour and retiring labour. There have not been presented any new methods for this, however the success factors have been brought to light. Both the empiricism and theory show that a symbiosis between the design, the number of crewmembers, documentation and registration, the cooperation with the client and the possibility for the co-workers to understand and know the project is of most importance.

    Implications: By implementing the success factors presented in this report the amount of alteration labour, additional labour and retiring labour can be reduced. The labour that anyway emerge can be handled in a smarter and more efficient ways. The implications of this actions will for instance result in lower personnel costs, gainful cooperation’s between contractors and client, less risk for penalty expenses connected to delays. And no more than a successful company. 

    Limitations: The thesis only contains research including four different projects. There has been no comparison between new construction and redevelopment. The research has not taken the clients aspects into consideration. The result of this research study will be useful for average and large construction companies focusing on renovation and redevelopment projects. 

    Keywords: Alteration labour, additional labour, retiring labour, turnkey contract, general contract, renovation, redevelopment, project planning, construction documents, cooperation.

  • 30.
    Fredriksson, Olivia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Persson, Olle
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Påverkan av kommunikation och effektivitet i byggproduktion med hjälp av Dalux Field2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: By improving the communication and the efficiency in construction site production large savings may emerge. The main intentions with this thesis are therefore to examine whether how Dalux Field affects the production phase in construction by answering (1) How the use of Dalux Field affects the communication in the production on a construction site? and (2) How the use of Dalux Field affects the efficiency in the production on a construction site?

    Method: The work includes a literature study and a case study with interviews on NCC:s construction site D1 Ryhov in Jönköping. Four foremen have been interviewed whereof two use the software and two did not. Beyond these, three leading installers who actively use the software have been interviewed. The literature study was used to either confirm or contradict the collected data.

    Findings: Dalux Field reduces the communication on a construction site since the foreman and the leading installer have access to the model on site. In the event of a collision, decisions can be made instantly because the surrounding installations are visible in the model. This increases the efficiency, since smaller stops occur in production. Since a building’s various objects consists of a great deal of information Dalux Field is advantageously used as a supplement since all this information cannot be reported on a 2D drawing. Furthermore, the respondents consider that Dalux Field is also advantageously used as a visual supplement to give a complete picture of the end product.

    Implications: When answering the questions at hand, the conclusions were that the use of Dalux Field makes the communication more effective, which in turn makes the production phase in construction more efficient. In order to further improve the tool, features such as the measuring tool and height recommended to be reviewed. If Dalux Field is to be utilized to its full potential, it is also required that all parties in the construction phase have access to and use the program.

    Limitations: On the reference project an internal platform for communication is used primarily. The validity of the result would be strengthened if Dalux Field was the primary communication tool. Since NCC is a big company in the sector with a big number of projects, resources and assets, a generalization with the whole sector is not possible. The result can be generalized with equal building companies with similar projects, resources and assets.

    Keywords: Building Information Modeling, Communication tool, Construction production, information transfer, collision, efficiency, communication, Dalux Field.

  • 31.
    Gishkaev, Magomed
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Johansson, Alexander
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    ANALYS AV DET INTERNA SAMARBETET MELLAN BYGG OCH ANLÄGGNING2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In order to get into a profitable business, the various departments must be able to cooperate to not end up in costly conflicts. These conflicts can affect the work morale, the quality of the work done and the schedule can change drastically. Method: A literature study was the basis for gaining a deeper understanding of how internal collaboration works in larger companies. The literature study helped to formulate interview questions, issues and the goals that have been set. A case study was conducted at Peab AB and it was the only company in which the cooperation was investigated. A number of members of the company were chosen as respondents for interviews that became the collected empiricism. In the interviews the respondents were able to describe their opinions on how the internal cooperation works. Findings: The cooperation between departments has a number of conflicts that emerge. These conflicts are often due to time pressure, money, personal chemistry and poor communication. When these conflicts arise the schedules, work morale, cost and quality of the work performed are affected. It may ultimately affect the organisation negatively, which makes it important to get a working cooperation. Implications: If the cooperation fails the company’s results will impair in terms of cost-effective projects, poorer working standards, time losses, and even the quality of the work done. In order to make the internal cooperation work, communication and personal chemistry has to improve. Greater focus on final product has to be implemented and honesty between the departments established. Further research could be to investigate the difference between companies that have construction and infrastructure under the same company and a company that has them under two different subsidiaries. To see the difference in thinking about the end product of a joint venture. Another research might be to investigate how weekly meetings affect the cooperation between different departments, either positively or negatively. Limitations: When the report was first planned and started, the idea was to delimitate the Peab buildings and facilities in Jönköping. The department infrastructure in Jönköping closed its business and the area was forced to expand. The respondents therefore came from Jönköping, Växjö, Linköping and Nässjö. It contributed to a more generalized survey proving that the outcome could be equivalent to the same conditions in the investigation of another company.

