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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science. University College of Kristianstad,Kristianstad.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Oral health. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. ADULT. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Sense of coherence of reindeer herders and other Samis in comparison to other Swedish citizens2013In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 72, -20633 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Samis are indigenous people in north Europe. In the territory called Sa´pmi (Lapland), reindeer herding is the traditional base for the Sami economy. The relation between living conditions and positive health of the Swedish Samis has been sparsely studied. As health is closely linked to sense of coherence (SOC), an understanding of the background factors to SOC may contribute knowledge that might be useful in promoting living conditions and health.

    Methods. The study examines relations between the level of SOC and background factors from surveys in a Sami population (n=613) in comparison to a non-Sami population (n=525) in Sweden, and in comparison between 2 subsamples of Samis, that is, herders and non-herders.

    Results. There are more similarities than differences between the Sami and non-Sami populations. However, dividing the Sami population, reindeer herders had significantly lower SOC, and in specific the subcomponent manageability, that is, less ability to use available resources to meet different demands in life, compared to non-herders.

    Conclusions. In addition to age and health, predictors of SOC are related to the life form of reindeer husbandry and the belonging to the herding community

  • 2.
    Ander, Birgitta
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    Högskolan i Kristianstad.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work.
    Changing arenas of underage adolescent binge drinking in Swedish small towns2015In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, Vol. 32, no 4, 427-442 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM – The study explores arenas of adolescent binge drinking in small Swedish towns and the meanings these have for young persons. The focus is thus on space and place, and on the geography of underage drinking.

    DESIGN – An ethnographic approach was used, including direct observations, document studies and contacts with youth workers on local and national levels, and interviews with 28 underage binge-drinking adolescents chosen as informants.

    FINDINGS – Adolescent binge drinkers seem to have moved away from street and other outdoor drinking arenas to home environments, where they feel they have more control over their party location and participants.

    CONCLUSIONS – One consequence of outdoor drinking moving indoors is that professional youth workers and police cannot enter party arenas and the only adults who can do so are the parents. This has implications for preventive alcohol strategies and outreach social work. Measures should be directed to parents to make them fully aware of the importance of the party location in their homes.

  • 3.
    Berglund, Kristina J.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Balldin, Jan
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry of the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg .
    Berggren, Ulf
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry of the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg .
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Fahlke, Claudia
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg .
    Childhood Maltreatment Affects the Serotonergic System in Male Alcohol-Dependent Individuals2013In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 37, no 5, 757-762 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Reduced central serotonergic neurotransmission has been demonstrated in individuals with excessive alcohol consumption and/or alcohol dependence. Childhood maltreatment has also been found to have a negative impact on central serotonergic neurotransmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of childhood maltreatment on central serotonergic dysfunction in alcohol-dependent individuals.

    Methods: Adult men with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence (n=18) were recruited from outpatient treatment units for alcoholism. Central serotonergic neurotransmission was assessed by a neuroendocrine method, that is, the prolactin (PRL) response to the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor citalopram. Childhood maltreatment was assessed retrospectively by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire.

    Results: Alcohol-dependent individuals with childhood experience of emotional abuse had significantly lower PRL response compared with those without such abuse (3 +/- 5 and 64 +/- 24mU/l, respectively; t=6.51, p<0.001). Among those who reported childhood emotional abuse, 4 of 7 individuals had flat PRL responses in comparison with none in those with no report of such abuse (p<0.01).

    Conclusions: This is the first study to show that self-reported childhood maltreatment, in particular emotional abuse, in male alcohol-dependent individuals is associated with a quite dramatic (more than 90%) reduction in central serotonergic neurotransmission. It should, however, be noted that the number of individuals is relatively small, and the results should therefore be considered as preliminary.

  • 4.
    Blid, Mats
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Socially excluding housing support to homeless misusers: Two Swedish case-studies of category houses2006In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 15, no 2, 162-171 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses special category housing for homeless addicts, based on case studies of two different housing programmes and using both qualitative and quantitative data. The staff and residents were interviewed about their experiences of the programmes. Longitudinal data were collected on various indicators of substance misuse and the frequency of contact with the social services at different levels. Our findings show that special category housing has positive direct effects on the housing stability of the residents and their feelings regarding their quality of life, but not on their substance misuse. However, the increased housing stability seems to be more a direct effect of their staying on the programme, rather than a long-term effect. Furthermore, although their quality of life improves, the residents still experience a lack of belonging and feel that their lives lack meaningful content. The choice of special category housing as an intervention model thus seems to perpetuate rather than prevent social exclusion and can possibly be described as an expression of ‘institutionalised resignation’.

  • 5.
    Blid, Mats
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Bergmark, Åke
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Prediction of homelsessness and housing provisions in Swedish municipalities2008In: European Journal of Housing Policy, ISSN 1461-6718, E-ISSN 1473-3269, Vol. 8, no 4, 399-421 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores key predictors of homelessness rates in different Swedish municipalities, the accommodation provided and the coverage of accommodation to homelessness. In order to create realistic models, seven sets of factors represent various structural levels in stepwise regressions. These sets are urbanisation, economy, demographic composition, housing market, aggregated individual problems, political majority and policies and organizational features of the social services. The findings show that urbanisation is central to understanding variations in homelessness and has also impact on housing provisions. In addition, higher rent levels as well as aggregated psychiatric problems seem to increase the level of problems. Overall supply of apartments and the proportion of public housing are important factors in providing accommodation, and a demographic factor, such as the proportion of single-parent households, seems to enhance such a provision. Political majority as well as the functional organization of the social services seems independently to impact coverage rates. Despite the importance of urbanisation, findings indicate that a number of factors with impact on the problem and on the possibilities to handle them are manageable by the municipalities.

