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  • 1. Lindegård, Agneta
    et al.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Hagberg, Mats
    Vilhelmsson, Rebecka
    Toomingas, Allan
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. ADULT.
    Perceived exertion, comfort and working technique in professional computer users and associations with the incidence of neck and upper extremity symptoms2012In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 13, p. 38-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether perceived exertion, perceived comfort and working technique is associated with the incidence of neck and upper extremity symptoms among professional computer users.

    METHODS: At baseline a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 853 participants from 46 different work sites (382 men and 471 women) who, at baseline, had been free from neck and upper extremity symptoms during the preceding month. Work-related exposures, individual factors, and symptoms from the neck and upper extremities were assessed. Observations of working technique were performed by ergonomists using an ergonomic checklist. Incidence data were collected by means of 10 monthly questionnaires, asking for information on the occurrence of neck, shoulder and arm/hand symptoms. Perceived exertion was rated on a modified Borg RPE scale ranging from 0 (very, very light) to 14 (very, very strenuous). Perceived comfort was rated on a 9-point scale ranging from -4 (very, very poor) to +4 (very, very good) in relation to the chair, computer screen, keyboard, and computer mouse.

    RESULTS: The median follow up time was 10.3 months. The incidence of symptoms from the neck, shoulders and arm/hands were 50, 24 and 34 cases per 100 person years, respectively.Higher perceived exertion in the neck, shoulder or arm/hands was associated with an increased risk of developing symptoms in the corresponding body region. Moreover, a dose-response relationship between the level of exertion and the risk of developing symptoms was recorded for all three regions. There was an association between low comfort and an increased risk for neck symptoms, but not for shoulder and arm/hand symptoms, although a trend towards such an association (not statistically significant) could be seen. Working technique was, in this study, not associated with the risk of developing symptoms in any of the investigated body regions.

    CONCLUSION: There was a strong association between high perceived exertion and the development of neck, shoulder, and arm/hand symptoms. Moreover, there was an association between poor perceived comfort and neck pain. Surveillance of computer users may include perceived exertion and comfort to target individuals at risk for neck and upper extremity symptoms.

  • 2.
    Toomingas, A
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hagberg, M
    University of Gothenburg.
    Heiden, M
    University of Gävle.
    Richter, H
    University of Gävle.
    Westergren, K E
    University of Gävle.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT. University of Gävle.
    Risk factors, incidence and persistence of symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 291-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Symptoms from the eyes are common among computer users. Knowledge is scarce about these problems, however.

    Objectives: The aim was to study risk-factors, incidence and persistence of eye-symptoms among professionally active computer users.

    Methods: This was a questionnaire based prospective study where 1283 males and females from different professions and companies answered a baseline questionnaire about individual factors and working conditions, e.g. duration of daily computer work, comfort of screen work, psychosocial factors. Subjects were at baseline and 10 follow-ups asked about the number of days with eye-symptoms during the preceding month.

    Results: The incidence-rate of symptoms persisting minimum three days was 0.38/person-year. A multivariate Hazard-ratio model showed significant associations with extended continuous computer work, tasks with high demands on eye-hand coordination, low level of control, visual discomfort, female sex and nicotine use. Eye-symptoms at baseline was a strong risk factor for new symptoms.

    Conclusion: The incidence of eye-symptoms among professional computer users is high and related to both individual and work-related factors. The organization of computer work should secure frequent breaks from near-work at the computer screen. The severity of vision-related problems could in field studies be quantified by asking for the persistence of symptoms.

  • 3.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Occupational & Environmental Medicine University of Gothenburg.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Westergren, Karl Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. ADULT.
    Incidence and risk factors for symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Supplement 1, p. 3560-3562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal computers are used by a majority of the working population in their professions. Little is known about risk-factors for incident symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users. The aim was to study the incidence and risk-factors for symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users. This study is a part of a comprehensive prospective follow-up study of factors associated with the incidence of symptoms among professional computer users. 1531 computer users of different professions at 46 companies were invited, whereof 1283 answered a baseline questionnaire (498 men; 785 women) and 1246 at least one of 10 monthly follow-up questionnaires. The computer work-station and equipment were generally of a good standard. The majority used CRT displays. During the follow-up period 329 subjects reported eye symptoms. The overall incidence rate in the whole study group was 0.38 per person-year, 0.23 in the subgroup of subjects who were symptom free at baseline and 1.06 among subjects who reported eye symptoms at baseline. In the bivariate analyses significant associations were found with all explanatory variables, except BMI. The reduced multivariate model showed significant associations with extended computer work, visual discomfort (dose-response), eye symptoms at baseline (higher risk), sex (women=higher risk) and nicotine use. The incidence of eye problems among professional computer users is high and related to both individual and work-related factors.

  • 4. Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Mathiassen, Svend ErikWigaeus Tornqvist, EwaJönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Occupational Physiology2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 5. Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Work, Working Life, Occupational Physiology2012In: Occupational Physiology / [ed] Allan Toomingas, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Ewa Wigaeus Tornqvist., Taylor & Francis Group, 2012, 1, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Work Demanding High Energy Metabolism2012In: Occupational Physiology / [ed] Allan Toomingas, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Ewa Wigaeus Tornqvist., Taylor & Francis Group, 2012, 1, p. 19-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
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