  • 32.
    Glad, Calle
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Bäck, Elinor
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Lean i byggproduktion med fokus på arbetsmiljö2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: As of today, the knowledge of lean production, and its development into the construction industry, lean construction, has been well described in most of the necessary aspects. In what way lean could affect the work environment in a construction project, be it good or bad, has to date not been thoroughly documented. In Sweden, lean has been mildly tested in the construction industry but the results concerning the effect it has on the work environment is yet to be found in the literature. Lean itself is a strategy for manufacturing processes. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the knowledge of lean itself and how it, theoretically, could affect the work environment at construction site.

    Method: To achieve the purpose, documents from the participating company concerning work environment has been analysed in order to visualize what routines the company currently follows. In addition to this, seven interviews were conducted with employees of the company. The persons participating in the interviews were asked about how well they think the work is organized on the construction site right now and furthermore about their thoughts of lean-concept that had been produced, based on the theoretical framework.

    Findings: Based on the theoretical framework and findings in the empirical data that has been collected, a lean-concept was developed and refined. The concept includes what routines and what documents that are vital when implicating lean in an effective way, and also what needs to be considered in order not to impede the work environment at the construction site.

    Implications: Implicating a well-structured lean-concept in the construction process of a project would, theoretically, most definitely improve effectiveness within the project. It could also improve the work environment of the project, considering the risk awareness and the easier waste-control that the concept could provide. However, it could also make it worse through the elimination of variance and monotonous work tasks that are needed to improve the effectiveness.

    Limitations: The most important limitations that the study has had is the fact of it only being a theoretical implication of a lean concept, not a practical case study of the sort. This is due to the defined and limited time that project has had. In addition, the study has also had to limit its’ research to the frame supplement phase of the construction project. This is because of the fact that the work with the theoretical framework and the empirical study would have been too overwhelming, had the study considered the entire production phase of a construction project.

  • 33.
    Gunnarsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Svensson, Viktor
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Implementering av Lean för små och medelstora byggentreprenadföretag för att reducera slöseri2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Waste and negligence in the construction industry is a way too big factor of the high costs occurring. To reduce those wastes, some companies in the manufacturing industry has started to apply Lean to get a more effectively work. Lean Construction is the construction industries counterpart and this investigation investigates what Lean Construction methods for waste management can do for small and medium-sized enterprises.The goal of this work is to analyze how small and medium-sized enterprises can work to get Lean in to the companies processes to reduce perceived wastageMethod: The methods that is used to achieve the goal and to answer the chosen questions is literature studies, interviews and participant observation.Findings: Based on the methods that is used has different factors to reduce waste been acquired. Better communication, awareness among employees, management commitment and keep the work to the time schedules is important factors for improvement.Implications: Better planning is basis for a more efficient construction process.The most important thing for small and medium-sized enterprises can think about is that expensive solutions do not need to be better than simple methods. The developed factors in this investigation can help companies that want to achieve a more efficient construction process. The reason that this investigation is theoretically based, the derived factors should be applied in real projects to see what impact they have.Limitations: The investigation is limited to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and is a case study at Brantås Bygg. The study include rework, waiting, movements and transports. The interviews are made with working managers, foremans and carpenters at Brantås Bygg. The participate observation is made at a project in the central parts of Vetlanda, Sweden.Keywords: Lean Construction, Wastes, SME, Implementation issues.

  • 34.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    EFFEKTIVARE MATERIALHANTERING I PRODUKTIONEN HOS SMÅBYGGFÖRETAG- MED HJÄLP AV LEAN CONSTRUCTION2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The construction industry in Sweden has long had higher and increasingproduction costs compared with other industries. Construction costs for housing hasincreased in recent years, while productivity in the construction industry basically isthe same since the 1990s. 10 % of the construction costs relates to inefficient handlingof material. In order to improve production in recent decades there has been anincrease in adopting quality management among large companies, but this has notbeen established by small and medium sized enterprises (SME). The aim of this studywas to investigate how quality management tools such as 5S could be integrated intosmall construction companies in order to improve the companies’ material handling.

    Method: A case study has been conducted on a small construction company. Methodsused in the study was literature studies used to learn the frontiers of knowledge, semistructuredinterviews with owners, management and carpenters in the companycomplemented with unstructured observations at two different construction sites.