  • 6.
    Borell, Klas
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Global Studies. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Cooperation or Isolation? Muslim Congregations in a Scandinavian Welfare State: A Nationally Representative Survey from Sweden2013In: Review of religious research, ISSN 0034-673X, E-ISSN 2211-4866, Vol. 55, no 4, 557-571 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Scandinavian welfare context, the emphasis on cooperation between public authorities and the nonprofit sector continues to be a central institutional characteristic. But to what extent have the new Muslim congregations adapted to the Scandinavian tradition of organizational cooperation, and what circumstances - internal or external to these organizations - promote or disrupt the development of such cooperation? This study is based on a nationwide survey of local Muslim congregations in Sweden (n = 105). No support was found for the widespread notion that European Muslim congregations tend to exist as separate enclaves. The poweful discoursive emphasis on organizational cooperation in Scandinavia creates vital opportunity structures, but local variations in demographic and socioeconomic conditionsalso seems to have an impact. Among internal factors that influence willingness to cooperate is not least the degree of ethnic heterogeneity; openness to different Muslim traditions - a precondition for a multiethnic congregation - is seen to correspond to greater openness to the wider society.

  • 7.
    Borell, Klas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Frivilligt socialt arbete i svenska muslimska församlingar: Tradition, organisation, integration.2011In: Socionomens forskningssupplement, ISSN 0283–1929, Vol. 29, no 1, 34-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska muslimska församlingar är inte bara religiösa mötesplatser utan också centra för organiseringen av sociala välfärdsinsatser. I denna studie ges, för första gången i Västeuropa, en riksrepresentativ bild av muslimska församlingars frivilliga sociala arbete men också en analys av den roll sådana insatser spelar ur ett integrationsperspektiv. Bidrar muslimskt socialt arbete till att skapa inåtriktade parallellsamhällen eller bidrar det, tvärtom, till att skapa nya band till det omgivande samhället?

  • 8.
    Borell, Klas
    et al.
    Institutionen för socialt arbete, Mittuniversitetet.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Hidden Voluntary Social Work: A Nationally Representative Survey of Muslim Congregations in Sweden2011In: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 41, no 5, 968-979 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on a nationwide survey of local Muslim congregations (n  =  105) and focuses on the patterns and function of voluntary social work carried out by the congregations. Muslim congregations in Sweden are not only religious meeting places, but also social meeting places and centres for the organisation of a broad range of social welfare services: outreach activities, support to newly arrived immigrants and activities for children and young people. The work is carried out on a voluntary basis at the intersection between the congregation and the community. Muslim voluntary social work appears to be most intensive in smaller municipalities with a large amount of unemployment. The dominant discourse on Islam in Europe has claimed that Muslim social work is part of an attempt to create self-sufficient enclaves that impede the integration of Muslim immigrants into the wider society. Claims of this type seem, however, to be largely unfounded. The Swedish Muslim congregations that carry out the most voluntary social work are those most interested in co-operation with other organisations and with authorities of different types and those that have the most positive experiences of the wider society.

  • 9.
    Borell, Klas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbetet, Östersund.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Motstånd och stöd: en studie av svenska muslimska församlingar2010In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 47, no 4, 31-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Borell, Klas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work.
    NIMBY-forskningen: En kritisk granskning2001In: Socialt perspektiv, Vol. 80, no 3/4, 37-57 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Borell, Klas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbetet, Östersund.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Religion, etnicitet och organisation2010In: Invandrare & Minoriteter, ISSN 1404-6857, no 1, 13-17 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Flertalet muslimska samfund i Sverige är mångetniska mötesplatser för troende från olika kulturer och islamska traditioner. Församlingarna söker en gemensam andlig plattform och vägar för att utveckla nya organisationsformer.

  • 12.
    Borell, Klas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbetet, Östersund.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Samverkan eller Isolering?: Svenska muslimska församlingar2011In: SSTs Årsbok 2011, Stockholm: SST, Nämnden för Statligt Stöd till Trossamfund , 2011, 13-16 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Borell, Klas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Swedish Muslim Congregations: Summary of a Research Project2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Islam is the fastest growing religion in Western Europe today. As a consequence, the emergence and growth of Muslim religious congregations is one of the most important changes that have taken place within the European third (or voluntary) sector in the last 20 years. However, more often than not, these congregations are described as "enclaves" or "integration traps" isolating new citizens from the rest of society, a picture that has remained largely uncontested due to a lack of more extensive research.

  • 14.
    Borell, Klas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbetet, Östersund.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Sällström, Anna
    Nordlander, Johanna
    Lundkvist, Elisabeth
    Muslimska församlingar i lokalsamhället: Samverkan eller isolering?2011In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, no 1, 63-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Muslimska församlingars riksomfattande etablering i Sverige är en viktig förändring inom den ideella sektorn. Men hur förhåller sig församlingarna till den svenska traditionen av samverkan mellan ideella och offentliga aktörer? I artikeln studeras hur och i vilken omfattning muslimska församlingar samverkar med offentliga aktörer och vilka organisationsinterna och organisationsexterna faktorer som gynnar respektive missgynnar samverkan.

