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  • 1.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Accessibility and New Firm Formation2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Banks and new firm formation2015In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 22, no 4, 734-761 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this paper is to give a nuanced picture of how the local bank sector influences new firm formation and how this differs along the urban-rural hierarchy. Thus, the present paper increases the knowledge concerning the importance of the local bank sector in influencing new firm formation. In this respect, it also sheds light on how banks influence regional growth through their impact on start-ups.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The empirical design is based on a cross-sectional approach from 2010, where Swedish municipalities are employed as the unit of observation. To overcome a possible endogeneity problem, an instrumental variable approach is applied. A two-stage least squares approach is employed in which instruments for the local bank sector in 2010 are utilised.

    Findings

    – The findings present positive relationships among the average size of the bank branches, independent banks per capita, bank branches per capita, bank competition, and the number of local start-ups in Sweden. Hence, access to financial funds is important for new firm formation. When the sample is divided across the urban-rural hierarchy, differences arise concerning the importance of the local bank sector. Independent banks per capita and bank branches per capita tend to have a larger impact on firm formation in rural municipalities.

    Originality/value

    – This paper is novel in its detailed approach to describing the local bank sector. This topic is important for local and national policy makers, demonstrating the importance of the local bank sector for a growing and healthy regional economy. This study is also the first study on this topic in Sweden.

  • 3.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Career trajectories of immigrants in Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Crossing Borders-Expanding Markets: An outlook from Sweden2010Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Financial Accessibility and New Firm Formation2007In: Entrepreneurship, Institutions and Policies: The 2007 Ratio Colloquium for Young Social Scientists, 23-25 August, Stockholm, Sweden, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Human capital and firm performance2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Human capital in firms and regions: Impact on firm productivity2014In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 93, no 3, 557-575 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the importance of human capital for firm productivity and makes a clear distinction between the role of human capital inside and outside of the firm. A multilevel model is used for the business service sector in Sweden controlling for heterogeneity across the industry and municipal level. Human capital in firms in terms of education, experience, and cognitive skills and the firm's overall access to human capital has a positive impact on firm productivity. In addition, firm attributes explain the largest proportion of firm productivity variance.

  • 8.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    New Firm Formation and Regional Accessibility to Capital2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Nyföretagande och närheten till finansiellt kapital: Policysammanfattning från Entreprenörskapsforum2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Varför är finansiellt kapital (banker) viktigt?Anledningen till att banker och närheten till banker är så viktigt för nyföretagande och därmed entreprenörskap är att finansiellt kapital är nödvändigt för att ett nytt företag ska kunna etableras. Det finansiella kapitalet kan härstamma från entre-prenörens eget kapital och/eller från vänner och familj, det vill säga informellt kapital. Om det informella kapitalet inte täcker de initiala kostnaderna och investe-ringarna måste entreprenören söka externt kapital genom riskkapital och banker. Riskkapital finansierar endast ett litet antal nya företag och är främst koncentrerat till Stockholm och Göteborg. Detta innebär att banker står för den största ande-len av externt finansiellt kapital. I Sverige har ungefär hälften av alla små företag banklån (Berggren med flera, 2001). Berggren och Silver (2010) bekräftar detta mönster och finner att cirka tre fjärdedelar av alla svenska företag har banklån. De finner även att företag som ligger på landsbygden är mer beroende av denna typ av finansiellt kapital, vilket beror på att det finns färre alternativ till att låna externt kapital. Eftersom banker står för den största delen av utlåningen, samtidigt som de finns representerade i alla Sveriges kommuner, fyller banker en viktig funktion i samhället för nyföretagande och entreprenörskap.

  • 10.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Regional Variation of Returns to EducationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Regional variation of returns to education2013Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Regions, Human Capital and New Firm Formation2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis shows the importance of human capital at the individual, firm, and regional level through its effects on returns to education, firm productivity and new firm formation. The thesis further shows the importance of banks as a determinant for new firm formation at the local level. The thesis comprises of five chapters, one introductory chapter followed by four independent chapters, empirical in their nature.

    The second chapter in the thesis, Regional Variations of Returns to Education, analyses individuals’ return to education in different regional contexts. The results show that returns to education differ according to type of location. Conclusively, the often-assumed hypothesis of equal returns to education for all regions in a country can be rejected. The second chapter, Human Capital and Firm Performance, uses a firm perspective and tests how human capital, within and outside the firm, influences firm productivity. Results show that both types of human capital are positively associated with firm productivity. Overall, it is firm attributes that explain most of the productivity variance. The third chapter, Accessibility to Human Capital and New Firm Formation, compares how human capital influences new firm formation in different regional categories. Overall, it is the access to human capital at the local and intra-regional level that increases the new firm formation rate. However, the influence from human capital differs across the regional categories and their position in the hierarchical system. The last chapter, Banks and New Firm Formation, analyses how different characteristics of the local bank sector influence new firm formation. The average size of bank branches per capita, independent banks, bank branches per capita and the competitive level are positively associated with local startups.