    Findings: The study investigated how 5S could be tailored to fit a small constructioncompany and also how this tool can make the handling of materials more efficient. At first wastes was identified in regard to material handling, which had the form ofunnecessary elements which create unnecessary costs. Wastes found in the study was composed of unnecessary transports or movements and excessive storage of materials.The study has also shown that a standardized routine for how the material should behandled was missing. A theoretical proposal for how these wastes could be reducedwas then produced. The proposal consists of a checklist based on 5S and the study'sempirical data. This checklist is intended to standardize the operation of deliveryreception and material moving. Implementation of the checklist can be done at bothlarge and small construction projects. Finally, the study investigates the requirementsof a small construction company to introduce a change in the organization. The studyfound that the requirements consists of a willingness in the organization to change andresources in terms of time, finances and personnel able to work with the change.

    Implications: By using the checklist in the planning of a construction site ensures thatthe materials are placed in the correct location and in the correct order, which is thepurpose of 5S. This reduces the movements that has to be made of the material. Usingthe checklist on the construction site for delivery reception contributes to materialbeing placed correctly and properly stored. This leads to reducing the rejection ofmaterial. Applying this routine entails that unnecessary costs are reduced, whichcontributes to reducing the total construction cost of the project.

    Limitations: Case study examines a small construction company and is notgeneralizable to large construction companies. Also other small constructioncompanies can have different conditions. The case study is based on interviews andobservations. Focus has been on 5S and no other tool has been used in the study.Consideration is not taken to the ergonomics regarding handling of material. Finally,the proposal produced in this study is theoretically and have not been appliedpractically due to the size of the study.

    Keywords: Lean Construction, 5S, SME, construction companies,

  • 35.
    Gustavsson, Simon
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Gustafsson, Petter
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering.
    Erfarenhetsåterföring inom markanvisningsprocessen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 36.
    Gylin Janoff, Adrian
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Sandén, Emil
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Beställarens syn på offentlig upphandling av byggentreprenader2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The law of public procurement is used by all governments who procure products, services and public works using tax funds. The purpose of this study is to acquire an overview of how public purchasers’ reason regarding procurement of public works. The aim of this study is to list factors that affect decision-making regarding short and long-term aspects when a public government is to purchase public works, and to acquire an understanding of what personal qualities are needed to undergo a procurement.

    Method: Literature studies examine how the law of public procurement is designed,and what tasks a procurer has. Further studies are made on how things can go wrong and what the consequences can be if the purchaser undergoes an unlawful procurement. The interviews illustrate practical experience that procurers and property managershave on the law of public procurement, how they go about acquiring their wanted product and their views on what is problematic about this law.

    Findings: This study shows us that the procurers work is comprehensive and that there is a big risk of doing something wrong in the procurement. Qualities that affect aprocurer’s work include experience, competence and knowledge of the industry. The literature studies show that a bid can be won by the lowest cost, or by the most economically advantageous tender. The latter is determined through analysing soft parameters, such as operating costs, the bidders’ organisation, production times and more. Factors that affect the procurers options regarding short and long-term aspects depends on industry knowledge, configuration of the public procurement law, structure of the organisation, political policies, environmental certifications, type of contracting and the usage of the building. Soft parameters can be difficult to control and can lead to a judicial appeal. What is currently analysed other than price is usually is the organisation of the contractor. Price is always a parameter that procurers analyse and often the only one.

    Implications: The public procurement law exists to favour competition in the nationand in EU. Some parts of law inhibits procures’ options and can make their work difficult to carry out. How procurers’ reason on choice of qualities of buildings and how they work with evaluating bids are good things to know for anyone involved with the public procurement law.

    Limitations: This study is limited to public procurers working in municipalities of about 100 000 inhabitants. The interviews are restricted to procurers and property managers. The study investigates how buyers working with procurement of public works reason.

  • 37.
    Haji Younes, Ali
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Omeirat, Ramadan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Arbetssäkerhetsanalys av mur- och plattsättning: Vad är problemet och hur kan det förbättras?2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The report is about the work environment with regard to safety at workplaces for masonry and placement. The purpose is to find suggestions for solutions to health problems at workplaces.

    Method: Selected methods for data collection are questionnaires, interviews, participant observation and ergonomics analysis.

    Findings: It has been shown that  health problems related to placement are among other things, back problems, where both the upper part and lower back are stressed. But also the knees as they are used to lift the burden and body weight. Where factors such as fatigue, stress and weather conditions are affective. The probability of workplace injuries is not great in terms of direct damage, but in case of indirect damage such as stress damage, it may be a problem with time the body continues to be strained and the damage can be permanent and difficult to cure. If a damage has occurred earlier, the likelihood is even greater that the injury will be returned. The most serious damage caused by masonry and placement is mainly stress injuries.