  • 15.
    Carlsson, Emma
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Magnusson, Anette
    Tompa, Andrea
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Bülow, Per
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work.
    Faresjö, Maria
    Psychological stress affects the numbers of circulating CD56+CD16+ and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+CD127- cells and induce an immune response towards type 1 diabetes-related autoantigens in young women2016Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Barndomens återkomst i behandling och forskning2011In: CTQ - Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, A Retrospective Self-Report: Manual, Svensk version / [ed] David P Bernstein & Laura Fink, Stockholm: Pearson Assessment and Information AB , 2011, 5-10 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Diagnosinstrument för beroende och missbruk - Granskning av ADDIS validitet och interna konsistens gällande alkoholproblem2009In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, Vol. 26, no 3, 265-276 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Board on Health and Welfare recommends that structured assessment instruments should be used in medical as well as in social treatment of substance misusers. These should be validated in a Swedish context. Instruments for diagnoses of dependence/abuse (DSM-IV) and dependence/harmful use (ICD-10) have been used in Sweden for many years, although not yet validated in Swedish. ADDIS, the Swedish version of the American SUDDS, is used in four Nordic countries and the most often used diagnostic instrument in Sweden. This article investigates the psychometric properties of ADDIS alcohol module, including discriminant and construct validity and internal consistency. The two main constructs in DSM - dependence and abuse - as well as the seven criteria for dependence and the four criteria for abuse are studied. Further, the value of each of the 44 specific items in ADDIS for capturing these criteria is studied.

    Two samples are explored: 1) a clinical sample (n = 349; incl. 129 women) and 2) a sample of 400 men convicted for driving while intoxicated. Mean age was the same (41 ys.). Using discriminant analyses on lifetime prevalence, the items correctly classify 94% of the cases in the two samples. Using one-factor principal component analysis to explore homogeneity of the combined samples, all 28 items on dependence and 15 of 18 items on abuse have loadings above 0,40 (R2 dependence = 0,46; abuse = 0,40). Separate analyses of the two samples, as well as on women, show similar results. Cronbach's alpha is excellent for dependence and satisfactory for abuse in all analyses. Analyses of specific criteria show satisfactory results on dependence and acceptable on abuse. Minor revisions are proposed to make ADDIS more user-friendly and to improve some specific items.

    In conclusion: ADDIS has acceptable to excellent discriminant and construct validity as well as internal consistency and captures the specific criteria of DSM-IV. It has the preconditions for sensitive assessment of alcohol use disorders in men and women.

  • 18.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work.
    Diagnosinstrument för substansberoende - MINI, SCID-I, eller ADDIS?2015In: Best Practice, ISSN 1329-1874, Vol. 6, no 23, 28-31 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Från "tvångologins" horisont: Forskning om tvångsvård vid tungt missbruk2008In: Från teori och randomisering till klinik: Festskrift till Mats Berglund / [ed] Jan Arlebrink, Lund: Lunds Universitet, Medicinska fakulteten , 2008, 233-252 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    LVM-vårdens genomförande, utfall och efekt - En kontrollerad registerstudie i Jämtland2004In: Bilagedel till LVM-utredningens betänkande "Tvång och förändring": SOU 2004:3, Stockholm: Socialdepartementet & Fritzes Förlag , 2004, 415-476 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Missbrukarvårdens mål - framgångsfaktorer och hinder.2005In: Personer med tungt missbruk - Stimulans till bättre vård och behandling: SOU 2005:82, Stockholm: Socialdepartementet , 2005, 91-117 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Svenska muslimska församlingar - organisation, frivilligt socialt arbete och omvärldsrelationer2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Tvångsvårdens utfall och effekt2005In: Tvångsvård vid missbruk: LVM i teori och praktik / [ed] Jan Arlebrink, Marianne Larsson Kronberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2005, 217-254 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för Socialt Arbete.
    Utfall av LVM-vård - Översikt och syntes av hittillsvarande studier2004In: Bilagedel till LVM-utredningens betänkande "Tvång och förändring": SOU 2004:3, Stockholm: Socialdepartementet & Fritzes Förlag , 2004, 303-414 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Allgulander, Christer
    Dept of psychiatry, Karolinska Institute.
    Psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form (CTQ-SF)2009In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 63, no 2, 160-170 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood maltreatment is delicate to assess both in clinical work and in research. There is a need for assessment tools that can be easily administered in an ethical and non-intrusive way that meets requirements of conceptual validity for various types of maltreatment and is sensitive to levels of severity. This study explores the psychometric properties of the Swedish translation of one such tool—the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire—Short Form (CTQ-SF; Bernstein and Fink, 1998). The CTQ-SF was administered to seven samples (total n=659)—five clinical samples and two non-clinical student samples. The factor structure supports the construct validity of the global maltreatment scale, four of the five maltreatment subscales (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse and emotional neglect) and the minimization/denial (MD) scale, but not the physical neglect (PN) subscale. All items are highly correlated with their respective subscale. The discriminant validity is satisfactory. Highly significant correlation with social desirability gives further support for the MD-scale and to the recommendation of how to apply it. Internal consistency of PN is acceptable and for all other scales satisfactory. Swedish norm groups tend to score lower than similar American norm groups on abuse scales but higher on the neglect scales. Percentiles for seven gender-specific norm groups are presented. The weaknesses of the PN-scale are discussed and new constructs are proposed. The Swedish version of the CTQ-SF has the same construct validity and internal consistency as the original, including less homogeneity of the PN scale.