  • 13.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Returns to Education across the urban-rural hierarchy2014In: The Review of Regional Studies, ISSN 0048-749X, Vol. 44, no 1, 33-59 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Returns to education are mainly influenced by the characteristics of the individual. However, returns also depend on location characteristics; suggesting location premia can exist for educational attainment. This paper analyzes regional variations to returns from education using Swedish municipalities. The political geography of Sweden assists the analysis since it can be divided into four categories based on size and commuting patterns. Based on the obtained results, the often-assumed hypothesis of equal returns to education for all regions in a country can be rejected. The highest returns to education are found in municipalities at the top of the urban-rural hierarchy (dense and large municipalities), and the lowest are in the most peripheral municipalities.

  • 14.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Spatial capital mobility: An empirical study2008In: ERSA Congress 2008: culture, cohesion and competitiveness : regional perspectives, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Spatial capital mobility: An empirical study2008In: Uddevalla Symposium 2008: spatial dispersed production and network governance : papers presented at the 11th Uddevalla Symposium, 15-17 May, 2008, Kyoto, Japan / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: Department of Economics and IT, University West , 2008, 129-152 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Who says life is over after 55? Entrepreneurship and an aging population2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Location of Talent2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Regional variations in returns to education2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Return to higher Education: A regional perspective2008In: Uddevalla Symposium 2008: spatial dispersed production and network governance : papers presented at the 11th Uddevalla Symposium, 15-17 May, 2008, Kyoto, Japan / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: Department of Economics and IT, University West , 2008, 153-176 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Returns to Education: A Regional Perspective2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Returns to higher education: A regional perspective2008In: ERSA Congress 2008: culture, cohesion and competitiveness : regional perspectives, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Returns to Higher Education: a Regional Perspective2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The returns to education have been thoroughly investigated and Sweden has shown to have a relatively low return compared to other countries in Europe. Nevertheless, few studies have combined the regional perspective with returns to education. Hence, the purpose of the paper is to analyze regional differences in their returns to higher education within natural science, engineering and medicine. We assume that individuals maximize expected utility; they will try to attain the highest expected return to education as possible. The regional sum of employment possibilities as well as unemployment shares may differ between regions. Therefore, it is plausible to believe that the regional return to education varies between locations which accounted for in the empirical part of the paper. The result shows that there are clear differences between regional classifications concerning returns to higher education. Central urban regions, except the three largest cities and ten largest universities have the highest return to education. These regions may need to compensate the individuals with a higher return. The three largest cities in Sweden have a relatively low return but have other amenities that attract individuals.

  • 23. Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Returns to Higher Education: a Regional Perspective2014In: Knowledge, Innovation And Space / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson, Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Roger R. Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, 237-264 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Sara
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Norman, Therese
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wallin, Tina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wixe, Sofia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Tillgänglighet, innovationsprocesser och tillväxt2015Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Sara
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wallin, Tina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wixe, Sofia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Mångfald och utveckling av långsiktigt hållbara innovationsmiljöer2014Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Bjerke, Lina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Sara
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wallin, Tina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Wixe, Sofia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Platsbunden innovationsförmåga och arbetskraftens sammansättning2014Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Utvärdering av ADA2007Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Västra Sverige -  en konkurrenskraftig automotivregion: Utvärdering av projektet "Automotive Sweden 2004-2006"2006Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Lööf, Hans
    Nabavi, Pardis
    Palmberg, Johanna
    Mångfald och innovationer i urbana regioner2015In: Det innovativa Sverige 2: Innovation och attraktion i stad på landsbygd / [ed] Jonas Gustafsson och Åse Karlén, Stockholm: ESBRI , 2015, 21-39 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Internationella jämförelser visar att stora, kunskapsintensiva regioner växer snabbare än mindre regioner. Vad är det som utmärker storstadsregionerna gentemot övriga urbana regioner? Vad är det som gör dem attraktiva? En första tes i detta kapitel är att Sveriges tre storstadsregioner får sin särställning genom mångfald. En andra tes är att förnyad och ökad mångfald i de största stadsregionerna över tiden sprider sig till övriga delar av Sverige. Storstäderna är i sig själva attraktiva platser för innovation och förnyelse, men också ekonomiska motorer för resten av landet.