    Implications: Experience is seen as a factor that should have been included in the survey as there was a difference in the technique between the experienced and inexperienced workers. It is important that workers know the consequences of incorrect movements, as normal stress injuries can lead to permanent damage that becomes harder to cure. Factors that affect should be noted more to reduce damage caused by them.

    Limitations: The work is within the boundaries as formulated in the introduction and is relevant to masonry and placement, but also to those who carry heavy bodywork. Respondents to the interviews are from the same contractors, which can be seen critically, as they all have similar standards, while respondents from questionnaires were completely different, no interrelationships between those who made different views, working hours and warm-ups. Interviews with respondents from various contractors and more had been more relevant.

  • 38.
    Hallman, Mattias
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Elham, Mirwais
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Effektivare materialhantering från leveransmottagning till materialanvändning på en byggarbetsplats2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The problem with the construction industry is inefficient material handling that creates waste in form of unnecessary activities that do not increase the value of the product. The construction industry is accused of production delays, exceedance of budget and difficulties in having a high quality. The aim is to find opportunities for improvements to make the material handling on a construction site at deliveries, material storage and material transports more efficient.

    Method: A qualitative case study of an organisation was carried out to achieve the aim of the report. The methods used in this study was unstructured observations, semi structured interviews and document analysis.

    Findings: A checklist for material handling based on the theories of Muda, 5S and JIT within Lean has been designed as an improvement and is intended to be used at a construction site. The checklist is based on the collected empirical study and consists of three parts, based on the issues of the study, which were deliveries, material storage and material transport. The purpose of the checklist is to improve the material handling at a construction site by identifying and eliminating wastes in terms of waiting, transport, storage and defects.

    Implications: By using the checklist, follow the delivery plan, improve the construction site plan and improve the contract between the suppliers and the company that have been concluded from the study result, waste in deliveries, material storage and material transport can be reduced. The recommendation is to follow the suggestions for improvement to make the material handling more efficient and reduce waste on a construction site.

    Limitations: The limitations that have been made in the study is to identify the wastes in the material handling moments that have been used in the study during the different material handling processes. The communication between workers, in what way the company plans their work activities, work environment and quality of work is not included in the study.

  • 39.
    Hedström, Amanda
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Längberg, Stefan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    VDC-inspirerat arbetssätt i kommunen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings become more complex and society is constantly evolving. More and more specialized operators join the construction industry, which increases the need for effective interaction between them. Focus should be on communication and an intersectoral cooperation must be taken into use. New ways of working together that promotes interaction in order to streamline the construction process should be developed. The municipality plays an important and central role in order to push forward the social development. The aim of the study is to investigate how an VDCinspired approach can develop the municipal process in the urban development process, in order to make the planning process in early stages until the design phase more efficient.

    To achieve the goal, interviews with employees within the construction company NCC and the municipalities of Norrköping, Linköping and Örebro has been done. Once the empirical data was collected from the interviews it was analyzed together with this thesis theoretical framework.

    Today, BIM is not used in the municipalities the same extent as NCC. The municipalities do not have the same need for information and coordination of their digital models. The 3D models they work with usually consist of 3D volumes, where volume relationships and correlations are the most important information conveyed. However, it is clear that the municipality work in project teams that can be developed and made more efficient. Today, the municipalities already work in teams, where they benefit from the collective expertise. To implement project studio as a VDC inspired approach may ultimately create a closer collaboration and help reduce communication problems internally.

    In order for the municipality to work VDC-inspired they must first find out what type of information in a BIM model they consider relevant and interesting. Furthermore, a high level of technical expertise is required among the employees to allow an implementation of VDC.

    The thesis has investigated a VDC application in the early stages until project design stage. Furthermore, the study was limited to the municipality's urban planning office. Data collection has only occurred through interviews.

  • 40.
    Helmfrid, Fredrik
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Yrjönheikki, Joakim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    HAND- OCH ARMVIBRATIONSSKADOR INOM BYGGBRANSCHEN BETEENDE – EN ORSAK TILL ATT PROBLEMET KVARSTÅR2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The issue with vibration injury have been around in the construction industry for as long as there have been vibrating machines available. Today it’s up to 51 percent of all strain injury’s that’s vibration-related, according to AFA. The most common thing is that men in the ages of 47-49 who suffers from vibration injury, but in recent years the injuries have crept down in the ages. The injuries that may emerge from excessive vibration exposure are circulatory symptoms (cold / white fingers), neurological symptoms (numbness, tingling, feeling impaired) or a combination of these. Carpal tunnel syndrome is also a consequence of too high exposure. This paper will investigate whether may be a behaviour that is behind the high vibration exposure and if it in such case can be broken. The operator’s knowledge and understanding of the operating hours for the machines have also been studied.