  • 26.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Avdelningen för klinisk alkoholforskning, Malmö, Lunds Universitet.
    Berglund, Mats
    Lunds universitet, Avdelningen för klinisk alkoholforskning, Malmö.
    Mortality of treated alcoholics after eight years in relation to  short-term outcome1997In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 32, no 5, 573-579 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns the relation between mortality and the short-term outcome of inpatient treatment for alcoholism. A total of 121 patients (87 men, 34 women) were included, of whom 89 were voluntary and 32 compulsorily committed. They had a mean age of 41±7 (SD) years and attended a 5-week programme at Runnagården, Örebro, Sweden. Most patients were socially unstable and severely alcohol-dependent. Ten months (mean) after discharge, 96% of the patients and their referring social workers were contacted with mail questionnaires. Of these patients, 13% had been totally abstinent and a further 42% improved but had had relapses. After a mean of 8.5±0.27 years, 27 patients (24%) had died. All abstainers survived, but non-abstainers had nine-fold higher mortality than expected. Non-abstinent improved women tended to survive longer than non-improved women, but among non-abstinent improved men no such tendency was found. In conclusion, a reduction in the frequency and quantity of abusive drinking was not enough to reduce the higher risk of death. Only abstinence seemed to be preventive.

  • 27.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Berglund, Mats
    Lunds universitet.
    Tvångsvård vid missbruk – effekt och kvalitet2011In: SOU 2011:6; Missbruket, Kunskapen, Vården - Missbruksutredningens Forskningsbilaga: Delbetänkande av Missbruksutredningen, Stockholm: Socialdepartementet , 2011, 653-770 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Avdelningen för klinisk alkoholforskning, Malmö, Lunds universitet.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Statistiska institutionen, Örebro Universitet.
    Berglund, Mats
    Lunds universitet, Avdelningen för klinisk alkoholforskning, Malmö.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Socialmedicinsk avdelning, Örebro Läns Landsting.
    Prediction of outcome in coerced and voluntarily treated alcoholics.1996In: Scandinavian Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 0907-2055, Vol. 5, no 2, 106-112 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study concerns multivariate prediction of the short-term outcome of alcoholism in a coercive treatment setting in Sweden. One hundred and twenty-one patients (87 men, 34 women) with a mean age of 41 (range 26–63) years attended a 5-week program. They were for the most part severely alcohol-dependent and socially unstable. Compulsorily committed patients (n-32) were less socially stable but did not differ from the voluntary patients (n=89) in the type of drugs abused. Nine months (mean) after treatment, a follow-up was performed by mailing questionnaires to the patients and to the referring social workers. The improvement data in the questionnaires were checked with other data. Data on alcohol abuse were available for 116 (96%) of the patients; 55% improved. Of these, 13% had remained entirely abstinent. Using multivariate logistic regression, participation in a self-help group and first-time admission were found to be significant factors for overall improvement, while having a family and more than primary education were significant for abstinence. Compulsory commitment to treatment was not related to the short-term drinking outcome. Undergoing voluntary treatment and having previous treatment experience were significant factors for participation in self-help groups.

  • 29.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Runnagården, Örebro Läns Landsting.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Yrkesmedicinska enheten, Örebro Läns Landsting.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Socialmedicinsk avdelning, Örebro Läns Landsting.
    Minnesotamodellen på Runnagården - bakgrundsfaktorer och resultat1989In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 86, no 32-33, 2671-2674 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Borell, Klas
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbetet, Östersund.
    Neighborhood reactions toward facilities for residential care: A Swedish survey study2003In: Journal of Community Practice, ISSN 1070-5422, Vol. 11, no 4, 59-79 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although a substantial body of research on community hostility towards the establishment of human services facilities now exists, researchers as well as community practitioners have identified a need for a more naturalistic and systematic approach to the issue. As a step in that direction, this paper focuses on a nationally representative sample of facilities for residential care in Sweden, with the objective of identifying patterns of hostile NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) reactions and institutional as well as community predictive factors. Approximately 16 percent of these facilities studied experienced NIMBY reactions. In contradiction to many previous studies, which try to explain the neighborhood reactions in terms of attitudes towards special client groups, the findings of this study indicate that the characteristics of the facility itself and of the community in which it is placed seem to be the most significant factors. The study suggests that there is also significant community support for the facilities and that interaction with the community can provide the facilities with positive resources.

  • 31.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Borell, Klas
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Hultman, L
    Neighbor reactions against institutions for residence and care: A survey study on Swedish experiences : Presentation (by Arne Gerdner) at the 45th Annual ICAA conference in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, 8-13 December2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Carlson, Per
    Mid Sweden University.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    Jönköping University.
    Health and living conditions of Samis compared to other citizens based on representative surveys in three Swedish regions2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, ISSN ISSN 1403-4948Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Avdelningen för klinisk alkoholforskning, Malmö, Lunds universitet.
    Furuholm, Per-Eric
    Runnagården, Örebro.
    Berglund, Mats
    Lunds universitet, Avdelningen för klinisk alkoholforskning, Malmö.
    Abscondance and length of treatment in locked wards for compulsorily committed alcoholics in relation to treatment program and legal changes1997In: Scandinavian Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 0907-2055, Vol. 6, no 4, 310-316 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Describes a study of alcoholics compulsorily committed to a locked ward in a coercive treatment setting in Sweden. Finds that the introduction of an Alcoholics Anonymous - oriented programme in a coercive treatment setting reduced the time spent on a locked ward without increasing the number of times patients absconded. Increase in length of coercion increased both the time spent at the locked ward and the number of times absconded.

