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  • 1.
    Bäck, Monica Andersson
    et al.
    Department of Social Work, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Calltorp, Johan
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    The Norrtaelje model: a unique model for integrated health and social care in Sweden2015Ingår i: International Journal of Integrated Care, ISSN 1568-4156, E-ISSN 1568-4156, Vol. 15, s. 1-11, artikel-id e016Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries organise and fund health and social care separately. The Norrtaelje model is a Swedish initiative that transformed the funding and organisation of health and social care in order to better integrate care for older people with complex needs. In Norrtaelje model, this transformation made it possible to bringing the team together, to transfer responsibility to different providers, to use care coordinators, and to develop integrated pathways and plans around transitions in and out of hospital and from nursing homes to hospital. The Norrtaelje model operates in the context of the Swedish commitment to universal coverage and public programmes based on tax-funded resources that are pooled and redistributed to citizens on the basis of need. The experience of Norrtaelje model suggests that one way to promote integration of health and social care is to start with a transformation that aligns these two sectors in terms of high level organisation and funding. This transformation then enables the changes in operations and management that can be translated into changes in care delivery. This "top-down" approach must be in-line with national priorities and policies but ultimately is successful only if the culture, resource allocation and management are changed throughout the local system.

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  • 2.
    Calltorp, Johan
    Jönköping University, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    How can our health systems be re-engineered to meet the future challenges? The Swedish experience2012Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 74, nr 5, s. 677-679Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    All health systems confront challenges according to their respective level of development linked to social, demographic and economic factors as well as the pattern of disease and its burden on society. Among well developed, mature and highly industrialized countries, it is of great interest to exchange knowledge between countries on their respective economic and health status. In fact, international comparison is one of the main ways to learn how key health system components interact with basic social, economic and epidemiological components. However comparative research on health systems still needs development to improve our understanding of basic issues.

  • 3.
    Wiig, Siri
    et al.
    Department of Health Studies, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger, Norway.
    Aase, Karina
    Department of Health Studies, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger, Norway.
    von Plessen, Christian
    Department of Health Studies, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger, Norway.
    Burnett, Susan
    Imperial College, London, St Mary’s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK.
    Nunes, Francisco
    ISCTE, Lisboa, Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa (ISCTE), Av.ª das Forças Armadas, Lisbon 1649-026, Portugal.
    Weggelaar, Anne Marie
    Department of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Postbus 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Andersson-Gäre, Boel
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Kvalitetsförbättring och ledarskap inom hälsa och välfärd.
    Calltorp, Johan
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Fulop, Naomi
    Department of Applied Health Research, University College London, 1-19 Torrington Place, London WC1E 7HB, UK.
    Talking about quality: exploring how ‘quality’ is conceptualized in European hospitals and healthcare systems2014Ingår i: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 14, nr 478, s. 1-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Conceptualization of quality of care - in terms of what individuals, groups and organizations include in their meaning of quality, is an unexplored research area. It is important to understand how quality is conceptualised as a means to successfully implement improvement efforts and bridge potential disconnect in language about quality between system levels, professions, and clinical services. The aim is therefore to explore and compare conceptualization of quality among national bodies (macro level), senior hospital managers (meso level), and professional groups within clinical micro systems (micro level) in a cross-national study.

    METHODS:

    This cross-national multi-level case study combines analysis of national policy documents and regulations at the macro level with semi-structured interviews (383) and non-participant observation (803 hours) of key meetings and shadowing of staff at the meso and micro levels in ten purposively sampled European hospitals (England, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, and Norway). Fieldwork at the meso and micro levels was undertaken over a 12-month period (2011-2012) and different types of micro systems were included (maternity, oncology, orthopaedics, elderly care, intensive care, and geriatrics).

    RESULTS:

    The three quality dimensions clinical effectiveness, patient safety, and patient experience were incorporated in macro level policies in all countries. Senior hospital managers adopted a similar conceptualization, but also included efficiency and costs in their conceptualization of quality. 'Quality' in the forms of measuring indicators and performance management were dominant among senior hospital managers (with clinical and non-clinical background). The differential emphasis on the three quality dimensions was strongly linked to professional roles, personal ideas, and beliefs at the micro level. Clinical effectiveness was dominant among physicians (evidence-based approach), while patient experience was dominant among nurses (patient-centered care, enough time to talk with patients). Conceptualization varied between micro systems depending on the type of services provided.

    CONCLUSION:

    The quality conceptualization differed across system levels (macro-meso-micro), among professional groups (nurses, doctors, managers), and between the studied micro systems in our ten sampled European hospitals. This entails a managerial alignment challenge translating macro level quality definitions into different local contexts.

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