    Method: A literature study has been carried out at work. Then a total of twelve interviews have been conducted, eight with constructions workers, three with site managers and one with a power tool manufacture. A smaller document analysis of job planning has also been made.

    Findings: This study shows that behaviour is behind the fact that operating times are exceeded, and constructions workers are exposed to vibration exposure above the allowed limit. It is also clear that the knowledge and understanding of the workforce and the management team needs to be increased in operating hours and how to read vibration acceleration on machines.

    Implications: The industry should require customers and companies to provide space for the costs that are incurred when driving times are met. In this way, behaviour can be broken by giving time for special moments. By training their staff about vibration damage, the company can get a more competent and understanding staff in exchange.

    Limitations: This survey is not company-specific, which means that the results can be applied to most construction companies in Sweden. The study only examines hand and arm vibration damage, while whole body vibrations have been ruled out.

    Keywords: Vibrations injury of hand and arm, Theory of Reasoned action, Job planning, Swedish work environment authority regulation, Input Value and Limit.

  • 41.
    Henriksson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Henriksson, Marcus
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Ökat värdeskapande arbete: Implementering av 5S på en byggarbetsplats2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Studies shows that the construction industry doesn’t develop in the pace that it should regarding productivity. To increase the value creating work companies tries to implement methods as 5S to minimize waste. Small and medium size enterprises (SME) lack the competence and resources that larger companies have and thereby the efficiency of the production process is more difficult. Change management of human’s habits and business culture is a complicated process which is based on deeply rooted roles and structures.

    The purpose of this report is to introduce Lean by implementing 5S at a construction site. The goal is then to design a recommendations manual for how implementation of the Lean-tool 5S can be done in the construction phase.  

    Method: The chosen methods for collecting data is literature study, focus group interviews and participatory observations. With help from the literature study knowledge has been gathered. The focus group interviews have contributed with performing zero-state analysis and evaluating the implementation of 5S on the working site. Participatory observations have been used to study the development on the working site. These methods contributed to answering and fulfilling the purpose, goal and the issues of this report. 

    Results: Results from the study has ended up with the development of a recommendations manual for how 5S can be implemented in the construction phase. Thereby critical factors have been identified and suggestions for how companies can proceed implementation of 5S. 

    Consequences: Conclusions that have been made from the study is that processes of change are hard to do. The responsibility to increase the productivity and minimize waste should not solely lie with the larger entrepreneurs. Every actor within the construction business must work toward a common goal to improve the construction process and reduce costs.  Lean and 5S can be the solution to these problems. Due to lack of resources and knowledge companies may need external help when it comes to the implementation. Already in the design of a construction project it’s important to think about the planning to prevent waste. Before a company makes a change of the organization it’s important that the management is committed and understands Lean to be able to motivate the staff. Further it’s necessary that continuous improvements and problem-solving is done to engage the staff.

    Limitations: The study was limited to focusing on the implementation of 5S and thereby introduce Lean and its concept with improvement work and problem-solving. The result of the implementation was a success in this case, but the result can vary from every case since they all are unique.

  • 42.
    Hofling, Gustaf
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Uggla, Alexander
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    IOT-SENSORERS PÅVERKAN INOM BYGGSTYRNING OCH BESLUTSFATTANDET UNDER GJUTNINGSPROCESSEN2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose: Today, the majority of decisions in construction production are made on

    undefined data, which leads to large unnecessary resource consumption, mainly

    during the casting process. It also leads to unpredictability in decision making in

    production, which affects production control and thus costs, schedules and quality. A

    major uncertainty characterizes the casting process today, reflecting the development

    needs faced by the construction industry, which are cost-effective and time-efficient.

    Nevertheless, the investment in digital data collection tools is low. Therefore, in this

    work, opportunities are investigated for automatic data collection with one of the

    latest digital trends, Internet of Things, to promote decision making during the casting

    process.

     

    Method: This work is carried out as a qualitative study. The data collection methods

    consist of semi structured interviews together with production engineers, IoT

    consultants and developers in the concrete industry. A literature study is also

    conducted to build up the interview questions as well as the analysis of the results.