  • 34.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Holmberg, Anders
    Örebro Universitet.
    Factors affecting motivation to treatment in severely dependent alcoholics.2000In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol, ISSN 0096-882X, Vol. 61, no 4, 548-560 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    This article explores environmental, developmental and personality-related factors as predictors of motivation to treatment for alcoholism, using such concepts as: social situation on admission, treatment career, age, education and adventurous patterns of behavior.

    METHOD:

    The original population consists of 603 severely dependent alcoholic patients (76% men, 42% compulsorily committed) with a mean age of 40 years. In structural equation model estimation, 85% of the original cases were used (N = 511), made up of compulsorily as well as voluntarily admitted patients. A reduced model was tried on voluntary patients alone.

    RESULTS:

    In the main model, patterns of behavior and age were not related to the motivation to treatment, while treatment career had some negative impact. Social problems were related to less motivation to treatment. In turn, a worse social situation was related to more treatment experience. The reduced model on voluntary patients alone confirmed the main findings, although more previous treatment tended to be related to more motivation.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Motivation was mostly related to a better social situation (i.e., having "more to lose"). A collapse in the social situation was more of an obstacle than a promoter of motivation. There was no support for statements that "maturing out" would result in more motivation, and findings were inconclusive concerning the impact on motivation of having had many previous treatment experiences. The pattern of behavior was not directly related to the level of motivation. Based on these findings, the relevance of social work for motivation to treatment is discussed.

  • 35.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Hultman, Lill
    Borell, Klas
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Grannreaktioner mot Hem för vård och boende: Några resultat från en enkätstudie2001In: Socialt perspektiv, ISSN 1102-2973, Vol. 80, no 3/4, 37-57 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work.
    Kestenberg, Jenny
    Clinic of Psychiatry, NU Hospital Group, Region Västra Götaland, Sweden.
    Mattias, Edvinsson
    Clinic of Psychiatry, NU Hospital Group, Region Västra Götaland, Sweden.
    Validity of the Swedish SCID and ADDIS diagnostic interviews for substance use disorders: Sensitivity and specificity compared with a LEAD golden standard2015In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 69, no 1, 48-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The study explores agreement on diagnoses and diagnostic criteria for substance use disorders between two structured assessment interviews, the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID) and the Alkohol/Drog Diagnos InStrument (ADDIS). Both interviews are compared with a golden standard (GS), based on a LEAD model (Longitudinal, Expert, All Data). Method: Patients were interviewed concerning substance use problems by trained interviewers using SCID and ADDIS separately and blind to each other's results. SCID and ADDIS interviews were compared with each other, and both were compared with a GS. Results: Satisfactory agreement exists between SCID and ADDIS on criteria as well as final diagnostic suggestions, although ADDIS tended to propose dependence diagnoses somewhat more often than SCID. Agreement between SCID and GS is moderate. Sensitivity of SCID is satisfactory, as is specificity for lifetime diagnoses, while specificity for current diagnoses is perfect. ADDIS demonstrates substantial to perfect agreement with GS on dependence diagnoses and moderate agreement on abuse diagnoses (both lifetime and current), as well as showing excellent to perfect overall sensitivity and specificity. Both instruments are in almost perfect agreement with the GS on severity ratings. Conclusion: Both ADDIS and SCID can be used to ensure good standards in the diagnostic assessment of substance use disorders (both alcohol and drugs), with and without psychiatric comorbidity. Significant outcomes. Both SCID and ADDIS are in good agreement with the GS based on a LEAD model concerning substance use disorders.

  • 37.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Nordlander, Torsten
    Karlstad Universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Pedersen, Therese
    Örebro Universitet.
    Personality factors and drug of choice in female addicts with psychiatric comorbidity2001In: Substance Use & Misuse, ISSN 1082-6084, E-ISSN 1532-2491, Vol. 37, no 1, 1-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Female addicts (N= 108) with a mean age of 37.2 were tested using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in 1996-97. In a representative sub-sample (N = 49) assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview. DSMIIIr (SCID), 82% manifested an axis-1-syndrome (lifetime), and 53% a personality disorder. Of the 108 addicts, 42 preferred alcohol, 14 heroin, 33 amphetamines, and 19 benzodiazepines. Maturity was low, but there were no differences in maturity between drug preference groups. Results indicated that those less mature were more "novelty-seeking" and "harm-avoidant", while those maturer tended to be more persistent. Less mature persons answered less consistently. They agreed more with different items and their answers were more rare when compared to the general population. Heroin addicts were less sentimental and helpful and more aware of their own resources. Benzodiazepine and amphetamine addicts were more self-transcendent and self-forgetful. Among the relatively more mature, benzodiazepine addicts scored higher than heroin and alcohol addicts on "true" and rare answers. In conclusion, maturity and the drug of choice among female addicts were related to different TCI scales.

  • 38.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Svensson, Krister
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Predictors of gambling problems among male adolescents.2003In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 12, no 3, 182-192 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study concerns prediction of gambling problems in 178 male adolescents (aged 16 and 18 years) who completed a questionnaire, which included the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory and a number of questions concerning social background, emotional and life-style factors. About 27% of the boys gamble at least weekly. As many as 16% qualify as probable pathological gamblers according to the SOGS. Another 7% are at risk. None of the social background factors are related to severity of gambling problems. The only significant family factor is parental substance misuse. The optimal multivariate model predicts about 30% of the variance in gambling problems. The strongest factor is frequency of alcohol drinking. Several factors indicate a personality with problems in relations to others. Another factor indicates a dreamy personality. Unexpectedly, impulsiveness is not related to gambling. In conclusion, problem gambling among male adolescents is related to life-style and personality, especially in relation to others, but not to usual social background factors. Gamblers are asocial rather than impulsive. The nature of this finding should be further explored, since an asocial personality may point at genetics as well as to early social influences, as may the finding on the relation between gambling and parental drinking.