  • 30.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Determinants of entrepreneurship. Is it all about the individual or the region?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established at whatever spatial level studied that economic actors exhibit a strong tendency to cluster. Despite this fact many explanations to entrepreneurship only considers the personal characteristics of entrepreneurs. This is certainly not a satisfactory state-of-the-art. It is obvious that the influence of spatial factors must be considered carefully. In this paper we illustrate empirically that variations in the rate of entrepreneurship are explained not only in terms of characteristics of entrepreneurs, such as education, sector of employment, occupation, experience and income but also by the characteristics of i) the localities where they worked before they became entrepreneurs, ii) the localities where they currently started their firm and iii) the regions where these localities are situated. The characteristics of localities include size, population density, firm density and type of locality (metropolitan, urban, semi-rural or rural). The estimations use a multi-level approach to decipher the how much of the variance that can be explained by the different levels (individual, locality and region). The data used in this study is micro-level data for Sweden provided by Statistics Sweden.

  • 31.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Determinants of entrepreneurship: Is it all about the individual or the region?2013In: International Review of Entrepreneurship, Vol. 11, no 3, 1-24 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS). Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Determinants of self-employment among commuters and non-commuters2016In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 95, no 4, 755-774 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the determinants of self-employment and focus on the contextual environment. By distinguishing between commuters and non-commuters we are able to analyse the influence from the work and home environment, respectively. Our results indicate a significant difference between non-commuters and commuters in terms of the role of networks for becoming self-employed. Our results indicate that it is the business networks where people work, rather than where they live that exerts a positive influence on the probability of becoming self-employed. These effects are further robust over educational and occupational categories.

  • 33.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Human Capital and New Firm Formation2007In: Uddevalla Symposium 2007: institutions for knowledge generation and knowledge flows - building innovative capabilities for regions : papers presented at the 10th Uddevalla Symposium, 14-16 June, 2007, Uddevalla, Sweden, Trollhättan: Department of Economics and Informatics, University West , 2007, 185-204 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Who says life is over after 55? Entrepreneurship and an aging population2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies confirm a positive inverted U-shaped relationship between age and entrepreneurship. This paper analyses if this statement is true also for Sweden. By focusing on those above the age of 50, this paper adds knowledge about how individuals close to their retirement act in terms of self-employment and to what extent they contributeas entrepreneurs to the overall society. First, it analyses at the regional level the propensity of older people to start firms with a focus on the relationship between different age cohorts and the rate of new firm formation. At the second stage, an individual perspective is taken where the probability to become self-employed is expected to increase as individuals become older but at a decreasing rate. By decomposing the population in different age cohorts, it is possible to find differences in the probability of becoming self-employed. To increase and deepen the knowledge about the relationship between age and entrepreneurship this paper further adds to existing literature by separating regions into different categories along the urban-rural hierarchy. The results in this paper confirm that the rate of entrepreneurship first increases and then decreases with age. Individuals above both 55 and 64 have a positive influence on the rate of entrepreneurship at both the regional as well as the individual level. The impact is stronger in locations that are more rural.

  • 35.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Stadsförnyelse i Norrköping och Linköping: Konsekvenser av Ostlänken, regional infrastruktur och investeringar i stadskärnorna2007Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Petersson, Lars
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Konsekvensanalys av projektet "Handelscentrum Ljungby Shop Stop"2007Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    Kohlhase, Janet
    University of Houston, Department of Economics, Houston, TX.
    The Influence of Diversity on the Formation, Survival and Growth of New Firms2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our paper investigates how diversity of the labor force influences the rate of new firm formation and the performance of new firms in urban areas. A diversified labor force within the firm and in the external environment influences the formation, survival and growth of firms. We explore these issues with both aggregate data at the municipal level and individual data at the firm level for the years 1993-2010. We measure diversity using entropy measures that account for a wider range of differences than is typically used. Our empirical analysis finds a positive influence of diversity of the labor force on the rate of new firm formation at the municipal level. At the level of an individual firm, we find that the diversity of the firm’s labor force is positively associated with the survival and growth of new firms. Our results add to the literature on the workings of agglomeration economies through variations in human capital, information spillovers and innovation.

  • 38. Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Kohlhase, Janet
    University of Houston.
    The Influence of Diversity on the Formation, Survival and Growth of New Firms2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The geography of innovation and entrepreneurship2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 55, no 1, 1-6 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction to the special issue “The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship” in the Annals of Regional Science surveys a collection of nine papers which consider agglomeration economies and spatial heterogeneity of regions and firms through the lenses of innovation and entrepreneurship. They all make use of extensive and detailed data sources that enable models to provide a richer picture of how firms, industries and regions are affected by innovation and entrepreneurship but also how these entities shape and foster renewal. These factors include spatial concentration, industry composition, labor market characteristics, immigration, firm characteristics, R&D activities and R&D collaboration. The papers add to the understanding of the geography of innovation and entrepreneurship by suggesting alternative ways of identifying spillovers, combing and integrating internal and external knowledge sources, and by estimating the impact on innovation, new firm formation and growth.