     

    Findings: The analysis of the case study indicates that the company today lacks

    structure in its work on data collection in construction production. Through the

    interviews in production, it was found that, according to respondents, IoT is believed

    to enable more quality-assured data collection and enable decisions to be made on

    time. To achieve this, it requires the company to establish structures on how data

    collection should be stored. Which previous studies show that IoT can be a good tool

    for. The case study also shows that the need and interest for IoT systems at the

    company is high. By collecting data using IoT sensors, knowledge transfer is believed

    to contribute to decision making on data as a complement to experience.

    Implications: It is necessary to create a culture within business so that more decisions

    can be made on data instead of experience. Before implementation, a good level of

    knowledge for ADC tools should be increased because interest in the area increases as

    knowledge grows. When there is interest and need, a test project should be conducted

    where decisions are made on real-time data.

    Limitations: The work does not take into account cost aspects when implementing

    ADC tools in the casting process. The report is based on a construction technology

    perspective and thus does not describe the construction of digital tools in detail.

    Keywords: ADC, construction industry, construction management, casting process,

    Internet of things, attitude and knowledge.

  • 43.
    Håkansson, Olof
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Zäther, John
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Företagets påverkan för ett ökat BIM-användande i byggproduktionen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There is an academic exaggeration about what potential BIM has to revolutionize the construction industry. Despite the potential, BIM is not fully utilized in the construction field, which is partly due to a lack of competence. There is too much focus on what BIM can be used for, instead of focusing on how BIM can be used. There is a mythical enthusiasm about the term, which is sometimes seen as a universal tool. BIM-coordinators are rarely located at the construction site and have difficulty understanding the problems that may arise and there is a gap in the information chain between the production and planning departments that needs to be bridged to promote the work of the production department. The aim of the report was to investigate how the use of BIM can increase in the production department. 

    Method: This report consists of a qualitative study based on the latest research in the field. The theories presented in the framework of the report have been the foundation for the formation of the study’s issues and the formation of the semi-structured interviews that where the main method for data collection.  

    Findings: In order to increase the use of BIM in the construction field, clear strategies and guidelines are required for how the construction field workers will use BIM. More resources needs to be added to BIM planning and the knowledge in the construction sites needs to be more in-depth about the processes that BIM entails so that they can set requirements for the construction planning. A clearer shared goal is required through better cooperation and an early dialogue between production and planning. BIM needs to be seen as a way of working and not as a role.  

    Implications: In order to accept BIM as a new way of working, it requires that the benefits has to be proven. Today’s BIM-coordinators have no excellence, but instead they work as a teacher for the staff in the constructions sites. More staff in the construction sites need to work with BIM daily and resources in terms of time and space needs to be set aside in construction sites. The boundary between the production and the planning departments needs to be erased to increase trust in each other. 

    Limitations: This report consists internal factors that a company itself can influence to increase the use of BIM in the construction field. The report does not consist external factors such as legal barriers, software and client requirements. The thesis is done together with Skanska Hus Syd and is thereby geographically restricted to the region Skåne. 

    Keywords: BIM, implementation, standardization, organisation, attitude, knowledge, production. 

  • 44.
    Irevall, Emma
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    Torstensson, Sofia
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineering.
    En analys kring förbättringsmöjligheter av exteriör utformning på volymhus2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Industrial built modular housing is an off-site construction type, which means the modules are built in a factory and transported to the building site for assembly. The modules are built on an assembly line in a standardized and rationalized process. The modular building system has potential to lower the housing shortage, since it is more time and cost effective compared to traditional construction types. The disadvantage with the modular housing industry is that you often see poor exterior design results, due to the lack of flexibility in the system. Facades can be repetitive and have too large proportions. Therefore, the purpose of the work is to get an understanding of how the quality of exterior design can be improved in modular housing, by answering (1) How is the correlation between exterior design and modular building described by architects in the industry? (2) What are the restrictions for exterior design in modular housing? (3) How can the quality of exterior design in modular housing be developed, in regards to the restrictions of the building system?

    Method: A literary study is performed to identify the main restrictions and also the possibilities of development for modular housing. Combined with the literary study, interviews are being held with six respondents from the industry. The respondents explain their view on the correlation between exterior design and the modular building system. The interviews are also studying different buildings where the respondents have been involved.

    Findings: The technical restrictions are mainly the size of the modules due to transporting requirements and the joints between them. The ability to adjust to them are limited by the budget of the project. The projects tend to be more cost-oriented, rather than focusing on architectural quality and therefore the exterior design is suffering. To create good modular houses that give something back to the city, there must be a change in the industry. Contractors and the municipalities are the most important participants in this process.