  • 39.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Avdelningen för Klinisk Alkoholforskning, Malmö, Lunds Universitet.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Socialmedicinsk avdelning, Örebro Läns Landsting.
    Alkoholism som sjukdom1993In: Nordisk Alkoholtidskrift, ISSN 0789-6069, Vol. 10, no 3, 133-144 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Avdelningen för klinisk alkoholforskning, Malmö, Lunds universitet.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Socialmedicinsk avdelning, Örebro Läns Landsting.
    Explaining inconsistancy between patient and collateral: Validity in outcome studies of coercive alcoholism treatment1996In: Scandinavian Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 0907-2055, Vol. 5, no 1, 12-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to assess the consistency of replies to questionnaires mailed to patients and two kinds of collaterals, i.e., social workers and significant others, at a public treatment center with socially unstable and compulsory committed patients. It compares the quantity and kind of discrepancies between replies by patients and collaterals on outcome data concerning social situation and drinking habits. It aims to measure the amount of systematic bias among factors that may explain inconsistencies between reports, especially the factors compulsory commitment, worse outcome, frequency of contact and type of collateral. The responders generally agreed. Variables in which there was less agreement were explored in logistic regressions using ten explanatory variables. Significant relations did not exceed those expected by chance. Discrepancies were not systematic in size and kind. On a six-rank ordinal scale of alcohol use or abuse, however, patients tended to underestimate the extent of their abuse. Inconsistencies here concerned the degree but not the presence of abuse. No difference in consistency due to type of collateral was found. In conclusion, the consistency of the questionnaires was high and independent of the social situation of the patient, of compulsory commitment and of other background or treatment factors, as well as of treatment outcome and type of collateral.

  • 41.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet, Avdelningen för klinisk alkoholforskning, Malmö.
    Söderfeldt, Björn
    Socialmedicinsk avdelning, Örebro Läns Landsting.
    Berglund, Mats
    Lunds universitet, Avdelningen för klinisk alkoholforskning, Malmö.
    Social workers and significant others as collaterals of non-responding alcoholics in follow-up studies using mail questionnaires and telephone inteviews1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 0907-2055, Vol. 7, no 1, 34-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this study is non-response to mail questionnaires and supplementary telephone interviews in evaluation of outcome of treatment for alcohol dependence. The study is based on two clinical populations (n= 121 and 603) from Runnagården, Sweden, a coercive care setting with both voluntary and compulsorily committed patients. The populations differed regarding size, treatment and background factors. Replies were obtained from two- and one-third of the patients in the two populations respectively. Replies from social workers were obtained in 67% and 57% of the cases respectively, and from significant others in 59% of a smaller sub-sample of the second population. With respect to the combination of patient and collaterals, we received at least one questionnaire reply concerning 96% and 79% of the two populations respectively. In this study we analysed non-response and evaluated two methods to remedy this, i.e., prediction of the outcome in non-responders from additional telephone follow-up and questionnaires to collaterals. About two-thirds of patients who replied had improved, compared with about one-third of non-responders. Significant others replied more often if patients had improved, while social workers replied more often if patients had not improved. Patients who did not reply to mail questionnaires, but answered the same questions in a telephone interview, differed in drinking outcome from non-responders, but not from mail respondents. The method of using questionnaires addressed to social workers as an additional source of data can be used in countries with a general system of social welfare services and is better than the use of significant others as collaterals. In conclusion, replies obtained by additional telephone interviews were not representative for patients who did not return mail questionnaires. Non-response groups were highly selected in each of the three questionnaires (addressed to patients, significant others and social workers). Since the selectivity had opposite tendencies, the combination of questionnaires to patients and to social workers seems to be the most representative.

  • 42.
    Gerdner, Arne
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work.
    Wickström, Lynn
    Reliability of ADDIS for diagnoses of substance use disorders according to ICD-10, DSM-IV and DSM-5: test-retest and inter-item consistency2015In: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, ISSN 1747-597X, E-ISSN 1747-597X, Vol. 10, no 1, 1-8 p., 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    This study investigates test-retest and inter-item consistency of Alcohol Drog Diagnos InStrument (ADDIS), a structured interview to diagnose substance use disorders according to ICD-10, DSM-IV and DSM-5. ADDIS, the Swedish version of SUDDS, is the only instrument in Swedish that produces diagnostic proposals specific to all drug categories, and for all three diagnostic systems. Screening of stressful life events, anxiety, and depression is also included.

    Methods

    Thirty patients at addiction treatment facilities were interviewed for diagnostic assessment and re-interviewed after one week.

    Results

    ADDIS has excellent internal consistency. There is also very high test-retest correlation on number of fulfilled criteria for all diagnostic systems. Agreement of diagnostic proposals is substantial, mean absolute agreement is excellent, and mean systematic correlation is almost perfect.

    Conclusion

    ADDIS is a reliable tool for specific diagnostic assessment of SUDs.