  • 40.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Mellander, Charlotta
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS). Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, The Prosperity Institute of Scandinavia (PIS).
    Gabe, Todd
    University of Maine, USA.
    Effects of human Capital on the growth and survival of Swedish businesses2016In: Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, ISSN 1090-4999, Vol. 46, no 1, 22-38 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effects of human capital on the growth and survival of a large sample of Swedish businesses. Human capital is represented by conventional measures of the educational attainment and experience of an establishment’s workers and skills-based measures of the types of occupations present in the company. Controlling for an establishment’s size and age, as well as its industry and region of location, we find that the human capital embodied in a company’s workers affects its performance. The specific effects, however, depend on how human capital is measured and whether the analysis focuses on growth or survival.

  • 41.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Nilsson, Pia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    The role of cultural heritage in attracting skilled individuals2016In: Journal of Cultural Economics, ISSN 0885-2545, E-ISSN 1573-6997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the role played by built heritages and cultural environments, alongside other locational factors, in explaining the growth of human capital in Sweden. We distinguish between urban, natural and cultural qualities as different sources of regional attractiveness and estimate their influence on the observed growth of individuals with at least three years of higher education during 2001–2010. Neighborhood-level data are used, and unobserved heterogeneity and spatial dependencies are modeled by employing random effects estimations and an instrumental variable approach. Our findings indicate that the local supply of built heritages and cultural environments explain a significant part of human capital growth in Sweden. Results suggest that these types of cultural heritages are important place-based resources with a potential to contribute to improved regional attractiveness and growth.

  • 42.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Nilsson, Pia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    HV71:s betydelse för Jönköpingsregionen2010Report (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Nilsson, Pia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Strömberg, Carl-Johan
    Jämställdhet, integration och konkurrenskraft: En empirisk studie med fokus påsvenska jordbruksföretag2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Nilsson, Pia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Westlund, Hans
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Rickardsson, Jonna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Wassen, Lisa
    Utvärdering av Landsbygdsprogrammet 2007-2013 (Axel 1)2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Palmberg, Johanna
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS).
    Contextualizing small family firms: How does the urban-rural context affect firm employment growth?2015In: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, Vol. 6, no 4, 247-258 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the effects of family governance and ownership on firm employment growth, extending existing knowledge by including in the analysis the regional context in which firms are located. We create a regional taxonomy to capture the urban–rural dimension and combine this with the corporate governance structure of the firm. Our results show that, being a family firm per se does not influence employment growth. However, when corporate governance structure and regional context are combined, the urban–rural context influences family firm and nonfamily firm employment growth differently, with family firms exhibiting greater employment growth, compared with nonfamily firms, in rural areas.

  • 46.
    Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Wallin, Tina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics. Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE).
    Access to financial intermediaries and external capital acquisition2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine whether low access to financial intermediaries works as an obstacle acquiring financial capital for Swedish firms by using information from the Community Innovation Survey indicating whether firms perceive the acquisition of external capital to be difficult. This perception is explained by the distance to the firms’ nearest financial intermediaries and their total local supply. The results indicate that the distance to banks is related to a larger problem of obtaining external financial capital in rural areas.

  • 47.
    Bjerke, Lina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Inter-regional Labour Mobility and Returns to Migration2008In: Working regions: conference proceedings of the Regional Studies Association Winter Conference, November 2008-11-05 / [ed] Lisa Bibby Larsen, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Eriksson, Sören
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Balkow, Jenny
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Administration.
    Dahlkild, Jenny
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Varför producera utomlands?: 11 fallstudier från Jönköpings län om outsourcing och offshoring2008Book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Innovation Policy Instruments2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Lisbon Agenda that was launched in 2000, and had a set time-period of ten years. The purpose of the Lisbon Agenda was to make the EU the most competitive, knowledge-based economy in the world, and at the same time preserving, or even improving social cohesion and maintain environmental sustainability. The Lisbon Agenda had a large number of goals, in both quantified and qualified measures, in different areas. The main instrument that was put forward was the open method of co-ordination (OMC) that includes indicators, benchmarking, peer pressure, and best practise demonstrations.

    The forthcoming Lisbon Agenda will certainly need new approaches, and new instruments. One of the areas of instruments that can be further explored is innovation policies where the use of R&D and human capital is enhanced. Human capital is a natural part of a knowledge-based economy, and has positive impacts on growth, and jobs in the economy. Innovation policy instruments are diversified and are integrated in many areas of an economy and on many levels, which make them ideal for the next Lisbon Agenda. The instruments can have a general or specific characteristics and some span over the two characteristics.

  • 50.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    Juusola, Pia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics.
    The Lisbon Agenda from 2000 to 20102007Report (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 52
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