    Implications: The biggest improvement possibilities that can make the most change in the future are; competition on the market, ambitious contractors, process and product development, higher municipal requirements and also new technical solutions that provide good design to a lower price. 

    Limitations: The result is limited to only exterior design in the modular housing industry, focusing on multi-family housing on the Swedish market. The study is a general analysis and does not go into depth on each problem. It is more meant to be a guideline to where the problem areas exist.

  • 45.
    Isaksson, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Linderoth, Henrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Environmental considerations in the Swedish building and construction industry: the role of costs, institutional setting, and information2018In: Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, ISSN 1566-4910, E-ISSN 1573-7772, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 615-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite increasing evidence that being an environment-friendly company not only benefits the environment but also makes long-term economic sense, the transition to a more sustainable society is extremely slow. This is true of the building and construction industry as well. At a strategic level, environmental issues have received more attention with the establishment of roles such as environmental managers and implementation of advanced environmental management systems. However, adoption has been slow in the absence of a holistic approach to environmental challenges, partly reinforced by a perception that giving more than the legally required level of environmental consideration will only add to costs without corresponding financial benefits. This raises the following question that the study aims to answer: What is the most important factor influencing decision makers’ in adopting environmental considerations? To this end, it analysed questionnaire data collected from decision makers in the Swedish construction industry along with an in-depth case study of a specific building and construction company. The results show that decision makers perceive informational and institutional constraints on the adoption of environmental considerations. Lack of information is perceived as the biggest obstacle to environmental considerations. If information and knowledge about clients’ and end users’ financial benefits from adopting environmental considerations need to be exploited, they have to be supported by contractual forms that discard a short-term focus on the investment costs of a building in favour of a focus on long-term operational and maintenance costs and benefits.

  • 46.
    Isaksson, Anders
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Linderoth, Henrik
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Bosch, Petra
    Chalmers.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    BIM use in the production process among medium sized contractors: A survey of Swedish medium sized contractors2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) is claimed to transform the AEC industry, whereas current research has argued that diffusion of BIM use proceeds at a slower rate than the optimistic predictions. However, governmental initiatives where public clients in countries like Finland, Singapore, United Kingdom and Sweden start to require a Building Information Model as a part of the project delivery, are supposed to increase the pace of diffusion of BIM use. Today, larger contractor firms use BIM to a varying extent. But BIM use in mid-sized contractor firms, with 50 – 500 employees, which successfully can compete with larger contractors on projects up to 50 million Euros, is relatively unknown. The aim of the paper is to explore the current use and perceived challenges and driving forces of BIM-implementation among mid-sized contractors. The data used in this study is collected through a survey send to chief executive officers, or their closest sub-ordinates, of mid-sized construction firms in Sweden. The survey is based on a technology-, organization-, environment framework that is used in information systems research in order to study the use of inter-organizational information systems. The total population of firms in the survey is 136. The preliminary results presented in this paper are based on 31 answers (30 percent response rate). 58 percent of the respondents said that they have been involved in a project where BIM has been used in some way. The most commonly used application is visualization. The highest obstacles perceived are that partners are not using BIM, there is no demand from clients, and there is no internal demand in the company. For the two last obstacles there were significant differences between users and non-users. The most common perceived driving forces were that BIM is a means for following the technical development and BIM can give the company competitive advantages. Moreover, the results indicate that the main driver behind BIM-implementation is mainly determined by an individual’s subjective positive or negative evaluation of BIM, rather than by external pressure from clients and partners, or by internal capacity and knowledge to use BIM.

  • 47.
    Ivansson, Signe
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Starck, Kajsa
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Operativa beslut inom byggsektorn med hjälp av LCC-utvärdering2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There is a lack of knowledge of translating environmental cost to a monetary value. Sientcis has during the last decades studied and researched the field and developed several methods and tools within the Life cycle cost (LCC). The researchers are wondering why these are not used in the industry? The goal in this study is to develop a working method on how to build better for the climate using Life cycle assessment (LCA) and LCC.

    Method: The methods used to reach the goal of the study are mail interviews, observations, document analysis and literature review.

    Findings: The result of the study describes that municipal housing companies do not use LCC a lot. A case study is done on two houses in Kv. Vingpennan 2 in Kungsängen, Jönköping. The study presents, based on the case study a method for working with LCC with a environmental cost translated into a monetary value by using LCA.