  • 43.
    Ghazanfareeon Karlsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Johansson, Stina
    Umeå Universitet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Borell, Klas
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbetet, Östersund.
    Caring while living apart2007In: Journal of gerontological social work, ISSN 0163-4372, Vol. 49, no 4, 3-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, researchers have paid increasing attention to die issue of care in die new types of family and partner relationships. The aim of this study is to examine expectations and attitudes concerning care among elderly people in LAT (Living Apart Togetiier)- relationships in Sweden, that is, people who have a long-term intimate relationship, but who do not share a common home. Questionnaires were completed by 116 elderly people in LAT-relationships. Partners are ranked as the main providers of care, especially by men, but mere is considerable variation in die answers. This seems to be principally related to the degree of flexibility in this type of relationship. Some individuals see a LAT-relationship as a marriage-like relationship, while others see it primarily as a type of relationship that guarantees them the possibility of maintaining their own independent way of life.

  • 44.
    Israelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Compulsory Commitment to Care of Substance Misusers: A Worldwide Comparative Analysis of the Legislation2010In: The Open Addiction Journal, ISSN 1874-9410, Vol. 3, no 1, 117-130 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the worldwide use of compulsory commitment to care (CCC) at the end of the 20th century and evaluates the implementation of WHO recommendations since the 1960s. Based on three WHO reports, the legislation of 90 countries and territories are analyzed, and types as well as predictors of such legislation are analyzed in multivariate models from country characteristics. Laws on CCC for alcohol and drug misusers are common all over the world; more than 80 percent of the countries and territories studied have such laws. The majority use civil commitment – acute or rehabilitative – in accordance with welfare logic, while a large minority still uses commitment under criminal law, based on a moral logic. Civil CCC is positively related to strong economies or having been part of the Soviet legal system. CCC under criminal law is negatively related to the same factors.

  • 45.
    Israelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Institutionen för socialt arbete, Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Compulsory commitment to care of substance misusers: international trends during 25 years2012In: European Addiction Research, ISSN 1022-6877, E-ISSN 1421-9891, Vol. 18, no 6, 302-321 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The study explores international trends in law on compulsory commitment to care of substance misusers (CCC), and two subtypes – civil CCC and CCC within criminal justice legislation – as well as maximum length and amount of applications of such care. Method: The time period covers more than 25 years, and a total of 104 countries and territories. The study is based on available data in three times of observation (1986, 1999 and 2009). Applications of CCC in number of cases are studied on European level for the years 2002–2006. Trends are analyzed using nonparametric tests and general linear models for repeated measures. Findings are discussed from contextual analysis. Result: There is a trend towards decrease in the number of countries worldwide having civil CCC legislation after the millennium, while CCC under criminal law has increased since the mid-1980s, resulting in some total net decrease. The shift results in longer mean duration of CCC and an increase in the number of cases sentenced. Conclusion: There is a risk that the shift from civil CCC to penal CCC implies more focus on young out-acting males in compulsory treatment and that the societal responsibility for more vulnerable persons might be neglected.

  • 46.
    Israelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mittuniversitet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Nordlöf, Kerstin
    Örebro Universitet.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work.
    European laws on compulsory commitment to care of persons suffering from substance use disorders or misuse problems – a comparative review from a human and civil rights perspective2015In: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, ISSN 1747-597X, E-ISSN 1747-597X, Vol. 10, 1-12 p., 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Laws on compulsory commitment to care (CCC) in mental health, social and criminal legislation for adult persons with alcohol and/or drug dependence or misuse problems are constructed to address different scenarios related to substance use disorders. This study examines how such CCC laws in European states vary in terms of legal rights, formal orders of decision and criteria for involuntary admission, and assesses whether three legal frameworks (criminal, mental and social law) equally well ensure human and civil rights.

    Methods

    Thirty-nine laws, from 38 countries, were analysed. Respondents replied in web-based questionnaires concerning a) legal rights afforded the persons with substance use problems during commitment proceedings, b) sources of formal application, c) instances for decision on admission, and d) whether or not 36 different criteria could function as grounds for decisions on CCC according to the law in question. Analysis of a-c were conducted in bivariate cross-tabulations. The 36 criteria for admission were sorted in criteria groups based on principal component analysis (PCA). To investigate whether legal rights, decision-making authorities or legal criteria may discriminate between types of law on CCC, discriminant analyses (DA) were conducted.

    Results

    There are few differences between the three types of law on CCC concerning legal rights afforded the individual. However, proper safeguards of the rights against unlawful detention seem still to be lacking in some CCC laws, regardless type of law. Courts are the decision-making body in 80 % of the laws, but this varies clearly between law types. Criteria for CCC also differ between types of law, i.e. concerning who should be treated: dependent offenders, persons with substance use problems with acting out or aggressive behaviors, or other vulnerable persons with alcohol or drug problems.

    Conclusion

    The study raises questions concerning whether various European CCC laws in relation to substance use disorder or misuse problems comply with international ratified conventions concerning human and civil rights. This, however, applies to all three types of law, i.e. social, mental health and criminal legislation. The main differences between law types concern legal criteria, reflecting different national priorities on implicit ambitions of CCC – for correction, for prevention, or for support to those in greatest need of care.

  • 47.
    Lochner, Christine
    et al.
    Dept of Psychiatry, University of Stellenbrosh, South Africa.
    Seedat, S
    Allgulander, Christer
    The Karolinska Institute, Dpt of Psychiatry.
    Kidd, M
    Stein, D
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work.
    Childhood trauma in adults with social anxiety disorder and panic disorder: A cross-national study2010In: African Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 1994-8220, Vol. 13, no 5, 376-381 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    The influence of childhood trauma as a specific environmental factor on the development of adult psychopathology is far from being elucidated. As part of a collaborative project between research groups from South Africa (SA) and Sweden focusing on genetic and environmental factors contributing to anxiety disorders, this study specifically investigated rates of childhood trauma in South African and Swedish patients respectively, and whether, in the sample as a whole, different traumatic experiences in childhood are predictive of social anxiety (SAD) or panic disorder (PD) in adulthood.

    METHOD:

    Participants with SAD or PD (85 from SA, 135 from Sweden) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Logistic regression was performed with data from the two countries separately, and from the sample as a whole, with primary diagnoses as dependent variables, gender, age, and country as covariates, and the CTQ subscale totals as independent variables. The study also investigated the internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) of the CTQ subscales.

    RESULTS:

    SA patients showed higher levels of childhood trauma than Swedish patients. When data from both countries were combined, SAD patients reported higher rates of childhood emotional abuse compared to those with PD. Moreover, emotional abuse in childhood was found to play a predictive role in SAD/PD in adulthood in the Swedish and the combined samples, and the same trend was found in the SA sample. The psychometric qualities of the CTQ subscales were adequate, with the exception of the physical neglect subscale.

    CONCLUSION:

    Our findings suggest that anxiety disorder patients may differ across countries in terms of childhood trauma. Certain forms of childhood abuse may contribute specific vulnerability to different types of psychopathology. Longitudinal studies should focus on the potential sequential development of SAD/PD among individuals with childhood emotional abuse.

  • 48.
    Lundgren, Kata
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Lundquist, L-O
    Örebro Universitet.
    Childhood Abuse and Neglect in Severely Dependent Female Addicts: Homogeneity and reliability of a Swedish Version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire2002In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 11, no 3, 219-227 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the psychometric characteristics of childhood experiences (‘Barndomsupplevelser’), using a Swedish translation of the 53–item version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Fifty–five female addicts, treated in a compulsory–care setting, completed the questionnaire. Homogeneity and reliability were studied using principal component analyses (PCA) and Cronbach’s alpha. The test was submitted to content analysis. Nearly all (94.5%) had experienced childhood abuse or neglect. The internal consistency is high. The 4–factor solution corresponded to the subscales of emotional and physical abuse (combined), of sexual abuse and of emotional neglect, while the items in the physical neglect subscale were distributed to several factors. In the 5–factor solution, this subscale was divided into two factors. Content analyses of these factors point to other meanings than physical neglect. The CTQ (Swedish translation) was found to have high consistency and homogeneity in four of the five subscales (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, and emotional neglect), while the subscale on physical neglect may need revision. The new 28–item brief version seems to be an improvement, with regard to these problems.

  • 49. MacDonald, K.
    et al.
    Thomas, M. L.
    Sciolla, A. F.
    Schneider, B.
    Pappas, K.
    Bleijenberg, G.
    Bohus, M.
    Bekh, B.
    Carpenter, L.
    Carr, A.
    Dannlowski, U.
    Dorahy, M.
    Fahlke, C.
    Finzi-Dottan, R.
    Karu, T.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Behavioural Science and Social Work. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Research Platform of Social Work.
    Glaesmer, H.
    Grabe, H. J.
    Heins, M.
    Kenny, D. T.
    Kim, D.
    Knoop, H.
    Lobbestael, J.
    Lochner, C.
    Lauritzen, G.
    Ravndal, E.
    Riggs, S.
    Sar, V.
    Schäfer, I.
    Schlosser, N.
    Schwandt, M. L.
    Stein, M. B.
    Subic-Wrana, C.
    Vogel, M.
    Wingenfeld, K.
    Minimization of childhood maltreatment is common and consequential: Results from a large, multinational sample using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 1, 1-16 p., e0146058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood maltreatment has diverse, lifelong impact on morbidity and mortality. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is one of the most commonly used scales to assess and quantify these experiences and their impact. Curiously, despite very widespread use of the CTQ, scores on its Minimization-Denial (MD) subscale-originally designed to assess a positive response bias-are rarely reported. Hence, little is known about this measure. If response biases are either common or consequential, current practices of ignoring the MD scale deserve revision. Therewith, we designed a study to investigate 3 aspects of minimization, as defined by the CTQ's MD scale: 1) its prevalence; 2) its latent structure; and finally 3) whether minimization moderates the CTQ's discriminative validity in terms of distinguishing between psychiatric patients and community volunteers. Archival, item-level CTQ data from 24 multinational samples were combined for a total of 19,652 participants. Analyses indicated: 1) minimization is common; 2) minimization functions as a continuous construct; and 3) high MD scores attenuate the ability of the CTQ to distinguish between psychiatric patients and community volunteers. Overall, results suggest that a minimizing response bias-as detected by the MD subscale-has a small but significant moderating effect on the CTQ's discriminative validity. Results also may suggest that some prior analyses of maltreatment rates or the effects of early maltreatment that have used the CTQ may have underestimated its incidence and impact. We caution researchers and clinicians about the widespread practice of using the CTQ without the MD or collecting MD data but failing to assess and control for its effects on outcomes or dependent variables. © 2016 MacDonald et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • 50.
    Monwell, Bodil
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Blix, Olof
    Beroendemottagningen, Psykiatriska kliniken, Länssjukhuset Ryhov.
    Bülow, Per
    Psykiatriska kliniken, Länssjukhuset Ryhov.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. SALVE (Social challenges, Actors, Living conditions, reseach VEnue).
    Ämneslista som kognitivt stöd gav utförligare uppgifter om droganvändning: Jämförelse av två metoder för utredning av opioidberoende2013In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 110, no 48, 2178-2180 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 58
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