    Implications: Since municipal housing companies at present do not work with LCC analyses to the extent that would be needed, some kind of demands from the municipality could be relevant. The construction sector is emitting a lot of carbon dioxide that is why some kind of tax should be calculated in the beginning of a new building project. There are many reasons why LCC is not so much in use. The uncertainty factors for estimating a monetary value for the environmental cost within the LCC might be a contributing factor. If the requirements that we propose would be put to the decision makers they would be forced to learn how to and work with LCC. The new ISO standard 14008:2019 could be the beginning of work methods for LCC where the environmental cost could be calculated.

    Limitations: The choice of methods and strategies for this study has been appropriate. The limitation is that the case study has only been studied over a shorter time of the studied projects time and that there is a lot of different programs for making a LCA and the materials in those programs is not always the exact same as in the real project. The uncertainties in an LCC could make the results variate a lot depending on who makes it.

  • 48.
    Jacobsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Linderoth, Henrik C. J.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    Rowlinson, Steve
    Department of Real Estate and Construction, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    The role of industry: an analytical framework to understand ICT transformation within the AEC industry2017In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 35, no 10, p. 611-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite wide-ranging research on information and communication technologies (ICT) in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry, little is known about the role that industry plays in the adoption and use of ICT. Based on observations of how the drivers for ICT use seem to be inconsistent with the industry’s central characteristics, and drawing on information systems (IS) research that demonstrates the role of shared systems of meaning, the purpose here is to develop an analytical framework that explains how industry shapes the adoption and use of ICT. Building on a theoretically driven approach and a case study, a framework is first sketched and then substantiated through empirical illustrations. Three dimensions of industry are highlighted: the socio-cognitive environment, the market and production environment and institutional actors. It is explained how the interplay of these dimensions shapes the way the industry functions, which in turn influence the adoption and use of ICT. The outcomes of the interplay can either be aligned or misaligned with ICT, which explains why certain aligned applications are rapidly adopted, whereas other applications are not. The primary implication is that the framework can aid in analysing the need for structural adaptation when trying to achieve ICT-induced change.

  • 49.
    Jacobsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Merschbrock, Christoph
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science.
    BIM coordinators: a review2018In: Engineering Construction and Architectural Management, ISSN 0969-9988, E-ISSN 1365-232X, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 989-1008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the role, practices and responsibilities of building information modeling (BIM) coordinators (BCs).

    Design/methodology/approach – The aim is achieved through a review of existing publications (n 1⁄4 183) in which the term “BIM coordinators” has been described and discussed (n 1⁄4 78), complemented by interviews with four Norwegian BIM experts.

    Findings – The findings from the review indicate that the core responsibilities of BCs involve clash detection, managing information flows and communication flows, monitoring and coordinating design changes, supporting new working procedures and technical development and acting as a boundary spanner. The complementary interview study extends these findings with two additional practices and a reflection on the experienced challenges, obstacles and potential future development of the role. In essence, the authors propose that the role of BCs can be defined as being responsible for external/internal alignment and coordination of actor needs, and engaged in product-, process- and system-oriented practices of BIM.

    Research limitations/implications – Given that this study is primarily an integrative literature review of BCs, it has the limitations common with such an approach. Therefore, future studies should preferably extend presented findings through either a survey, further in-depth interviews with BCs or reviews of closely related BIM specialist roles such as BIM managers or BIM technicians.

    Practical implications – With BCs seemingly being central to information management and knowledge domain integration within the architecture, engineering and construction industry, an understanding of their importance and role should be of interest to anyone seeking to tap into the potential of BIM. This paper outlines specific implications for construction manager, educators and BCs.

    Originality/value – The value of this study lies primarily in the fact that it is the first thorough investigation of the role, practices and responsibilities of BCs.

  • 50.
    Jacobsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Civil Engineeering and Lighting Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Wilson, Timothy L.
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University .
    Tinkerbell and the Empire State Building: Recalling what seems to be forgotten2018In: PM World Journal, ISSN 2330-4480, Vol. VII, no VII, p. 1-4Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    “I do believe in fairies! I do! I do!!” (Peter Pan)

    In the 1905 play “Peter Pan; or the Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up”, Sir James Matthew Barrie described how Peter Pan, through his strong beliefs, brought the fairy Tinkerbell back to life. In this short essay, we aim to initiate discussions on the role of strong beliefs and the so-called “Tinkerbell effect” in upholding taken-for-granted assumptions within the construction industry.

    As the basis for the discussion, the essay reports on a recently published journal article in Business Horizons entitled “Revisiting the construction of the Empire State Building: Have we forgotten something?” (Jacobsson and Wilson, 2018). Presently the article is also sold as a case study and teaching case by Harvard Business Review. (The case study can be accessed at https://tinyurl.com/HBRcasestudy and the teaching case at https://tinyurl.com/HBPEcase)

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